Social Cognitive Theory Essays (Examples)

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Social Cognitive and Behavioral Drinking

Words: 1217 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36859638

Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking

Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking

Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),

Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)

Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.

Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
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Cognitive Theory

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13935781

Social Cognitive Theory

First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition and social interaction play key roles in the stimulus-response process.

Social-cognitive theory offers a well-rounded approach to basic behaviorism and can be a useful approach to understanding individual and group behaviors. Moreover, social-cognitive theory can help researchers postulate motivations for certain behaviors. The theory is useful in helping psychologists understand how to promote behavioral change in their clients. The theory is therefore useful in both clinical and counseling psychology, as it has potential uses for research as well as…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]


1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida.

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology.

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Social Science Theory and Methodology

Words: 1830 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55985580

Social Science Theory & Methods

MAIN STUDY QUESTION: What role does digital deception play in the establishment of trust, confidence and authenticity regarding the use of graphics and images in the online media sources we use?

The world is getting more and more comfortable with the integration of technology into our lives. While we often pay attention to this in the way that we use certain types of equipment or access portals (such as cell phones or websites), in reality there are a great deal of other types of digital integration that can be just as important. For example, there may be growing levels of falsified graphics or manipulated images in the communications and news postings that we are exposed to in the various kinds of sites we use online.

What does it mean when we see and accept false or altered pictures and information online as being true in…… [Read More]

Johnston, C. (2003). Digital Deception. American Journalism Review. Viewable at

Loftus, G. (1991). On the tyranny of hypothesis testing in the social sciences. Book review of The Empire of Chance: How probability changed science and everyday life by Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty, and Lorenz Kruger, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

MailOnline (2009). Ban airbrushing in magazines and posters that ruins teen self-esteem, says Liberal Democrats. Viewable at .
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Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358

This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]


Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from
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Social Facilitation Theory According to

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12065112

The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.

This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…… [Read More]


Presence of others, Retrieved at

Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295

Social Facilitation, Retrieved at
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Social Science Theory and Methodology

Words: 2098 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30088313

Social Science Theory and Methodology

Questions Generated for a Social Science Analysis

Substantive Question.

Significance of substantive question. This section describes the significance of a suitable substantive research question, formulated for social analysis. Categorically, the social science research topic for this paper is human psychological development. College students who have matriculated directly from high school typically exhibit behaviors indicative of their age and maturity levels that, if they endure in to adulthood, can cause difficulties in relationships, work environments, and detract from overall adjustment. In addition to providing educational opportunities for students, society expects that the college years will add to students' cognitive, behavioral, and emotional repertoire. In short, college students are expected to graduate as more mature individuals than they were as entering freshmen. This section explores the thinking behind application of the scientific method to a substantive question that addresses the psychological development of students during the college…… [Read More]


Perry, J.A. & Perry E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.

Sydenstricker-Neto, J. (1997). Research design and mixed-method approach. In W.M.K. William and D.A. Land (1982). Designing designs for research, The Researcher, 1(1), 1-6. Retrieved March 22, 2011 / tutorial/Sydenstricker/bolsa.html#Research%20Design

University of Alabama Huntsville (2011, March 9). Deforestation's impact on Mount Kilimanjaro calculated. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 9, 2011
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Cognitive Theory and Social Work

Words: 1015 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85741449

Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.

Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics

To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…… [Read More]


Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.

National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from
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Why Humanism and Social Cognitive Perspectives Are Key Psychological Theories

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52044826

Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives

This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.

The Humanistic Perspective

The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Heiphetz, L., and Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behavior, Vol. 151, 315-335.

Luszczynska, A., and Schwarzer, R. (2005). "Social Cognitive Theory" in Predicting Health

Behavior: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Editors Conner, M., and Norman, P. New York: McGraw-Hill.

National Institutes of Health. 2010). Consumer Health Informatics Research Resource -- Self
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Social Contexts of Development the

Words: 3669 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39089120

(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)

ole of Workplaces:

espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]


Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at . Accessed on 26 February 2005

Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005

Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at on 27 February 2005

Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005
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Social Work Macro Social Intervention

Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75262864

The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.

It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…… [Read More]


Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among

African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.

Retrieved July 9, 2010 at 

Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
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Cognitive Learning Theory Presents a

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62422328

Through both observation and formal instruction, a child acquires new knowledge that determines how he/she behaves. Furthermore, the child's behavior is strengthened or transformed by the outcomes of his/her actions and the reaction of other people (Aldinger & Whitman, 2003).

Cognitive Behavioral Theory:

As the second theory of cognitive learning perspective, the behavioral theory explains the role of knowing in determining and foretelling an individual's behavioral pattern. The cognitive behavioral theory implies that people tend to formulate self-concepts that influence the behavior they display. The formulated self-concepts can either be positive or negative depending on the individual's environment resulting in either good or bad behavior respectively. This theory also explains individuals' learning and behavior through the cognitive triad i.e. The self, the world, and the future.

Cognitive Model of Learning:

The first step in the cognitive model of learning is comprehension, which depends on an individual's prior knowledge and reading…… [Read More]


Aldinger, C. & Whitman, C.V. (2003, April 22). Skills for Health. Retrieved August 30, 2011,


"Chapter 5 -- Learning Theories." The Learning Domain. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from 

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Social Learning Theory: An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory.
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Social Work Is an Important

Words: 2884 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78986634

The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be

Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.

In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. / glossary.html

Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press

Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009

Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:


Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning


The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93811635


Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…… [Read More]

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Looking Into Social Cognitivism

Words: 2452 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68552322

Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis

Literature eview on Social Cognitivism

Social Cognitivism

Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura

The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).

Purpose of the study

Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…… [Read More]


Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1

60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.

Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]


David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]


Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Social Cognition Is the Study

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72025607

Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.

A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]


Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Social Psychology The Social Sciences

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27191752

Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…… [Read More]


Haslam, Nick & Laham, Simon M. (2009). Ten years on: does graduate student promise predict later scientific achievement? Current Research in Social Psychology. 14(10):143-147.

Kearl, Michael C. (2009). Social psychology. Trinity University. Retrieved 28, October 2009 at

New York University (2009). Infants able to identify humans as source of speech. Science Daily. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at

Smith, Eliot R. & Mackie, Diane M. (1999). Social Psychology. Routledge Press.
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Social Psychology Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43654034

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Introduction & Outline of the

esearch Evaluation

Concepts of Social Psychology

Attitudes and Persuasion

Social Identity Theory

Social Influences

Cultural and Gender Influences

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Introduction & Outline of the Essay

Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change

The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…… [Read More]


Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.

Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.

Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Social Biases A Continuing Societal

Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29182202

(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text

amasubramanian, S. &…… [Read More]


Faxed material

Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database
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Cognitive Bias May Exist in

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96408719

If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]


Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289

Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20

Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693

Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
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Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

Words: 1397 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19889572

Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.

My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.

Summary of Experiences

My…… [Read More]


Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New

York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
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Bioecological Theory Bioecological Model Differs From Others

Words: 2639 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71801296

Bioecological Theory

Bioecological model differs from others in that it charts and describes the development of the human and the group over the spectrum of the life course, through successive generations both past and present.

The model consists of four principal components and the prime dynamic, interactive element that guides them. The four processes are:

the forms of interaction between organism and environment, usually called 'proximal processes that due to interaction between organism and environment effect human development

Persons -- the individual who is effected by the processes (proximal process)

the environment (socio-geo-historical etc.) in which the proximal processes occur and impact

Time -- the period in which the proximal processes occur.

Characteristics of the person can shape the proximal process and there are three key typologies that are actually predominant. These are:

Dispositions -- these set the processes in motion in a particular direction and sustain their trajectory

2.…… [Read More]


Adamsons, K., O'Brien, M., & Pasley, K. (2007). An ecological approach to father involvement in biological and stepfather families. Fathering, 5, 129 -- 147.

Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, PA (2006). The bioecological model of human development, Handbook of Child Psychology, 1, 793-828

Hetherington, D. & Parke, G. (1999) Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill

McAlister AL, Perry CL, & Parcel GS. (2008) How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th Edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Health Behavior the Theories at a Glance

Words: 7053 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74310569

Health Behavior

The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]


Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Bronfenbrenner, U 1994 'Ecological Models of Human Development', International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol 3, Oxford, Elsevier.

Eddy Module 2. Dr. James Eddy. Social Learning Theory (SLT/SCT): Reciprocal Determinism, Expectations, Value Expectancies. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://

Eddy Module 2a. Dr. James Eddy. SLT/SCT (cont'd): Observational Learning, Reinforcement, Self-Efficacy, Emotional Coping. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://
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George Kelly's Theory Is a

Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419541

("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?

The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…… [Read More]


The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:

Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs. (2005). Find Psychology. Retrieved from:
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Piaget's and Bruner's Theories for Cognitive Development

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89368403

Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development

Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.

Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences

According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…… [Read More]


Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 May 2012].

Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].

William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at:  [Accessed 26 May 2012].
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Habit There Are Many Different Theories Pertaining

Words: 1085 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67124591


There are many different theories pertaining to the development of one's personality. While our personalities develop, we adopt different habits over the years. Some of the habits stay with us for the rest of our lives, while the others we abandon either because of social pressure or because our personality is evolving continuously and therefore our habits change. One of my habits that I would like to analyze in this paper that I have a habit of making 'things-to-do -- list."

Analysis of my habit

From the very beginning, since I was a child, I have been very organized. I always make sure that all my tasks are completed and done on time. As I grew up and life became complex and busier, some of the things that I had to do would get missed every now and then. Also, I would feel very confused as to what I…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra. (2013). "Theories of Personality - Personality Psychology Study Guide." Guide.

Sincero, Sarah M. (2012). "Social Cognitive Theories of Personality."
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Attitude Theories

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32317263

cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).

The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478
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Personal Theory of Career and

Words: 3731 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90159360

Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:

Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).

Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.

Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…… [Read More]


Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.

Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.

Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.

Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
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Examining Different Learning Theories

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50408198

Dominant Learning Theories

Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.

Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from 

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from
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Education Theories Knowledge of Learning

Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93366223

Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).

Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.

Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at

Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
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Alderfer's Erg Theory as a

Words: 2017 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3102041

The researches in this direction have confirmed that engagement in goal-setting and acceptance of the goals are crucial for the assurance of the goal and job. Moreover, monitoring the stages of attainment of goal is also crucial for imparting motivation. While an employee is not attaining timely and accurate feedback on performance it is quite difficult in assessing the behaviors for continuance in the direction of achieving the goals in subsequently. It is again pertinent to note that goals themselves are not reinforcing. The motivation is perceived to have resulted from the discontentment of what is accomplished and what was set earlier for accomplishment. Such shortfalls imbibe people to work harder for achieving better pursuits subsequently. (Goal Setting Theory)

The importance of the goal setting theory stems from its focus on motivation in work fronts and on the core characteristics of a successful and effective goal or aim. The performance…… [Read More]


Big Dog's Leadership Page - Human Behavior. May 17, 2000. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 February, 2005

ERG Theory. Retrieved at Accessed on 10 February, 2005

ERG Theory. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 February, 2005

Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved at . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
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Middle Range or Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97186778

Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation

Middle range and interdisciplinary theories can significantly inform clinical practice. This is particularly true for Alberta Bendura's self-efficacy theory and Sister Callista oy's adaptation model. This paper evaluates the applicability of the two models in breast cancer care. First, a description of breast cancer is provided. Next, the two theories are summarized. Attention is then paid to critical evaluation of the two theories. Finally, the most appropriate theory for breast cancer care is highlighted.

Description of Practice Problem

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and top cause of cancer death in women across the globe (Jemal, 2011). Statistics indicate that breast cancer accounts for approximately a quarter of all cancers in women, with majority of the victims falling in the 40-49 years age group (Mousavi et al., 2007). Lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy eating have been found to be the…… [Read More]


Bandura A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.

Jemal A., Bray, F., Center, M., Ferlay, J., Ward, D., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61(2), 69-90.

Jeng, C., & Braun, L. (1994). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(4), 425-436.

Kardong-Edgren, S. (2013). Bandura's self-efficacy theory. .. something is missing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(9), e327-e328.
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Multiple Discipline Learning Theories

Words: 1286 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69966553

Integrated Lesson Plan

MATH Lesson Plan

Grade Level:



Activity Name:

Addition is fun!

Learning Domain Addition

Overview & Purpose Students will learn the basic concept of addition. Addition is useful because it provides a foundation for other aspects of arithmetic.

What will be learned and why it is useful.

Education Standards Addressed

If your state has early learning standards, please identify and list the standards that this lesson addresses

(Specify skills/information that will be learned.)

The objective is for students to learn to add.

Materials Needed:


Candy (Skittles)

(Specific skill / concept being taught in lesson)

The content is that students can combine objects to get more of them.


Addition, plus, equals.

Other esources:

(e.g. Web, books, etc.)

Procedure/s: (List of steps in lesson delivery) Include as applicable and in order of delivery:

Examine and Talk, Demonstrate, Model, Plan, Guide, ecord, Describe, Explore, Acquire, Practice, etc.…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. 2(1), 21-41.

Frith, C.D., Singer, T. (2008). "The role of social cognition in decision making." Retrieved from
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Sigmund Freud's Theories

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17587217

The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.

Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…… [Read More]

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Math Science and Social Study Lesson Plans

Words: 1938 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89739773

Integrated Curriculum Analysis

A teacher's main objective usually centers in arousing the curiosity of the student enough to engage them in the process of learning. Engagement can often lead to enthusiasm, and enthusiasm leads to learning. One of the most effective methods of engagement is through the use of real-world tasks. Francom & Gardner (2014) determined that many of the recent models of learning provided instruction center learning that incorporated real-world tasks and problems that support the transfer and application of knowledge. The writer Howard Hendricks said "What is important is not what you do as a teacher, but what your students learn as a result of what you do." Students in today's educational environment follow the teacher's lead but collaborate much more with other students than in previous generations. A teacher must understand that collaboration and use it as well as the available technology to ensure that the students…… [Read More]


Francom, G. & Gardner, J.; (2014) What is task-centered learning? TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice Learning, 58(5) p. 27-35

Howard Hendricks Quotes." STANDS4 LLC, 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. Retrieved from

Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011) Teachers' perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the U.S. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 308 -- 329.

Nielsen, C.; DeFranco, J.F. & Malm, E.; (2015) Math, science and sustainability-enhanced career and technical education, Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(3) pp. 50-55
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Cognitive Social Learning and Related

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71709233

These include observable characteristics (Nathan, 1985, p.169) such as specific effects of drinking, quantities and lengths of time people drink, and environmental factors.

The article also emphasizes the degree in which this particular theory considers the very root cause of alcoholism. It discusses historical reasons attributed to the etiology of alcoholism, such as a stress reducer, and details some of the positive projections people associate alcohol consumption with. One of the most important points considered is the diagnosis of alcoholism, in which the author advocates a transactional diagnosis.

The article written by Kathryn Coronges et al., "Social network influences of alcohol and marijuana cognitive associations" discusses a research study designed to discern the influence of socialization on the consumption of mind altering substances. The study involved presenting a number of continuation high school students surveys to fill out during and upon the completion of a drug education program. The research…… [Read More]


Coronges, K., Stacy, a.W., Valente, T.W. (2011). "Social network influences of alcohol and marijuana cognitive associations." Addictive Behaviors. 36: 1305-1308.

Nathan, P.E. (1985). "Alcoholism: a cognitive social learning approach." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2: 169-173.

Niaura, R. (2000). "Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving." Addiction. 95: S155-S163.
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Social Cognition

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44120545

Social Cognition

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Academic Institution

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…… [Read More]


Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.

Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
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Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19468067

Management Theories

Behavior Management Theories and Applications

The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…… [Read More]


Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.

Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.

Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
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Social Systems This Work Will

Words: 4601 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28778395

It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;

(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)

Figure 1 -- the Family System

Source: Allen et al. (2007)

The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…… [Read More]


Allen, Jo Ann (1991) Understanding Families, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, Office of Human Development Services, United States Department of Health and Human Services. Online available at:

Anderson, Ralph E., Carter, Irl. E. And Lowe, Gary (1999) Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Social Systems Approach. Aldine Transaction 1999. Google Books. Online available at:

Family Developmental Theory (nd) University of Kansas -- Department of Psychology. Online available at:

Fontaine, Reid Griffith (2005) Applying system Principles to Models of Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Youth. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (2006) 64-76.
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Cognitive Behavioral Theories of Counseling

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96370221

Psychology -- Cognitive theoies

Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy

The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…… [Read More]

references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.

Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
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Social Psychology Rosewood the Movie

Words: 3825 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23102082

Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.

Prejudice and Racism

Prejudice, according to rehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood…… [Read More]


Brehm, Sharon S., Kassin, Saul M. And Fein, Stephen. Social Psychology. 5th Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.

Singleton, John. Rosewood, 1997.
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Classic Social Psychology Experiments

Words: 5609 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63362377

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics

Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.

While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]


Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.

Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's

(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.

Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
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Applied Social Psychology

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80304019

Social Psych

Applied social psychology refers to the application of social psychological theories and research to practice. Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations. The field draws as much from sociology as psychology, to describe issues like gender, race, and power but from a more individualistic perspective. Whereas sociology is interested more in the macro processes shaping society and its institutions, social psychology is concerned with the role the individual plays and how social factors shape personal identity and behavior. The application of social psychology could be in a range of professional fields including private counseling, school counseling, or social work. Some of the most important applications of social psychology are in the realm of public policy analysis and development, or in administration. Issues such as attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms are probed in the research, as are problems related to criminality and aggression.

I will…… [Read More]


Dickson, K.E. & Lorenz, A. (2009). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of temporary and part-time nonstandard workers: A preliminary investigation. Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management. Retrieved online:

Staufenbiel, T. & Konig, C.J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83(1): 101-117.

Ybema, J.F., Smulders, P.G.W. & Bongers, P.M. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 19(1).
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Leadership and Social Advocacy

Words: 5374 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42281879

Social Advocacy in Counseling

Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.

Social Justice

Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]


American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.

Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.

Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
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Virtual Child and Learning Theories Application

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10725657

Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills

The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…… [Read More]


Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from

Johansson T., (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journal

Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from
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Technology and Social Media

Words: 5702 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40536438

Social Media and Technology

The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…… [Read More]


Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.

Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from

Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.

Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Looking Into Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1872 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64006820

Theory on Juvenile Delinquency

Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.

Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Lazaruss Appraisal Cognitive Theory

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50124002

ichard S. Lazarus Appraisal Theory

'Appraisal Theory' is an emotional theory that refers to the personal interpretation of individuals through an event that will determine their reactions to emotions. The most significant aspect of the theory is based on our interpretation of the event; whether a negative or a positive occurrence, as well as our thoughts on the situational cause (Wondra & Ellsworth, 2015). An argument by the appraisal theory highlights that the basis of emotional experience is directly proportioned to the evaluation of the situation's interpretation (appraisals). According to some of their early research, a trial of the typical emotional experience mapping to the appraisal combinations was an on-going consideration by the appraisal theorists (Scherer, Shorr & Johnstone, 2001). With reference to an example, Hamilton (1985) figured out that there was a differentiation of 15 labels of emotions (e.g., guilt, anger, pride, happiness) together with six appraisals: certainty, intentional…… [Read More]


Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., & Akert, R.M. (2005). Social psychology, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hamilton, V. (1985). Stress, Appraisal and Coping (Book Review). British Journal of Psychology, 76(3), 402.

Moos, R. H., & Swindle Jr., R. W. (1990). Person-Environment Transactions and the Stressor-Appraisal-Coping Process. Psychological Inquiry, 1(1), 30.

Orbell, S., Hagger, M., Brown, V., & Tidy, J. (2004). Appraisal theory and emotional sequelae of first visit to colposcopy following an abnormal cervical screening result. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9(4), 533-555.