Reliability Essays (Examples)

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Instrumentation to Measure Social Persuasion

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22051532

eliability and Validity


eliability refers to the capacity of an instrument to capture the most accurate and "truest" score of an individual. A reliable test enables us to distinguish one individual from another with confidence that errors will primarily be generated by individual differences, and to a lesser extent, to the imperfections of the instrument. Indicators that a test is reliable include test-retest reliability that is accounted for by the internal consistency in the components of the test. The test-retest criteria is generally considered a manifestation of the consistency of measurement for individual performance over time, such that the score a person gets on a test today will be the same -- or nearly the same -- as the score the person gets on a test, say, in three, six, or twelve months. There are a number of substantive issues with the test-retest criteria, including chance covariation, memory, and…… [Read More]


Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.

Newton, P.E. & Shaw, S.D. (2013) Standards for talking and thinking about validity. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 301-319. Doi: 10.1037/a0032969

Sireci, S.G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481. (ProQuest Document ID: 1403803131)

Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating social influence relations: An item-response-modeling approach. Metodoloski zvezki, 6(1), 27-50.
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Market Research for a Store Launch

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32754307

eliability and Validity in esearch


eliability is a term used to talk about the "test-retest" quality of a measurement. eliability refers the capacity of a measurement to obtain the same results over many repetitions when all the underlying conditions are stable (Chisnall, 2005; Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). Many research variables can change over time, and these variables can impact reliability. However, statistical procedures exist to correct for most of those changes and to allow reliable data to be collected.

eliability of the questionnaires

Of the three options for establishing reliability (equivalent forms, internal consistency, parallel forms, and test-retest), internal consistency offers the most practical application for a survey to be used for concept testing or a product launch (Mitchell, 1996). To implement a strategy for determining internal consistency, a market researcher designs a number of survey questionnaire items that measure the same construct (idea, phenomenon, thing) (Chisnall, 2005).…… [Read More]


1. Chrisnall, P. (2005) Marketing Research. (7th ed.) Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

2. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students. (4th ed.) Harlow: Prentice Hall.

3. Cooper, D.R., Schindler, P.S. (2008) Business Research Methods. (10th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill.

4. Bradley, N. (2010) marketing research -- tools and techniques. (2nd ed.) New York: Oxford University Press
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9414347

e. between 85 and 115) on a normal bell-shaped distribution.

An abbreviated four-subtest version of the WAIS-III (called the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)) has been released enabling clinicians to perform a validated verbal, performance and full-scale IQ in approximately 30 minutes.

Some clinicians use the WAIS with psychiatric illness or brain injury in order to assess impediments in cognitive reasoning, but use of the WAIS in this connection is controversial. The WAIS is also used as an instrument on a neurologically impaired population in order to link regions of the brain to specific variables of reasoning, as well as to gauge regions and extent of affected neural matter (the digit span, for instance, may be used to test attention and/or memory). Oftentimes, however, the WAIS- NI (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-evised) is a preferred neuropsychological instrument. The WAIS was developed for average, brain-healthy individuals, and separate norms, patterned on…… [Read More]


AERA, APA, & NCME. (2004). Standards for educational and psychological testing (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: AERA.

Axelrod, B.N. & Ryan, J.J. (2000). Prorating Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III summary scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 807 -- 11.

Hess, Allen K., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.

Rogers, Bruce G., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
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Xml Rels Word Document xml Definition and Description of Basic

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83115439

xml.rels word/Document.xml

Definition and Description of Basic Concepts Error of measurement Measuring devices make approximate measurement(s). If an object is measured twice at different times, the two obtained measurements may not be accurate. This difference between the measurements is called error of measurement. This error, however, is not considered a mistake or the incorrect measurement. In fact, the error in measurement is a numerical method for showing that measurements are not certain. In simple words, error of measurement is the variation between the measurement result and the correct value of the object that is being measured. According to recent studies, "the measurement error affects the repeatability of MMN" (Paukkunen, Leminen & Sepponen, 2011, p. 2195) (mismatch negativity). Test-retest eliability Test-retest reliability is the estimate between scores from the similar respondents tested at dissimilar times (MacQuarrie, Applegate & Lacefield, 2008). It demonstrates the reliability and evenness of an instrument's score in…… [Read More]

References Brazeau, J.N., Teatero, M.L., Rawana, E.P., & Blanchette, L.R. (2012). The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 21, 384-390. Chen, C., & Lo, L. (2007). Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Pediatric Asthma Symptoms Scale. Journal of Nursing Research, 15 (2), 99-105. Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological Testing: Principles (6 ed.). Canada: Wadsworth. MacQuarrie, D., Applegate, B., & Lacefield, W. (2008). Criterion Referenced Assessment: Establishing Content Validity of Complex Skills Related to Specific Tasks. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 24 (2), 6-29. Paukkunen, A.K., Leminen, M., & Sepponen, R. (2011). The Effect of Measurement Error on the Test -- Retest Reliability of Repeated Mismatch Negativity Measurements. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2195-2202. Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice . Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

word/numbering.xml word/styles.xml [Content_Types].xml
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Psychological Testing Psychological Tests Are an Important

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249734

Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.

Definition of tests

A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…… [Read More]


Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from

Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from
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Group and the Nature of the Study

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17567264

group and the nature of the study population. Both may present limitations to the researcher that will be reflective in the study design. In a quasi-experimental study, for instance, the study design lacks a fundamental component of a customary experimental design, namely randomization of the participants into study groups. Geographic limitations or the specificity of the participation qualifications may hinder the researcher from randomizing the subjects. An ex post facto study investigates possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition and looking back into the past for valid causal factors. A certain study bias, however, is inherent in this type of study design because the variables are separated by time. Meanwhile, a correlational study compares two or more variables concurrently in detailed bivariate regression analyses. A common objective of this type of study is to determine the correlation between certain defining characteristics of the subjects and the effectiveness of some…… [Read More]


Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16, 11, 658-663.

Hielkema, M., Winter de, A.F., Meer de, G., Reijneveld, S.A. (2011). Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi-experimental study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 636, 1-9.

Huang, C.Y., Perng, S.J., Chen, H.F., Lai, C.Y. (2008). The Impact of Learned Resourcefulness on Quality of Life in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 4, 264-273.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mmpi-Ii the MMPI-II

Words: 983 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55253221

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)

The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.

Test Publisher

The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)

Cost of the Test

According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)

Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test

Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: 

Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from:

Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: 

Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from:
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Wal Mart Stats Wal-Mart Survey Analysis in

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37665223

Wal Mart Stats

Wal-Mart Survey Analysis

In order to begin addressing two key research questions, how can Wal-Mart ensure decent quality products and simultaneously keep consumers happy with prices and how would Wal-Mart keep the costs of its products down, a survey of Wal-Mart customers was taken. Attitudes towards prices, quality of products, and overall shopping experiences were collected and analyzed via in-person questionnaires/surveys to consumers exiting Wal-Mart stores after shopping. All responses were recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 representing high satisfaction or strong agreement and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction or strong disagreement. The following paragraphs assess the quality of this survey and its results in terms of addressing the research question.

Validity and eliability

The research questions themselves as detailed above are very valid questions to be asked of Wal-Mart, a company that built its business model on the ability to offer low-priced goods to…… [Read More]


Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

McClave, J.T., Benson, P.G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall

Walmart Co. (2012). About Us. Retrieved from
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Apple Google Analysis of Each Company Apple

Words: 2312 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77195848

Apple, Google

Analysis of each company

Apple is a designer and marketer of consumer electronic devices and software. The company is also vertically integrated with respect to retailing, operating its own stores and functioning as one of the biggest online retailers in the world. Apple's primary products are the iPhone ($80.4 billion), iPad ($32.4 billion) and portable computers ($17.1 billion). Other billion-dollar products are desktop computers, iPod music players, iTunes, peripherals and software (Apple 2012 Annual Report). Apple's customers are primarily consumers who purchase through retail channels, either from Apple or authorized third party retailers. Customers also include small and medium-sized businesses, educational institutions and government. Geographically, Apple is geographically diversified. Leading regions are the Americas (36%), Europe (23.2%) and Asia-Pacific, ex-Japan (21.2%). Suppliers to Apple include manufacturers like Foxconn that assemble the products and the different component suppliers, of which they are dozens for any given device. Most suppliers…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gustin, S. (2013). In major victory, Google dodges federal antitrust suit with FTC deal. Time Magazine. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from (2013). Top sites. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from 

MSN Moneycentral: Apple. (2013). Retrieved March 15, 2013 from 

MSN Moneycentral: Google. (2013). Retrieved March 15, 2013 from
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Royal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76396691

oyal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge on the Global Market

The concept of financial analysis is a core indicator of the actual financial health of a given organization. The development of an accurate and dependable conceptual framework to be employed in the analysis of the global and corporate financial system has for quite a long time been an important issue in corporate accounting (Bodie & Merton,1990). An appropriate conceptual framework must be able to meet two main objectives: to effectively address the differences that exists in the institutional structures as well as to explain the main changes in the institutional structures over time. A review of extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of financial analysis. Most of these studies have dwelt on financial ratios. A study by Nenide, Pricer & Camp (2008) indicated that extant literature in accounting as well as finance indicate that the application of…… [Read More]


Chemical Market Reporter (2001) Energy markets poised for dramatic change, Chemical Market Reporter, 260(17), p. 8.

Datamonitor (2006). Royal Dutch Shell PLC.

Duval, Y (2005). Primary Data Collection Methods: Survey Design. ARTNeTCapacity Building Workshop on Trade Research Bangkok, Thailand, 22-25 March 2005
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Hospitality Case Study the Most

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42498270

The moment of truth was when the front desk people realized that the problem we reported was not just a minor complaint or just an example of customers being too picky or demanding. It was fairly clear that the hotel personnel immediately empathized with our situation and that they felt obligated to rectify the problem for us. The wrong response would have been to tell us that we should just try to live with the noise for one night until another room like the one we booked became available or to turn off the air conditioner when we wanted to go to sleep and then turn it back on in the morning. In addition to being insulting (because nobody needs to be told that they can do either of those two things), that type of response would have conflicted with any demonstration of reliability, assurance, or responsiveness.

There were both…… [Read More]

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Investment Analyst One of the

Words: 2206 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75894387

In the future, this could result in some kind of major restructuring to deal with these issues. The problem is that these changes will occur when the company is facing greater challenges. This will hurt their competitive position, profit margins, stock performance and brand image. The above information will impact an investor's decision, by making them more cautious about purchasing the company over the long-term. ("The Coca Cola Company," 2012) ("Pepsi Co," 2012)

As far as Pepsi Co is concerned, the management has taken a continuing focus on expanding into new areas. This has resulted in the company owning different food, beverage and snack manufacturers. In these situations, the firm is concentrating on the impact that key acquisitions will have on Pepsi and its ability to enter new markets. ("The Coca Cola Company," 2012) ("Pepsi Co," 2012)

This strategy has proven to be highly successful. As the company is able…… [Read More]


The Coca Cola Company. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: 

Pepsi Co. (2012). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: 

Pepsi Co Concludes. (2011). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved from: 

Bell, L. (2003). The Story of Coca Cola. North Mankato, MN: A +
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Complaints From Community Members the Fact That

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88268416

Complaints From Community Members

The fact that Officer Daniels has received complaints filed by multiple different members of the community in a relatively short period of time would raise immediate concerns. Whereas an isolated complaint could be the result of a misunderstanding, an unfounded act of retribution by someone for appropriate police action initiated by the officer, or the result of a single bad momentary decision, the fact that there are multiple such complaints suggests it is more likely that Officer Daniels may not be performing his duties optimally. Moreover, the fact that the complaints involve three different types of unrelated conduct suggests that there might be a common underlying issue such as psychological fatigue, burnout, or unresolved psychological trauma, as opposed to a an issue of poor or insufficient training (Miller, 2007). As a police psychologist, I would approach the situation as a possible unconscious request for help by…… [Read More]


Lindsey, D. (2007). Police Fatigue: An Accident Waiting to Happen. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8): 1-8.

Malmin, M. (2012). Changing Police Subculture. FBI Law

Enforcement Bulletin, 81(4):
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Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods Practical

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50168601

Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods: Practical Applications

My current circumstances could be grooming me for a totally different profession but deep inside, I have always admired the work journalists do. I particularly like how news reporters go out to the field, gather real time information, and interact with newsmakers. In addition to enjoying themselves, these ladies and gentlemen play a very significant role in the creation of a more open and just society. For this assignment, I will address a number of issues with regard to the job I would be interested in pursuing, i.e. news reporting.

Job Analysis

Job analysis according to Werner, Schuler, and Jackson (2010) is essentially "a systematic process of describing and recording information about job behaviors, activities, and worker specifications" (p. 122). In that regard therefore, a job analysis seeks to generate information regarding both those performing the job and the job itself. It…… [Read More]


Mathis, R.M. & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Snell, S.A. & Bohlander, G.W. (2011). Managing Human Resources (16th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Werner, S., Schuler, R.S. & Jackson, S.E. (2012). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
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Hazard Assessment Development

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92929240

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas. The system stores, edits analyses and shows topographic information that is critical in decision-making. GIS applications enable creation of interactive queries, analysis and editing and then present results. This is beneficial in management of disasters.

Disaster management signifies preparedness involving a chain of measures incorporating disaster prevention, emergency response as well as reconstruction. Many organizations federal, state and non-governmental as well as businesses, public health benefit from GIS technology. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is actively involved in improving and publicly availing geo-processing specifications using Web Map Service and Web Feature Service protocols. OGC divides GIS products or software into two categories, compliant and implementing products, based on their level of compatibility with OGC specifications, which aid them in communication. In recent times, an explosion of online mapping applications has given the public enormous geographic information. The…… [Read More]


Battista, C. (1994). Chernobyl: GIS model aids nuclear disaster relief. GIS World, 32 -- 5.

Cova, T.J. (1999). GIS in emergency management. In P.A. Longley, & D.J. Goodchild, Geographical Information Systems: Principles, Techniques, Applications, and Management (pp. 845-858). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Grif-th, D.A. (1986). Hurricane emergency management applications of the SLOSH numerical storm surge prediction model. In S.A. Marston, Terminal disasters: computer applications in emergency management. Boulder: Boulder Institute of Behavioral Science.
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Flood Assessment in the Nerang

Words: 9418 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51158747

The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.

The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).

Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…… [Read More]


Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.

CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.

Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate

Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879

As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives


To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…… [Read More]


Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. .


Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Tests and Scales

Words: 935 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4573151

tests (CTs) and scales vs. norm-eferenced

Criterion-referenced tests (CTs) are often the preferred method of assessing the performance of many practitioners in the healthcare and 'helping' professions such as nursing. An example of a criterion-based objective is that a student mastered 90% of the terms on a particular test (McDonald 2002). The NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) for nurses is an example of such a test: all nurses that pass the test can obtain licensure. The test is deemed to be both reliable and valid. "The reliability of the NCLEX examination is assessed via a decision consistency statistic. This statistic is used instead of a traditional reliability statistic such as Cronbach's alpha because it captures the reliability of dichotomous pass/fail decisions rather than the reliability of continuous scores or ability estimates" (eliability of NCLEX, 2013, NCSBN: 2).

In terms of the NCLE, the exam attempts to ensure content validity; face…… [Read More]


Reliability of NCLEX. (2013). NCSBN. Retrieved: 

What does Cronbach's alpha mean? (n.d.). SPSS FAQ. Institute for Digital Research and Education. UCLA. Retrieved: