Ulcer Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Nursing Woc Et Approach to

Words: 2715 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94732227

2004: 45).


Many recommend use of minimally invasive techniques including SEPS to treat and address problems related to chronic venous insufficiency (Kalra & Glovisczki, 2002). Multiple studies confirm the safety and efficacy of SEPS when used early, especially resulting from its low complication rates compared with other procedures including the formerly popular Linton procedures (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Lee, et al. 2003; Tenbrook, et al., 2004; Bianchi, et al. 2003).

More randomized clinical trials are necessary however to answer additional questions related to the efficacy of new procedures including SEPS, though this procedures remains important for patients with advanced CVI secondary to PVI or with patients who do not demonstrate other complications including DVT (Kalra & Gloiscki, 2002; Bianchi, et al. 2003).

Wagner-Cox (2005) also notes that it is important for nurses to be considerate, knowledgeable and compassionate toward patients with acute and chronic illnesses, especially when caring for…… [Read More]


Baranoski, S. & Thimsen, K. (2003, Aug). "Oasis Skin and Wound Integumentary

Assessment Items: Applying the WOCN Guidance Document." Home Healthcare Nurse, 21(8): Supplement 3-13.

Baron, H.C., Wayne, M.G., Santiago, C.A. & Grossi, R. (2004, Sep-Oct). Vasc

Endovascular Surg. 38(5): 439-42.
View Full Essay

New Practice Approaches Through Policy

Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34956566

New Practice Approaches Through Policy

One of the major current concerns in health care is the rapidly aging nature of the populations in Western societies today. This is, in general, attributed to developments in medical science and better information regarding personal health choices and activities. Despite this, however, it is also true that aging seldom brings with it a glowing sense of health. While many people today age better than ever before in human history, the elderly also tend to suffer from an increasing number of conditions, some of which leave them bed bound. Many of these bed bound residents, in addition to their initial conditions, also suffer related ailments such as pressure ulcers. These create not only great physical discomfort and emotional stress, but also great burdens on the health care system in terms of treating such ulcers. For this reason, it is suggested that policies should be created…… [Read More]


Leonard, R. (2001, Spring). Policy Considerations for Nursing Home Quality Improvement. Harvard Health Policy Review 2(1). Retrieved from: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~epihc/currentissue/spring2001/leonard.html

Mackie, S. And Dunnery, P. (2008). Clinical Policy: Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Care for Adults in Hospital. Retrieved from: http://www.nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk/about_nhstay/commitees/08_iaq/27012009/docs_024483.pdf

Niezgoda, J.A. And Mendez-Eastman, S. (2006, Feb.). The Effective Management of Pressure Ulcers. Advances in Skin & Wound Care: The Journal for Prevention and Healing 19(1). Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/JournalArticle?Article_ID=636557&Journal_ID=54015&Issue_ID=636556

Rich, S.E., Margolis, D., Shardell, M., Hawkes, W.G., Miller, R.R., Amr, S., and Baumgarten, M. (2011, Jan.). Frequent manual repositioning and incidence of pressure ulcers among bedbound elderly hip fracture patients. Wound Repair Regen 19(1). Retrieved from:   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059225/
View Full Essay

NYS Scope of Practice for Registered Nurses

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70939818

Standing Orders, Computerized Order Entry, & Admission Pressure Ulcers

Standing orders are non-patient specific orders written by a physician or a nurse practitioner (Primer on standing orders for immunizations and emergency treatment of anaphylaxis, n.d.). New York RNs can administer certain immunizations with a standing order and protocols. Implications have come from designing workflows in the computerized order entry systems if not properly fitted with the existing information systems. Physicians are now responsible to assess, document, and treat present on admission pressure ulcers.

In the state of New York, RNs must be CPR certified with American Red Cross, American Heart Association, or other equivalent organization to administer immunization agents with a standing order and protocol. For adults, 18 or older, authorized agents include Hepatitis A, Hepatitis , Influenza, Pneumococcus, Meningococcus, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Inactivated Polio, and any additional approved by the oard of Regents. For children, under…… [Read More]


Campbell, E. e. (2009). Computerized Provider Order Entry Adoption: Implications of Clinical Workflow. J Gen Intern Med, 24(1) doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0857-9, 21-26.

Lyder, C. & . (Oct 2009). Annual Checkup: The CMS Pressure Ulcer Present-on Admission Indicator. Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 22(10) doi:10.1097/01.ASW.0000361385.97489.51, 476-484.

Primer on standing orders for immunizations and emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. (n.d.). Retrieved from NYSNA: http://www.nysna.org/practice/scope/primer.htm

(2001). The BRN Report, 14(1). California Board of Nursing.
View Full Essay

Pylori the Cause of Peptic

Words: 891 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36894694

This is hardly used for detection of H. pylori alone but for ruling out the existence of other stomach maladies. It is quite expensive and requires a highly skilled physician.

Stool Antigen Test; this is when the stool is analyzed for detection of any foreign antigens or proteins that are associated with H. pylori infection. The stool is known to be very sensitive and can also be use to assess the infection status after the treatment has commenced. The disadvantage of this method is that it absolutely depends upon the participation and compliance of the patient, it is inconvenient to handle and the results are not immediate.

Urea breath test; it is used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the stomach. It can also be used to detect whether the treatment has worked, the problem with this test is that it is not always available (WebMD LLC,…… [Read More]


American Academy of Family Physicians (2002). Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

Retrieved May 12, 2011 from  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1327.html 

Dennis Lee, (2011). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from  http://www.medicinenet.com/helicobacter_pylori/article.htm 

Gastroenterological Society of Australia, (2006). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011
View Full Essay

Maggot Debridement Therapy Is Maggot

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94862551

Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).

(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).

(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.

Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.

Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
View Full Essay

Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7686776

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient


Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…… [Read More]


1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
View Full Essay

Best Way to Avoid Bedsores

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23053657

Stress Ulcer Prevention

The subject up for study in this report shall be whether stress ulcers in hospital patients induced by being bedridden can be mitigated or even prevented by turning the patient to a new position at least once every two hours. The amount of research on this subject is not pervasive and voluminous. However, some material about the subject does exist. Thus, a conclusion should be possible regarding whether patient-turning is a solution to prevent stress ulcers from forming in the first place. While it may not truly be a fix-all solution, the practice of turning patients at two hour intervals shows some promised based on evidence-based research and results.

Stress ulcers, otherwise commonly referred to as deep tissue injury (DTI) is a pressing and persistent issue in the medical field. This is especially true when speaking of patients that are bedridden for any significant amount of time…… [Read More]


Behrendt, R., Ghaznavi, A.M., Mahan, M., Craft, S., & Siddiqui, A. (2014).



UNIT. American Journal Of Critical Care, 23(2), 127-133.
View Full Essay

Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility

Words: 1287 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24499898

For example, in some patients, the stomach is unable to defend itself from the caustic nature of the acid, which creates lesions in the lining, called gastric ulcers.

How Age Might Impact the Pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and Gastritis?


Most patients with GERD suffer from symptoms of other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which produces pain, abdominal distress, and the need for frequent bowel movements (Gasiorowska 2009,-page 1829). GERD is more prevalent with patients who are over the age of forty although it has been found in patients much younger than this. Pregnant women or those who have other medical conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as diabetes or hiatal hernia, are more likely to develop GERD. Age is a major factor as some of the preconditions for GERD such as slower stomach emptying come naturally age. There are three tests which have been traditionally used…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gasiorowska, A., Poh, C.H., & Fass, R. (2009). Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) -- is it one disease or an overlap of two disorders? Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Springer. 54(1829). 1829-34.

Kahrilas, P. (2003, November). GERD pathogenisis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine. 70(5). S4-S19.

Kulber, D.A., Hartunian, S., Schiller, D., & Morgenstern, L. (1990, December). The current spectrum of peptic ulcer disease in the older age groups. The American Surgeon. Southeastern Surgical Congress: Atlanta, GA.

Peters, G., Rosselli, J., & Kerr, J. (2010). Overview of peptic ulcer disease. Jobson Publishing.
View Full Essay

Practice Issue Evidence-Based Practice EBP Project in

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52771736

Practice Issue Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project in courses DNP program, asked

The practice issue I have chosen to explore is whether or not q2 hourly turning and positioning actually decreases the incidence of pressure ulcers in the elderly bed bound population in nursing homes. The conception that turning does help to relieve the pressure associated with these types of ulcers has been longstanding. Specifically, there is clinical evidence to indicate the fact that "Unrelieved pressure is a well-known clinical risk factor for ulcer development" (Salcido, 2004, p. 156). As such, the turning of patients at least every two hours has been carried on for quite some time in the nursing population, although there are some salient points of concern that need to be addressed with this issue.

One of the major things that individuals need to be aware of who take on such a practice is the fact that the…… [Read More]


Leeds, L. (2004). Importance of turning q2. www.denvernursingstar.com. Retrieved from http://denvernursingstar.com/specials/newsletter_view.asp?newsid=310&catid=85&active=0&mode=current&count=0

Salcido, R. (2004). Patient turning schedules, why and how often? Advances in Skin & Wound Care: The Journal for Prevention and Healing. 17(4), 156.

Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nurses Society. (2012). Patient turning and repositioning: current methods & challenges, a WOCN perspective. www.sageproducts.com. Retrieved from  http://www.sageproducts.com/documents/pdf/education/studies_articles/sacral/WOCN%20White%20Paper_Aug2012.pdf
View Full Essay

Sarah's Condition it Is Often

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93674158

As a result, children and adolescents are at risk of delays and impairments in cognitive development" (Levy 2009). Such delays are far from inevitable, but they do underline the need to assure that Sarah 'keeps up' with her studies and that reasonable peer-appropriate learning goals may need to be met with the assistance of additional support in some instances.

Although not directly applicable to Sarah, immunizations with live viruses, including chickenpox, MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), and oral polio vaccines are not advised for children with lupus (Lupus, 2009, Children's Hospital of Boston). Sarah's parents may need to watch for is the possibility of symptoms in her sibling: "a form of lupus may occur at some point in about one out of twenty people whose siblings have lupus" and they may need to take this into consideration when contemplating a vaccination program if they ever have another child (Lehman 2002). Sarah's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lehman, Thomas J.A. (2002, Fall). Early diagnosis of SLE in childhood. Lupus News.

22.3. Retrieved June 29, 2009 at http://www.lupus.org/education/topics/early.html

Levy, Deborah, Stacy P. Ardoin, Laura E. Schanberg (2009). Neurocognitive

impairment in children and adolescents with SLE: Cognitive development in healthy children and adolescents. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol CME. 5(2)
View Full Essay

Burnout and Technical College Counselors

Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98439444

The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).

Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…… [Read More]

cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).

Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.

There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).

Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout

View Full Essay

Professional Platform for Ethics and Leadership

Words: 3277 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28691589

agrees that ethics is an important part of effective leadership in the field of health care but there is no universally accepted understanding of what constitutes ethical leadership (Milton, 20004). The concept of ethical leadership has been addressed in the literature of a wide variety of fields associated with the health care profession but none have been able to clearly define its terms. The purpose of this paper will be to examine what ethical leadership means to me and how my personal viewpoints and attitudes have been affected by my background and experience.

Primary Influences

Having been raised in an Irish family my Irish heritage is an important aspect in the formation of my ethical viewpoint. Although I have lived in the United States for nearly forty years, I cannot escape the lessons and values that I learned growing up in the Irish countryside. My family lived in an Irish…… [Read More]


Benner, P. (2000). The roles of embodiment, emotion and lifeworld for rationality and agency in nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 5-19.

Catanzaro, A.M. (2001). Increasing Nursing Students' Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurse Educator, 221-226.

Fry, S.T. (2002). Ethics in Nursing Practice: A Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hussey, T. (1996). Nursing Ethics and Codes of Professional Conduct. Nursing Ethics, 250-258.
View Full Essay

EBP Project Will Every Two Hour Turning

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51075918

EBP Project: Will Every Two Hour Turning and Positioning Decrease Pressure Ulcers in the Eldery Bed Bound Population in Nursing Homes?

Practicum: Clinical rotations with preceptor; serving patients with acute, chronic and new medical issues.

One of the things I have discovered during my recent experiences with both academic and clinical education and an EBP project is that there are numerous and effective ways of learning, presenting, and communicating. Each method, however, has one critical thing in common -- it must be a two-way path and none are effective unless there is clear communicative understanding on the part of the receipient, patient, family or colleague. Aristotle, for instance, once commented that "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them." Experiential learning targets certain brain chemicals and allows a more personal approach to the individual's own particular brain chemistry. Because the individual…… [Read More]


Beard, C., et.al. (2006). Experiential Learning: A Best Practice Handbook for Educators and Trainers. Kogan Press.

Hyrkas, K., et al. (2010. Leading Innovation and Change. Journal of Nursing Management. 18 (1): 1-3.

Moon, J. (2004). A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. New York: Routledge.

Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing Up Digital: The Rise of the Next Generation. New York: McGraw Hill.
View Full Essay

Placement Practice I Discovered a Great Deal

Words: 3070 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48332126

placement practice I discovered a great deal about pressure ulcers that occur following perioperative care. I am normally community based and I treat patients that have been discharged from hospital that have developed pressure ulcers following an operation. During my complementary placement on a short stay ward I was involved in the care of patients through their perioperative period. I was amazed how quickly one patient developed a pressure ulcer. The experience and subsequent investigation produced several facts concerning the reasons why such ulcers develop, how to prevent them from occurring, treatment and the emotional, financial and physical hardships that having these ulcers produce in patients.

To evaluate my experience, I have chosen to use Driscoll's model of reflection. Driscoll's model was chosen because of the simple but reflective manner in which it concentrates on questions that are pertinent to the care of patients. The model is divided into three…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Driscoll's (2000) Model of Reflection www.nelsonthornes.com/.../reflection/Model_of_Reflection_Driscoll_2000.doc - United Kingdom

NHS Quality improvement Scotland, Tissue Viability, Best Practice Statement, march 2009, Prevention and management of pressure ulcers accessed at www.nhshealthquality.org/nhsqis/files/PUPREVMAN_BPS_MAR09.pdf [accessed on 21/03/2011]

NICE guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention accessed at http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/1098/9180/9180.pdf [accessed on 15/03/2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, September, 2009 The Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, London, Royal College of Nursing,
View Full Essay

Nursing Utilization Review Preparation Scientific

Words: 1792 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85081273

Resources needed include manpower and positional aids mentioned previously in this report. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the change would be accomplished through data collection related to the frequency of pressure ulcer occurrence in patients and nurse compliance in the four hours supine positional rotation of patients. Questionnaires will also be administered to nursing staff in order to gain insight as to their attitudes, behaviors and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

Phase V: Transplantation and Application

This study concludes that positional rotations of every four hours has been shown to be the most effective prevention of pressure ulcer formation in older patients in elderly care homes and further that that attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of barriers in the view of staff nurses predicts the effectiveness of the implementation of such a prevention program for pressure ulcer care. (Moore and Price, 2006)

Exact Nature of Practice Implications

____ Change the…… [Read More]


Moore, Z. And Price, P. (2004) Nurses' Attitudes, Behaviors, and Perceived Barriers Towards Pressure Ulcer Prevention Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 2004.

Vanderwee, K.; Grypdonck, D.; Bacquer, De and Defloor, T. (2006) Effectiveness of Turning with Unequal Time Intervals on the Incidence of Pressure Ulcer lesions. JAN Original Research 10 July 2006.

Nursing: Utilization Review
View Full Essay

Call Light Pressure Sores and Fall Prevention

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17815379

Hourly Nurse ounds, Can They Make a Difference?

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

Pressure ulcers or as some refer to as bed/pressure sores or decubitus ulcers are categorized as localized areas of damaged tissue that is caused by shearing forces and excess pressure usually from maintaining the same position over a long period of time. Pressure ulcers typically happen in people who have nerve damage and/or limited mobility. When the person feels pressure, from sitting or lying on any certain body part, this often results in nutrient and oxygen deprivation to the wound or affected area. Strategies to circumvent this involve repositioning. epositioning consists of moving the person into a different position to give the body the ability to redistribute or remove pressure from the affected area. "Pressure ulcers are distressing events, caused when skin and underlying tissues are placed under pressure sufficient to impair blood…… [Read More]


Callahan, L., McDonald, S., Voit, D., McDonnell, A., Delgado-Flores, J., & Stanghellini, E. (2011). Medication review and hourly nursing rounds: An evidence-based approach reduces falls on oncology inpatient units.Nursinglibrary.org. Retrieved 12 December 2015, from http://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/handle/10755/164025

Marsden, G., Jones, K., Neilson, J., Avital, L., Collier, M., & Stansby, G. (2015). A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different repositioning strategies for the prevention of pressure ulcers. J Adv Nurs, 72(12), 2879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.12753

Moore, Z., & Cowman, S. (2012). Repositioning for treating pressure ulcers.Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd006898.pub3
View Full Essay

Healing Wounds Case Study

Words: 6082 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87019295

MS Case Study Nurse Practice

When patients enter hospitals it is oftentimes they become more ill and sicker due to inappropriate care and professional ignorance. This is due mainly to the amount of hubris involved within the medical profession and a tendency to ignore empirical evidence as practiced to success. This approach underlines the most important aspects of healing and the medical profession itself.

The argument for continued improvement in the treatment of patients is best exemplified in the case of MS. His ill health has led to more problems and the approach by the nurse practitioner and her staff is critical to the ultimate survival of this young child who innocently trusted the advice of both his parents or caretakers that the medical staff would be able to treat him with the care and respect that every patient deserves when being encountered during a medical treatment or hospital stay.…… [Read More]


Arnold, M., & Barbul, A. (2006). Nutrition and wound healing. Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 117(7S), 42S-58S.

Bennett, G., Dealey, C., & Posnett, J. (2004). The cost of pressure ulcers in the UK. Age and ageing, 33(3), 230-235.

Campbell, N.C., Murray, E., Darbyshire, J., Emery, J., Farmer, A., Griffiths, F., ... & Kinmonth, A.L. (2007). Designing and evaluating complex interventions to improve health care. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 334(7591), 455.

Corbett, L.Q. (2012). Wound care nursing: professional issues and opportunities. Advances in Wound Care, 1(5), 189-193.
View Full Essay

Art in Critiquing the Study

Words: 1322 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90046817

This could have been a significant factor, but researchers will never know because the information was never looked at, nor contained in the study. An additional weakness of the study was that the researchers had to rely entirely on information and data derived from hospital reports and patient charts rather than on direct contact with the individuals involved. This could be a considerable weakness to the study, but again it is not known whether it is a weakness or not because the information is not contained therein, which makes it a weakness.

One rationale that an observer might make in regards to the criticism of this particular study and the fact that it only looked at the records of the patients rather than talking to the patients themselves was that the study was only looking for the incidences of pressure ulcers.

The study did not offer specific solutions to the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Gastrorrhagia as Early as 1500

Words: 2265 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37200878

2003, p. 247).

The use of NSAID has been associated with increased risks of gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients, approximately five-fold for musculoskeletal pain and two fold for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with low-dose aspirin (Clinical Guideline 17: Dyspepsia 2004). Therefore, depending on the level of pain management required, a simple analgesic that can be used for pain management is paracetamol; this preparation does not cause bleeding of the stomach and it has been found to be highly effective in relieving mild to moderate pain; furthermore, it can be purchased without a prescription from chemists and supermarkets (Henderson & Wood 2000).

Discussion of Health Education Advice Required.

The U.K. Department of Health recommends the following educational advice and support for people suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding:

Patients and their relatives should be offered as much information as they want. GPs should ask what they would like to know, and give…… [Read More]


Barve, S., Hill, D., Marsano, L.L., Mcclain, C.J., & Mendez, C. (2003). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Its Complications." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):247.

Dyspepsia: Management of dyspepsia in adults in primary care. NICE Clinical Guideline 17. [Online]. Available: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG17/niceguidance/word/English.

Garcia, N., Jr., & Sanyal, a.J. (2001). "Portal hypertension." Clinics in Liver Disease, 5(2):509- 540.

Govoni, R., Mann, R.E., & Smart, R.G. (2003). "The Epidemiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):209.
View Full Essay

Sufficiently Narrow in Scope Without

Words: 1484 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57155111

c. What types of validity were used? Is the validity adequate?

Multiple trials, yes validity is adequate d. Are the instruments clearly described?

All instruments utilized in the study are clearly described.

e. Is interrater reliability described?

The journal article also does a good job of expressing what aspects do not effect interrater reliability

9. Data collection a. Is the data collection process clearly described?

All process have been clearly described and explained b. Is the training of data collectors clearly described?

This is not a completely accurate yes answer. The article does inform the reader that the data collectors are nurses with x amount of years in the field. However, numbers of years in the field do not insure that the nurses do the same things, in the same ways.

c. Are the data collection methods ethical?

Nothing appears to be un-ethical.

10. Data analysis a. Are data analysis…… [Read More]


Vanderwee, K., Grypdonck, M.H., Bacquer, D.D., & Defloor, T. (2005, March 1). The reliability of two observation methods of nonblanchable erythema, Grade 1 pressure ulcer. Applied Nursing Research, 19, pp.156-162.
View Full Essay

Translation Evidence Into Nursing Health Care Practice

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12668634

Translation Evidence Into Nursing Health Care Practice. Chapter 6, "Translation Evidence Leadership" Article: Bakke, C.K. (2010). Clinical cost effectiveness guidelines prevent intravascular catheter-related infections patients' hemodialysis.

Briefly summarize your selected issue and propose new evidence-based practice strategies.

Pressure ulcers, commonly known as bedsores, are frequently observed in otherwise healthy bed-ridden patients in nursing homes. To promote wellness amongst this patient population, it has been suggested that regular turning and positioning of the patients by caregivers should be used to reduce their occurrence. Turning and positioning has long been used amongst healthcare practitioners for a variety of bed-ridden patients, usually at regimented intervals spanning 4-2 hours (Thomas 2001). Based upon the previous research conducted upon this population, the suggested shortened interval is 1-11/2 hours for repositioning of the patient (Thomas 2001).

Q2. Describe the theoretical basis for your strategies.

The theoretical basis for this initiative lies in the idea that passive…… [Read More]


Bluestein, D. & Javaheri, A. (2008). Pressure ulcers: Prevention, evaluation, and management.

American Family Physician, 78(10):1186-1194. Retrieved from:


Krapil, L.A. & Gray, M. (2008). Does regular repositioning prevent pressure ulcers?
View Full Essay

Health and Nursing Reduction of Bedsores Through

Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8156838

Health and Nursing

eduction of bedsores through implementation of Hospital wide turntable

Does the implementation of a hospital-wide turntable team have a positive impact on the reduction of bedsores?

eduction of Bedsores

A pressure ulcer (PU) or bedsore can be defined as an injury to underlying tissue of the skin that occurs due to pressure or friction. In most cases, the injured tissue sores due to the pressure exerted over a prominent bone. PU has also been defined as areas of necrosis due to tissue compression amid the bony prominence and the extracorporeal surface for a prolonged time period (Gray & Krapfl, 2008). It is therefore apparent from these definitions that exposure to pressure for a lengthy time is the primary cause of bedsores.

To prevent or minimize bedsores therefore, it is imperative upon medical practitioners to put intervention measures in place that will reduce exposure to pressure. The human…… [Read More]


Gorecki, C., Brown, J.M. & Andrea, N.E. (2009) Impact of Pressure Ulcers on Quality of Life in Older Patients: A Systematic Review. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. DOI: 10.1111/j, 1532-5415.

Gray, M & Krapfl, L.A. (2005) Does regular repositioning prevent pressure ulcers? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing. Vol.35, No.6, 571-577.

Ikechokwu, E.C., Idowu, O.A. & Anekwe, D.E. (2012) Prevalence and Factors Associated With Healing Outcomes of Hospitals-acquired Pressure Ulcers among Patients With Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology.Vol. 4(2), p. 44-47.

Kaitani, T., Tokunaga, K., Matsui, N., Sananda, H. (2010) Risk factors related to the development of pressure ulcers in the critical care setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing. Vol.19, 414-421.
View Full Essay

Helicobacter Pylori

Words: 1181 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96552566

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter (genus) pylori (species), commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that causes gastritis of the inner lining of the stomach in humans and is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide (Delaney, Moayyedi and Forman 536). Ingestion of contaminated food and water and person-to-person contact is the most likely means of acquiring H. pylori. Portals for entry are largely oral, as oral-oral and oral-fecal contact are the most common contamination methods. About 30% of the adult population in the United States are infected and is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation (Malcolm et al. 137). Infected individuals typically carry the infection indefinitely unless they are treated with medications to eradicate the bacterium. Other than the human stomach, there appears to be no natural reservoir for this bacterium. One out of every six patients with H. pylori infection will develop ulcers of the duodenum…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Delaney, B., P. Moayyedi, and D. Forman. "Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Clin Evid.10 (2003): 535-48.

Hofman, P., et al. "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 15-22.

Malcolm, C.A., et al. "Helicobacter Pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty." Scott Med J. 49.4 (2004): 136-8.

McLoughlin, R., et al. "Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 42-8.
View Full Essay

Against All Odds Article

Words: 542 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89065899

Against All Odds: Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-isk Cardiac Surgery Patients

There are three authors of the article reviewed who represent several degrees, including one master's degree, and certifications. The authors are (Cooper, Jones, & Currie, 2015):

Danielle Nicole Cooper, N, BSN, CCN-CSC

Sarah Layton Jones, N, BSN, CCN

Linda Ann Currie, N, MSN, ACNS-BC, CCN-CSC

The Authors have credentials that include Adult Health Nurse Specialist-Board Certified (ACNS-BC) and Critical Care Nurse -- Cardiac Surgery Certificate (CCN-CSC) certificates.

The article is peer reviewed and appears in the Critical Care Nurse journal and was published in October, 2015. The article sites twenty-two different sources, most of which were published within the last five years.

The title of the article includes the phrase "Against All Odds," which honestly seems a bit dramatic. The Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCUMC) nursing staff implemented preventative measures to decrease rates of all hospital-acquired pressure ulcers,…… [Read More]


Cooper, D., Jones, S., & Currie, L. (2015). Against All Odds: Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 75-82.
View Full Essay

Plan for Implementing Hourly Nursing Rounds

Words: 2107 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25791802

Hourly nursing rounding is regarded as one of the most suitable means for enhancing patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. This process can be described as a proactive, systematic nurse-centered evidence-based intervention to predict and deal with the various needs in hospitalized patients. There is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that effective hourly nursing rounding can enhance patient safety, promote team communication, and enhance the capability of staff to offer efficient patient care. Therefore, this approach would be a suitable method to help reduce falls, prevent ulcers, and call light use and result in enhanced patient satisfaction through evidence-based practices. The adoption of this method in the organization to improve patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes would require the development of a comprehensive implementation plan and participation from all key stakeholders.

Method of Obtaining Necessary Approval

The adoption of hourly nursing rounding in the healthcare facility to enhance patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes…… [Read More]


Brosey, L.A. & March, K.S. (2014, September 16). Effectiveness of Structured Hourly Nurse Rounding on Patient Satisfaction and Clinical Outcomes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 00(00), 1-7.

Forde, J.C. (2014, April 9). Intentional Rounding: A Review of Literature. Nursing Standard, 38(32), 37-42.

Negarandeh, R., Bahabadi, A.H. & Mamaghani, J.A. (2014, December). Impact of Regular Nursing Rounds on Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care. Asian Nursing Research, 8(4), 282-285.

Timothy, H. (2015, June 2). Hourly Rounding is an Effective Patient Safety Strategy. Retrieved from American Sentinel University website: http://www.americansentinel.edu/blog/2015/06/02/hourly-rounding-is-an-effective-patient-safety-strategy/
View Full Essay

Nursing Annotated Bibliography Nursing Annotated Bibliography Annotated

Words: 1256 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27408840

ursing Annotated Bibliography


Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

This article categorizes diabetes as an epidemic that can responds well with the adjunctive treatment of HBOT. The authors use two clinical case studies in their literature review of how oxygen plays a part in the healing of lower extremity diabetic ulcers. They argue for the necessity of further study and research into HBOT because of its efficacy and the potential to drastically lower medical costs for diabetic patients, whose numbers continue to increase steadily. There is a very clear focus on the costs of diabetic treatments on a global scale in relation to the number of diabetic patients worldwide, as part of the authors' strategy to advocate the widespread use of HBOT. Charts and color photographs contextualized the text and make the research more concrete in the mind of the reader, especially the photographs of diabetic amputees who have not had…… [Read More]

Neal, M.S. (2001). Benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for diabetic foot lesions. Journal of Wound Care, 10(1), 507 -- 509.

This article provides a quantitative explanation for the presence of lower extremity ulcers and wounds in diabetic patients. The article additional explains how HBOT elevate the presence of circulating stem cells in diabetic patients. Their research aims to prove how HBOT stimulates the vasculogenic stem cell mobilization in the bone marrow of diabetics, which then are used to heal skin wounds. The authors explain their experience with these types of patients and HBOT treatments because at the hospital where they all work, HBOT is standard operating procedure for the qualifying patients in they study. This is another example of a highly statistical article with the presence of charts and graphs, even digital images of blood samples from the participants both in color and in black and white. Images have the potential to bring the reader closer to the content of the text. Their research shows that HBOT increases important agents in diabetics' bone marrow that lead to increased circulation and healing properties.

Thom, MD, PhD, S.R., Milovanova, MD, PhD, T.N., Yang, MD, M., Bhopale, PhD, V.M., Sorokina, E.M., Uzun, MD, G., Malay, D.S., Troiano, M.A., Hardy, MD, K.R., Lambert, MD, D.S., Logue, MD, C.J., & Margolis, MD, PhD, D.J. (2011). Vasculonic stem cell mobilization and wound recruitment in diabetic patients: Increased cell number and intracellular regulatory protein content associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Wound Rep Reg, 19(2011), 149 -- 161.
View Full Essay

Moore Z Price P 2004

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40201353

Bedsore prevention was not given priority in the 'benchmarks' used to grade nursing effectiveness and insufficient care and attention was devoted to ensuring that nurses followed standardized preventative procedures. Nurses themselves cited many perceived barriers to being able to take full precautions, including a lack of time, having to work long shifts and being over-tired, and a lack of emphasis on such routine patient care overall.

An important implication of this study is that nursing knowledge does not automatically translate into effective nursing practice. It also shows that an intellectual awareness of the seriousness of a health problem such as bedsores likewise does not cause a behavioral change unless there are radical changes in the nursing environment as a whole, and implementation must be supported on a holistic level. Overburdened nurses face obstacles that prevent adequate oversight of patients and inhibit the administration routine, essential care, such as the patient…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Moore Z, Price P. (2004). Nurses' attitudes, behaviors and perceived barriers towards pressure ulcer prevention. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13 (8):942 -- 952.

Retrieved December 17, 2010. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2004.00972.x.
View Full Essay

Dashboard Evaluation for Medical Portal

Words: 1335 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77178382

Dashboard Evaluation

Patient Satisfaction Scorecard


This dashboard page reviews and specifies how satisfied patients attending the hospital were, or were not, based on the service they received at the hospital. The data breaks down into specific areas of concern for patients in terms of the service they received.

Measurements provided:

There are 24 categories for patient input as to the quality of service they received. The hospital sent out 1,232 surveys and 954 people (former and presumably present patients) responded to the survey (450 males and 504 females; 250 new patients and 704 returning patients). The ages reflect a very diverse community of patients, including: 19 that were 10 years of age or younger; 57 between 11 and 20; 124 were between 21 and 30 years of age; 219 were between 31 and 40; 172 were between 41-50; 153 were between 51-60; 113 were between 60 and 70; and…… [Read More]

One of the immediate things that nurses and other healthcare professions do when a new patient arrives is to give that person aspirin. This was done 100% of the time in January, 2009. And 87% of the patients received aspirin (prescribed at discharge). Patients with heart trouble were given ACEI or ARB for their left ventricle systolic dysfunction (90% of the patients) and counseling for people who smoke cigarettes was given 67% of the patients in 2009. The list is quite long but of particular interest is influenza vaccination (75% of patients received it), blood cultures were taken for 78% of the patients, and 76% of patients that had undergone colorectal surgery received "immediate postoperative normothermia."

As to the how this hospital's core measures stack up on a national basis, the barometer graph on the lower right side of this dashboard shows that this hospital meets national averages 80% of the time.

Overall Summary: When a hospital goes to the trouble of presenting specific data regarding how it serves its patients -- and this should be required / expected in today's healthcare environment -- any potential or past patient can easily see the thoroughness therein.
View Full Essay

Child Counseling

Words: 2053 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2474313

Child Counseling

The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.

The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…… [Read More]


Annunziata, Jane. (n.d.). "Play Therapy With A 6-Year-old With Jane Annunziata, PsyD." Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.apa.org

College of Agricultural Sciences (1999). Cognitive Development/Play-Overview. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.penpages.psu.edu/penpages_reference/28507/2850764.htmL

Ferguson, E.D. (1989). "Adlerian Therapy: An Introduction." Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Adlerian Psychology Association of British Columbia.

Wikopedia. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-traumatic_stress_disorder
View Full Essay

Diabetic Vascular Disease

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3201728

Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]


Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
View Full Essay

Case Study on Nursing Indicators

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57518512


Organizational Systems and Quality Leadership

Efforts to measure and improve the quality of nursing care provided to patients began with Florence Nightingale, who measured patient outcomes and worked towards the improvement of hospital conditions. ecently, studies linking nurses to patient outcomes have been given significant focus within healthcare. Efforts to measure the indicators of the quality of care dispensed by nurses have led to the phrase "nursing sensitive indicators," which has become a buzzword in healthcare. These are "outcomes from patient care that reflect the nursing care provided" (Kelly, Vottero, & Christie-McAuliffe, 2014). These indicators reflect the structure, nursing care process, and nursing care outcomes (American Nurses Association, 2014). Structural indicators include nursing staff supply, skill level of nurses and certification. The process indicators include patient assessment measures of nursing interventions while outcome indicators include all patient experiences such as falls, pressure ulcers, and readmissions…… [Read More]


American Nurses Association. (2013). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthicsforNurses/Code-of-Ethics.pdf

American Nurses Association. (2014). Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/The-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1

ANA. (2014). ANA Indicator History. Retrieved 2014, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/The-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1/ANA-Indicator-History

Buerhaus, P.L., Staiger, D.O., & Auerbach, D.I. (2012). Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
View Full Essay

Geriatric Nursing

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1748724

Search the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Guideline Clearinghouse website at http://www.guideline.gov / for a quality guideline that pertains to the area of nursing in which you are interested. Describe the guideline and how the information could be used in a process improvement project. Reference the website.

Quality Guideline: Pressure ulcer prevention. In: Evidence-based geriatric nursing protocols for best practice at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=43935.

With the elderly segment of the merican population growing more rapidly than any other, there are going to be a number of age-related infirmities that will require informed healthcare services in the future. This quality guideline sets forth best evidence-based practices for the prevention and care of pressure ulcers and skin tears for the clinical specialties of nursing, family practice and geriatrics with intended users including advanced practice nurses and nurses. The stated guideline objectives are to provide a standard of practice protocol for: (a)…… [Read More]

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). CUSP Toolkit. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/cusptoolkit/index.html

Safety in the workplace is everyone's responsibility and preventing the spread of increasingly resistant infectious agents represents a timely and valuable enterprise. One straightforward method that has been used to good effect to help coordinate the actions of all healthcare practitioners is the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) toolkit. This training program for healthcare providers is intended to promote teamwork and improve communication levels in ways that reduce the risk of infection and improve the safety of healthcare delivery systems.

One practice area that the CUSP toolkit can be used to plan a process improvement project in my workplace is through a reduction in patient falls. Currently, patients are allowed to fall up to three times before a fall flag was placed on their bed alerting healthcare providers of the patient's potential fall risk and placing a notice on the electronic and hard-copy medical records to this effect. In some cases, patients have been severely injured (in fact, one patient even died after his surgical wound became infected when it was contaminated by the contents of his colostomy bag that ruptured when he fell on it) before an medical record and fall flag alerts were posted. The current system requires improvement in order to reduce the prevalence of falls in this tertiary healthcare facility. Implementing the principles of the CUSP toolkit would provide a consistent approach to risk management for patients that are at risk of falling during the in-patient stay, including identifying better ways to conduct assessments and the number of falls that should be allowed before an alert is posted.
View Full Essay

PICOT Question Foot Examinations

Words: 2359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88597449

Diabetes is a chronic and debilitating disease that has long-term consequences for those that become insulin-dependent. One of those long-term consequences is the formation of foot ulcers. Foot ulcers can lead to amputation of an insulin-dependent patient's legs and feet. Amputation is a serious and expensive economic burden on anyone that must endure it. To avoid amputation, foot exams performed by a physician may help provide the kind of preventative care that may lead to a reduced risk for amputation in diabetes mellitus patients.

Foot ulceration develops as a result of trauma, neuropathy, and deformity (Scott, 2013). Foot exams have various components that allow for effective assessment of any potential problems the patient is facing in regards to foot ulceration and amputation. One such component is history of the patient. Another is assessment of peripheral/neuropathic vascular symptoms, possible renal replacement therapy, and impaired vision. Another part of foot examinations is…… [Read More]


Dorresteijn, J. & Valk, G. (2012). Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration.Diabetes/Metabolism Research And Reviews, 28, 101-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2237

Margolis, D., Hoffstad, O., & Weibe, D. (2014). Lower-Extremity Amputation Risk Is Associated with Variation in Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Responses. Diabetes Care, 37(8), 2296-2301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc14-0788

Sargen, M., Hoffstad, O., & Margolis, D. (2013). Geographic variation in Medicare spending and mortality for diabetic patients with foot ulcers and amputations. Journal Of Diabetes And Its Complications, 27(2), 128-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.09.003

Scott, G. (2013). The diabetic foot examination: A positive step in the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers and amputation. Osteopathic Family Physician, 5(2), 73-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.osfp.2012.08.002
View Full Essay

Nursing Experience After Spending a Semester in

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78302969

Nursing Experience

After spending a semester in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) as a student nurse in training, I can report that I have learned a great deal about the vital issues and practices that are involved in the intensive care unit for newborns, and about the duties and responsibilities of a nurse in that area of healthcare. Part of my training involved treating wounds and the therapeutic communication that is involved in wound care; also, I became well familiarized with the family centric care that is part and parcel of the NICU.

Family Centered Care at the NICU

hat can be more important for a family that has just been on the emotional roller coaster of giving birth prematurely to a new member of the family than being made to feel welcomed and to be treated with a great deal of professionalism and respect? There are a number…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Auckland District Health Board (2010). Car seats for babies / Information for parents. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from http://www.abhd.govt.nz.

Auckland District Health Board (2010). Establishing and Maintaining Breast Milk Supply /

Information for parents. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from http://www.abhd.govt.nz.

Aukland District Health Board (2010). Meconium and Newborn Babies / Information for Parents. Retrieved May 2, 2013, from http://www.abhd.govt.nz.
View Full Essay

Drug Therapy Case Study

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19182330

Drug Therapy Case Study

You are on a medical unit and caring for a new admission, Ms. Polly Pharm a 65-year-old grandmother. Polly has the presenting problems of Type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and gastritis. Ms. Pharm's current medication regime is

Glimepiride 2mg mane (morning)

Ibuprofen 200mg tds (3x day)

Lansoprazole 30mg daily

One of the foremost responsibilities of a professional nurse is the proper administration of pharmaceutical drugs and prescription medications. While the correct dosage of a particular medication may achieve the desired effect of minimizing symptoms, managing pain, or reversing an infection's spread through the system, many of the most commonly prescribed drugs are capable of causing adverse interactions when they are improperly combined. As the nurse in charge of caring for Ms. Polly Pharm, it is critical that I am fully aware of her past intake of certain medications, her propensity for allergic reactions, and any other mitigating…… [Read More]


MIMS Online Database. (2011). Glimepiride. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/diabetes/oral-and-parenteral-hypoglycaemics/glimepiride/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

MIMS Online Database. (2011). Ibuprofen. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/pain/pain-fever/ibuprofen/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

MIMS Online Database. (2011). Lansoprazole. Available: http://www.mims.co.uk/Drugs/gastrointestinal-tract/peptic-ulcer-z-e- syndrome/lansoprazole/. Last accessed 24th Oct 2012.

Tiziani, A. (2010) Harvard's Nursing Guide to Drugs. 8th ed. Sydney, Australia: Elsevier- Mosby
View Full Essay

Symptoms and Psychosocial Aspect of the Disease

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56663190

symptoms and psychosocial aspect of the disease as well as what treatments are available. The writer examines one epidemic from history to detail the way syphilis affected society at the time compared to how it affects society today. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

Over the last two or three decades the discovery and growth of the AIDS epidemic have effectively squashed concerns and knowledge about other STD's. This does not mean they are not around however, and it actually serves to open the doors for some of them to become more prevalent again as the focus is taken off of them and place on AIDS. One STD that has been around for many years and at one time was considered as dangerous as AIDS is today is Syphilis. Syphilis has been wreaking havoc on the world for hundreds of years and it is still one of…… [Read More]


From mercury to malaria to penicillin: The history of the treatment of syphilis at the Mayo Clinic, 1916-1955 by Jeffrey S. Sartin, MD and Harold O. Perry, MD http://www.imsdocs.com/syphilis.htm

The Great Scourge': Syphilis as a medical problem and moral metaphor, 1880-1916

Lesley A. Hall http://homepages.primex.co.uk/~lesleyah/grtscrge.htm

View Full Essay

Hourly Calls Effecting Solutions

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90312977

Hourly ounds Effectiveness as a Solution

The proposed solution of increasing and monitoring hourly nursing rounds to help reduce falls, prevent ulcers and increased call light use is being brought into question in this essay to highlight its effectiveness as a means to address these types and related problems. This essay will explain the methods and variables needed in this strategy in order to fairly and honestly judge the quality of research in this effort.

Any method must approach this subject from both a qualitative and quantitative standpoint in order to hold any true value in the practical world. The ability to successfully quantify subjective variables will be an underlying aim throughout this research as many components of an hourly round is subjective in nature. The quantitative aspects of this research effort are simple and plain to see and provides the ability to provide strong empirical evidence. The hypothesis is…… [Read More]


Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.

Laschinger, H. K. S., & Havens, D. S. (1996). Staff nurse work empowerment and perceived control over nursing practice: conditions for work effectiveness. Journal of Nursing Administration, 26(9), 27-35.

Thomas, B. H., Ciliska, D., Dobbins, M., & Micucci, S. (2004). A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing,1(3), 176-184.
View Full Essay

Diagnosis in Mental Health Diagnosis

Words: 2203 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57813905

With medical terms, even though they explain little, we then have a reason to implement strong institutional controls such as the use of drugs and hospitalization.

The Medicalization of Deviant ehavior

Our discussion of DSM shows us clearly that the categories of deviant behavior voted on from time to time reflect social and political conventions. Depending on the disorder, the sociopolitical role played by diagnoses is either great or small, but the application of a diagnosis is always, to a greater or lesser degree, embracing political and social values. Diagnostic labels define what limits of difference society can tolerate.

Whenever a culture decides that it will define a set of behaviors as "sick" rather than "immoral" or unwitting, it is enacting a social value that favors illness over the view that such destructive or unusual behavior is volitional. Armed with this view of behavior as illness, we can justify forced…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). (Washington, DC: Author. 2008).

Robinson K, ed. Advances in School-Based Mental Health Interventions. (Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute; 2004).

Seligman, L. Selecting effective treatments: A comprehensive guide to treating mental disorders (Rev. ed.). (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2009).

US Census Bureau. Current population survey, (October 2009).
View Full Essay

Cardiac Problems Gi Issues and

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79559124

This is vital because medical personnel could administer something that causes life threatening symptoms if taken with an anticoagulant.

The final educational area that needs to be covered are the changes that must take place in the daily life of the patient. The patient must be careful not to cut himself or herself, In addition the patient must be careful not to take part in activities that might cause injury as injury can cause the patient to hemorrhage.


Three common GI problems include heartburn, ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome. Each of these conditions can cause stomach upset. Heartburn can be treated with over the counter medications, including Zantac. Ulcers require a specific antibiotic and a stomach acid reducer and IBS is often treated with stomach acid reducers. In addition all three conditions respond favorably to changes in diet.

The medications for heartburn can be purchased over the counter,…… [Read More]


Precautions While Using This Medicine http://www.healthopedia.com/drugs/detailed/anticoagulants/precautions.html#

What is OxyContin? http://www.drugfree.org/Portal/Drug_Guide/OxyContin
View Full Essay

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31835233

Vascular Disease

andy Jackson

Geriatric Nursing

The disease known as Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD), according to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004), involves the blood vessels "outside the heart and brain." This disease refers to a narrowing of those vessels that carry blood to one's leg and arm muscles.

In particular, the AHA states that there are two forms of PVD: one is "Functional Peripheral Vascular Disease," and the other is "Organic Peripheral Vascular Disease." The first, Functional PVD, does not allude to actual defects in the structure of the blood vessel, but rather refers to "short-term effects" caused by cold temperatures, stress caused by emotions, smoking, or handling machinery that vibrates powerfully.

The second form of PVD - "Organic" - is actually caused by "structural changes" in blood vessels. These changes may be inflammation, tissue damage, or the buildup of fatty substances in the arteries, called "atherosclerosis" - which…… [Read More]


American Medical Association (2004). "Peripheral Vascular Disease." Retrieved June 17, 2004, at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4692.

Barker, Jason; & Meletis, Chris D. "Peripheral Vascular Disease and Stasis Ulcers:

Treatment from a Naturopathic Perspective." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. i241-242, 76-79.

Health & Medicine Week (2003). "Peripheral Vascular Disease Treatment Slated to Begin Phase II Trials." NewsRX, 123.
View Full Essay

Call Lights and Nursing Rounds in Hospitals

Words: 2892 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73792483

Nursing Proposal -- Evidence-Based

The utilization of call lights particularly in hospital settings has recently been put under study as a function of various aspects of nursing including shortages, rounds and analyses of patient outcomes. The proper scheduling of nursing rounds may be essential to enhance the capability of nurses to tackle common or ordinary patient issues relative to more dire needs that have to be regarded as the primary/main target for the use of call lights by patients. Besides patients' general well-being and safety while hospitalized, nursing employees are also concerned with how satisfied the patients are. On a rather fundamental level, hospital settings that enable patients to experience peace of mind allow them to heal quicker than those that do not; these patients are highly likely to relay less stressful communications to those around them, and have a higher possibility of clearer perspectives that allow them to distinguish…… [Read More]


American Nurses Association (ANA). (2006). Assuring patient safety: The employer's role in promoting healthy nursing work hours for registered nurses in all roles and settings. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofNursing/workplaceNurse

(AACN). The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2001, March 3). Mandatory Overtime. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Content/PublicPolicy/mandatoryovertime.pcms?menu=Practie

Bae, S. (2010).Mandatory overtime regulations and nurse overtime. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(2), 99-107.

Bae, S-H. (2013). Presence of nurse mandatory overtime regulations and nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 31(2), 59-68. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806796
View Full Essay

Application of an Evidence Into Practice

Words: 1200 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47713548

Translating an Evidence Into Practice

Among the older adults aged 60 years and above, falls have been identified as a leading cause of fatal injuries and non-fatal injuries. In the United States, nearly 50% of hospitalized adult patients face the risks of falls and nearly 80% of the patients who fall suffer from fatal or non-fatal injuries. (CDC, 2010). When patients fall, the issue can lead to negative health effects that include longer hospital stays, elevated patient's costs, and longer recovery times. An average hospital stay can increase by more than 12.3 days, and consequently increase the cost of hospitalization by 61%. In essence, elder population face the risks of severe head or leg injuries after a fall, and the issue can ultimately increase the risk of head trauma and hip fractures. (CDC, 2010).

Numerous organizations have employed different strategies to prevent falls. Current practice includes bed alarms, adequate light,…… [Read More]


CDC (2010). Falls among Older Adults: An Overview. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. USA.

Ford, M.B. (2010). Hourly Rounding: A Strategy to Improve Patient Satisfaction Scores. MEDSURG Nursing. 19(3):188-191.

Hicks, D. (2015). Can Rounding Reduce Patient Falls in Acute Care? An Integrative Literature Review. MEDSURG Nursing. 24 (1):51-55.

Keough, V. A., & Tanabe, P. (2011). Survey research: An effective design for conducting nursing research. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 1(4), 37-44.
View Full Essay

The Production and Stimulation of Gastric Acid

Words: 1162 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36058167

Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production

Pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production

The parietal cells in the stomach are responsible for the production of gastric acid. Parietal cells contain secretory canaliculus, which produce gastric acid and release it into the gastric lumen. Gastric acid is produced as a response to the messages received through hormonal, paracrine, and neurocrine messengers (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The production of gastric acid undergoes three phases namely cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. Gastrin, the major hormonal trigger of gastric acid production is produced by the G cells located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach. The G cells will release gastrin in response to a meal. However, the Histamine 2 receptors are thought to be the primary stimulus for the secretion of gastric acid.

How GED, PUD, and gastritis affect the stimulation and production of gastric acid

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GED) is a…… [Read More]


Boeckxstaens, G. E., & Rohof, W. O. (2014). Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 43(1), 15-25.

Chait, M. M. (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Important considerations for the older patients. World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 2(12), 388.

Kahrilas, P. J. (2003). GERD pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 70(5), S4.

Konturek, P. C., & Konturek, S. J. (2014). Peptic Ulcer Disease Metabolism of Human Diseases (pp. 129-135). New York: Springer.
View Full Essay

Risk Factors for Elderly Patients

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88979886

Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Preparedness Needs of a Defined Population

Many of the patients at my healthcare institution -- a suburban New Jersey hospital in New Jersey specializing in rehabilitating patients from brain traumas -- have suffered a stroke or aneurysm. Because adults over the age of 65 are universally covered by Medicare (although some may also have private insurance or Medicaid), most geriatric patients within my practice have access to insurance. Although most of the younger patients are also insured in some form, given that they did not expect such a traumatic event to occur at such a young age, many have less comprehensive insurance and may face high medical bills due to high deductibles or copays.

Not all patients have made adequate preparation for themselves and their families should they be incapacitated. Discussing end-of-life care is a difficult issue that may be challenging for families to raise with…… [Read More]


6 steps for preventing falls among your older loved ones. (2017). NCOA. Retrieved from:


Preventing pressure ulcers. (2016). Medline Plus. Retrieved from:

View Full Essay

Women in American History

Words: 2642 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19581890

omen in American History

The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.

omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth

One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.

Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html.

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House.

Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
View Full Essay

Charcot-Marie Tooth Syndrome Definition and

Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66269973

In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.

On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…… [Read More]


Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on

Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht

National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197

National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health. http://www.genome.gov/11009201
View Full Essay

Anthrax in the United States Postal Service

Words: 4898 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69190781

Anthrax: An Attack on the United States

Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.

Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]


Anthrax." (2003). CDC. Retreived on June 25, 2003 at  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod / dbmd/diseaseinfo/anthrax_g.htm#What%20is%20anthrax.

Anthrax Vaccine Availability Concerns USA." (2001). Hospital Management.Net. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.hospitalmanagement.net/informer/breakthroughs / break81/.

Anthrax Vaccine? Officials and Experts Weigh Risk Against Need." (2001). CBS News.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31 / health/main327482.shtml.

Fernandez, Manny and Phuong Ly. "Brentwood Deaths Put Employees on Edge." (2002). Washington Post.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.washingtonpost.com / ac2/wp-dyn/A54188-2002Jun14?language=printer.
View Full Essay

Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]


Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.