African History Essays Examples

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African-Americans History and Culture the False and

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17793718

African-Americans History And Culture

The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.

"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto Rican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call his own. This statement indicates that African-Americans lack deep ancestral roots or any significant accomplishments to society. For this statement to be true, it would have to apply to all inhabitants of America who cannot call North America their native land.

The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" is very significant…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.

Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
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African Studies and Multiculturalism an

Words: 3354 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77964288



Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.

A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in Western societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It is not at all clear how the celebration of a postcolonial, transnational, electronically produced cultural hybridity is to be squared with this systematic decay of countries and continents," Ahmad writes. And how will this cultural hybridity be squared "with decreasing chances for substantial proportions of the global population to obtain…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.

Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
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African Voodoo

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39476153

African Voodoo

Voodoo, also named Vodun, is an ancient polytheistic religion originating in West Africa. Voodoo spread from West Africa to the New World through the slaves. Today it practiced by an estimated 30 million people in Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Haiti, Benin, Jamaica, and other places throughout the world. Voodoo is often thought of as a "primitive form of magic and belief in ghost" (Rigaud, 7) however, Voodoo is more complicated than that. It consists of a complex system of beliefs which developed from many ancient world religions and cults. Due to the complexity and origin of Voodoo, there is no central authority to define orthodox beliefs or practices. Each Spiritual House acts independently and therefore a wide variety of theory and practice exists among those who practice Voodoo.

One of the basic beliefs of the Voodooist is that there is one primary creator, named Nana Buluku, who created everything. This prime deity, in one tradition, is said to have had seven children to whom she granted each a particular realm of nature to rule. For example to one she granted power over fire, to another she granted rule over the sea. In addition, the creator has many helpers called…… [Read More]

Sources:
Burnett, John. "Voodoo and West Africa's Spiritual Life." NPR (2004): n. pag. Web. 29 Nov 2010 < http://www.npr.org >.

Espie, E, and J.F. Ade Ajayi. A Thousand Years of West African History: a handbook for teachers and students. 1st. Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969. Print.
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African-Americans & Hispanic-Americans Are Currently

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50200951

As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.

Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto Rican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.

It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.

Institutional Networks

Institutional networks continue to play a vital organizational role in minority communities. For African-Americans, particularly those residing in the southern United States, chief among these networks is church. But there are also a number of institutional networks that serve educational and political purposes. Perhaps the most famous of these is the National Association for the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm

Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
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History of Africa

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88645817

Harmony to Holocaust

The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the African cultures. True, they probably considered them somewhat exotic. But the feeling is that they also considered them "dignified and equal parties in civilization." (Hooker).

Slave Exports from Africa on the Trans-Atlantic Route

Time

Number of Percentage

Period

Slaves of Total

1450-1500

1500-1600

1601-1700

1701-1800

1801-1900

Had these initial impressions…… [Read More]

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African Leaders and Advocates

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66785971

Social Protection Policies in Africa

Social Protection report in Botswana

The Social Protection Assessment presented by The World Bank (2013) reports that Botswana has emerged from one of the poorest countries in the world to an "upper middle income country with a per capita GDP of $8,533 in 2011" (World Bank). Extreme poverty is down to 6.4% (from 23.4% in 2003). Still, there remain big problems: 31.4% of children under the age of 5 suffer malnutrition; unemployment is 17.8%; the rate of HIV / AIDS was estimated at 23.4% in 2011 -- the second highest rate in the world (World Bank). Botswana has many social protection programs, but many are small and ineffective; an example is the "Destitute Persons" program, in which "only a small fraction" of the very poor receive assistance, and a "large share of the budget goes to administration" (World Bank). That said, The World Bank says 84,000 families can be lifted out of "absolute poverty" by 2016.

That seems a lofty goal given that many families "…in absolute poverty are left out" of social protection programs; those programs are only designed to help "some families" (World Bank)

Social Justice / Human Rights / Marginalization in Africa…… [Read More]

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African Literature

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71197570

Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter. It discusses how the style used by the author hinders her presentation of the whole question of male/female relationships within the entire family structure, not just the nuclear family. It also discusses how the reader only has the main character's opinion and not those of the characters around her. Two sources used. APA.

So Long A Letter

Mariama Ba in her novel, "So Long A Letter," gives the audience a glimpse into the Islamic world. The book is written as a letter from the main character, Ramatoulaye, to her childhood friend, Aissatou. It is both a missive and lamentation of Ramatoulaye's life, more than half a century of years. She has reached a cross-road, and as one might retrace his route on a map if lost, she retraces her feelings and experiences that have brought her this far on her journey (Ba 1996). Her husband of twenty-odd years has died. However, it has only been a short time since he sent word to her that he had taken a new wife, a mere girl, a friend of their daughter's. Ramatoulaye's indignation of the marriage turns to sympathy for the young widow. Through the journal,…… [Read More]

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African Nationalism Played a Significant

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57947233



Mills (n.d) explains that historians often dichotomize African nationalism into two distinct groups according to their long-term nationalist goals for post-independence Africa. The first type of group was termed as being the primary resistance, which was characterized as consisting of individuals whose goal was to reinstate the traditional African societies that existed prior to the advent of colonialism. The second type of group was termed as the secondary resistance, which consisted largely of Africa's intellectual elites who wished to develop modern civil societies within post-independence Africa. Mills noted that groups tended to often display both types of resistance tendencies, thus making the dichotomy inapplicable to every situation.

African nationalism came about as a strong reaction towards the unjust political, economic, and social domination of Africa by its European colonialist masters. Nationalists were affected by several ideological influences from outside Africa. Foremost among these influences was the ideology of Pan-Africanism. This point-of-view supported the notion of African unity and was inclined towards achieving such unity not only among the peoples of Africa, but also among people from throughout the world who possessed African ancestry.

In terms of African nationalism, it helped Africans to appreciate their racial and cultural heritage in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
African nationalism." Hutchinson's encyclopedia website. (2005). Retrieved April 18, 2005 at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029558.html

Mills, Wallace G. "Nationalist and independence movements in British colonies." (n.d.)
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African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Rights and

Words: 1550 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71605080

African-Americans Activism -- Gaining Civil Rights and Pride

"We the understated are students at the Negro college in the city of Greensboro. Time and time again we have gone into Woolworth stories of Greensboro. We have bought thousands of items at hundreds of the counters in your stories. Our money was accepted without rancor or discrimination and with politeness toward us, when at a long counter just three feet away from our money is not acceptable because of the color of our skins. This letter is not being written with resentment toward your company, but with the hope of understanding… We are asking that your company take a firm stand to eliminate discrimination. We firmly believe that God will give courage and guidance in the solving of this problem…" (Blair, et al., 1960) (primary source).

Introduction

African-Americans have come a long way in terms of justice and fairness. Brought against their will from Africa -- and placed in bondage -- during the formative years of America, it took many years of struggle for African-Americans in order to achieve the right to vote, the right not to be discriminated against in housing, employment and education. This paper delves into the ways…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Blair, Ezeil, Price, David, McNeil, Joseph, Richmond, David, and McCain, Franklin. (1960).

In Lunch at the Five and Ten: The Greensboro Sit-Ins. New York: Stein and Day, 1970.
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History African Diaspora Subject - Fredrick Douglass Ambassor

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86818821

History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.

Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora

Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.

Africans have dispersed around the world as a result of their Diaspora and most of the people who left their continent and their descendents look back at Africa with the utmost respect, as they feel that they will always be connected to it. People in the African Diaspora are not only united…… [Read More]

References:
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
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African-American Art

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98130099

African-American Art

The art of African-Americans became a powerful medium for social and self-expression. Visual arts including sculpture carried with it political implications related to colonialism, oppression, and liberation. Along with other forms of creative expression, African-American visual arts particularly flourished during the Harlem Renaissance. Three exemplary pieces of art that represent the character, tone, and tenor of African-American art during the Harlem Renaissance include Meta Warrick Fuller's "Ethiopia Awakening," Palmer Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," and Richmond Barthe's "Feral Benga." Each of these works of art conveys liberation from oppression and a subversion of the dominant culture.

In Meta Warrick Fuller's bronze sculpture "Ethiopia Awakening," a woman embodies two distinct themes: of bondage and of liberation. The lower portion of the figure is rendered as would be an Egyptian mummy: legs and feet fully bound, wrapped tightly in cloth bearing a classical Egyptian palm-like motif. Egypt is the bastion of civilization in ancient Africa; the awakening of a unique black identity among African-Americans depends on drawing connections to the ancient history of black people everywhere. Egypt is particularly important to the black consciousness because it serves as a cultural bridge: inhabited by a group of people as diverse as African-Americans.…… [Read More]

Sources:
"Augusta Savage." Retrieved online:  http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/art/pages/savage.htm 

Lewis, S.S. (2003). African-American Art and Artists. University of California Press.
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African Unity the Organization for

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79051162

It also represents a series of extremely ingrained economic problems. The African Union proceeds from the OAU's ambition to bring some level of cohesiveness to the fiscal and monetary policies driving the continent. Like the EU and APEC before it, the AU takes the position that in the scheme of globalization, its interests are likely best represented in some mode of unity. Accordingly, we find that "economic and monetary union is one of the aims of the African Union. Current African development initiatives envision regional integration in the context of effective macroeconomic management and corporate governance, and enhanced partnership between Africa's best- performers and international development partners. This entails promoting increased regional trade and convergence of monetary policies." (Amoako & Essy, p. 4)

This more concrete orientation suggests that in many ways, the AU would be a natural point in the evolution of the modern African continent, bringing greater practical specificity to the conceptual development produced by the OAU.

Works Cited:

African Union Commission (AUC). (1973). AU in a Nutshell. AU.Int.

Amoako, K.Y. & Essy, A. (2002). African Development Forum III (ADF III). UNPAN.

Globalization and Workers…… [Read More]

References:
African Union Commission (AUC). (1973). AU in a Nutshell. AU.Int.

Amoako, K.Y. & Essy, A. (2002). African Development Forum III (ADF III). UNPAN.
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African-American Studies the Claims of

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42710357

To quote such examples are those that described arguments between former masters and freedmen over the rights to the labor power of family members or between husbands and wives in broken marriages. They however, did not evidently support his argument that kinship was redefined in the process (James, History Services).

Sometimes, his analyses appeared to conflate "family" and "household" in a more incomprehensible manner rather than illumination. This might be due the African case, where slaves were usually acknowledged part of the slave-holders' kin group, and led him lost. Overall, the Claims of Kinfolk is a unique piece of study that will have an important impact and influence on future scholarship (J. William, Journal of American History).

Conclusion

The book "The Claims of Kinfolk" is of maximum value in terms of professional interest to economic historians of the nineteenth-century United States. However, it is an attention grabbing, meditative and systematic book that enhances readers' understanding of history. Other than that looking from the perspective of interpretive structure, issues attended, and proof, it is a work improbable to come up on a reading list for graduate study in either African-American nor southern economic history (James, History Services).

Finally, the book offers…… [Read More]

Resources:
J. William Harris. Review of the Claims of Kinfolk. University of New Hampshire. The Journal of American History. www.historycooperative.org

James R. Irwin. Review of Dylan C. Penningroth the Claims of Kinfolk: African
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African Wars

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49408327

African Wars

The period after the Second World War saw the decolonization of Africa and the establishment of many new nations. But these new states often degenerated into conflict with their neighbors, internal uprisings and revolutions, as well as ethnic and religious clashes. The conflicts in Africa often mirrored global tensions as the Cold War reached its peak and both the Soviet Union and the United States vied for African allies and supporters. For example, Angola was the site of civil war in which both the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. played an active part. The combination of problems which surfaced as a result of decolonization along with the geopolitical situation of the Cold War led to a number of situations in which ethnic and tribal rivalries, political ideology, and economic forces created conflicts throughout Africa.

As Africa was colonized in the 18th and 19th centuries the Europeans imposed upon the native Africans artificial geopolitical structures; which began to disintegrate as the Europeans decolonized African in the post-WWII period. Prior to colonization, the situation in Africa could be described as "one of widespread regionalized or localized low intensity conflict." (Clayton 1999, p.2) In other words there were many small, local, but…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Wood, J.R.T.. (2011). "Countering the Chimurenga." In Counterinsurgency in Modern

Warfare, edited by Daniel Marston and Carter Malkasian, 185-202. New York:

Osprey.
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History as Myth This-Based Myth Atreus Thyestes

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23861822

History As Myth

This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.

Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae

Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One day, he promised the virgin goddess Artemis that he would sacrifice his best lamb to her, if he could be king. Amongst his flocks, he saw a lamb with a beautiful golden fleece. He killed the lamb, but could not bear to part with the fleece and instead hid it…… [Read More]

Sources:
Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A

recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:
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African-Americans During Early 1900's the

Words: 2241 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13395552

At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.

The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values and transmitted them to the societies they entered in contact with. This would eventually lead to an acceptance of such cultural elements, and later they would become a trademark for the American culture. Similarly, the religious nature of the black community influenced the white communities and the overall American heritage…… [Read More]

References:
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html

Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
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History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had not been such a crying economic need, Africans would never have been brought to the Americas. European racism was not virulent enough, but the availability of a large labor source without the ability to resist European 'guns and steel' proved too tempting. Seeing blackness as evil and Africans as heathen…… [Read More]

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African-American Families 1950s AB Annotated

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5305900

The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.

Secondary Sources

Jewell, K. Sue. 2003. Survival of the African-American Family: The Institutional Impact of U.S. Social Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jewell develops a social history that demonstrates all the many disparities of the African-American vs. majority culture and how these disparities, legal, social and economic effected the family during the whole of the 20th century. Her treatment of the 1950s as a time when change was in the air but had not yet been realized and was therefore extremely frustrating for many individuals is spot on. The works premise is that the liberal social policy,…… [Read More]

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History of the American South

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21207367

However, they "were too few in number to provide adequate protection and were not always themselves fully committed to ensuring justice for freed blacks" (Cary Royce 67). The American public wanted reform to happen but few people were actually willing to risk their position in society by supporting black people. As a consequence, former slaves were provided with little support and were practically forced to maintain many of their attributes as slaves despite the fact that they were free.

Works cited:

Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History Workshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)

Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)

Lanza, Michael, L. Agrarianism and Reconstruction Politics: The Southern Homestead Act, (LSU Press, 1990)

Torres, Arturo, "Jim Crow and the Re-enslavement of African-Americans," Retrieved February 22, 2012, from the Sites@UCI Website: http://sites.uci.edu/slaverebellionswinter2011/emancipation-and-the-origins-of-reparations-in-the-us/

Wilbur, Henry W. President Lincoln's Attitude towards Slavery and Emancipation: With a Review of Events before and since the Civil War (New York: Biblo and Tannen,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History Workshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)
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Africans at the Crossroads

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75080081

African-Americans have been and are still continuing to be affected disproportionately by poverty, mortality rates for treatable diseases and employment discrimination, as recent studies show. A study last month resolved that black patients die from cancer at higher rates than whites, and still another study found that employers still practice a form of racial profiling that prevents many African-Americans from entering or moving up in the job market. While these and other finding point to the continued existence of institutional racism, conservatives have conducted efforts in the last years to dismantle affirmative action programs, arguing that they are no longer needed. Many say that the U.S. is unable to recognize and deal with contemporary racism because it has also been unable to deal with its past history of slavery, and with slavery's legacy.

One of the most influential and monumental leaders for the freedom of Blacks was one Malcolm Little 'X'. In 1952 he discarded his "slave name," Little, and was assigned the new name "X." Malcolm X joined the Nation of Islam under the guidance of Elijah Muhammad and eventually was made a minister and top administrator of the Muslim movement and was a great advocate of Black freedom…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Information on the leaders from: http://www.stanford.edu/~tommyz/
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African-American History What Was the

Words: 1909 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7538952

Nevertheless, when a specific law was disgustingly unfair, that unfair law itself placed a threat on the society's reverence for law in general. In case the unfair law was not possible to be changed by way of regular legal channels, intentional breaching of that particular law may be defensible. Since the person committing civil disobedience had utmost regard for the value of law, he would breach the unfair law in gay abandon, and he would eagerly acknowledge the outcomes for infringing it. He will get involved in breaching the law and admit its punishment as a vehicle of drawing the interest of the community to the dissipation of that particular law. (the Civil Rights Movement: The Immigrant Heritage of America) King also stressed how significant it was that the civil rights campaign did not percolate to the stage of racists and hate mongers they struggled against. The ideology of King of strength of character and softhearted nature was not just highly effectual; however, it gave the civil rights movement an exciting moral authority and elegance. (Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement)

References

Austin, Curtis J. On Violence and Nonviolence: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. Retrieved at http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature24/ms_civil_rights.html. Accessed on…… [Read More]

Resources:
Austin, Curtis J. On Violence and Nonviolence: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. Retrieved at http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature24/ms_civil_rights.html. Accessed on 20 May, 2005

Coombs, Norman. The Civil Rights Movement. The Immigrant Heritage of America. Twayne Press. 1972. Retrieved at http://www.csusm.edu/Black_Excellence/documents/pg-c-r-movement.html. Accessed on 20 May, 2005
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African-American Slave Art the African-American

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25136544

We learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.

Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com

Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 294.

Rodriguez, Junius P. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.

Richard Powell. African-American Art. Oxford University Press. 12 September 2008. http://www.aawc.com

Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art."…… [Read More]

References:
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
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African-Americans Are Second Only to Native Americans

Words: 3977 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84650386

African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and racial tension.

In that discrimination is the result of an escalation of tension between African-Americans and the rest of society, this development is a new one in the history of race relations in American Culture. The first blow that was dealt in this race struggle between African-Americans and predominantly white…… [Read More]

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African Studies the Media Is

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94730732

.."1.

Although the movie does concentrate on saving the black people on being stereotyped there is a contradiction, it doesn't defend their violent nature. Again the audience is faced with a raw clan which commits murder. Black, violent, illiterate people it is negative image that has been presented several times through the media. In spite of this it is worth considering that the director desire was not at all to depict black people as being very cult people, but he wanted to show two different perspectives about black people, one of them is that some are smart and educated and others have a more furious nature due to the fact that they lack education. The media in any case should not present an elementary part of the black culture. It is rather dazzling to see on the screen such a complex black character as Delacroix. The reviews revealed that people were not quite used to such an image.

The role of the media should reduce to presenting the facts in a very objective manner. But there are always interests involved and this duty fails. "Bamboozled" presented the image of African-Americans as being misunderstood, and one way or the other hated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Rux, Carl "Eminem the new white negro," Everything but the burden: what white people are taking from black culture, Greg Tate. Broadway Books, 2003

Dyson Michael, "Race rules: navigating the color line, http://www.amazon.com
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History of Alabama History of

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92750473

At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George Wallace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.

The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.

Conclusion

Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa parks. Also it is infamous for producing leaders with questionable character like George Wallace. It is also a state where battles that made America to be an independent country today were fought. The University of Alabama is a major attraction to this state with its excellent football and highly ranked…… [Read More]

Resources:
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108176.html
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African and Native Americans When Discussing the

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4056412

African and Native Americans

When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior to 1865 occasionally interacted in interesting ways, such as the "maroon" outposts made up of runaway slaves and free Native Americans which popped up along the southern coast. By comparing and contrasting the history and struggles of Native Americans and African-Americans from roughly 1600 to 1865, one is able to…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22

(2005): 273-284.
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African Athena Controversy Ancient History

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11222459



This exchange of cultural ideas and manifestations sounds suspiciously like that propagated by Bernal under his Revised Ancient Model. Yet, for some reason, Lefkowitz feels the need to spend the bulk of her article antagonizing Bernal and polarizing him as if he is advocating some sort of Afrocentric stance. This fact is evinced by the preceding passage, in which she references another author -- one who is decidedly pro-Afrocentric -- in what is supposed to be her critique or commentary about ideas advocated by Bernal. Still, the fact remains that even Lefkowitz agrees with Bernal in the notion of the Revised Ancient Model

A review of the works of all three authors demonstrates how necessary competitive plausibility is for the study of history. Since none of the authors were present during the historical events they are discussing, they can only surmise (in as logical a fashion as possible) what they believe took place. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that there is evidence in the works of all three authors for the veracity of the Revised Ancient Model. and, for all of her posturing and expostulations about the shortcomings of Bernal's viewpoint, not even Lefkowitz offers any evidence for the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Lefkowitz, Mary R. "Ancient History, Modern Myths." Black Athena Revisited. Eds. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. Chapel Hill & London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

2. Bernal, Martin. "Introduction" Black Athena Writes Back. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2001.
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History New Jersey Slavery

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73720127



By March 2, 1785, it was clear that New Jersey had begun to try to ban slavery, as the legislature enacted a law banning "foreign slave trade in the state" (p. 115). And in 1786, the New Jersey Society for the Abolition of Slavery was founded, although the citizens of Monmouth "were deeply divided" over whether or not slavery should be banned from the state.

Meantime, during the 1790s, several "gradual emancipation" bills were voted down in the New Jersey legislature, albeit (p. 124) "popular opinion and party newspapers cautiously shifted" towards an anti-slavery position. The citizens were clearly divided on the issue, as the author points out on page 125: Quakers opposed to slavery were accused by proslavery interests of "harboring pro-British attitudes" and were accused of "poisoning the minds of our slaves." Other extremists in the proslavery ranks pushed the notion that the Quakers antislavery movement was just a "plot to give more blacks the vote and control the state..."

The Civil War and New Jersey

The author points out (p. 192) that New Jersey "showed a grudging loyalty to the Union" - and in that context, New Jersey politicians, while indeed supporting the Union, "...remained warm to…… [Read More]

References:
Reference

Hodges, Graham Russell (1997). Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North. Madison,

Wisconsin: Madison House.
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African-American Literature the Experience of

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93076975

He had lived his life as a white child, and even after his discovery of his true race lived as a white man. He was allowed to pass as white, and therefore turned his back on his real heritage. Thus, his blackness became a secret, something to be ashamed of and hide; "I know that in writing the following pages I am divulging the great secret of my life, the secret which for some years I have guarded far more carefully than any of my earthly possessions," (Johnson 2). This shows a much different reaction to the understanding of oneself as black in the United States.

Both these texts involve understanding oneself relative to how others view you. Realistically, from a physical standpoint, being African-American means little difference to being white. However, from a social and psychological standpoint, it is a major difference, especially in the tie period these stories take place. Hurston understands that her condition is due not to her actions, but from an ancient social structure, "Slavery is the price I paid for civilization, and the choice was not with me," (Hurston 1). Yet, from this low point in African-American history, she acknowledges the possibility for change…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to Be a Colored Me." Mules and Men. The University of Virginia. Retrieved 10 Sep 2009 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Grand-Jean/Hurston/Chapters/how.html .

Johnson, James Weldon. Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Kessinger Publishing. 2004.
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African Athena Everyone Who Has

Words: 1934 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80468431

Therefore, the beliefs of ancient writers cannot be taken as evidence in the same way as the finding of archaeological evidence can. If Egyptians or Phoenicians had permanently colonized Greece, it is likely that someone would have found the remnants of Egyptian or Phoenician buildings, as well as Egyptian writing, tombs, and other physical evidence of their colonization activities. One would expect that if there was an Egyptian influence in the origins of Greek civilization, the Greeks may have built in the Egyptian style, instead of creating a completely unique style of architecture. There has been no evidence discovered that would indicate a large scale, permanent Egyptian or Phoenician colonization.

Martin Bernal does a very good job of analyzing the sociological forces that influenced the creation of the "Aryan" model, however, the fact that the Aryan model has been misused is not evidence that disputes the idea that Greek civilization was the result of Indo-Europeans migrating from the north. In fact, the only hard evidence as to the origins of Greek civilization comes from linguistic evidence, which supports the "Aryan" model. And evidence is important when it come to history, whether the evidence is linguistic or physical, evidence matters. Bernal…… [Read More]

References:
Berlinerblau, Jacques. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy

and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
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History Questions Chap14 Senator Douglas Created the Kansas

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38552966

History Questions/Chap14

Senator Douglas created the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a way to appease both sides of the slavery issue, but this action resulted in increased tensions and hostility. Do you think the problems that resulted from creating these territories could have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why not?

The problems that resulted from the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories could not have been prevented because by 1854, the nation was already divided by the slavery question and tensions were high. There was more at stake than merely the question of whether or not blacks should be free and in fact for most people, on either side of the debate, personal and business interests were what really mattered, not the morality of making slaves out of fellow human beings.

As the United States expanded westward, controversy swirled as citizens debated whether new territories should be slave or free. Some argued that allowing slavery would populate the west with rich plantation owners, whereas if slavery were prohibited, average farmers (who could not afford slaves) would have an opportunity to benefit from westward expansion. Southerners wanted the opportunity to move westward and to bring their slaves with…… [Read More]

Sources:
Kennedy, D.M., Cohen, L., & Bailey, T.A. (2010). The American Pageant. AP Edition.

Boston: Wadsworth.
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History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of the country, that is, about 757,000 people, was comprised of African slaves, out of which about 3% were free from the bonds of slavery. It was in 1790 that the slave uprising against slavery happened in Haiti, where both leaders as well as slaves were black. There were a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24
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African Cuisine

Words: 3878 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55277217

African Restaurant Revival

New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, Russian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.

There has been a growth in the number and quality of African restaurants in the city in the past several years, and the statistics support this trend. As of 2004, there were only seven African restaurants in the entire city. While two of those have since closed, a baker's dozen have…… [Read More]

Resources:
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0

Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
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African Slavery

Words: 2647 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4388725

African Slavery

Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller, or employer without explicit permission and will be returned if they escape (Slavery pp). Although, slavery is outlawed in all countries by United Nations conventions, there are still some states today, such as Myanmar and Sudan that facilitate the institution of slavery (Slavery pp). These "unfree laborers" are usually told…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery.

http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=17957& SelectRegion=West_Africa
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African Studies Is a Complex

Words: 1946 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76456913



Conclusion

Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization provides a great deal of insight into the manner in which individual nations in Africa have coped with a decentralized democratic structure. The purpose of the book was to examine under what conditions decentralization reforms in Africa evolve into effective local governance. The authors consistently explain the political structures of the local governments. In doing so the text illustrates the conditions that lead to successful decentralization efforts. The research presented is lucid and presents readers with a different perspective than other books and scholarly articles on this particular subject. The authors found that factors such as legitimate authority and adequate resources are conditions that are needed to ensure that decentralized democratization can occur.

In addition, the information presented in the text is essential for the continent of Africa, other nations that are undergoing similar changes and the international community as a whole. The detailed insight provided by the authors presents a real account of how local governments serve as the catalysts for political change and strengthen the entire nation. The authors are both optimistic and honest in the manner in which they evaluate the challenges that face Africa as it…… [Read More]

Sources:
Devas N. The Challenges of Decentralization. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from; https://bvc.cgu.gov.br/bitstream/123456789/2037/1/nickdevas-2.pdf

Olowu D, Wunsch JS. 2004. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, Colo.
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History's Great Leaders Great Leaders

Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16841669

They have to determine what needs changing, and then figure out how they are going to change it. Only then can they really accomplish something of importance and worth.

While Powell is clearly involved in military issues, and protecting and defending his country, he is concerned about other issues as well. Education is one of the issues that he sees as important, and he is also interested in helping those in this country who are poor and in need of assistance. Another issue he is concerned about is what he calls 'inclusiveness.' In other words, everyone in this country should be included in what this country does (Ferullo, 2000).

Because of his childhood and some of the segregation that he had to deal with growing up and in the early years of his career, Powell realizes the difficulties that minorities in this country face today. If one is not white, American, and male, there are problems in obtaining high quality jobs and education. It is not always obvious, and it does not always happen, but the potential for discrimination is always there. Even though it is not supposed to be legal, there are ways around that.

In addition to all…… [Read More]

References:
Cable News Network (2003).

Career and Personal Development. (n.d.) General Colin Powell: 18 Lessons from a very successful leader. Retrieved at http://www.littleafrica.com/career/powell.html
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African-American Women's Literature Unlike Any

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93315520

The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what Morrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. Much of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.

Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.

Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would call the most heated years of the civil rights movement (1957-1962). It is for this reason ands well as her unflagging representation of the depth of her character and experience that makes this work about much more than just the surface of her story.

As a serial autobiographer she must…… [Read More]

Resources:
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.

Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.

Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
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African-American Westward Migration

Words: 3585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26760503

African-Americans and Western Expansion

Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been given serious academic treatment for the first time, so much so that neoconservative historians [footnoteRef:1]like Alan J. Levine argued that the process had gone too far in the other direction, and that while racism was "generally accepted in the Western world in 1900" this was no longer the case today.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Painter, Nell Irvin. Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976, 1986.

Quay, Sara E. Westward Expansion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Savage, W. Sherman. Blacks in the West. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.
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African Art

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95562909

African Art is perhaps one of the most original forms of art in the world, mainly because of two important reasons. The first reason is the fact that the generic term "African Art" represents, in fact, the coagulation of regional art forms from people across a vast and diversified continent. From that point-of-view, the art of the continent, or the "African Art," will bear and contain all these different representations at a continental level.

The second reason is that African Art is also a combination of "visual imagery, spiritual beliefs and social purpose" (Gluckman, 2007). From this perspective, African Art is functionally diversified, which means that each of these approaches (the religious, the spiritual or the social ones) will have, as final result, a different output, each valuable in itself, especially if one adds the fact that many of the art objects also had an utilitarian value.

Despite this diversity, there are still elements that are common in African Art throughout the continent (Blier, 2001). One of these characteristics is that African Art generally tends to be based on an abstract rather than a naturalistic approach to the represented object (Blier, 2001). Without wanting to necessarily build an explanation for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1. Monica Blackmun Visona et al. History of Art in Africa. Prentice Hall, New York. (2001)

2. Gluckman, Jason "Ancient African Art." Ancient African Art. 7 Jan. 2007 EzineArticles.com. 4 Dec. 2009 .
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African-American History Brown v Board

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24886661

Board of Education case of 1954. There is no case in education board's history that has played a more important role or has served as a bigger judicial turning point than this case. In the history of important cases, Brown vs. Board of Education occupies a top slot because of its impact not only on education system in the country but on the fate of African-Americans in United States. It just changed the way Americans handled issue of human rights.

In 1950s, racial segregation in schools was a norm. While schools were required to be equal in quality of education, they were also meant to be separate. It was found that even equality principle was not followed in spirit since most black schools offered education which inferior in quality. In 1849, a similar case Roberts vs. City of Boston surfaced to challenge the education system of racial segregation but nothing concrete came out of this. In fact Benjamin Roberts and other African-American parents were denied the right to enroll their children in selected Boston schools. In other words, this case upheld racial segregation. A few years later, in 1855 segregation in schools was abolished by Massachusetts legislature. However it was…… [Read More]

References:
1] Dr. Howard O. Lindsey, "A History of Black America," pg. 34-35

2] Edward W. Knappman, ed., Great American Trials (Detroit: Visible Ink, 1994) 467.
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African Fossil Record Contributions African Fossil Record

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58410767

African Fossil Record Contributions

African Fossil Record

African Fossil Record Contributions to the 'Out of Africa' Theory

The African fossil record represents the foundation upon which modern archeologists base many of their theories concerning the evolutionary history of modern humans (Klein, 2008). When combined with DNA sequencing, the African fossil record shows that modern humans probably emerged about 200-150 ka (thousand years ago) and expanded into Eurasia as recently as 50 ka. This 'Out of Africa' theory would therefore not exist without the African fossil record.

The human fossil record reveals that humans split into three morphologically distinct species approximately 500,000 years ago; Homo sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and H. erectus, in Africa, Europe, and Asia, respectively (Klein, 2008). The African fossil record contains no evidence that Neanderthals were ever in Africa, therefore it is assumed that modern humans emerged in Africa in the absence of a Neanderthal contribution (Klein, 2011). The emergence of modern morphological features is estimated to have occurred in Africa between 250-50 ka. If the evolutionary clock is rolled back still further, H. heidelbergensis probably represents the common ancestor for the H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. H. heidelbergensis fossils date to 600-400 ka and this species is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Klein, Richard G. (2008). Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 267-281.

Shea, John J. (2011). Refuting a myth about human origins: Homo sapiens emerged once, not as modern-looking people first and as modern-behaving people later. American Scientist, 99, 128-135.
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African Restaurants Outline Ooops Sorry Please Disregard

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39393577

African Restaurants Outline

Ooops! Sorry, please disregard!!

Begin by describing one or more than one of the restaurants in Harlem. Include a bevy of sensory details (this is a piece about food, after all). Discuss the colors, scents, the particular types of food being served to people (meats, vegetables, etc.) Also focus briefly on the customer base, note its diversity, add this to the sensory details where possible (for example the click of the utensils as a Russian company enjoys the ambiance of the restaurant, etcetera). The key is to show, don't tell. You don't want the reader to know what you're talking about in the first few paragraphs.

Delivery of the Who, Where, What, Why, How, etcetera

Explain that the aforementioned details can be seen taking place at any variety of African restaurants in Harlem. Denote the vast influx of such restaurants in the past couple of years, including all the ones you named in the instructions, the years they opened, as well as the particular cultures they represent. Be sure to mention those that are set to open and the multi-owners. This is the key part in the article that you truly want to hype up the fact…… [Read More]

References:
Ebony. "African Restaurant Week Storms New York City." www.ebony.com. 2014. Web.  http://www.ebony.com/life/african-restaurant-week-storms-new-york-city-323#axzz35nkQz6Wn 

Harris, Kysha. "New York African Restaurant Week." New York Amsterdam News. 2014. Web. http://amsterdamnews.com/news/2014/apr/24/new-york-african-restaurant-week/
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African Women Slavery What Was Life Like

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56352419

African Women Slavery

What was life like for African female slaves?

When most people hear the word slavery they will often associate it with the harsh living conditions and the demoralizing atmosphere they were going through. While this is true, the reality is that many slaves endured even more suffering. For women, this became worse in comparison with men. Part of the reason for this, is because they were considered to be inferior to men.

This is troubling because, it meant that they would be exposed to a wide variety of abuses at the hands of their slave masters and other slaves. To fully understand what took place, we will look at the underlying levels of privation that were occurring. Once this happens, it will offer specific insights about the overall amounts of difficulties that they had to deal with.

The Typical Life for a Slave Woman

In America prior to the end of the Civil War, there was a division between the whites and blacks within society. As, the whites were considered to be the dominant ruling elite, that controlled many African-Americans (who were considered to be their personal property). This meant that they had the power to do…… [Read More]

Sources:
"Life of Slave." Think Quest. Last modified 2002. http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215469/life_of_a_slave.htm

Davis, Angela. "Black Woman's Perspective." Women, Race and Class. 1- 15. New York, Random House, 1983.
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African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37191607

African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports

Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World).

Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to be a human. In today's time the portrayal of sports, is as antediluvian as race. In their contestable bestseller, Charles Murray and Richard J. Herrnstein said, "Given a chance, each clan will add up its accomplishments using its own weighting system, will encounter the world with confidence in its own…… [Read More]

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African Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33417207



In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.

Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the above factors, the authors hold that African countries tend to also invest excessively in the development of a single export commodity such as mineral or fuel, and thus create excessive dependence upon this commodity while neglecting other equally rich resources.

The reason the authors cite for this is that policy…… [Read More]

Resources:
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.

Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
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African Restaurants

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28680147

There is a fascinating history with this cuisine in New York, as it used to be made surreptitiously in SRO hotel rooms to meet the needs of the underground laborers from West Africa who craved food from home (Sietsema, 2011).

More evidence of the power of this trend comes from New York African Restaurant Week, a bi-annual event that just completed its run, with 17 participating restaurants. The African community in New York has become quite active in promoting its heritage and culture, and this starts with food. The NY African Restaurant Week has become the centerpiece of that effort, highlighting the exception standard of African food in New York.

I propose to produce a multimedia package for the New York Times that includes the following: There will be a 1200-word story focusing on the growth of African dining in New York, the variety of options and the characters involved. There will be a video that will be between 6-8 minutes on the same subject. Unfortunately it will not come with smell-o-vision, but your audience will wish it did. There will also be still photographs of proprietors, food and patrons to illustrate not only the cuisine and characters, but the…… [Read More]

References:
New York African Restaurant Week. (2014) website, various pages. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from  http://nyarw.com/ 

Sietsema, R. (2011). Our 10 best West African restaurants in NYC. Village Voice. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from http://blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/2011/05/our_10_best_wes_1.php
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African-American in the Third Chapter

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51148012



2.

In keeping with the theme of individuality highlighted above, each of the main characters in the assigned readings struggle to define his or her identity in terms of the dichotomies in the society they observe. Each point-of-view differs according to the person's stage of life and background, and each person seeks to establish an identity by means of the cultural and social tools they have at their disposal. At times these tools comprise family members, friends, or teachers, and at others they are something much more focused and personal, such as the intellect or determination.

Sylvia, the main character of "The Lesson," establishes her identity in terms of the financial contrast between her own social construct and those who can spend $1,000 on a toy. For her, the concept of financial security provides a platform for constructing an identity. Her determination to contend with the rich for a place in the world defines her in the end.

For Baraka's main character, Mickey, the search for identity is vaguely personified by the beauty of young "American girls." These girls represent for him the ultimate of being American. It is for him a reality that he cannot attain, but that he…… [Read More]

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African-American Males and the Correlation

Words: 1771 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45144934

In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.

Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.

Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.

Snyder, H., Finnegan, T., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh, PA:

National Center for Juvenile Justice [producer]. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [distributor].

Toborg, M.A., et al. (1989).Assessment of pretrial urine testing in the District of Columbia: Summary report. Washington, DC: U.S.Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. U.S. General Accounting Office.…… [Read More]

References:
American University. (1999). Drug court activity update: Composite summary information, July 1999.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Drug Court Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Project.

American University. (2001). Drug court activity update: Composite summary information, December 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Drug Court Clearinghouse and Technical Assistance Project.