c. What types of validity were used? Is the validity adequate?
Multiple trials, yes validity is adequate d. Are the instruments clearly described?
All instruments utilized in the study are clearly described.
e. Is interrater reliability described?
The journal article also does a good job of expressing what aspects do not effect interrater reliability
9. Data collection a. Is the data collection process clearly described?
All process have been clearly described and explained b. Is the training of data collectors clearly described?
This is not a completely accurate yes answer. The article does inform the reader that the data collectors are nurses with x amount of years in the field. However, numbers of years in the field do not insure that the nurses do the same things, in the same ways.
c. Are the data collection methods ethical?
Nothing appears to be un-ethical.
10. Data analysis a. Are data analysis procedures clearly described?
Everything is clearly described in the research b. Do data analyses address each objective, question, or hypothesis?
All aspects are covered in the research c. Are the results presented in an understandable way?
However, data could be explained more plainly in order to insure that a larger population of individuals would be able to understand the information being presented.
d. Are the analyses interpreted appropriately?
Everything is explained exactly as the results and information are reported in the article.
e. Was the sample size significant to detect significant differences? Was a power analysis done?
Yes, the sample was significant in size, however a larger population could have been used.
11. Interpretation of findings a. Are findings discussed in relation to each objective, question, or hypothesis?
Everything has been associated and answers the questions etc.
b. Are findings explained?
Everything is explained thoroughly.
c. Was clinical significance addressed?
Everything was related to the clinical significance in the findings of the article.
d. Does the interpretation appear biased?
Everything appears to be presented in a non-biased manner e. Did the researchers identify important study limitations?
Study limitations are described. The researcher also makes sure that they report what should be considered in order to make sure the limitations are less likely to cause an issue in future research.
f. Are there inconsistencies in the report?
Document appears cohesive in nature.
Adapted from Burns & Grove (2002). Understanding nursing research. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, and Polit & Beck (2004). Nursing Research: Principles and Methods. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Used with permission of Dr. Sole who designed the format.
The study findings are supported not only by the results but also by past research indicated in the journal article. The finings are a reflection of reality, the subject matter is regarding a serious issue that occurs more than it should today. (Vanderwee, Grypdonck, Bacquer, & Defloor) 2005, explain that the current problem being researched is that of pressure ulcers and where they occur. This is necessary and important to the impact of the information in the study. (p.156)
The current findings support that there has been a continued problem with ulcers and what is done to treat the pressure ulcers in the future. Two methods are used in the research in order to determine effective means of treatment. The findings can be related to populations of adults in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. There could have been a larger sample of participants in other healthcare settings in order to globalize the results. A limitation to the study is the sample size and the location of where the sample was utilized. Another limitation to the study was the use of participants that had ulcers on specific areas of the body, whereas other locations were not tested and individuals that had ulcers in other locations were not utilized in the study. However, Vanderwee et al. (2005), expresses that there are limitations in the study that should be considered in future research in order to restrict the possibility of the same limitations being a factor.
The findings do prove the need for nursing education and further research. Therefore the journal article does prove useful as a means of expressing the need for nursing education and training as well as further research regarding the occurrences of pressure ulcers and means for treatment and possibly pre-treatment to insure that pressure ulcers are not as common.
Vanderwee, K., Grypdonck, M.H., Bacquer, D.D., & Defloor, T. (2005, March 1). The…