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Active parental involvement is found to boost the emotional development and improve the academic performance of the children.
3) What role and responsibilities to you see a school counselor having as an advocate for students facing institutional, systemic and/or interpersonal barriers to learning?
Adolescence is a transitional phase where children pick up social skills and learn how to interact with the society independently. This is also a vulnerable phase in that children begin to make their own choices. Under the demands of the situation it is not uncommon for young students to give in to peer pressure and entertain bad habits. Young children become easy prey to bad elements of the society and hence it is imperative that the counselor has to mould these young minds in a positive manner and in as much as possible strive to eradicate evil habits from entering the learning environment. As human resource personnel,…
1) CBASSE, "Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)"
National Academy Press, Available Online at, http://books.nap.edu/books/0309072751/html/R1.html#pagetop
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
Youth Development Empirical Study
There are numerous programs that currently exist which allege to benefit youths and youth development. Many of these programs are attempting to address the fact that children and adolescents directly represent the future. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare youths for a future world in which they become leaders, decision makers, and ultimately, stewards of the planet and of society itself. Nonetheless, there are a variety of ways of attempting to equip youths for their leadership of the coming generation. One can argue that it does little good to merely create a new generation of workers to fill the same positions that exist in society today, which only perpetuates the social inequality and problems that plague the current generation. Instead, it is more advantageous to empower youths by giving them the tools and experience they need to think for themselves and address the problems of society…
UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANICS OF THE STUDY:
The pimay independent vaiable o vaiables of the study ae intentional spot, nonintentional spot, and intentional leadeship. The pimay dependent vaiable(s) ae injuy, inceased anxiety, stess and bunout, alcohol and dug use. one elevant vaiable (RV) in the study was the lack of valid and eliable PYD outcome measues is also ecognized as a limitation within the spot psychology field. The pimay unit(s) of analysis ae youth spot pope stuctue; (c) suppotive elationships; (d) oppotunities to belong; (e) positive social noms. The pimay hypothesis showed that diffeences wee pesent acoss these thee contexts, wheeby intentionally stuctued pogams (spot and leadeship) scoed significantly highe on pogam quality fom both the eseaches' and youth's pespectives, as well as on PYD outcomes, than nonintentional stuctued spot pogams.
The pimay natue of the study is to examine the diffeences in pogam quality and positive developmental outcomes…
references are not current but they are cited used in the text.
Structured programs scored higher on program quality and positive youth development out- comes than nonintentionally structured programs, with intentional sport scoring significantly higher on some measures of program quality and positive youth development than leadership programs.
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Leadership Training for Youth
Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.
The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Training and Development
"Training is an intensive process whereby an employee's job behavior is modified.
Training prepares and enables a person to perform job tasks at a greater level of efficiency"
(Hertig, as cited in Colling & York, 2009, p. 233).
Training Method Options
If Equipped for Life does not successfully train its staff and volunteers to more effectively confront current challenges Staff and volunteers regularly experience regarding maintaining order at the group's weekly dinner and socially-oriented meetings -- the organization's programs could ultimately "fail." At times, according to Shek and Wai (2008) in their study, "Training workers implementing adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs: What have we learned from the literature?" when an adolescent program reflects negative results rather than preventive effects, the organization's program could be attacked. ather than the program or its curriculum constituting the problem, however, the organization's lack of implementing training for Staff and…
Colling, R.L. & York, T.W. (2009). Hospital and healthcare security. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Connie, E.E. & Metcalf, L. (2009). The art of solution focused therapy. New York, NY
Springer Publishing Company.
Ghul, R. (2005). Working with multiple stakeholders. In Education and training in solution focused brief therapy. London, England: Psychology Press. Hamilton, N.L. (2010). Family support network for adolescent cannabis users. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD: DIANE Publishing.
A Concise Description of Youth
Who exactly is a youth? Are there specific traits that distinguish a youth from an adult or a child for that matter? These are the questions that immediately come to mind when one attempts to come up with a concise definition of "youth." From the onset, it is important to note that the term youth does not have an assigned definition. In that regard therefore, "youth" as a term could mean different things to different people. For some, youth is the period after childhood. For others, however, youth is that period coming immediately after or preceding adulthood. In this text, I will take a different approach in an attempt to describe youth. Instead of reviewing existing literature in search of the numerous definitions that have been applied to the term, I will largely concern myself with features or characteristics of youth. However, for guidance…
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
academic research on this topic, present a causal argument, identify key variables, operationalize these variables, identify between 2 and 3 research hypotheses, specify and justify the relevant research method to test the given hypotheses, address possible obstacles or problems this research might confront and how to overcome these, and a correctly formatted and relevant 10 source bibliography.
Youth unemployment in Armenia.
Youth unemployment rates in Armenia are at an all-time high, but what is leading to its increase? Unemployment rates in countries are defined by individuals who are currently jobless but are seeking active employment within the last four weeks (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009). It is particularly interesting to see such a high youth unemployment rate because statistics show that the general unemployment rate within adults in Armenia has decreased from 7.1% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2011 (Index Mundi, 2012) yet unemployment amongst the youth contuse unabated and…
West BankWorldBank. Org. (2010)WorldBank. Org. (2010)
(CIA (2012) World Factbook Snapshot of Global Youth Challenges https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2012-featured-story-archive/snapshot-of-global-youth-challenges.html )
Youth Leadership Training and Development
The following is a research plan for the proposed youth leadership training and development study. It is based on the checklist provided in the text esearch Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Creswell, 2009).
To determine if early leadership training has a significant influence on the building of self-esteem, motivation, moral values and self-confidence in youth.
To quantify how a lack of skills in solving problems, self-esteem and communication skills impacts short- and long-term leadership skills in adolescents.
To measure and correlate the extent to which life experiences and the capacity for emotional empathy contribute to and support the attainment of transformational leadership.
To design the methodology to ensure all respondents under age have parental consent, outcomes of the study and data collection do not reveal respondent's identities and the broader environment of the research study (including analysis and presentation results) do not violate…
Creswell, John W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Methods Approaches (3rd edition). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Youth: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
In James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the main character Stephen says that great art carries the qualities of Wholeness, Harmony, and Radiance. Yet Stephen is making this statement as an adolescent, one who is not yet whole nor harmonious, but one who is still developing and adapting to himself and his world. As literary art, the problem this leads to is how an adult reader can create an adolescent character honestly, a character less developed then they are. The reader then has the same challenge, to read about this character and judge them on who they are, without directing their own biases on the character. The writer and the reader can both be guilty of viewing the adolescent character either condescendingly or sentimentally. As well as this, the writer and reader either creating or…
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…
Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178
Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…
Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992
Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.
Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.
Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
As social systems expand to cover the ever growing social dynamics, the norms governing social behaviors are losing their ability to control behaviors. Over the years, concerns over the rising level of crimes committed primarily by the young are evident. The number of youths placed in juvenile correctional facilities is on the rise with the authorities appearing incapacitated to control the situation. This paper looks at the aspects of society contributing to Juvenile criminals and their continued perpetration of antisocial behaviors in the society.
In the modern world the norms that guide transitions and relationships from family to school and work have come under immense challenge. These challenges have seen to the collapse of the smooth socialization process that the young need to become productive in the society (Livingston, Stewart, Allard, & Ogilvie, 2008). As lifestyle trajectories vary and become more unpredictable, the young find it difficult to…
Greenwood, P. (2004). "Cost-effective Violence Prevention through Targeted Family Interventions, in Youth Violence- Scientific Approaches to Prevention." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 201-214.
Livingston, M., Stewart, A., Allard, T., & Ogilvie, J. (2008). Understanding juvenile offending trajectories. Australian and New Zealand. Journal of Criminology, 41(3), 345-363.
Savignac, J. (2008). (2008) Families, Youth and Delinquency: The State of Knowledge, and Family-Based Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programs. Ottawa: National Crime Prevention Centre, Public Safety.
Sprott, J., Jenkins, J., & Doob, A. (2005). "The Importance of School: Protecting At-Risk Youth from Early Offending." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 59-76.
According to Paddock, "The American Psychological Association (APA suggests that the proliferation of sexual images of girls and young women in the media is harming their self-image and development." The APA found that these images often arrest healthy development in a variety of areas, including self-esteem, which can cause a woman to display anxiety and shame. The article specifically mentions Christina's advertisements as examples of a negative portrayal of women (Paddock). Thus, the images portray women incorrectly in two ways. First of all, they portray women in a style of beauty that is not common, encouraging these women to believe that the advertised type of beauty is the only type of beauty. In response, some young girls are liable to have low self-esteem, in addition to spending a great amount of money on beauty products that they don't need. In short, the advertisements suggest that only one type of beauty…
Beauty and Body Image in the Media." 2008. Media Awareness Network. 20 October 2008. Media Awareness Network. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/women_beauty.cfm
Kid, Shibuya. "More Sizzling Christina Aguilera Ads on the Way! Sketchers Campaign
Shows Off Sexed-Up Xtina." 30 July 2004. AIR Massive. 20 October 2008. Air
ole of Drugs as Part of Youth Culture
The use of drugs among the youth has become a normal part of dance and culture of young people. Generally, drugs have been regarded as a part of daily life, particularly among the youth to an extent that it has been involved in many youth cultures. The role of drugs as part of youth culture has been fueled by other components that have become common characteristics of today's youth. Actually, today's youths are becoming synonymous to rave, dance and club cultures, which has also been accompanied by increased drug use. Similar to the 60s, taking drug while in town, clubs or dancing is increasingly becoming the norm in the lifestyles of many young people. Given the prevalence of drugs as a motivator in the youth culture, several initiatives have been established to help deal with the problem. The juvenile justice system has…
Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. Juvenile Justice 18(2). Retrieved April 25, 2016, from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=31&articleid=46§ionid=159
Cortis, N., Katz, I. & Patulny, R. (2009, June). Engaging Hard-to-reach Families and Children. Retrieved from Department of Social Services -- Australian Government website: https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/families-and-children/publications-articles/number-26-engaging-hard-to-reach-families-and-children-HTML
French New Wave
French cinema, by the time the second world war ended, was faced with a crisis fittingly summarized by posters that advertised Mundus-Film (distributors for First National, Goldwyn, and Selig). These posters implied that the cannon operated by America's infantrymen launched film after film targeted at the French. La Cinematographie francaise (soon to become the leading French trade journal) claimed that every week 25,000 meters of film imported mainly from America were presented in France for each 5000 meters of local French films. French-made films often constituted as little as 10% of the films screened in Parisian cinemas. Henri Diamant-erger, publisher of French magazine 'Le Film', bluntly stated that France could be in jeopardy of turning into a 'cinematographic colony' of America (Nowell-Smith).
"French New Wave" is one of the film movements shaping the history of French cinema. Rejuvenating the prestigious French cinema, the New Wave that emerged…
Darke, Chris. "The French New Wave." n.d. Retrieved from: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415582599/data/The%20French%20New%20Wave%20-%20Chris%20Darke%20(4th%20ed).pdf
Neupert, Richard. A History of the French New Wave Cinema. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2007. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=OIp7bDHNDs8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=french+new+wave+cinema&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J8E8VZjvM9GxacHFgJgO&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=french%20new%20wave%20cinema&f=false
Nochimson, Martha P. World on Film: An Introduction. New York City: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=c3Kn7dsGGA0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nochimson,+Martha+P.,+World+on+Film&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X8k8VdTbBNXgar3RgMAD&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Nochimson%2C%20Martha%20P.%2C%20World%20on%20Film&f=false
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. The Oxford History of World Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/The_Oxford_History_Of_World_Cinema.PDF
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Alcohol abuse was once considered a problem of willpower. Now, it is widely recognized as a medical problem with three primary roots causes: biological factors, psychological factors, and socio-cultural factors. This paper examines the three root causes, beginning with the foundation that genetic predisposition plays a tremendous role in substance abuse and alcoholism. If examines the biological factors impacting alcohol abuse, but goes beyond genetics to discuss brain changes that are the result of alcohol abuse. Next, it considers the psychological factors that relate to alcohol abuse, considering both psychological stressors and underlying character traits linked to alcoholism. Finally, it looks a socio-cultural factors linked to alcohol abuse.
Alcohol abuse is a complex, multi-faceted problem with many factors impacting the onset and expression of the disorder. Furthermore, alcohol abuse, while part of the disease of alcoholism, is not limited to alcoholism. "It's possible to have a problem with…
Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). The biological causes of alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49099-the-biological-causes-of-alcoholism
Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). The psychological causes of alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49100-the-psychological-causes-of-alcoholism
Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). Socio-
cultural forces that lead to alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49102-socio-cultural-forces-that-lead-to-alcoholism
The development of the major ideas and attitudes expressed in Modern American literatures since 1900 can start with the realist school of literature, which focused on representing in naturalistic terms and concepts the life of the world around. Thus, Theodore Dreiser wrote Sister Carrie about a bumpkin country girl who moves to the big city and becomes a mistress. Stehpen Crane also portrayed the street life and Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about what it was like to work in the meat packing plants at the time and how difficult it was for immigrant life. The ideas here were focused on revealing real American life -- not in broad comedy like a Mark Twain novel -- but in serious terms.
F. Scott Fitzgerald reflected the concept of "wasted youth" and the obsession with riches and power that was all so meaningless in the greater scheme of things in…
Piercy, M. (2009). What's That Smell in the Kitchen? Poetry: A Pocket Anthology.
Rich, A. (n..d.). Living in Sin. Retrieved from https://www.naic.edu/~gibson/poems/rich1.html
Youth Transition Methods Section
The literature and research sections above adequately demonstrate how challenging it can be for young people in foster care to transition into adulthood and independence and why certain assessment tactics will likely best capture objective and subjective reviews of the experience. This methodology section reiterates the specific study elements that will be used to look directly at the experience that the targeted young people (those who left within the last two years) had as they moved through their transitional stages toward aging out of the foster care system.
To reiterate, the study has three focal areas. The first two offer a degree of quantitative assessment as well as qualitative sections. The latter is mostly qualitative in that it seeks to elicit the recollections of the young people in regards to their experiences and where they see their future going. Together, the results will provide a multidimensional…
Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report. 13(4), 544-559. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf .
Gardner, D. (2008). Youth aging out of foster care: Identifying strategies and best practices. 2007-2008 Presidential Initiative. National Association of Counties. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G.R. & Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: Distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-484. doi:10.1086/519536.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L. & Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: Results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-993. Retrieved from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/161/10/986.pdf .
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
AGE GROUP PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MILESTONES
There are many milestones for each age. I have selected some that have to do with movement on a small and large scale because I believe that they have to do with the way in which children may be inclined to move a good deal and perhaps exercise in later life.
Infants: [footnoteRef:1] [1: American Pregnancy. First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine (Small) -- hands clench, strong grasp reflex, holds objects, pulls on clothing or blankets.
Gross (Large) -- Turns head, rolls back and forth on stomach, holds weight on feet, bounces when held standing, sits well by about nine months.
Toddlers:[footnoteRef:2] [2: Toddler Developmental Milestones. Parenting Magazine. http://www.parenting.com/article/toddler-developmental-milestones?page=0,1, accessed January 28, 2012.]
Fine -- filling up and dumping out small items, trying to dress and undress, drawing or scribbling, stacking or sorting objects, poking and…
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
The impact of social pressures and cultural influences on human development are not fully know. Only pieces of information are available for us to understand as there is much to be learned and gathered from this subject. The purpose of this essay is to examine two distinct articles directly related to socio-cultural influences on the development of the human species. This essay will first review and summarize each article on its own merits before offering new conclusions about the feasibility, practicality and overall usefulness of these two arguments presented.
Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) article about attachment security and minority children helped to expose some important information about the ways culture has a direct and sometimes profound impact on human development. Through statistical analysis gathered from qualitative means, certain patterns of relationships were identified through this study. The study eventually found that there are significant differences in the way…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African- American and white children; ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior & Development,27 (2004) 417-433.
Varela, R. et al. (2009). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety; Mexican, Latin American descent, and European-American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 2009, 609-616.
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…
Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.
Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
Sociology of Youth
The Structural Arrangements
The class view using the Social-Psychological perspective precipitates a point-of-view in the context of society as the dictator to the actor, the environment perpetuating the role that young individuals play in contemporary society. The social interaction is engaged through the environmental variables that lead to the psychological parameters to which the youth operate within. This approach is ostensibly akin to Ethnomethodology that views humans as a rule ridden species predicated on acting within a given societal or moral framework.
The identity formation of bonded child laborers in India is an example of youth that have no control over their environment and to where their environment or social paradigm shapes their individual thought process. These youth become a function of their environment. Essentially, a product of their environment that is based on exploitation and abuse of the children of the society. The structural arrangements for…
Erikson, Erick H. "Adolescence and the life cycle stage. Identity, youth & crisis,(pp. 128-135). New York W.W. Norton & Co. 1968.
Hostetler, J. "A sectarian society. Amish society (pp. 6-17). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. 1980.
Kovasevic, Natasa. "Child Slavery." Harvard International Review 29.2 (2007): 36,36-39. ABI/INFORM Global.Web. 16 June 2011.
Milner Murray. "Freaks, Geeks and Cool Kids, American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption." (2004) Routledge
leadership training and experiences for youth. The research methodology was carefully drafted and developed as the best means for exploring this concept. A mixed methods, non-experimental, correlational study will be conducted to examine how problem solving, communication, and the building of self-esteem, contributes to early leadership training and development for youth in rural and inner city communities. While few research methodologies are perfect, this one has a tremendous amount of inherent strengths. One of the benefits of using a more mixed methods approach is that it will allow the researchers to gather data about this issue in a more comprehensive manner. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches empowers the researchers to gather a wider net of data and to be able to process it from a larger variety of perspectives.
If anything, the wealth of previous literature supports this exact methodology for this particular subject matter. The study, "Personality and…
Boyd, B. (2001). Bringing Leadership Experiences to Inner-City Youth. Journal of Extension.
De Lisle, J. (2011). The Benefits and Challenges of Mixing Methods. Caribbean Curriculum, 87-120.
Ipregroup.com. (2013). Advantages of mixed methods in impact evaluation. Retrieved from ipregroup.com: http://ipregroup.com/2013/04/advantages-of-mixed-methods-in-impact-evaluation/
Judge, T. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 765 -- 780.
Images of Youth
Media Representations of Young Australians
Any minority group is bound to have its own image, and its own problems. The difficulties faced by ethnic, racial, and religious minorities are well-known, but there is another group that is equally disadvantaged, but that is really even considered among the minority population. Across Australia, young people -- in particular secondary school students -- constitute a distinct minority group that is frequently maligned and exploited. Media accounts give little thought to smearing all children as irresponsible, drug-ridden, delinquents. Few media outlets bother also to consider the ways in which youthful employees are exploited through overwork, low pay, and substandard job conditions. Yet this special minority group is one of Australia's largest. Its members belong to every other racial, ethnic, and religious group. Its members are the future of us all. hen will the media begin to honestly explore the real predicament…
Brannen, Julia, and Margaret O'brien. Children in Families: Research and Policy. London: Falmer Press, 1996.
Burgmann, Verity. Power, Profit, and Protest: Australian Social Movements and Globalisation / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
Cowdery, Nicholas. Getting Justice Wrong: Myths, Media and Crime / . St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2001.
Cox, Katherine E. "The Inevitability of Nimble Fingers? Law, Development and Child Labor." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 32.1 (1999): 115..
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
Cultural Observation Project
Location of Observation: Shopping mall
Youth 201-Section # Observation:
Write at least two full pages of an observation response as to what you saw from your first field assignment experience. Use the first field assignment suggestions as some suggestive points to this response. This is more of an analytical "objective" observation (from the head).
The shopping mall site that I selected meets the criteria of a secular well-attended local teenage (ages 12 -- 18) "hot spot" because it contains attractions that are designed to draw young people to mall and keep them engaged in activities at the mall for relatively long periods of time. Like many shopping malls today, the site I chose rubs shoulders with a movie complex. Teenagers congregate on the "apron" just outside the theater before and after seeing movies. And from the movie theater, the teenagers walk into the mall to investigate other…
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
SPIITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDEN'S TEPEAMENT AND SELF-CONTOL
Historically, school systems not only permitted but encouraged religious instruction and children were enabled to integrate their spiritual views in the processing of the feelings about the events of the world ultimately allowing them to have well developed moral and philosophical bases for themselves and their interactions with the world around them. The result is that educators were enabled in assisting students in their development of themselves in a more fully rounded manner and to create a strong value system to direct their lives. This study examines these issues through a qualitative lens and attempts to understand the role of religion through a holistic model educators use in providing support for the continued growth and learning of students. Specifically this work intends to examine the influence of the church congregation on the development of young people and specifically on their spiritual development…
Jent, GA (nd) When Can a Person, Especially a Child, Have a Genuine Conversion Experience? Retrieved from: http://www.ttgst.ac.kr/upload/ttgst_resources13/20123-134.pdf
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…
1) Sean Brotherson, 'Understanding Brain Development in Young Children', Accessed Mar 29th 2010, available at, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs609w.htm
2) Nelson, C.A., & Bloom, E. (1997). Child development and neuroscience.
Child Development, 68,970-987.
3) Miguel et.al, 'Withdrawn and intrusive maternal interaction style and infant frontal EEG asymmetry shifts in infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers', Infant Behav Dev. 2006 April; 29(2): 220 -- 229., Available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1712668/
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…
Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality
and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
How will my career and life goals fit in with the life of another person, whether a loved one, a close friend, or even my family? "Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another," in friendships and in love relationships ("Erik Erikson and psychosocial development," E-ssortment, 2007). Finding the right balance of intimacy and isolation from others, meeting my own goals but still caring about the needs others still feels like a challenge. I know who I am, but I sometimes find it difficult to make that 'I' fit into the worlds of others I care about, whether it is to strike a good balance between studying and going out with friends, or to show love and caring without putting myself last around loved ones and relatives.
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
Besides the fact that children need further exposure to the light/sun in order to develop their bones, light facilitates enhanced growth and development. Therefore, it is an essential element in the eyes of the children as well as in their entire bodies. The variations in the intensity of light in the incubators enabled the infants to develop their adaptation into embracing light into their bodies and eyes.
Sound is the other aspect, which appeared to have some varying effects on premature babies. According to Huttenlocher, (2002), sound is a transfer of energy through the air. It is transferred as an energy that can only be detected by the ears. It is a wave of energy, which carries certain aspects as that involved with communication. Like any other aspect, which affects premature babies, sound is an environmental aspect. It is variable and can be transformed from one notion to another with…
Avery, G.B., MacDonald, M.G., Seshia, M.M.K., & Mullett, M.D. (2005). Avery's neonatology: Pathophysiology & management of the newborn journal. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bradford, N. (2000). Your premature baby: 0-5 years. Vol. 2, Issue 6, Pages 23, London:
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
Fine Motor Skill Development in Children
Fine motor skills are important for a variety of activities such as writing and feeding, so its important they develop properly in young kids. This paper talks about the importance of fine motor skills and how it can be improved with proper intervention and the right activities.
Fine motor skills and their importance
Fine motor skills are the skills that involve the use of small muscles in the hands such as fingers. The biggest challenge in fine motor skills is the coordination of the hand with the eyes and brain and it is more complicated than what many people imagine. It develops at a young age, typically before five or six and it plays an important role in the way our hands function during adolescence and adulthood.
The development of fine motor skills is vital in young children because it is these skills that…
Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.
No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm
Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.
Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…
Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes. Child Development, January/February, Volume 82, Number 1., Pages 244 -- 257.
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html
Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
SPIRITUALITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN'S TEMPERAMENT AND SELF-CONTROL: THE CULTURAL INFLUENCE
The objective of this study is to address the cultural contexts relating to spirituality in young children's temperament and self-control.
Child-Well eing Outcomes
Jesus grew in wisdom
Jesus grew in stature
Jesus grew in grace
Einoth's work entitled "uilding Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being" published by World Vision 2010 reports that World Visions biblical bases for the definition of Child Well-eing Outcomes is found in the ible in the ook of Luke, Chapter 2, Verse 52 which states "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor (grace) with God and with people'. (2010, p. ix) Einoth states that in the tradition of the Jewish people that the body "is the object of special care because it is God's creation and special gift of grace. Growing in stature implies growing caring for…
Einoth, SR (2010) Building Strong Foundations World Vision's Focus on Early Childhood Development and Child Well-being. A research project carried out on behalf of the World Vision Institute for Research and Development in co-operation with the Child Development and Rights Team within World Vision International's Children in Ministry Department. Friedrichsdorf/Germany . May 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.worldvision-institut.de/_downloads/allgemein/TheorieUndPraxis_5_StrongFoundations.pdf
Holloday, R. (2007) Cultural Trends Influence Our Children. United Church of God. 28 Apr 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ucg.org/sermon/cultural-trends-influence-our-children/
Sharley, V. (2012) New ways of thinking about the influence of cultural identity, place and spirituality on child development within child placement practice. Adoption and Fostering, 22 Sep 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/New+ways+of+thinking+about+the+influence+of+cultural+identity,+place...-a0310516728
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…
Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…