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eliability & Validity
For the lay person, the notion of personality is often derived from components of an individual's character or make up that has the ability to elicit positive or negative reactions from other individuals. The person who has a propensity for positive reactions from others is often thought to have a 'good' personality. Conversely, the person who tends to elicit not so favorable reactions from others may be thought to have a 'bad' personality. However, when behavioral and social scientists seek to describe and define personality, the terminology used is far more rigorous that describing simple social skills (Cohen, Montague, Nathanson & Swerdlik, 1988). As such, constructs such as personality traits, personality states and personality types have been studied as a means of provided clinically accurate ways in which to define personality.
Nevertheless, there is no one globally accepted definition of personality within the scholarly literature. McClelland (1951,…
Cohen, R., Montague, P., Nathanson, L., & Swerdlik, M. (1988). Psychological testing:
An introduction to tests and measurements. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield
Gorusch, R. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
eliability of Test
eliability is defined by Joppe (2002,p.1) as the level of consistency of the obtained results over a period of time as well as an accurate representation of the population under study. If the outcome of the study can be reproduced using a similar methodology then the instrument used in the research are said to be reliable.
It is worth noticing that there is an element of replicability as well as repeatability ff the observations or results. The work of Kirk and Miller (1986,41-42) indicated that there exists three different types of validity in any given quantitative research. These however, all relate to; the extent to which the give measure if repeated, remains constant, the stability of the given measure over a period of time as well as the similarity of the given measurements in a given time period. The work of Charles (1995) focuses on the idea…
American Psychological Association (2003). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
Charles, C.M. (1995). Introduction to educational research (2nd ed.). San Diego, Longman
Cherry, K (n.d) What is reliability?
eliability and Validity
Trochim (2007) examines validity and reliability in the context of arriving at measures for constructs that firstly measure what they purport to measure. Secondly, the measures do what they purport to do in a consistent manner so that the researcher can have confidence in the measurement and hence the research project is not compromised. The elements of validity and reliability are pivotal concerns to research. esearch thrives in a climate where these are dominant and progressive. Without effective mechanisms to achieve these objectives, the entire research process and the products of research become suspect.
The six types of validity examined by the author are separated into two different components of construct validity. Construct validity is a measure of the success of process of turning constructs into measures. This process identified by the author as operationalization requires that the measures and their underlying construct have a close affinity.…
Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. London: Sage
Kennedy, M.M. (1984). Assessing the Validity of Qualitative Data. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 6(4): 367-377.
moderate impairment), while dependent variables included the levels of measured performance on the test. Operationalization involved demonstrating the ability to perform the tasks of daily life. Simple cooking was tested by asking the test subject to cook oatmeal; using a telephone was tested by requiring the subject to inquire about grocery delivery on the phone; and the test subject was required to select and administer medications correctly and select and pay bills from a pile of mail.
Q5. Define reliability. Discuss the means by which the reliability of the instrument/measure was assessed in this study.
eliability is defined as reproducibility, or the ability of a test to yield reliable or similar results with similar target population groups and under the same circumstances. "We determined interrater reliability with three trained raters who simultaneously rated 10 participants, 5 with mild stroke and 5 healthy controls. The total score and each of four…
Baum et al. (2008). Reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Executive Function
Performance Test: A measure of executive function in a sample of people with stroke
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62 (4): 446.
Having evidence demonstrated over a number of different trials at different schools, each with similar results contributes to external validity. Thus, the trials must all be for universities, as opposed to careers for example, so that the results of those trials are transferable to our university's admissions process.
To ensure internal validity, the admissions test must include a sufficient number of questions (data points) to establish a clear trend. The questions and answers themselves must be free of ambiguity, which could distort the results. Further, the questions and answers must relate directly to the personality attributes that we are attempting to measure, if the results are to be valid.
Colorado State University. (2009). Reliability and Validity. Colorado State University. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval/
Tomsho, R. (2009). Adding Personality Tests to the College Admissions Mix. all Street Journal. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203612504574342732853413584.html
Colorado State University. (2009). Reliability and Validity. Colorado State University. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval/
Tomsho, R. (2009). Adding Personality Tests to the College Admissions Mix. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203612504574342732853413584.html
eliability, validity and norming sample populations play critical roles in the usefulness of assessment instruments used in forensics assessments. These three facets of assessment help to determine whether or not the results the assessment yield is credible. Additionally, they each help to evaluate a particular aspect of an instrument, although there is generally a degree of correlation between these factors.
Validity is simply the accuracy of a test to effectively measure the particular phenomenon that a researcher is attempting to measure. There are different types of validity including construct validity, content validity, and criterion-related validity (ichmond, 2013). These different facets of validity determine the accuracy of an assessment in terms of its construct, its usefulness is appropriately sampling the different components of the construct, and its accuracy in foretelling performance. eliability is the facet of an assessment to provide consistency in its results over time. eliable tests can generally yield…
Richmond, R.L. (2013). Psychological testing. www.guidetopsychology.com Retrieved from http://www.guidetopsychology.com/testing.htm#1
Webster, C.D., Douglas, K.S., Eaves, D., Hart, S.D. (1997). HCR-20: assessing risk for violence. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid=43a8a33c-582b-4ec1-80c9-ef5e7f836b50%40sessionmgr110&hid=126&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=loh&AN=15092637
Reliability Data Collection and Testing
Importance, Reliability, Collection, and Testing
It is tough to define data. Think of it more like the raw information that when processed and analyzed can give you an understanding of a situation, process or fact. Clearly if data is the first step to information, we must do out best to ensure the accuracy and reliability of data. Let us take a look at what data is used for:
Data can be used to Stimulate new organizational ideas
Improve quality of emergency care and procedures
Draw attention to an issue
Influence legislative and regulations
Provide justification for an existing program
Illustrate a need for a new initiative
Help provide funding
Communicate the importance of data collection
Provide education" list slightly altered to from original source, to make it general purpose)
As you can tell by the above list, data can be used to initiate, validate, invalidate,…
Ontario Wage Survey - Interpreting Data Reliability." onestep.on.ca. http://www.onestep.on.ca/ows/Ows99_Eng/data_e.html.
Methodology and Data Reliability" nces.ed.gov. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/fathers/method.html .
Assessing The Reliability Of Computer-Processed Data." 1991. gao.gov. http://www.gao.gov/policy/8_1_3.htm .
Another disadvantage regarding the validity of the analysis regarding gender was that the results between the two gendered groups were calculated based upon a mean, which meant that one or two respondents with scores could have a considerable effect, skewing the results in one direction or another.
The two sample groups of 59 psychology students and 100 MBA students were relatively small and select as well. Using these populations is also of concern given the degree to which they are relatively homogeneous in terms of the test-taker's backgrounds, ages, and education.
Q4. Form an opinion of the test using the information you provide in your report
Overall, the value of this test is not clear, in terms of how it might be used in the future. It is uncertain whether it would be useful as a broad assessment of the suitability of different candidates for likely careers, given the extent…
Millon himself stated the test is "not a general personality instrument to be used for 'normal' populations or for purposes other than diagnostic screening or clinical assessments" (Psychological testing, 2009, IPT). The test is only for use with subjects who are already known to exhibit psychopathology and personality disorders. It is best to use to refine a diagnosis that is already supported by other evidence and is not suitable as an initial assessment instrument.
On the orschach, what is the Lambda? What does a Lambda of .80 indicate?
The Lambda is a measure of the subject's openness. Subjects with high measures of Lambda (>1) tend to be resistant to revealing a great deal about themselves. Or, they may try to simplify their psychological issues by ignoring the complexities of life. Subjects with low Lambda ratings tend to have few form-driven responses and show higher tolerance of ambiguity (Ganellen, 1996, p.31).…
Colosi, Laura. (1997). Reliability and validity. The Layman's Guide to Social Research.
Retrieved December 19, 2009 at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm
Ganellen, Ronald J. (1996). Integrating the Rorschach and the MMPI-2 in personality assessment. Routledge.
Psychological testing. (2009). Institute for Psychological Therapies. Website last revised on July
(ii) the Alternative Forms Procedure: This involves two tests given two or more times. The advantages include less cueing because the tests differ. Disadvantages include history and maturation factors.
6. Positive approach is empirically based and insists that measures must proceed according to strict evidence and their validity must be generated from experimental (or quantitative) research. The advantages are that this accords greater validity and reliability. The disadvantages are that the complexity of human factors is inadequately addressed by the rigidity and inflexibility of the experimental method. The qualitative (or non-positivistic) on the other hand, insists that humans cannot be measured or tested in a laboratory environment. The results are, however, less reliable, and oftentimes more subjective.
7. Cross sectional research is research that is conducted over different population groups at a single space in time. For instance, assessing whether people of different cultures vary in the way that they…
Value Engineering and Reliability
Value engineering is viewed in many industries as an excellent strategy for reducing costs, increasing reliability, and improving quality (OM, 1993). It can be implemented in hardware and software; development, production, and manufacturing; specifications, standards, contract requirements, and other acquisition program documentation; facilities design and construction.
Value engineering is a technique directed toward analyzing the functions of a project or product to determine "best value," or the best relationship between reliability and cost. In other words, "best value" is represented by a project or process that consistently performs its required basic function and has the lowest cost.
In this context, the application of value engineering in a construction project can yield a better value when construction is approached in a manner that incorporates environmentally sound and energy-efficient practices and materials.
This paper discusses the important relationship between reliability and value engineering, in an effort to explain…
Brown, J. (1992). Value Engineering: A Blueprint, Industrial Press Inc.
Heller, E.D. (1971). Value Management: Value Engineering and Cost Reduction, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Johnson, Kelly. (September 28, 2000). Does Value Engineering Live Up to Its Name? PM Engineer.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (May 21, 1993). Value Engineering. Circular No. A-131.
8. Number of individuals in substance abuse clinics and/or treatment reporting income below the poverty line (nominal): This could show a direct correlation between poverty and substance abuse
9. Number of individuals in substance abuse clinics and/or treatment reporting they are homeless and/or have resulted to panhandling (nominal): This could show a direct correlation between homelessness, panhandling and substance abuse.
10. Number of individuals stopped for panhandling by the police: While the police usually do not arrest individuals for panhandling, police logs of individuals who are reprimanded for doing so, and under what circumstances (if the individual's circumstances indicated homelessness or substance abuse) could relevant if a pervasive pattern could be shown of the practice on a large scale.
11. Average of individuals at private substance abuse clinics vs. publically-supported treatment (ordinal): This would paint a portrait of how income can generate a different standard of care for the wealthy.…
Nationwide trends. (2010). National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved June 19, 2010 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/nationtrends.html
Morales, I. Number of homeless down, but homeless families up. (2010, June 16). AP News.
Retrieved June 19, 2010 at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20100617/ap_on_go_ca_st_pe/us_hud_homelessness
What is the difference between categorical, ordinal, and interval variables? (2010). UCLA.
Inter-rater reliability is considered the degree to which two or more evaluators of a study agree on its results and outcomes for reliability (Lange, 2011). When a rating system is implemented in a study, its consistency is addressed by this parameter.
It was tested for the reliability of a new clinical examination method called Cognitive Assessment and Reference Diagnosis System (CARDS) for early detection and management of dementia (Suh & Lee, 2003). The method was applied to 70 dementia patients and 34 healthy and control individuals. 22 of the 104 subjects were interviewed separately for checking the inter-rater reliability based on the fact that their responses were blind to each other and were not shared between them. The results showed that CARDS was a reliable instrument for detecting early dementia and its management in patients.
Test-retest reliability/ repeated measures reliability
Test-retest reliability is used for testing…
Criteria. (n.a.). Definition of predictive validity. Retrieved from https://www.criteriacorp.com/resources/glossary/predictive-validity
Godwin, M., Pike, A., Bethune, C., Kirby, A. & Pike, A. (2013). Concurrent and convergent validity of the simple lifestyle indicator questionnaire. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013. https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/529645
Johnson, E. (2013). Face validity. In Volkmar, F.R. (Ed) Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders. Springer, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3
Kemperman, A., Berg, P., Weijs-Perree, M., & Uijtdewillegen, K. (2019). Loneliness of older adults: Social network and the living environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(3), 406. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16030406
Kennet-Cohen, T., Turvall, E., Saar, Y. & Oren, C. (2016). The predictive validity of a two-step process to medical schools. Journal of Biomedical Education, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8910471
Lange, R.T. (2011). Inter-rater reliability. In Kreutzer, J.S., DeLuca, J. & Caplan, B. (Eds) Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3
Lin, W.L. & Yao, G. (2014). Concurrent validity. In Michalos A.C. (Ed) Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5
Mousazadeh, S., Rakhshan, M. & Mohammadi, F. (2017). Investigation of content and face validity and reliability of sociocultural attitude towards appearance questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among female adolescents. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 12(1), 15-20.
a. Dependability means emphasis on the need for researchers to take into consideration, the ever-evolving context within research as it happens (Creswell & Miller, 2000). The responsibility of qualitative research is to describe the changes naturally occurring in the setting as well as how such changes researchers approach the study. To address dependability within a qualitative research study, a person can perform member checking of data interpretation, a pilot test, and a peer review. These techniques allow for accurate assessment of dependability regarding the information collected for the study.
When a person begins qualitative research, to determine reliability and dependability of the information collected, they may perform member checks. “Member checking, also known as participant or respondent validation, is a technique for exploring the credibility of results. Data or results are returned to participants to check for accuracy and resonance with their experiences” (Birt, Scott, Cavers, Campbell, & Walter,…
Adult Learning Assessment
Adult learners comprise one of the fastest-growing segments of students today, and adult learners typically have needs that differentiate them from the younger learner. There is already much scholarship devoted to how the adult student learns new information. This understanding of the different learning styles has been taken into consideration in the design of courses and curricula for adult learners.
However, teaching tools are only part of the equation. Educators must also be able to assess if the adult learner is indeed retaining the information at both a critical and analytical level. Thus, in addition to the development of curricula, Cooledge et al. (2000) discussed the need to develop proper assessment tools for adult learners. In particular, Cooledge et al. (2000) focuses on the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment, one of the most popular tools in adult education.
The first part of this article is a…
Coolege, N.., Coolege J., Weihe K.. (2000). Thorny issues of reliability, validity and fairness when evaluating portfolio assessment. Retrieved Oct 30, 2004, at http://www.ahea.org/Thorny_Issues.htm .
For example, a test that requires students to make use of vocabulary words only pertinent to certain areas of the country, whether rural or urban (a city child may have never seen a cow, or know that a cow and a bull are the same animal) might result in poorer assessment of that child than is warranted. A Caucasian child might not be asked to describe common Vietnamese foods, but a recent Vietnamese immigrant might be called to do so on an intelligence test.
This is hardly culturally fair in assessing intelligence, even if children who are immigrants or bilingual might benefit from additional resource room help. Remember, even though a bilingual child may need English help, this is not a reflection of his or her general intelligence quotient, even if poor English ability may result in a lower test score on an English-administered test. After all, an affluent child…
Cohen Libby G. And Lauren Spencier. (2004) Assessment of Children With Special Needs. New York: Addison Wesley.
Credibility and eliability of Sources of CAM Information:
The identification of the most suitable Complementary and Alternative Medicine therapy to help in treatment of the patient's symptoms is a process that is based on extensive research. The increased use of CAM therapy in the American health care system provides clinicians with a new responsibility of becoming informed regarding the suitability, safety, and effectiveness of various healing procedures that are largely unfamiliar. The research process used to develop the most suitable CAM therapy involves obtaining information based on opinions rather than facts. Actually, there is plenty of research on CAM therapies that are not usually published in the established American medical journals or presented based on the traditions of standard medical research. Therefore, since the health care system requires factual information instead of opinions, clinicians face the need to ensure the credibility and reliability of the sources of Complementary and Alternative…
"Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Evaluate Treatment Claims." (2011, October 22).
Mayo Clinic -- Consumer Health. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alternative-medicine/SA00078
"Evaluating Information Sources for Complementary and Alternative Health Care." (2004).
Program on Integrative Medicine. Retrieved from Department of Physical Medicine -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website: http://www.med.unc.edu/phyrehab/pim/files/Evaluating.pdf
Because of this the results of the test may not be effective for what I am studying.
In a study done by ipley and Yuill, (2005), Patterns of language impairment and behavior in boys excluded from school, expressive and receptive language issues in boys barred from primary and secondary schools, to examine the degree of harm, the outline of associations between age, receptive and expressive language, and associations with dissimilar aspects of behavior was evaluated. The final sample consisted of nineteen excluded boys, fourteen from secondary schools, and five from primary schools and the same number of age-matched controls. Causes for exclusion included verbal and physical violence, failure to follow rules, and other behavior troubles including possession of a dangerous weapon, and for one child, running away from school.
In this study The Word Definitions (WD) task from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was utilized to tap a child's…
Assessing Children with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://library.apsu.edu/guides/1_3_20_1.htm
Ripley, Kate and Yuill, Nicola. (2005). Patterns of language impairment and behavior in boys excluded from school. Retrieved from http://www.glog.nl/wiki/upload/docs/patterns_of_language_impairment_and_behavior_i
Monitoring an Aircraft's eliability System:
In the civil aircraft industry, one of the most critical areas is the operational or dispatch reliability of an aircraft. For any airline, the reliability system of an aircraft is very important since its effectiveness lessens flights delays and cancellations. The effective working of this system to achieve its functions also results in greater operational efficiency, customer satisfaction and flexibility. Dispatch or operational reliability is defined as the percentage of scheduled flights that depart without any technical delay that exceeds 15 minutes or a flight cancellation. It's important for any airline to ensure that the reliability systems of its aircrafts are effective since this result in less costs and greater revenues for the airline. The reliability system of an aircraft is largely affected by both technical and non-technical factors with the technical ones resulting from the decisions made by designers. On the other hand, the…
Airworthiness Advisory Circular (2007), Maintenance Control By Reliability Methods, Barbados
Civil Aviation Department, viewed 16 April 2011,
The types of reliability used consist of test-retest reliability and internal consistency where the types of validity that were used are construct validity and criterion validity (vmiman). The test-retest reliability is an assessment of the similarity of scores on a particular scale over two or more test occasions. The Pearson correlation coefficients are used to quantify the similarity between the scale scores over two or more occasions. Stability coefficients provide an important indicator of a test's likely usefulness of measurement.
Internal consistency is known as scale homogeneity and is an assessment of the ability of the items in a scale to measure the same construct or trait. A parameter can be computed that indexes how well the items in a scale contribute to the overall measurement. A scale is internally consistent if all the constituent item responses are positively associated with their scale score. The most common is Cronbach's…
Bibliography vmiman. (n.d.). Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual. Retrieved from Psytech: http://www.psytech.co.uk/downloads/manuals/vmiman.pdf
I have used many different types of assessments in my classes in the past. I would use student self-assessment, portfolio assessment, observational (informal) assessment, and formal assessment such as tests, quizzes and exams. I felt that the more varied your assessment methods, the more reflective of the student’s overall abilities the score at the end would be. Student self-assessments allow students a chance to review their work on their own and judge their performance; it promotes active engagement with their work instead of passive engagement with whatever assessment the teacher gives. Portfolio assessments are good because they allow the student to gather the best work over a period of time and see how they are developing. Observational assessment is good for developing a sense of the student’s skills in an informal way, the student’s participation level, the student’s methods of interaction and communication, etc. Formal assessment is good…
Measurement Validity and eliability
eliability and Validity
Gomez, D., Haas, B., Ahmed, N. Tien, H., & Nathens, A. (2011). Disaster preparedness of Canadian trauma centres: the perspective of medical directors of trauma.
Canadian Journal of Surgery, 54(1): 9-17.
The dependent variable examined in this study was the disaster preparedness of trauma centers. The dependent variable was measured using a questionnaire which was distributed to twenty-nine trauma centers in Canada. The medical director of each trauma center was invited to respond to the questions on the instrument. The researchers then employed descriptive statistics to describe the state of preparedness based on measures within the instrument.
The question of validity is essentially does the instrument measure what it purports to measure. The issue of validity in a study has several components that may be separated into categories of internal and external validity. Elements such as face validity, content and construct validity are…
Creswell J.W. (1994).Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.
Kerlinger, F.N. & Lee, H.B. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. London:
The articles on the website do feature articles on classified subcategories of depression such as bipolarity, major depression, minor depression, and psychotic depression and information about drug treatments and side effects that are legitimately accepted by the medical community.
A website should review CAM and conventional medicine in the same terms
Look for slanted advice [Image: Display picture of editorial on Depression website' UL: http://www.holisticonline.com/emedies/Depression/dep_editorial.htm]
Speaker's Notes: The website does not claim that alternative treatments should be used to replace conventional medicine. One editorial written by Dr. Matthews (and it is clearly marked as an editorial opinion, not as fact) reads: "There has been tremendous progress made in the past years in understanding how the brain works. One of the outcomes of this research is that we now understand that depression may be due to the decreased activity of the serotenergic pathways in the brain. (This…
Benedetti, Jo-Ann. (2010). Evaluating Health Web Sites. From snake oil to penicillin:
Evaluating consumer health information on the Internet. NN/LM (National Networks of Libraries of Medicine. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/evalsite.html
Matthews, J. (2010). Editorial. Depression. Holistic Health. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://www.holisticonline.com/Remedies/Depression/dep_editorial.htm
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (2010). Depression. Holistic Health. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://www.holisticonline.com/Remedies/Depression/dep_antidepressant-SSRI.htm
Quality and eliability
The cost of quality, in the context of management and the business side of operations, is quite different from (though related to) the cost of quality from a consumer perspective. The old adage, "you get what you pay for" is a word of warning or reminder to consumers that higher quality items tend to be more expensive, and thus the "cost of quality" is simply a higher price tag for consumers. For the companies actually producing goods and services, this same perspective might apply to certain materials and equipment procured for use in the production process, but this is only one of many "costs of quality" that business must endure (Accounting for Management, 2012). Factors of time, process controls, testing, correcting mistakes as quickly and completely as possible, and a variety of business- and industry-specific concerns all impact the costs that a company incurs in…
Accounting for Management. (2012). Quality Costs. Accessed 18 August 2012.
Bagdonavi-ius, V. & Nikulin, M. (2002). Accelerated Life Testing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC
p.). For the classroom teacher, an instrument with validity will satisfy these parameters.
1) What evidence should be provided that learners have mastered content?
When teachers give content-based assessments, they are measuring how much information students have retained from lectures, discussions, readings and other learning experiences (e.g., homework, projects). In creating a content-based assessment, the teacher must look at all the learning materials and experiences that have taken place during the unit or course of study. The questions that are asked must accurately reflect this content so mastery can be assessed. Teachers have to ask the right questions to give students an opportunity to give the right answers.
2) How would an instructor determine whether a content-based assessment reflects learner knowledge?
Instructors must design test instruments that allow students to demonstrate their content knowledge and also put that knowledge into practice. It is not enough for students to…
Culture and assessment: Discovering what students really know. (2011). Education Digest 76
(8), pp. 43-46.
Day, H.L., & Matthews, D.M. (2008). Do large-scale exams adequately assess inquiry?
American Biology Teacher 70 (6), pp. 336-341.
eliability and Validity in Psychological Testing
In any kind of academic and professional testing, it is important to obtain at least some degree of reliability and validity. Failing this, the tests cannot be applied for results that are consistent or usable in an academic setting, since they cannot be verified in terms of repeatability or in comparison to other results. In psychology, which is more often than not studied by qualitative rather than quantitative means, it is often difficult to establish reliability and validity, since the specific numbers to do so are lacking. However, there are means to ensure an optimal level of validity and reliability in this kind of testing
According to Kline (2013, p. 7), reliability comes in two distinct manifestations: eliability in terms of consistency over time, and reliability in terms of internal consistency. Overtime, reliability is determined by administering tests to the same individuals on…
Kline, P. (2013). Handbook of Psychological Testing. New York: Routledge
Narrow, W.E., Clarke, D.E., Kuramoto, S.J., Kraemer, H.C., Kupfer, D.J., Greiner, L., and Regier, D.A. (2013, Jan.) DSM-5 Field Trials in the United States and Canada, Part III: Development and Reliability Testing of a Cross-Cutting Symptom Assessment for DSM-5. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 170(1).
Raz, S., Bar-Haim, Y., Sadeh, A., and Dan, O. (2014). Reliability and Validity of Online Continuous Performance Test Among Young Adults. Assessment. 21(1).
Salzer, M.S. And Brusilovsky, E. (2014, Apr.). Advancing Recovery Science: Reliability and Validity Properties of the Recovery Assessment Scale. Psychiatric Services. 65(4).
Reliability and Validity of the Results
Analyzing Internal Validity of the Research Design
Analyzing External Validity of the Research Design
Multiple Treatments or Interventions
Recommendation of a Better Design
Evaluate the Reliability and Validity of the Results
In the ashington Post (2015), an article titled "How was Sexual Assault Measured," by Scott Clement, there are many factors needed to be evaluated in order to better test the true accuracy, precision, validity and reliability of the survey presented. This particular post outlines the research survey undertaken by Kaiser Family Foundation, which assessed the extent and prevalence of sexual assault. The results of the study brought about the conclusion that 20% of the prevailing and recent female students in college, that subside within the campus or near it have reported of being sexually assaulted during this time as they…
Blanche, Martin T., Durrheim, K., and Painter, Desmond. "Research in Practice: Applied Methods for the Social Sciences." New York: UCT Press, 2003.
Bracht, Glenn H., and Gene V. Glass. "The external validity of experiments." American educational research journal (1968): 437-474.
Clement, Martin. "How was sexual assault measured?" The Washington Post, 2015.
Creswell, J. W. & Miller, D. L. "Determining validity in qualitative inquiry." Theory into Practice, 2000, 39(3), 124-131.
credibility, reliability, and/Or validity, and explain why. e specific, and provide examples.
Credibility, Reliability and Validity in Fiebert (2004)
The source provided by Fiebert (2004), published in Sexuality & Culture, 8(3-4) and entitled "References Examining Assaults y Women on Their Spouses Or Male Partners: An Annotated ibliography" offers a concise overview of a broad sampling of literature on the subject of female-on-male spousal assault. At its outset, the study indicates a sampling of 155 scholarly investigations, 126 empirical studies and 29 reviews and from this selection of literature which is outlined in brief qualitative passages concludes "that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners." (Fiebert, p. 140)
It is not established with any certainty that the researcher delivering the report is in a position of authority on the subject. In fact, in the context of the report…
Validity & eliability eview
The author of this report has been asked to find and select an article with a specific purpose in mind. Namely, the author of the report is supposed to review the article for implications regarding validity and reliability. To be more precise, if there are gaps in either, the author of this report is to identify them and then identify what could be done to avoid such issues in future or different studies. A recent study about feedback interactions revealed some gaps that could be threats to reliability or validity.
To begin to evaluate the validity and reliability of the selected peer-reviewed journal, the author of this report shall first zone in on the sampling. As noted in the applicable section, the authors note "our overriding sampling logic was to find contexts that had shown a history of successfully using feedback in creative work, enabling us…
Harrison, S.H. & Rouse E.D. (2015). An inductive study of feedback interactions over the course of creative projects. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2),
bias, internal validity, external validity, and reliability.
There are several important issues with the research conducted by this anonymous female student that impacts the reliability and validity of her findings. Firstly, it appears that the researcher formulated her hypothesis before she had gathered all the facts available regarding the topic which is a major issue. She has an opinion that lower income people vote less than those with higher incomes and seems to have looked for data to support the hypothesis rather than forming a hypothesis which accounts for the data. In addition, in the question regarding this hypothetical research it is stated that she searched the internet and library, but there is no information as to the quality or reliability of the sources that she used in her research which also calls her findings into question. I would also be concerned with the world almanac she is using as…
The critical task then is to evaluate through critical judgment how closely aligned or far removed the original goal that the secondary data was originally created to respond to. There is also the need to evaluate the credibility and biases of the authors and publishers of the secondary data. Answering this question is also critical to keep the correct context of the secondary data as well. Above all, when working with secondary data, the underlying unmet need that lead to its development in the first place, the methodologies that primary data integrated into the secondary data relied on, and any biases of the writers and publishers need to be taken into account. The bottom line is that secondary data, to have been created, was precisely aligned with an unmet information need. It is up to the researcher to ascertain how closely aligned or how far removed their specific objectives are…
It is also possible that voters could change their attitudes after having completed the questionnaire. This could affect the validity of the results for the experimental group. To handle this eventuality, several questionnaires can be delivered over time for the whole group before the experimental group is selected. A mean can then be determined to most accurately divide the group into a similar experimental and control group.
After the experimental group is determined, negative advertisements can be displayed. In order increase the validity of this experiment, a number of survey questionnaires over time can also be delivered in order to minimize non-visible influences such as an extreme reaction to a particular person in a particular advertisement. At the same time, the same number of questionnaires can be delivered to the control group.
A mean of all the questionnaires over the determined time can then provide relatively accurate data regarding whether…
Whatever the needed equipment is the company should provide the best possible so that the employees have a reduced chance of accident.
In addition, when a company provides the best possible equipment to the employees it sends them a strong message about the importance of a safety culture at work.
Modeling this way of thinking from management down to the employees will help to promote the safety culture the companies' desire.
Having a team effort to promote the safety culture of any company can only serve to boost the employee moral, save money on workman's compensation claims and reduce the number of accidents within that workplace environment.
For many years, employers were not to concerned with the safety factor of their employees and employees, by human nature would use risk taking behaviors to get their jobs done. This combination of human high risk behavior and lack of company care…
Goodman, Fay (1999) Business: Small Talk - Way to avoid accidents caused by too much bottle.(News) the Birmingham Post (England)
Lanoi, Paul (1992) Safety regulation and the risk of workplace accidents in Quebec.
Southern Economic Journal
Ware, Brandy (2005) Selecting healthy hand tools: choosing the right hand tool for a job can protect workers from painful injuries and improve productivity at the same time.(Prevention of workplace accidents) Occupational Hazards
In some areas it actually appears as though certain reliability issues and their solutions might be simplified in the cloud when compared to traditional software and hardware set-ups; successful antivirus protection has been achieved simply by running preventative, diagnostic, and corrective programs on host computers and servers in the cloud, rather than necessitating the same type of vigilance for each and every end-user unit (Shah 2010). Solutions to more general and widespread reliability issues, however, have necessitated a much higher level of complexity in their solutions and the mechanisms employed to address them. More detailed and comprehensive infrastructure and internal architecture mapping has been adopted in an effort to better identify and rectify issues that could cause problems with reliability in cloud software systems (Mell & Grance 2009).
As understandings of these systems, their mechanisms, and their functions become more detailed and more concrete, the solutions to reliability issues will…
Dikaiakos, M.D., Katsaros, D., Mehra, P., Pallis, G. & Vakali, A. (2009). Cloud Computing: Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research. Internet Computing 13(5): 10-3.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2009). Cloud. NIST Information Technology Laboratory.
Shah, S. (2010). Exploring Reliability of Cloud Antivirus solutions. New Jersey Institute of Technology, Independent Research.
Youseff, L., Butrico, M. & Da Silva, D. (2008). Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing. Grid Computing Environments Workshop.
1. Why are reliability and validity important for assessment? How are content validity and criterion-related validity used to establish construct validity? Support your position.
Assessment instructions, whether for measuring cognitive ability or intelligence, or for psychometrics like personality, need to be both reliable and valid; otherwise, their results would be meaningless. In fact, using unreliable or invalid assessment instruments could lead to distorted judgments and biased beliefs. The decisions made based on reliable assessments can be sound and productive, whereas decisions made based on invalid or unreliable assessments may be unethical. Assessment reliability refers to how consistent the results are, and validity refers to how well the instrument measures what it intends to measure (“Reliabiity and Validity,” n.d.). The same test administered to the same population at a different point in time should yield similar results—the “test/retest” effect (Sullivan, 2011, p. 119). Likewise, assessment reliability takes into account how the…
This would be used in determining whether the prevailing employee abilities are related with their prevailing job performance based on the measurements of the criterion scores. In case of a high correlation, it concludes that there is a high validity of the concurrent criterion. This suggests that the identified abilities have measured the performance abilities on tasks that require the decision makers to measure.
For the content validity to be interpreted, a job analysis must be done, and the requirement matrix to be developed. Then interpreting the content validity would then become a judgmental procedure where organizational or external experts. These experts must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the nature of the focal job tasks and job. They then deliver a judgment on whether the abilities displayed by the test results are a true reflection of the organization's identified job analysis. Assessment of content validity tests tends to be…
Bechet, T.P. (2008). Strategic staffing: A comprehensive system for effective workforce planning. New York: American Management Association
Heneman, H.G., Judge, T.A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. (2012). Staffing organizations (7th ed.). Middleton, WI: Mendota House.
Using the Online Environment
he availability of online information has made a tremendous difference in many fields of endeavor including daily interactions. Many journals now have articles that are 'online first' before print; others comment on these online articles and critique even before the print issue exists. Online access also broadens the ease of accessing materials without a nearby extensive library. his is true in nearly every profession: science, economics, finance, business, nursing, medicine, hairdressing, and etc., (Leiner et al., 2003). Access to online information has changed the information paradigm. here is now a necessity and obligation to understand what appropriate online information consists of.
Use of social media and online tools for information-searching and access has increased considerably in recent years. Information is not only proliferating but is being shared more quickly than when print was the only medium available. he use of online media is a…
The European History Highway: A Guide to Internet Resources. (Dennis A. Trinkle, 1996) <
Vardi, M.Y. 2012. Predatory Scholarly Publishing Communications of the ACM, 2012:55(7)p.510. Available at: [accessed 24 January 2015].
WebMD. 2015. Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center, Available at: [accessed 24 January 2015].
eliability and Validity
eliability refers to the capacity of an instrument to capture the most accurate and "truest" score of an individual. A reliable test enables us to distinguish one individual from another with confidence that errors will primarily be generated by individual differences, and to a lesser extent, to the imperfections of the instrument. Indicators that a test is reliable include test-retest reliability that is accounted for by the internal consistency in the components of the test. The test-retest criteria is generally considered a manifestation of the consistency of measurement for individual performance over time, such that the score a person gets on a test today will be the same -- or nearly the same -- as the score the person gets on a test, say, in three, six, or twelve months. There are a number of substantive issues with the test-retest criteria, including chance covariation, memory, and…
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.
Newton, P.E. & Shaw, S.D. (2013) Standards for talking and thinking about validity. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 301-319. Doi: 10.1037/a0032969
Sireci, S.G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481. (ProQuest Document ID: 1403803131)
Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating social influence relations: An item-response-modeling approach. Metodoloski zvezki, 6(1), 27-50.
eliability and Validity in esearch
eliability is a term used to talk about the "test-retest" quality of a measurement. eliability refers the capacity of a measurement to obtain the same results over many repetitions when all the underlying conditions are stable (Chisnall, 2005; Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). Many research variables can change over time, and these variables can impact reliability. However, statistical procedures exist to correct for most of those changes and to allow reliable data to be collected.
eliability of the questionnaires
Of the three options for establishing reliability (equivalent forms, internal consistency, parallel forms, and test-retest), internal consistency offers the most practical application for a survey to be used for concept testing or a product launch (Mitchell, 1996). To implement a strategy for determining internal consistency, a market researcher designs a number of survey questionnaire items that measure the same construct (idea, phenomenon, thing) (Chisnall, 2005).…
1. Chrisnall, P. (2005) Marketing Research. (7th ed.) Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.
2. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students. (4th ed.) Harlow: Prentice Hall.
3. Cooper, D.R., Schindler, P.S. (2008) Business Research Methods. (10th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.
4. Bradley, N. (2010) marketing research -- tools and techniques. (2nd ed.) New York: Oxford University Press
e. between 85 and 115) on a normal bell-shaped distribution.
An abbreviated four-subtest version of the WAIS-III (called the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)) has been released enabling clinicians to perform a validated verbal, performance and full-scale IQ in approximately 30 minutes.
Some clinicians use the WAIS with psychiatric illness or brain injury in order to assess impediments in cognitive reasoning, but use of the WAIS in this connection is controversial. The WAIS is also used as an instrument on a neurologically impaired population in order to link regions of the brain to specific variables of reasoning, as well as to gauge regions and extent of affected neural matter (the digit span, for instance, may be used to test attention and/or memory). Oftentimes, however, the WAIS- NI (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-evised) is a preferred neuropsychological instrument. The WAIS was developed for average, brain-healthy individuals, and separate norms, patterned on…
AERA, APA, & NCME. (2004). Standards for educational and psychological testing (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: AERA.
Axelrod, B.N. & Ryan, J.J. (2000). Prorating Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III summary scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 807 -- 11.
Hess, Allen K., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
Rogers, Bruce G., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
Definition and Description of Basic Concepts Error of measurement Measuring devices make approximate measurement(s). If an object is measured twice at different times, the two obtained measurements may not be accurate. This difference between the measurements is called error of measurement. This error, however, is not considered a mistake or the incorrect measurement. In fact, the error in measurement is a numerical method for showing that measurements are not certain. In simple words, error of measurement is the variation between the measurement result and the correct value of the object that is being measured. According to recent studies, "the measurement error affects the repeatability of MMN" (Paukkunen, Leminen & Sepponen, 2011, p. 2195) (mismatch negativity). Test-retest eliability Test-retest reliability is the estimate between scores from the similar respondents tested at dissimilar times (MacQuarrie, Applegate & Lacefield, 2008). It demonstrates the reliability and evenness of an instrument's score in…
References Brazeau, J.N., Teatero, M.L., Rawana, E.P., & Blanchette, L.R. (2012). The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 21, 384-390. Chen, C., & Lo, L. (2007). Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Pediatric Asthma Symptoms Scale. Journal of Nursing Research, 15 (2), 99-105. Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological Testing: Principles (6 ed.). Canada: Wadsworth. MacQuarrie, D., Applegate, B., & Lacefield, W. (2008). Criterion Referenced Assessment: Establishing Content Validity of Complex Skills Related to Specific Tasks. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 24 (2), 6-29. Paukkunen, A.K., Leminen, M., & Sepponen, R. (2011). The Effect of Measurement Error on the Test -- Retest Reliability of Repeated Mismatch Negativity Measurements. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2195-2202. Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice . Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
group and the nature of the study population. Both may present limitations to the researcher that will be reflective in the study design. In a quasi-experimental study, for instance, the study design lacks a fundamental component of a customary experimental design, namely randomization of the participants into study groups. Geographic limitations or the specificity of the participation qualifications may hinder the researcher from randomizing the subjects. An ex post facto study investigates possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition and looking back into the past for valid causal factors. A certain study bias, however, is inherent in this type of study design because the variables are separated by time. Meanwhile, a correlational study compares two or more variables concurrently in detailed bivariate regression analyses. A common objective of this type of study is to determine the correlation between certain defining characteristics of the subjects and the effectiveness of some…
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16, 11, 658-663.
Hielkema, M., Winter de, A.F., Meer de, G., Reijneveld, S.A. (2011). Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi-experimental study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 636, 1-9.
Huang, C.Y., Perng, S.J., Chen, H.F., Lai, C.Y. (2008). The Impact of Learned Resourcefulness on Quality of Life in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 4, 264-273.
Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)
The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.
The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)
Cost of the Test
According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)
Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test
Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…
Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm
Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from: www.educ.uidaho.edu/jfischer/TestReviewshandout.doc
Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: http://deltabravo.net/custody/mmpi-info.php
Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from: http://www.drjeffkaye.com/mmpi.htm
Wal Mart Stats
Wal-Mart Survey Analysis
In order to begin addressing two key research questions, how can Wal-Mart ensure decent quality products and simultaneously keep consumers happy with prices and how would Wal-Mart keep the costs of its products down, a survey of Wal-Mart customers was taken. Attitudes towards prices, quality of products, and overall shopping experiences were collected and analyzed via in-person questionnaires/surveys to consumers exiting Wal-Mart stores after shopping. All responses were recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 representing high satisfaction or strong agreement and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction or strong disagreement. The following paragraphs assess the quality of this survey and its results in terms of addressing the research question.
Validity and eliability
The research questions themselves as detailed above are very valid questions to be asked of Wal-Mart, a company that built its business model on the ability to offer low-priced goods to…
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
McClave, J.T., Benson, P.G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall
Walmart Co. (2012). About Us. Retrieved from http://corporate.walmart.com/
Analysis of each company
Apple is a designer and marketer of consumer electronic devices and software. The company is also vertically integrated with respect to retailing, operating its own stores and functioning as one of the biggest online retailers in the world. Apple's primary products are the iPhone ($80.4 billion), iPad ($32.4 billion) and portable computers ($17.1 billion). Other billion-dollar products are desktop computers, iPod music players, iTunes, peripherals and software (Apple 2012 Annual Report). Apple's customers are primarily consumers who purchase through retail channels, either from Apple or authorized third party retailers. Customers also include small and medium-sized businesses, educational institutions and government. Geographically, Apple is geographically diversified. Leading regions are the Americas (36%), Europe (23.2%) and Asia-Pacific, ex-Japan (21.2%). Suppliers to Apple include manufacturers like Foxconn that assemble the products and the different component suppliers, of which they are dozens for any given device. Most suppliers…
Gustin, S. (2013). In major victory, Google dodges federal antitrust suit with FTC deal. Time Magazine. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from http://business.time.com/2013/01/02/google-set-to-dodge-federal-antitrust-lawsuit-with-ftc-deal-report/
Alexa.com. (2013). Top sites. Alexa.com. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from http://www.alexa.com/topsites
MSN Moneycentral: Apple. (2013). Retrieved March 15, 2013 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=AAPL&ocid=qbeb
MSN Moneycentral: Google. (2013). Retrieved March 15, 2013 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=GOOG&ocid=qbeb
oyal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge on the Global Market
The concept of financial analysis is a core indicator of the actual financial health of a given organization. The development of an accurate and dependable conceptual framework to be employed in the analysis of the global and corporate financial system has for quite a long time been an important issue in corporate accounting (Bodie & Merton,1990). An appropriate conceptual framework must be able to meet two main objectives: to effectively address the differences that exists in the institutional structures as well as to explain the main changes in the institutional structures over time. A review of extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of financial analysis. Most of these studies have dwelt on financial ratios. A study by Nenide, Pricer & Camp (2008) indicated that extant literature in accounting as well as finance indicate that the application of…
Chemical Market Reporter (2001) Energy markets poised for dramatic change, Chemical Market Reporter, 260(17), p. 8.
Datamonitor (2006). Royal Dutch Shell PLC.
Duval, Y (2005). Primary Data Collection Methods: Survey Design. ARTNeTCapacity Building Workshop on Trade Research Bangkok, Thailand, 22-25 March 2005
The moment of truth was when the front desk people realized that the problem we reported was not just a minor complaint or just an example of customers being too picky or demanding. It was fairly clear that the hotel personnel immediately empathized with our situation and that they felt obligated to rectify the problem for us. The wrong response would have been to tell us that we should just try to live with the noise for one night until another room like the one we booked became available or to turn off the air conditioner when we wanted to go to sleep and then turn it back on in the morning. In addition to being insulting (because nobody needs to be told that they can do either of those two things), that type of response would have conflicted with any demonstration of reliability, assurance, or responsiveness.
There were both…
In the future, this could result in some kind of major restructuring to deal with these issues. The problem is that these changes will occur when the company is facing greater challenges. This will hurt their competitive position, profit margins, stock performance and brand image. The above information will impact an investor's decision, by making them more cautious about purchasing the company over the long-term. ("The Coca Cola Company," 2012) ("Pepsi Co," 2012)
As far as Pepsi Co is concerned, the management has taken a continuing focus on expanding into new areas. This has resulted in the company owning different food, beverage and snack manufacturers. In these situations, the firm is concentrating on the impact that key acquisitions will have on Pepsi and its ability to enter new markets. ("The Coca Cola Company," 2012) ("Pepsi Co," 2012)
This strategy has proven to be highly successful. As the company is able…
The Coca Cola Company. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=KO+Profile
Pepsi Co. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=PEP+Profile
Pepsi Co Concludes. (2011). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved from: http://seekingalpha.com/article/293068-pepsi-concludes-wimm-bill-dann-buy-in-largest-ever-foreign-acquisition-of-russian-company
Bell, L. (2003). The Story of Coca Cola. North Mankato, MN: A +
Complaints From Community Members
The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by…
Lindsey, D. (2007). Police Fatigue: An Accident Waiting to Happen. FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8): 1-8.
Malmin, M. (2012). Changing Police Subculture. FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 81(4):
Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods: Practical Applications
My current circumstances could be grooming me for a totally different profession but deep inside, I have always admired the work journalists do. I particularly like how news reporters go out to the field, gather real time information, and interact with newsmakers. In addition to enjoying themselves, these ladies and gentlemen play a very significant role in the creation of a more open and just society. For this assignment, I will address a number of issues with regard to the job I would be interested in pursuing, i.e. news reporting.
Job analysis according to Werner, Schuler, and Jackson (2010) is essentially "a systematic process of describing and recording information about job behaviors, activities, and worker specifications" (p. 122). In that regard therefore, a job analysis seeks to generate information regarding both those performing the job and the job itself. It…
Mathis, R.M. & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Snell, S.A. & Bohlander, G.W. (2011). Managing Human Resources (16th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Werner, S., Schuler, R.S. & Jackson, S.E. (2012). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas. The system stores, edits analyses and shows topographic information that is critical in decision-making. GIS applications enable creation of interactive queries, analysis and editing and then present results. This is beneficial in management of disasters.
Disaster management signifies preparedness involving a chain of measures incorporating disaster prevention, emergency response as well as reconstruction. Many organizations federal, state and non-governmental as well as businesses, public health benefit from GIS technology. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is actively involved in improving and publicly availing geo-processing specifications using Web Map Service and Web Feature Service protocols. OGC divides GIS products or software into two categories, compliant and implementing products, based on their level of compatibility with OGC specifications, which aid them in communication. In recent times, an explosion of online mapping applications has given the public enormous geographic information. The…
Battista, C. (1994). Chernobyl: GIS model aids nuclear disaster relief. GIS World, 32 -- 5.
Cova, T.J. (1999). GIS in emergency management. In P.A. Longley, & D.J. Goodchild, Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management (pp. 845-858). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Grif-th, D.A. (1986). Hurricane emergency management applications of the SLOSH numerical storm surge prediction model. In S.A. Marston, Terminal disasters: computer applications in emergency management. Boulder: Boulder Institute of Behavioral Science.
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
tests (CTs) and scales vs. norm-eferenced
Criterion-referenced tests (CTs) are often the preferred method of assessing the performance of many practitioners in the healthcare and 'helping' professions such as nursing. An example of a criterion-based objective is that a student mastered 90% of the terms on a particular test (McDonald 2002). The NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) for nurses is an example of such a test: all nurses that pass the test can obtain licensure. The test is deemed to be both reliable and valid. "The reliability of the NCLEX examination is assessed via a decision consistency statistic. This statistic is used instead of a traditional reliability statistic such as Cronbach's alpha because it captures the reliability of dichotomous pass/fail decisions rather than the reliability of continuous scores or ability estimates" (eliability of NCLEX, 2013, NCSBN: 2).
In terms of the NCLE, the exam attempts to ensure content validity; face…
Reliability of NCLEX. (2013). NCSBN. Retrieved: https://www.ncsbn.org/Reliability.pdf
What does Cronbach's alpha mean? (n.d.). SPSS FAQ. Institute for Digital Research and Education. UCLA. Retrieved: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
Second, the researcher's intense exposure to study of a case can bias the findings (the case study as a research method); at the least, there are significant opportunities for subjectivity in the implementation, presentation, and evaluation of case study research (Case studies). This high degree of subjectivity opens the door for ethical issues, particularly if the study is being sponsored by a special interest. Third, case studies involve too much investment of time and money to be appropriate for large-scale research projects (Case studies).
eyea and Nicoll (1997) discuss the many factors that researchers need to consider when selecting a sample for a research project. A researcher must first determine the population of interest (every person, event, or object that meets specific characteristics). If the population of interest has too many members to study, the researcher then needs to formulate a sampling strategy to obtain a subset of the population…
Beyea, S.C. And Nicoll, L.H. (1997, October).Selecting samples for research studies requires knowledge of the populations of interest. AORN Journal. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_n4_v66/ai_19996778/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
Case studies. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/com4a1.cfm
Case study in psychology. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_study_in_psychology
Case study: Strengths and weaknesses. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/casestudy/pop4a.cfm
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.
Title of paper
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers
In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.
Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.
For the identification of celebrities…
Churchill, G.A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 64-74.
Lages, C., Lages, C.R., & Lages, L.F. (2005). The RELQUAL Scale: A Measure of Relationship Quality in Export Market Ventures. Lisbon, Portugal.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, Vol.19, No.3, 39-52.
Zheng, B., Hall, M.A., Kidd, K.E., & Levine, D. (2002). Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers. Health Services Research Vol 37 No.1, 187-202.