"African History Essays"

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African-Americans History and Culture the False and Essay

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17793718

African-Americans History And Culture

The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.

"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto Rican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call his own. This statement indicates that African-Americans lack deep ancestral roots or any significant accomplishments to society. For this statement to be true, it would have to apply to all inhabitants of America who cannot call North America their native land.

The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" is very significant in that it bears witness to a mindset by a group of people who seek to devalue the Black American experience and the roots African-Americans have to the great African civilizations. Those who believe that African-American's have no real history, lend no credence to the weight and horror of slavery; which a part of African-American history as are the great accomplishments by blacks in Africa. This is the same mindset that that gave birth to and made it legal to count blacks as three-fifths of a person.

Many great African civilizations existed and have accomplished feats that still astound historians and scientists a like this day. Ethiopia, located in central-east Africa, is the location of the oldest known human ancestors. What this means is that man from all over the world, originated in Africa. Ethiopia is among the oldest independent countries in the world, and the first African country to "print" coins. Ethiopia is the site of many firsts for the world. Archeologists believe that Ethiopia is indeed the site of the origins of humankind. Ethiopia is the site of the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.

Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
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African Studies and Multiculturalism an Essay

Words: 3354 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77964288



Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.

A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in Western societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It is not at all clear how the celebration of a postcolonial, transnational, electronically produced cultural hybridity is to be squared with this systematic decay of countries and continents," Ahmad writes. And how will this cultural hybridity be squared "with decreasing chances for substantial proportions of the global population to obtain conditions of bare survival, let alone electronic literacy and gadgetry," he wonders.

An article in the NABJ Journal titled "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures," offers another way in which cultures are linked. The history of Africa of course includes the grim facts that "from the late 1600s to about 1808, some 500,000 Africans were sold into slavery in North America" (Frazier, 1995). Many of those slaves landed in Charleston, South Carolina, and were put to work for their masters in plantations in both South Carolina and Georgia. The African slaves were kidnapped and put into bondage came from an area of Africa, according to Frazier's article, that "stretched from Senegal to Angola," which today includes Gambia and Sierra Leone.

Africans from that area of the continent helped raise rice, and used "wide fanner baskets to winnow the grain," and they also used covered baskets to store the crop once it was harvested, Frazier continues. Once they were working in the American colonies, their African culture "evolved into a culture called Gullah," and some of those people returned to Sierra…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.

Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
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African Voodoo Essay

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39476153

African Voodoo

Voodoo, also named Vodun, is an ancient polytheistic religion originating in West Africa. Voodoo spread from West Africa to the New World through the slaves. Today it practiced by an estimated 30 million people in Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Haiti, Benin, Jamaica, and other places throughout the world. Voodoo is often thought of as a "primitive form of magic and belief in ghost" (Rigaud, 7) however, Voodoo is more complicated than that. It consists of a complex system of beliefs which developed from many ancient world religions and cults. Due to the complexity and origin of Voodoo, there is no central authority to define orthodox beliefs or practices. Each Spiritual House acts independently and therefore a wide variety of theory and practice exists among those who practice Voodoo.

One of the basic beliefs of the Voodooist is that there is one primary creator, named Nana Buluku, who created everything. This prime deity, in one tradition, is said to have had seven children to whom she granted each a particular realm of nature to rule. For example to one she granted power over fire, to another she granted rule over the sea. In addition, the creator has many helpers called Orishas. The first born children of Nana Buluku were twins who represent the duality and balance of the world as seen in creation of males and females, and in the sun and the moon. Liza is a male who represents the sun and, and Mawu is the female and represents the earth and moon. They are thought to share the same body. Mawu-Lisa are then believed to have created children of their own, each with special attributes. The name and number of the members of the god-family are numerous and differ from source to source.

Out of the creation beliefs, arise the concept that everything in the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Burnett, John. "Voodoo and West Africa's Spiritual Life." NPR (2004): n. pag. Web. 29 Nov 2010 .

Espie, E, and J.F. Ade Ajayi. A Thousand Years of West African History: a handbook for teachers and students. 1st. Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969. Print.
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African-Americans & Hispanic-Americans Are Currently Essay

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50200951

As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.

Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto Rican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.

It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.

Institutional Networks

Institutional networks continue to play a vital organizational role in minority communities. For African-Americans, particularly those residing in the southern United States, chief among these networks is church. But there are also a number of institutional networks that serve educational and political purposes. Perhaps the most famous of these is the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP.) the NAACP was founded in the year 1909 as a network working on behalf of African-Americans. Currently, the NAACP is based in Baltimore, Maryland.

A similar group was founded by and for Hispanic-Americans in the year 1929. LULAC, the League of United Latin American Citizens, is the oldest advocacy organization for Hispanic-Americans. There are over one hundred thousand members of LULAC living in the United States and Puerto Rico (Kaplowitz 2005).

Institutional networks are key for organizing and advocating on behalf of the rights of minority cultures such as African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. As history has shown how minorities tend to be demonized by larger institutional structures, the only way to combat such negative occurrences as racism and exclusion on the systematic level is to integrate institutional networks that advocate on behalf of minorities into the dominant culture. This has certainly been the case for such organizations as NAACP and LULAC, both of which have a long history of striving to engage their represented cultures in a dialogue with the dominant, European-American culture.

Conclusion

In studying the ways in which communication both hinders and empowers minority cultures,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm

Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
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History of Africa Essay

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88645817

Harmony to Holocaust

The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the African cultures. True, they probably considered them somewhat exotic. But the feeling is that they also considered them "dignified and equal parties in civilization." (Hooker).

Slave Exports from Africa on the Trans-Atlantic Route

Time

Number of Percentage

Period

Slaves of Total

1450-1500

1500-1600

1601-1700

1701-1800

1801-1900

Had these initial impressions been sustained, the history of the world (most especially Africa) would have been much different. However, the Atlantic Slave Trade did occur, subjecting the continent to four centuries of depredation. Moreover, the intensity of the suffering endured by the African people should be described nothing short of a Holocaust ("The Maafa"). The following tables provide some figures to put all of this into perspective. Although sterile and removed from the stark reality of the horror these men, women and children experienced, they do bear out the vast extent of the crime against Africa. Consider both the sheer number of slaves transferred ("Origins"), as well as the extent of the African continent which was affected ("The Trans-Atlantic") - both of which are depicted on the nearby tables.

Trans-Atlantic Imports…… [Read More]

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African Leaders and Advocates Essay

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66785971

Social Protection Policies in Africa

Social Protection report in Botswana

The Social Protection Assessment presented by The World Bank (2013) reports that Botswana has emerged from one of the poorest countries in the world to an "upper middle income country with a per capita GDP of $8,533 in 2011" (World Bank). Extreme poverty is down to 6.4% (from 23.4% in 2003). Still, there remain big problems: 31.4% of children under the age of 5 suffer malnutrition; unemployment is 17.8%; the rate of HIV / AIDS was estimated at 23.4% in 2011 -- the second highest rate in the world (World Bank). Botswana has many social protection programs, but many are small and ineffective; an example is the "Destitute Persons" program, in which "only a small fraction" of the very poor receive assistance, and a "large share of the budget goes to administration" (World Bank). That said, The World Bank says 84,000 families can be lifted out of "absolute poverty" by 2016.

That seems a lofty goal given that many families "…in absolute poverty are left out" of social protection programs; those programs are only designed to help "some families" (World Bank)

Social Justice / Human Rights / Marginalization in Africa

African intellectual Claude Ake writes that when you focus on literacy levels and school enrollment, Africa as a whole still has "…extremely low levels of human-capital formation" (Ake, 2001). Indeed, Africa is being "…marginalized by developments in science, technology, and production"; in the past, African leaders went to great lengths to reach out internationally, hoping to get resources from the industrialized nations (Ake). But while hoping to diversify their economies to become independent through this outreach, it "accomplished nothing"; in fact, African countries, including Botswana, reached independence with "…no agenda" for the realization of development, Ake writes, which partially explains the marginalization of many of its countries.

Toyin Falola asserts that the U.S. has exploited Africa (in a "scramble for oil" and other resources) and in fact in terms of marginalization of Africa, the U.S. relationship with Africa's sugar plantations led to plantations being established in the U.S. "Eventually," Falola said in a speech at the University of Delaware, "coffee, sugar and tobacco became major consumer products in…… [Read More]

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African Literature Essay

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71197570

Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter. It discusses how the style used by the author hinders her presentation of the whole question of male/female relationships within the entire family structure, not just the nuclear family. It also discusses how the reader only has the main character's opinion and not those of the characters around her. Two sources used. APA.

So Long A Letter

Mariama Ba in her novel, "So Long A Letter," gives the audience a glimpse into the Islamic world. The book is written as a letter from the main character, Ramatoulaye, to her childhood friend, Aissatou. It is both a missive and lamentation of Ramatoulaye's life, more than half a century of years. She has reached a cross-road, and as one might retrace his route on a map if lost, she retraces her feelings and experiences that have brought her this far on her journey (Ba 1996). Her husband of twenty-odd years has died. However, it has only been a short time since he sent word to her that he had taken a new wife, a mere girl, a friend of their daughter's. Ramatoulaye's indignation of the marriage turns to sympathy for the young widow. Through the journal, the audience learns of her feelings and experiences as a single mother coping with first abandonment and then widowhood (Johnson 1999).

Ba's chosen style of writing only adds to the isolation and seclusion of the character's perspective. From the very first page we are wrapped in Ramatoulaye's essence. These are indeed private thoughts and perhaps resemble more a dairy than journal (Johnson 1999). We are given access to the other characters only through her eyes. From the beginning of the first chapter when she is at the bedside of her dead husband, everything and everyone is seen through the filter of Ramatoulaye's heart and memory (Ba 1996).

Events that happen around her and in her life can only be shared through her personal dialog within the context of the letter.…… [Read More]

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African Nationalism Played a Significant Essay

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57947233



Mills (n.d) explains that historians often dichotomize African nationalism into two distinct groups according to their long-term nationalist goals for post-independence Africa. The first type of group was termed as being the primary resistance, which was characterized as consisting of individuals whose goal was to reinstate the traditional African societies that existed prior to the advent of colonialism. The second type of group was termed as the secondary resistance, which consisted largely of Africa's intellectual elites who wished to develop modern civil societies within post-independence Africa. Mills noted that groups tended to often display both types of resistance tendencies, thus making the dichotomy inapplicable to every situation.

African nationalism came about as a strong reaction towards the unjust political, economic, and social domination of Africa by its European colonialist masters. Nationalists were affected by several ideological influences from outside Africa. Foremost among these influences was the ideology of Pan-Africanism. This point-of-view supported the notion of African unity and was inclined towards achieving such unity not only among the peoples of Africa, but also among people from throughout the world who possessed African ancestry.

In terms of African nationalism, it helped Africans to appreciate their racial and cultural heritage in the face of extreme hatred and prejudice displayed by the colonialist powers especially during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It also helped to unite Africans of differing ethnic, economic and social backgrounds towards calling for independence from foreign control. It provided a source of pride in race and identity among the intellectual elites of Africa, particularly those who studied abroad. It inspired Africans to consider the formation of political and economic organizations that would help to unite the continent in a post-colonial world. It also inspired them to learn not to make the same mistakes Europe made which eventually led it towards two terrible world wars. Finally, it helped peoples of African descent from elsewhere around the world to begin supporting African nationalism and independence from within their…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
African nationalism." Hutchinson's encyclopedia website. (2005). Retrieved April 18, 2005 at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029558.html

Mills, Wallace G. "Nationalist and independence movements in British colonies." (n.d.)
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African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Rights and Essay

Words: 1550 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71605080

African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Rights and Pride

"We the understated are students at the Negro college in the city of Greensboro. Time and time again we have gone into Woolworth stories of Greensboro. We have bought thousands of items at hundreds of the counters in your stories. Our money was accepted without rancor or discrimination and with politeness toward us, when at a long counter just three feet away from our money is not acceptable because of the color of our skins. This letter is not being written with resentment toward your company, but with the hope of understanding… We are asking that your company take a firm stand to eliminate discrimination. We firmly believe that God will give courage and guidance in the solving of this problem…" (Blair, et al., 1960) (primary source).

Introduction

African-Americans have come a long way in terms of justice and fairness. Brought against their will from Africa -- and placed in bondage -- during the formative years of America, it took many years of struggle for African-Americans in order to achieve the right to vote, the right not to be discriminated against in housing, employment and education. This paper delves into the ways in which African-Americans fought for -- and in many cases, won -- their rights in the United States.

Thesis statement: History shows that African-Americans have been creative and unrelenting in their drive to achieve the same rights and legal protections as Caucasian-Americans. The men and women that paved the way for African-Americans to be treated fairly should be held in high esteem by all Americans that believe in justice and in the Bill of Rights.

African-Americans Fight for Justice

In the era that ushered in the historic 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education ruling (which in effect started the ball rolling toward outlawing school segregation), a lot of credit for pushing Jim Crow laws aside and embracing fairness and justice should be given to African-American teachers and administrators, according to Tondra L. Loder-Jackson. Writing in the peer-reviewed journal Urban Review, Loder-Jackson asserts that African-American teachers "…instilled a strong sense of racial pride in their students" (Loder-Jackson, 2011, p. 151).

African-American teachers and administrators also: a) "…led efforts to liberate Blacks through literacy"; b) established "self-improvement" groups that helped respond…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Blair, Ezeil, Price, David, McNeil, Joseph, Richmond, David, and McCain, Franklin. (1960).

In Lunch at the Five and Ten: The Greensboro Sit-Ins. New York: Stein and Day, 1970.
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History African Diaspora Subject - Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Essay

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86818821

History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.

Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora

Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.

Africans have dispersed around the world as a result of their Diaspora and most of the people who left their continent and their descendents look back at Africa with the utmost respect, as they feel that they will always be connected to it. People in the African Diaspora are not only united through their connection with the African continent, as they are also united by the fact that their ancestors and many of them have been actively involved in fighting for freedom. African-American individuals do not actually need to travel to the African continent in order to return to their traditional home. Instead, they can appeal to intellectual factors like music, religion, and art with the purpose of feeling that they develop a strong bond with Africa. In order for the struggle for freedom to stop Africans need to focus on fighting unjust systems. This is basically what many individuals in the African Diaspora do, considering that they often come across cases of racism and get engaged in criticizing this act.

Most people are likely to be acquainted with Frederick Douglas -- one of the most prominent individuals involved in the abolitionist movement. Douglas did not only express interest in freeing people from slavery, as he was also opposed to any kind of…… [Read More]

References:
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
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African-American Art Essay

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98130099

African-American Art

The art of African-Americans became a powerful medium for social and self-expression. Visual arts including sculpture carried with it political implications related to colonialism, oppression, and liberation. Along with other forms of creative expression, African-American visual arts particularly flourished during the Harlem Renaissance. Three exemplary pieces of art that represent the character, tone, and tenor of African-American art during the Harlem Renaissance include Meta Warrick Fuller's "Ethiopia Awakening," Palmer Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," and Richmond Barthe's "Feral Benga." Each of these works of art conveys liberation from oppression and a subversion of the dominant culture.

In Meta Warrick Fuller's bronze sculpture "Ethiopia Awakening," a woman embodies two distinct themes: of bondage and of liberation. The lower portion of the figure is rendered as would be an Egyptian mummy: legs and feet fully bound, wrapped tightly in cloth bearing a classical Egyptian palm-like motif. Egypt is the bastion of civilization in ancient Africa; the awakening of a unique black identity among African-Americans depends on drawing connections to the ancient history of black people everywhere. Egypt is particularly important to the black consciousness because it serves as a cultural bridge: inhabited by a group of people as diverse as African-Americans. Yet Egyptian antiquities have been appropriated by the European academic establishment in a type of intellectual colonization. In other words, whites have assumed responsibility for black cultural narratives like those of ancient Egypt.

Moreover, mummification represents death, but it also represents eternal life and rebirth in a splendid afterlife. Fuller could have chosen to render the figure in an Egyptian statuary style without using a form common to mummies. For example, Egyptian statuary often depicts one foot stepping forward on the plane rather than being bound together like a mummy. Therefore, the artist chose the Egyptian symbolism of the mummy purposefully.

The upper half of the statue is completely different from the bottom, representing the "double consciousness" of African-Americans that W.E.B DuBois referred to in his writing. In Fuller's statue, the woman is breaking free from the bonds that hold her down. She does so peacefully and with grace. Furthermore, the woman has completely divested herself of any Egyptian identity. Unlike traditional Egyptian statuary, her arms…… [Read More]

Sources:
"Augusta Savage." Retrieved online: http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/art/pages/savage.htm

Lewis, S.S. (2003). African-American Art and Artists. University of California Press.
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African Unity the Organization for Essay

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79051162

It also represents a series of extremely ingrained economic problems. The African Union proceeds from the OAU's ambition to bring some level of cohesiveness to the fiscal and monetary policies driving the continent. Like the EU and APEC before it, the AU takes the position that in the scheme of globalization, its interests are likely best represented in some mode of unity. Accordingly, we find that "economic and monetary union is one of the aims of the African Union. Current African development initiatives envision regional integration in the context of effective macroeconomic management and corporate governance, and enhanced partnership between Africa's best- performers and international development partners. This entails promoting increased regional trade and convergence of monetary policies." (Amoako & Essy, p. 4)

This more concrete orientation suggests that in many ways, the AU would be a natural point in the evolution of the modern African continent, bringing greater practical specificity to the conceptual development produced by the OAU.

Works… [Read More]

References:
African Union Commission (AUC). (1973). AU in a Nutshell. AU.Int.

Amoako, K.Y. & Essy, A. (2002). African Development Forum III (ADF III). UNPAN.
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African-American Studies the Claims of Essay

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42710357

To quote such examples are those that described arguments between former masters and freedmen over the rights to the labor power of family members or between husbands and wives in broken marriages. They however, did not evidently support his argument that kinship was redefined in the process (James, History Services).

Sometimes, his analyses appeared to conflate "family" and "household" in a more incomprehensible manner rather than illumination. This might be due the African case, where slaves were usually acknowledged part of the slave-holders' kin group, and led him lost. Overall, the Claims of Kinfolk is a unique piece of study that will have an important impact and influence on future scholarship (J. William, Journal of American History).

Conclusion

The book "The Claims of Kinfolk" is of maximum value in terms of professional interest to economic historians of the nineteenth-century United States. However, it is an attention grabbing, meditative and systematic book that enhances readers' understanding of history. Other than that looking from the perspective of interpretive structure, issues attended, and proof, it is a work improbable to come up on a reading list for graduate study in either African-American nor southern economic history (James, History Services).

Finally, the book offers an enormous set of fascinating instances about slave and ex-slave life from the nineteenth-century United States and the Gold Coast of Africa. At the same time there is little given in the way of systematic proof that could enlighten quantitative analysis (James, History Services).

Works… [Read More]

Resources:
J. William Harris. Review of the Claims of Kinfolk. University of New Hampshire. The Journal of American History. www.historycooperative.org

James R. Irwin. Review of Dylan C. Penningroth the Claims of Kinfolk: African
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African Wars Essay

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49408327

African Wars

The period after the Second World War saw the decolonization of Africa and the establishment of many new nations. But these new states often degenerated into conflict with their neighbors, internal uprisings and revolutions, as well as ethnic and religious clashes. The conflicts in Africa often mirrored global tensions as the Cold War reached its peak and both the Soviet Union and the United States vied for African allies and supporters. For example, Angola was the site of civil war in which both the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. played an active part. The combination of problems which surfaced as a result of decolonization along with the geopolitical situation of the Cold War led to a number of situations in which ethnic and tribal rivalries, political ideology, and economic forces created conflicts throughout Africa.

As Africa was colonized in the 18th and 19th centuries the Europeans imposed upon the native Africans artificial geopolitical structures; which began to disintegrate as the Europeans decolonized African in the post-WWII period. Prior to colonization, the situation in Africa could be described as "one of widespread regionalized or localized low intensity conflict." (Clayton 1999, p.2) In other words there were many small, local, but continual conflicts and the population was generally militarized. This situation, which was put on hold during the European occupation, resurfaced soon after their withdrawal as ethnic and tribal groups fought for power in the vacuum left behind.

And as the different groups fought for control of the various nations of Africa, both the Soviet Union and the United States sought to gain influence. Although not directly part of the Cold War's ideological struggle, the various tribal, ethnic, and religious conflicts that had been suppressed during colonization reemerged with the Cold War opponents taking sides. For instance, in Rhodesia there was a combination of anti-colonialism and Cold War ideology when the nationalist movement "imbued with Marxist revolutionary theories…adopted the 'armed struggle' as their route to power in 1962..." (Wood…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Wood, J.R.T.. (2011). "Countering the Chimurenga." In Counterinsurgency in Modern

Warfare, edited by Daniel Marston and Carter Malkasian, 185-202. New York:

Osprey.
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History as Myth This-Based Myth Atreus Thyestes Essay

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23861822

History As Myth

This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.

Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae

Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One day, he promised the virgin goddess Artemis that he would sacrifice his best lamb to her, if he could be king. Amongst his flocks, he saw a lamb with a beautiful golden fleece. He killed the lamb, but could not bear to part with the fleece and instead hid it away.

Artemis was outraged, and urged Thyestes to make a bet with his brother that whoever had a golden lamb fleece would have the throne for life. Atreus confidently made the bet, but when he went to the chest where he had hidden the lamb fleece, it was gone. Unbeknownst to him, Artemis had helped his brother find it. Now that Atreus was no longer king he was disconsolate. He prayed to Zeus for assistance. Zeus, who favored Atreus, told Atreus to make a bet with his brother that he would give up all claims to the throne, if he could not make the sun run backwards. Thyestes agreed, and with Zeus' help, Atreus made good on his bet.

Atreus thus became king of Mycenae again, but he understandably still held a grudge against his brother. He was sure that Thyestes would be scheming to…… [Read More]

Sources:
Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A

recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:
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African-Americans During Early 1900's the Essay

Words: 2241 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13395552

At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.

The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values and transmitted them to the societies they entered in contact with. This would eventually lead to an acceptance of such cultural elements, and later they would become a trademark for the American culture. Similarly, the religious nature of the black community influenced the white communities and the overall American heritage because it proved the importance and need for a religious connection between the members of a community in times of struggle. The same idea would be evoked by Martin Luther King in his numerous speeches relating to the unity of the black community and its importance for the American culture.

Overall, it can be concluded that the reasons for the Great Migration lie in the overall background of the event. The internal factors, such as the decrease in the need for rural work, the rapid industrialization of the country as a whole, along with the natural disasters that took place during this time, represented the motivated argument for the phenomenon. While discussing the consequences of the migration, it cannot be precisely stated whether they represented a full step forward for the black population or not. Even so, the black migration north represented an essential event in the shaping of the culture of the U.S.… [Read More]

References:
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html

Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
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History of America Through 1877 Essay

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had not been such a crying economic need, Africans would never have been brought to the Americas. European racism was not virulent enough, but the availability of a large labor source without the ability to resist European 'guns and steel' proved too tempting. Seeing blackness as evil and Africans as heathen may have preexisted the economic benefits of slavery, but slavery provided the fuel to this ideological tinder. Thus Jordan's book is not about how Africans perceived whites or later perceived enslavement -- it is an intellectual history of white perceptions of blackness and how this contributed to a sociological and economic phenomena. He draws upon a wide range of historical perspectives, including Quakers and abolitionists later in his work. The portrait that emerges is complex -- European racism and fear of African's 'blackness' was not always as virulent as it would become under slavery, but it was always bubbling beneath the surface.… [Read More]

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African-American Families 1950s AB Annotated Essay

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5305900

The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.

Secondary… [Read More]