African History Essays (Examples)

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African-Americans History and Culture the False and

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17793718

African-Americans History And Culture

The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.

"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…… [Read More]

References

Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.

Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
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African Studies and Multiculturalism an

Words: 3354 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77964288



Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.

A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.

Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ

Journal 13.5 (1995): 4-7.

Gikandi, Simon. "Chinua Achebe and the Invention of African Culture." Research in African
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African Voodoo

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39476153

African Voodoo

Voodoo, also named Vodun, is an ancient polytheistic religion originating in West Africa. Voodoo spread from West Africa to the New World through the slaves. Today it practiced by an estimated 30 million people in Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Haiti, Benin, Jamaica, and other places throughout the world. Voodoo is often thought of as a "primitive form of magic and belief in ghost" (igaud, 7) however, Voodoo is more complicated than that. It consists of a complex system of beliefs which developed from many ancient world religions and cults. Due to the complexity and origin of Voodoo, there is no central authority to define orthodox beliefs or practices. Each Spiritual House acts independently and therefore a wide variety of theory and practice exists among those who practice Voodoo.

One of the basic beliefs of the Voodooist is that there is one primary creator, named Nana Buluku, who created everything.…… [Read More]

References

Burnett, John. "Voodoo and West Africa's Spiritual Life." NPR (2004): n. pag. Web. 29 Nov 2010 .

Espie, E, and J.F. Ade Ajayi. A Thousand Years of West African History: a handbook for teachers and students. 1st. Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969. Print.

Llc, Books (Editor). Vodou: West African Vodun. 1st. Books LLC, 2010. Print.

Rigaud, Milo. Secrets of Voodoo. 2nd. City Lights Publishers, 1985. 7-12. Print.
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African-Americans & Hispanic-Americans Are Currently

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50200951

As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.

Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.

It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.

Institutional Networks

Institutional networks continue to play…… [Read More]

References

Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm

Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm

Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December

1, 2007 from African-American World web site:  http://www.pbs.org /wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
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History of Africa

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88645817

Harmony to Holocaust

The Portuguese reached the Gold Coast of Africa in 1439. At first, they were impressed with the culture they found. As they worked their way down the coast "[t]hey found people of varying cultures. Some lived in towns ruled by kings with nobility and courtiers very much like the medieval societies they left behind them." (Obadina). Many years later, a visitor from Holland was equally impressed and records his impressions of Benin City in 1600: "As you enter it, the town appears very great. You go into a great broad street, not paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes Street in Amsterdam... The houses in this town stand in good order, one close and even with the other, as the houses in Holland stand..." (qtd. In Obadina). Clearly, at this early stage, the Europeans had a fairly positive view of the…… [Read More]

References

Beard, Oscar L. "Did We Sell Each Other Into Slavery." Hartford-Hwp.com Web Site.

24 May 1999. 5 May 2003. http://www.hargord-hwp.com/archives/30/145.html.

Hooker, Richard. "The Forest Kingdoms." Washington State University Web Site. 6

June 1999 5 May 2003. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/FOREST.htm
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African Leaders and Advocates

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66785971

Social Protection Policies in Africa

Social Protection report in Botswana

The Social Protection Assessment presented by The orld Bank (2013) reports that Botswana has emerged from one of the poorest countries in the world to an "upper middle income country with a per capita GDP of $8,533 in 2011" (orld Bank). Extreme poverty is down to 6.4% (from 23.4% in 2003). Still, there remain big problems: 31.4% of children under the age of 5 suffer malnutrition; unemployment is 17.8%; the rate of HIV / AIDS was estimated at 23.4% in 2011 -- the second highest rate in the world (orld Bank). Botswana has many social protection programs, but many are small and ineffective; an example is the "Destitute Persons" program, in which "only a small fraction" of the very poor receive assistance, and a "large share of the budget goes to administration" (orld Bank). That said, The orld Bank says…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ake, C. (2001). Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington, D.C.: Brookings

Institutional Press.

Falola, T. (2006). Oil, security revived interest in Africa, expert says. University of Delaware. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.udel.edu.

Gettleman, J. (2011). Wangari Maathai, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Dies at 71. The New
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African Literature

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71197570

Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter. It discusses how the style used by the author hinders her presentation of the whole question of male/female relationships within the entire family structure, not just the nuclear family. It also discusses how the reader only has the main character's opinion and not those of the characters around her. Two sources used. APA.

So Long A Letter

Mariama Ba in her novel, "So Long A Letter," gives the audience a glimpse into the Islamic world. The book is written as a letter from the main character, Ramatoulaye, to her childhood friend, Aissatou. It is both a missive and lamentation of Ramatoulaye's life, more than half a century of years. She has reached a cross-road, and as one might retrace his route on a map if lost, she retraces her feelings and experiences that have brought her this far on her journey (Ba 1996). Her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ba, Mariama. Bode-Thomas, Modupe (Translator). So Long a Letter. Reed Publishing, Incorporated. September 1996.

McElaney-Johnson, Ann. "Epistolary Friendship: La prise de parole in Mariama B? Une si longue lettre." Research in African Literatures. Volume 30. July 15, 1999. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Research_in_African_Literatures&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.indiana.edu~S~~iupress~S~journals~S~ral.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ann+McElaney%2DJohnson&title=Epistolary+Friendship%3A+La+prise+de+parole+in+Mariama+B%26%23226%3B%27s+Une+si+longue+lettre++&date=07%2D15%2D1999&query=%22So+Long.(accessed07-19-2002).
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African Nationalism Played a Significant

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57947233



Mills (n.d) explains that historians often dichotomize African nationalism into two distinct groups according to their long-term nationalist goals for post-independence Africa. The first type of group was termed as being the primary resistance, which was characterized as consisting of individuals whose goal was to reinstate the traditional African societies that existed prior to the advent of colonialism. The second type of group was termed as the secondary resistance, which consisted largely of Africa's intellectual elites who wished to develop modern civil societies within post-independence Africa. Mills noted that groups tended to often display both types of resistance tendencies, thus making the dichotomy inapplicable to every situation.

African nationalism came about as a strong reaction towards the unjust political, economic, and social domination of Africa by its European colonialist masters. Nationalists were affected by several ideological influences from outside Africa. Foremost among these influences was the ideology of Pan-Africanism. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited

African nationalism." Hutchinson's encyclopedia website. (2005). Retrieved April 18, 2005 at http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029558.html

Mills, Wallace G. "Nationalist and independence movements in British colonies." (n.d.)

Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course317/13African_Nationalism.html

Mills, Wallace G. "Origins and development of African nationalism." (n.d.) Retrieved April 19, 2005 at http://husky1.stmarys.ca/~wmills/course322/17African_natm.html
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History African Diaspora Subject - Fredrick Douglass Ambassor

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86818821

History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.

Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora

Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.

Africans have…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)

"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm

The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
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African-American History Chicago Citation Robert Purvis Was

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32773785

African-American History

(Chicago Citation)

Robert Purvis was an important member of the abolitionist community in the United States during the mid-1800's. Originally from South Carolina, Purvis was only 1/4 black, and although he was light skinned enough to pass for white, chose to present himself as a black man. Purvis was important for his association with a number of abolitionist causes including the founding of the American Anti-Slavery Society, Young Men's Antislavery Society, and the American Moral Reform Society (AMRS), Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. (Alexander 506) He wrote "Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens to Protest Disenfranchisement in Pennsylvania," used his home as a stop on the Underground Railroad, and support black troops during the Civil ar.

John esley Cromwell was born into slavery but went on to become a lawyer, organizer, historian, educator, and writer. Freed in 1851 when his father purchased his family's freedom, John returned to Virginia after the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Leslie, and Walter Rucker. Encyclopedia of African-American History, Vol. 1.

(Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2010), 506.

Alex-Assensoh, Yvette, and Lawrence Hanks. Black and Multiracial Politics in America.

(New York: New York University Press, 2000), 338.
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African Unity the Organization for

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79051162

It also represents a series of extremely ingrained economic problems. The African Union proceeds from the OAU's ambition to bring some level of cohesiveness to the fiscal and monetary policies driving the continent. Like the EU and APEC before it, the AU takes the position that in the scheme of globalization, its interests are likely best represented in some mode of unity. Accordingly, we find that "economic and monetary union is one of the aims of the African Union. Current African development initiatives envision regional integration in the context of effective macroeconomic management and corporate governance, and enhanced partnership between Africa's best- performers and international development partners. This entails promoting increased regional trade and convergence of monetary policies." (Amoako & Essy, p. 4)

This more concrete orientation suggests that in many ways, the AU would be a natural point in the evolution of the modern African continent, bringing greater practical…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

African Union Commission (AUC). (1973). AU in a Nutshell. AU.Int.

Amoako, K.Y. & Essy, A. (2002). African Development Forum III (ADF III). UNPAN.

Globalization and Workers Rights (GWR). (2010). Organization of African Unity. ITCILO.org.

Organization for African Unity (OAU). (2001). Summit on AIDS. SYDAFRIKA.dk.
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African Wars

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49408327

African Wars

The period after the Second World War saw the decolonization of Africa and the establishment of many new nations. But these new states often degenerated into conflict with their neighbors, internal uprisings and revolutions, as well as ethnic and religious clashes. The conflicts in Africa often mirrored global tensions as the Cold War reached its peak and both the Soviet Union and the United States vied for African allies and supporters. For example, Angola was the site of civil war in which both the U.S. And the U.S.S.. played an active part. The combination of problems which surfaced as a result of decolonization along with the geopolitical situation of the Cold War led to a number of situations in which ethnic and tribal rivalries, political ideology, and economic forces created conflicts throughout Africa.

As Africa was colonized in the 18th and 19th centuries the Europeans imposed upon the…… [Read More]

Reference List

Black, Jeremy. (2005). War Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books.

Clayton, Anthony. (1999). Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since 1950. London: UCL

Press.

Wood, J.R.T.. (2011). "Countering the Chimurenga." In Counterinsurgency in Modern
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History as Myth This-Based Myth Atreus Thyestes

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23861822

History As Myth

This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.

Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae

Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…… [Read More]

References

Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A

recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:

 http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/ 

The war: The crossroads of our being. (2002). The Civil War. PBS. Retrieved:
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African-Americans During Early 1900's the

Words: 2241 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13395552

At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.

The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values…… [Read More]

Bibliography

African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007  http://www.pbs.org /wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html

Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,

Encyclopedia Britannica, Jim Crow law, 2007. 28 April 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043641/Jim-Crow-law/

Grossman, James. "Great Migration." The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. 2004. 28 April 2007   http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html
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History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…… [Read More]

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History of the American South

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21207367

However, they "were too few in number to provide adequate protection and were not always themselves fully committed to ensuring justice for freed blacks" (Cary Royce 67). The American public wanted reform to happen but few people were actually willing to risk their position in society by supporting black people. As a consequence, former slaves were provided with little support and were practically forced to maintain many of their attributes as slaves despite the fact that they were free.

orks cited:

Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History orkshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)

Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (estport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)

Lanza, Michael, L. Agrarianism and Reconstruction Politics: The…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History Workshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)

Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
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African-American Families 1950s AB Annotated

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5305900

The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.

Secondary Sources

Jewell, K. Sue. 2003. Survival of the African-American Family: The Institutional Impact of U.S. Social Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jewell develops a social history that demonstrates all the many disparities of the African-American vs. majority culture and how these disparities, legal, social and economic…… [Read More]

McLoyd's work brings to mind the manner in which the 1950s conservative slant echoed the discrimination of the past and present. The work demonstrates that during the 1950s academic work began to be even more direct with its assassination of the individual as the source of limited progress. In other words the period demonstrates an extreme prejudice, where African-American Families themselves were in short blamed directly for their inability to succeed in the American landscape, regardless of the fact that the social, legal and economic conditions were almost completely against them.

Itagaki, Lynn M. 2003. Transgressing Race and Community in Chester Himes's if He Hollers Let Him Go. African-American Review 37, no. 1: 65.

Itagaki's work is a literary and social criticism of the works of Chester Himes, an African-American man who moved his family to Los Angels in the late 1940s and through the 1950s and 60s experienced contradictions in the ideal and the actions of those living there. The white community rejected and repressed the African-American family with all the same and worse segregation and discrimination when they were attempting to grow and become stronger, many by leaving the south. The work describes the volume of Himes' works but looks most closely at his beloved novel if He Hollers Let Him Go. The message of the work is distinctly responsive to the 1950s as a period of social transition for the African-American families, as they are told one thing and treated in a manner altogether different.
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Africans at the Crossroads

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75080081

African-Americans have been and are still continuing to be affected disproportionately by poverty, mortality rates for treatable diseases and employment discrimination, as recent studies show. A study last month resolved that black patients die from cancer at higher rates than whites, and still another study found that employers still practice a form of racial profiling that prevents many African-Americans from entering or moving up in the job market. While these and other finding point to the continued existence of institutional racism, conservatives have conducted efforts in the last years to dismantle affirmative action programs, arguing that they are no longer needed. Many say that the U.S. is unable to recognize and deal with contemporary racism because it has also been unable to deal with its past history of slavery, and with slavery's legacy.

One of the most influential and monumental leaders for the freedom of Blacks was one Malcolm Little…… [Read More]

Philip Randolph stepped into the limelight and became a very visible national spokesperson for African-American rights in the 1940s and 1950s. He focused his attention on the rising number of blacks on relief and the number of defense industry jobs that were increasing with the war effort heating up. These jobs traditionally excluded blacks. Randolph proposed the March on Washington - a mass action protest to demand change. He was also a great leader and helped the Blacks get their freedom.

James Farmer was also a great black leader and his efforts paid seed into the black freedom movement although he himself could never see through to the end of his dream. Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty.

Information on the leaders from: http://www.stanford.edu/~tommyz/
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African-American History What Was the

Words: 1909 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7538952

Nevertheless, when a specific law was disgustingly unfair, that unfair law itself placed a threat on the society's reverence for law in general. In case the unfair law was not possible to be changed by way of regular legal channels, intentional breaching of that particular law may be defensible. Since the person committing civil disobedience had utmost regard for the value of law, he would breach the unfair law in gay abandon, and he would eagerly acknowledge the outcomes for infringing it. He will get involved in breaching the law and admit its punishment as a vehicle of drawing the interest of the community to the dissipation of that particular law. (the Civil ights Movement: The Immigrant Heritage of America) King also stressed how significant it was that the civil rights campaign did not percolate to the stage of racists and hate mongers they struggled against. The ideology of King…… [Read More]

References

Austin, Curtis J. On Violence and Nonviolence: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. Retrieved at http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature24/ms_civil_rights.html. Accessed on 20 May, 2005

Coombs, Norman. The Civil Rights Movement. The Immigrant Heritage of America. Twayne Press. 1972. Retrieved at http://www.csusm.edu/Black_Excellence/documents/pg-c-r-movement.html. Accessed on 20 May, 2005

Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved at  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html . Accessed on 20 May, 2005

Kennedy, Randall. Martin Luther King's Constitution: a Legal History of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Yale Law Journal; April, 1989. No: 98; pp: 999-1067. Retrieved at  http://academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/civilrights03.htm . Accessed on 20 May, 2005
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African-American Slave Art the African-American

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25136544

e learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.

orks Cited

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.

Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com

Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.

Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com

Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
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African-Americans Are Second Only to Native Americans

Words: 3977 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84650386

African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63

Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php

George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm

High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
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African Studies the Media Is

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94730732

.."1.

Although the movie does concentrate on saving the black people on being stereotyped there is a contradiction, it doesn't defend their violent nature. Again the audience is faced with a raw clan which commits murder. lack, violent, illiterate people it is negative image that has been presented several times through the media. In spite of this it is worth considering that the director desire was not at all to depict black people as being very cult people, but he wanted to show two different perspectives about black people, one of them is that some are smart and educated and others have a more furious nature due to the fact that they lack education. The media in any case should not present an elementary part of the black culture. It is rather dazzling to see on the screen such a complex black character as Delacroix. The reviews revealed that people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Rux, Carl "Eminem the new white negro," Everything but the burden: what white people are taking from black culture, Greg Tate. Broadway Books, 2003

Dyson Michael, "Race rules: navigating the color line, http://www.amazon.com

Bamboozled, Wikipedia, The free Encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboozled

Rux, Carl "Eminem the new white negro," Everything but the burden: what white people are taking from black culture, Greg Tate. Broadway Books, 2003
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African-American Heritage & the Amish African-American People

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78770904

African-American Heritage & the Amish

African-American people traditionally have different communication patterns and family roles than their white counterparts. They are more likely to have families headed by single parents (usually single mothers) and they are also more likely to have poor communication skills and not express their deepest feelings so that they can get help for the family problems they are facing (Franklin & Moss, 2001). Unemployment and underemployment runs high through the African-American community, although there are certainly exceptions. Because the culture of the majority of African-American people is different from the culture seen in the white community, the interaction between the two groups can sometimes be more complex than one would expect. African-Americans are more likely to be part of the high-risk population when it comes to health and well-being (both mental and physical), and they are more like to live in areas of the country and…… [Read More]

References

Franklin, J.H., & Moss, A. (2001). From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African-Americans. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Kraybill, D.B. & Olshan, M. A, ed. (1994). The Amish Struggle with Modernity. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Salzman, J., ed. (1996). Encyclopedia of Afro-American culture and history, New York, New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA.
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History of Alabama History of

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92750473

At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.

The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.

Conclusion

Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…… [Read More]

Works cited

Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108176.html

Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times

Oct. 18, 2010: 3
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African and Native Americans When Discussing the

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4056412

African and Native Americans

When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22

(2005): 273-284.

Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."

The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
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African Athena Controversy Ancient History

Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11222459



This exchange of cultural ideas and manifestations sounds suspiciously like that propagated by Bernal under his Revised Ancient Model. Yet, for some reason, Lefkowitz feels the need to spend the bulk of her article antagonizing Bernal and polarizing him as if he is advocating some sort of Afrocentric stance. This fact is evinced by the preceding passage, in which she references another author -- one who is decidedly pro-Afrocentric -- in what is supposed to be her critique or commentary about ideas advocated by Bernal. Still, the fact remains that even Lefkowitz agrees with Bernal in the notion of the Revised Ancient Model

A review of the works of all three authors demonstrates how necessary competitive plausibility is for the study of history. Since none of the authors were present during the historical events they are discussing, they can only surmise (in as logical a fashion as possible) what they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lefkowitz, Mary R. "Ancient History, Modern Myths." Black Athena Revisited. Eds. Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. Chapel Hill & London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

2. Bernal, Martin. "Introduction" Black Athena Writes Back. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2001.

3. Berlinerblau, Jacques. "The Aryan Models." Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
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History New Jersey Slavery

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73720127



By March 2, 1785, it was clear that New Jersey had begun to try to ban slavery, as the legislature enacted a law banning "foreign slave trade in the state" (p. 115). And in 1786, the New Jersey Society for the Abolition of Slavery was founded, although the citizens of Monmouth "were deeply divided" over whether or not slavery should be banned from the state.

Meantime, during the 1790s, several "gradual emancipation" bills were voted down in the New Jersey legislature, albeit (p. 124) "popular opinion and party newspapers cautiously shifted" towards an anti-slavery position. The citizens were clearly divided on the issue, as the author points out on page 125: Quakers opposed to slavery were accused by proslavery interests of "harboring pro-British attitudes" and were accused of "poisoning the minds of our slaves." Other extremists in the proslavery ranks pushed the notion that the Quakers antislavery movement was just…… [Read More]

Reference

Hodges, Graham Russell (1997). Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North. Madison,

Wisconsin: Madison House.
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African-American Literature the Experience of

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93076975

He had lived his life as a white child, and even after his discovery of his true race lived as a white man. He was allowed to pass as white, and therefore turned his back on his real heritage. Thus, his blackness became a secret, something to be ashamed of and hide; "I know that in writing the following pages I am divulging the great secret of my life, the secret which for some years I have guarded far more carefully than any of my earthly possessions," (Johnson 2). This shows a much different reaction to the understanding of oneself as black in the United States.

Both these texts involve understanding oneself relative to how others view you. Realistically, from a physical standpoint, being African-American means little difference to being white. However, from a social and psychological standpoint, it is a major difference, especially in the tie period these stories…… [Read More]

Cornell University Law School. "Civil Rights." Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 10 Sep 2009 at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/civil_rights.

Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to Be a Colored Me." Mules and Men. The University of Virginia. Retrieved 10 Sep 2009 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Grand-Jean/Hurston/Chapters/how.html .

Johnson, James Weldon. Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Kessinger Publishing. 2004.
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African Athena Everyone Who Has

Words: 1934 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80468431

Therefore, the beliefs of ancient writers cannot be taken as evidence in the same way as the finding of archaeological evidence can. If Egyptians or Phoenicians had permanently colonized Greece, it is likely that someone would have found the remnants of Egyptian or Phoenician buildings, as well as Egyptian writing, tombs, and other physical evidence of their colonization activities. One would expect that if there was an Egyptian influence in the origins of Greek civilization, the Greeks may have built in the Egyptian style, instead of creating a completely unique style of architecture. There has been no evidence discovered that would indicate a large scale, permanent Egyptian or Phoenician colonization.

Martin Bernal does a very good job of analyzing the sociological forces that influenced the creation of the "Aryan" model, however, the fact that the Aryan model has been misused is not evidence that disputes the idea that Greek civilization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berlinerblau, Jacques. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy

and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers

UP, 1999. Print.

Bernal, Martin and David Chioni Moore. Black Athena Writes Back:
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History Questions Chap14 Senator Douglas Created the Kansas

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38552966

History Questions/Chap14

Senator Douglas created the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a way to appease both sides of the slavery issue, but this action resulted in increased tensions and hostility. Do you think the problems that resulted from creating these territories could have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why not?

The problems that resulted from the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories could not have been prevented because by 1854, the nation was already divided by the slavery question and tensions were high. There was more at stake than merely the question of whether or not blacks should be free and in fact for most people, on either side of the debate, personal and business interests were what really mattered, not the morality of making slaves out of fellow human beings.

As the United States expanded westward, controversy swirled as citizens debated whether new territories should be…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, D.M., Cohen, L., & Bailey, T.A. (2010). The American Pageant. AP Edition.

Boston: Wadsworth.

Schultz, K. (2011). HIST: Volume 2. Independence, KY: Cengage
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History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html. Accessed on 28 June, 2005
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African Cuisine

Words: 3878 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55277217

African estaurant evival

New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.

There…… [Read More]

References

Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0

Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/

Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3

Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com:  http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
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African Slavery

Words: 2647 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4388725

African Slavery

Slavery has existed since the beginning history, and references can be found throughout the Old Testament and other ancient writings from around the globe. Slaves were often the spoils of wars and battles for the victors, and usually were a different ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from those who enslaved them (Slavery pp). In the majority of cases, intermarriage, granting of liberty, and the right to buy one's own freedom have caused slave and slave-owning populations to merge throughout the world (Slavery pp). Slavery is almost always practiced for the purpose of securing labor and in the strictest sense, slaves have no rights (Slavery pp). The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised," thus, a slave is someone who cannot leave an owner, master, overseer, controller,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Niger: IRIN -- Focus on Slavery.

http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=17957& SelectRegion=West_Africa

Obadina, Tunde. "Slave trade: a root of contemporary African Crisis."

  http://www.afbis.com/analysis/slave.htm
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African Studies Is a Complex

Words: 1946 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76456913



Conclusion

Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization provides a great deal of insight into the manner in which individual nations in Africa have coped with a decentralized democratic structure. The purpose of the book was to examine under what conditions decentralization reforms in Africa evolve into effective local governance. The authors consistently explain the political structures of the local governments. In doing so the text illustrates the conditions that lead to successful decentralization efforts. The research presented is lucid and presents readers with a different perspective than other books and scholarly articles on this particular subject. The authors found that factors such as legitimate authority and adequate resources are conditions that are needed to ensure that decentralized democratization can occur.

In addition, the information presented in the text is essential for the continent of Africa, other nations that are undergoing similar changes and the international community as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Devas N. The Challenges of Decentralization. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from; https://bvc.cgu.gov.br/bitstream/123456789/2037/1/nickdevas-2.pdf

Olowu D, Wunsch JS. 2004. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, Colo.

Peck R. African Today (Book Reviews) Olowu, Dele, and James S. Wunsch. 2004. Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization. 51.3 (2005) 138-140

Olowu D, Wunsch JS. 2004. Local governance in Africa: the challenges of democratic decentralization. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, Colo.
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African-American Women's Literature Unlike Any

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93315520

The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what orrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. uch of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.

Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.

Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would…… [Read More]

Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.

Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.

Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
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African-American Westward Migration

Words: 3585 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26760503

African-Americans and Western Expansion

Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.

Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.

Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
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African Art

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95562909

African Art is perhaps one of the most original forms of art in the world, mainly because of two important reasons. The first reason is the fact that the generic term "African Art" represents, in fact, the coagulation of regional art forms from people across a vast and diversified continent. From that point-of-view, the art of the continent, or the "African Art," will bear and contain all these different representations at a continental level.

The second reason is that African Art is also a combination of "visual imagery, spiritual beliefs and social purpose" (Gluckman, 2007). From this perspective, African Art is functionally diversified, which means that each of these approaches (the religious, the spiritual or the social ones) will have, as final result, a different output, each valuable in itself, especially if one adds the fact that many of the art objects also had an utilitarian value.

Despite this diversity,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Monica Blackmun Visona et al. History of Art in Africa. Prentice Hall, New York. (2001)

2. Gluckman, Jason "Ancient African Art." Ancient African Art. 7 Jan. 2007 EzineArticles.com. 4 Dec. 2009 .

3. Blier, Suzanne. Africa, Art, and History: An Introduction. In A History of Art in Africa. Pearson. 2001.
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African-American History Brown v Board

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24886661

Board of Education case of 1954. There is no case in education board's history that has played a more important role or has served as a bigger judicial turning point than this case. In the history of important cases, Brown vs. Board of Education occupies a top slot because of its impact not only on education system in the country but on the fate of African-Americans in United States. It just changed the way Americans handled issue of human rights.

In 1950s, racial segregation in schools was a norm. While schools were required to be equal in quality of education, they were also meant to be separate. It was found that even equality principle was not followed in spirit since most black schools offered education which inferior in quality. In 1849, a similar case oberts vs. City of Boston surfaced to challenge the education system of racial segregation but nothing…… [Read More]

References

1] Dr. Howard O. Lindsey, "A History of Black America," pg. 34-35

2] Edward W. Knappman, ed., Great American Trials (Detroit: Visible Ink, 1994) 467.

3] Knappman 467.

4] Benjamin Munn Ziegler, ed., Desegregation and the Supreme Court (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1958) 78-79
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African Fossil Record Contributions African Fossil Record

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58410767

African Fossil ecord Contributions

African Fossil ecord

African Fossil ecord Contributions to the 'Out of Africa' Theory

The African fossil record represents the foundation upon which modern archeologists base many of their theories concerning the evolutionary history of modern humans (Klein, 2008). When combined with DNA sequencing, the African fossil record shows that modern humans probably emerged about 200-150 ka (thousand years ago) and expanded into Eurasia as recently as 50 ka. This 'Out of Africa' theory would therefore not exist without the African fossil record.

The human fossil record reveals that humans split into three morphologically distinct species approximately 500,000 years ago; Homo sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and H. erectus, in Africa, Europe, and Asia, respectively (Klein, 2008). The African fossil record contains no evidence that Neanderthals were ever in Africa, therefore it is assumed that modern humans emerged in Africa in the absence of a Neanderthal contribution (Klein, 2011).…… [Read More]

References

Klein, Richard G. (2008). Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 267-281.

Shea, John J. (2011). Refuting a myth about human origins: Homo sapiens emerged once, not as modern-looking people first and as modern-behaving people later. American Scientist, 99, 128-135.
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African Restaurants Outline Ooops Sorry Please Disregard

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39393577

African Restaurants Outline

Ooops! Sorry, please disregard!!

Begin by describing one or more than one of the restaurants in Harlem. Include a bevy of sensory details (this is a piece about food, after all). Discuss the colors, scents, the particular types of food being served to people (meats, vegetables, etc.) Also focus briefly on the customer base, note its diversity, add this to the sensory details where possible (for example the click of the utensils as a Russian company enjoys the ambiance of the restaurant, etcetera). The key is to show, don't tell. You don't want the reader to know what you're talking about in the first few paragraphs.

Delivery of the ho, here, hat, hy, How, etcetera

Explain that the aforementioned details can be seen taking place at any variety of African restaurants in Harlem. Denote the vast influx of such restaurants in the past couple of years, including…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ebony. "African Restaurant Week Storms New York City." www.ebony.com. 2014. Web.  http://www.ebony.com/life/african-restaurant-week-storms-new-york-city-323#axzz35nkQz6Wn 

Harris, Kysha. "New York African Restaurant Week." New York Amsterdam News. 2014. Web.  http://amsterdamnews.com/news/2014/apr/24/new-york-african-restaurant-week/
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African-American Culture & My Family

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24399993



SIX: How does your family culture affect the formation of gender roles? There are many families in the African-American community that consist only of a mother. It is no secret that in a large number of Black families, the father is gone. I am blessed because my parents have pretty much shared responsibilities for the home and our income; we have no gender issues.

SEVEN: Is a language other than English used in your household? No

EIGHT: Give examples of nonverbal communication that you can trace to your culture. Typically African-Americans make strong eye contact with each other. Certainly in my family they do. Culturally it is true that African-Americans use more eye contact when they are talking and less when listening. Also, African-Americans touch or hug on greeting.

NINE: How does your family trace its roots? My family knows our roots and we learn all we need to know…… [Read More]

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African Women Slavery What Was Life Like

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56352419

African Women Slavery

What was life like for African female slaves?

When most people hear the word slavery they will often associate it with the harsh living conditions and the demoralizing atmosphere they were going through. While this is true, the reality is that many slaves endured even more suffering. For women, this became worse in comparison with men. Part of the reason for this, is because they were considered to be inferior to men.

This is troubling because, it meant that they would be exposed to a wide variety of abuses at the hands of their slave masters and other slaves. To fully understand what took place, we will look at the underlying levels of privation that were occurring. Once this happens, it will offer specific insights about the overall amounts of difficulties that they had to deal with.

The Typical Life for a Slave Woman

In America prior…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Life of Slave." Think Quest. Last modified 2002. http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215469/life_of_a_slave.htm

Davis, Angela. "Black Woman's Perspective." Women, Race and Class. 1- 15. New York, Random House, 1983.

Hughes, Sarah. "Gender in European Colonization." Women in World History. 100 -- 105. Armonk, ME Sharp, 1997.

Morrison, Kathleen. "African-American Cultural Context." Family Violence, 5 -7. Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2004.
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African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37191607

African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports

Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).

Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.

The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.

The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.

Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address     http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html    . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
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African-American Housing Chicago Study Chicago

Words: 2715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8081549

" (Seitles, 1996)

Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic realities for minorities. Due to the lack of interaction between racial groups, African-Americans are unprepared to work and socialize in a white majority society, while conversely, whites are not relating to, working with, or living with blacks. Prospects for African-American children raised in such communities are greatly diminished because of the lack of interaction between blacks and whites. Moreover, minority possibilities for advancement consequently decline from the lower quality of education afforded to them in ghetto schools, precluding them from competing for high-income employment. Although these inequalities are not always directly caused by intentional discrimination, residential racial segregation perpetuates these inequalities. Thus, minorities who live in racially homogeneous communities are faced with disadvantages beyond the present economic and social inequalities associated…… [Read More]

References

Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle Class Reform, 1880-1930 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Appendix A, 407-410. Online available at: Plotkin (1997) http://www.public.asu.edu/~wplotkin/DeedsWeb/newberry.html

Wilen, William P. & Stasell, Wendy L. (2000) Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis: The Conflict Between Achieving Integration and Providing Decent Housing for Very Low-Income African-Americans Copyright 2000 by National Center on Poverty Law. All rights reserved. 34 Clearinghouse Rev. 117. http://www.povertylaw.org/legalresearch/articles/free/wilen.htm

Ranney, D. & Wright P. (2000) Race, Class, and the Abuse of State Power: The Case of Public Housing in Chicago Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement 2000 March, Publication#: V172 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/voorheesctr/racepaper.htm

Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis:
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African Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33417207



In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.

Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.

Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
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African Restaurants

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28680147

There is a fascinating history with this cuisine in New York, as it used to be made surreptitiously in SO hotel rooms to meet the needs of the underground laborers from West Africa who craved food from home (Sietsema, 2011).

More evidence of the power of this trend comes from New York African estaurant Week, a bi-annual event that just completed its run, with 17 participating restaurants. The African community in New York has become quite active in promoting its heritage and culture, and this starts with food. The NY African estaurant Week has become the centerpiece of that effort, highlighting the exception standard of African food in New York.

I propose to produce a multimedia package for the New York Times that includes the following: There will be a 1200-word story focusing on the growth of African dining in New York, the variety of options and the characters involved.…… [Read More]

References

New York African Restaurant Week. (2014) website, various pages. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from  http://nyarw.com/ 

Sietsema, R. (2011). Our 10 best West African restaurants in NYC. Village Voice. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from http://blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/2011/05/our_10_best_wes_1.php

Wainaina, B. (2005). How to write about African food. Voices of Africa. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from  http://voicesofafrica.co.za/how-to-write-about-african-food/
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African-American in the Third Chapter

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51148012



2.

In keeping with the theme of individuality highlighted above, each of the main characters in the assigned readings struggle to define his or her identity in terms of the dichotomies in the society they observe. Each point-of-view differs according to the person's stage of life and background, and each person seeks to establish an identity by means of the cultural and social tools they have at their disposal. At times these tools comprise family members, friends, or teachers, and at others they are something much more focused and personal, such as the intellect or determination.

Sylvia, the main character of "The Lesson," establishes her identity in terms of the financial contrast between her own social construct and those who can spend $1,000 on a toy. For her, the concept of financial security provides a platform for constructing an identity. Her determination to contend with the rich for a place…… [Read More]

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African-American Males and the Correlation

Words: 1771 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45144934

In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.

Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.

Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.

Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…… [Read More]

The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578

Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).

African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
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African Americans Males in Incarceration and the Contemporary Problems it Cause in the African-American Community

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44142102

African-American Incarceration

African-American Race and the Criminal Justice System: The Effect on Black Communities

Racial Disparities and Incarceration

Recent studies have shown that race is a factor in the criminal justice system. For example, a study analyzing statewide sentencing outcomes in Pennsylvania for 1989-1992, found that, net of controls: (1) young black males are sentenced more harshly than any other group, (2) race is most influential in the sentencing of younger rather than older males (Steffensmeier, et al., 1998). The relationship between African-American males and the criminal justice system has been described as being no less than a crisis. In recent years policy attention regarding the crisis of the African-American male has focused on a variety of areas in which African-American males have suffered disproportionately from social ills. These have included education, housing, employment, and health care, among others. Perhaps in no other area, though, have these problems been displayed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mauer, Mark (1999) The Crisis of the Young African-American Male and the Criminal Justice System." Prepared for U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

April 15-16, 1999 Washington, D.C.

Pettit, Becky & Bruce Western (2004) "Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration." American Sociological Review 69: 151.

Roberts, Dorothy E. (2004) "The Social and Moral Cost of Mass Incarceration in African-American Communities" Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 5, 2004 Stanford Law Review Symposium: Punishment and Its Purposes (Apr., 2004), pp. 1271-1305.
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African-American in the Media the Comedy Barbershop

Words: 854 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62419138

African-American in the Media

The comedy Barbershop, starring Ice Cube juxtaposes the harshness of city life with the resiliency of the people living in the city. The movie with its black cast has an impressive standing in the movie industry for the year 2002. I'm not sure that I agree that this specific film means a breakthrough for African-Americans in the industry. The Black person has after all been part of the industry for a long time, and there are many African-American stars, not featured in this movie, who have made a great success of their movie careers.

The "integration period" for example is determined to be around the years 1949-1969. During this period there is an integration of Black people into the societies depicted in films. Thus the African-American is portrayed in a more positive way. Also, "black" themes and issues of conflict among races and peers are depicted…… [Read More]

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African-American Religious Movements the African-American Religious Experience

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3451596

African-American Religious Movements

The African-American religious experience went through a period of "…extraordinary change" in the years between I and II (Fulop, et al., 1997, p. 314). Several "sects" and "cults" worshiped in storefront churches, moving from "mainline churches" into organizations that had political, fraternal and "benevolent" approaches to spirituality. But as to mainline Black churches, between 1926 and 1936, the Black Baptist movement grew from 3.2 million to 3.8 million and hence by 1936 the Black Baptist congregation had become the largest Christian church affiliated with the African-American community; indeed, 67% of "all Black Church members" were connected to the Black Baptist movement (Fulop, 315). This growth within the Back Baptist faith was partly due to the decrease in Black membership of the African Methodist church, the Churches of Christ and the Churches of the Living God (Fulop, 315).

Nation of Islam: allace D. Fard came to the United…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fulop, Timothy Earl, and Raboteau, Albert J. (1997). African-American Religion: Interpretive

Essays in History and Culture. Florence, KY: Psychology Press.

Nation of Islam. (2012). National of Islam in America / A Nation of Beauty & Peace. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.noi.org/about.shtml.

Public Broadcasting Service. (2006). This Far by Faith. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from  http://www.pbs.org .
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African-American Suicide Extra Pages African-American

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40372363

If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.

The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…… [Read More]

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African-American Males Developmental Pathways Model

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98238472



Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.

Contextualism

Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri

ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.

According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar.  http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm 

Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."

Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press

Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
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History of the Texas Range

Words: 6519 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2421645

(Famous Cattle Trails)

The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.

ecognizing the…… [Read More]

References

Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X? ???[X? ?H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
?]Y?\?  ?
B???Y??[? ?X?[?
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History of the World in

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9274352

111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.

long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…… [Read More]

After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/events/calendar/drink.htm
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History of Wrestling An Overview

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56626960

In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," est Virginia resting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.

The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "omen from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dicker, Ron. "Olympic wrestling." Lifewire. [28 Feb 2012]

http://olympics.about.com/lw/Sports-Recreation/Amateur-sports/Olympic-Wrestling-an-Illustrated-History.htm

"Cutting weight." Independent Lens, 2000. [28 Feb 2012

  http://www.pbs.org /independentlens/girlwrestler/cutting_weight.html
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History of Bands Wind Ensembles as Related to Music Education

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58354132

History Of Bands/Wind Ensembles

The Wind Ensemble

The modern wind ensemble was born in 1952. Frederick Fennel created the Eastman Wind Ensemble in that year. For this ensemble Fennel created an entirely new instrumentation, which used the instruments that were normally found in symphonic bands or concert bands. However, unlike these bands, Fennel made each section playable by only one person, instead of an entire group. In this arrangement, every player has the chance to play solos and therefore have a greater challenge. Fennel worked hard on getting composers to write music for this arrangement. Composers would write music for it that was much like the winds and percussion section of an orchestra, but with added instruments like the saxophone and euphonium.

One of the only composers that wrote music for bands was Sousa, who composed march pieces. Other than marches, most music played at band concerts was transcribed from…… [Read More]

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African-Americans the History of African-Americans

Words: 2442 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32058656

S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.

Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…… [Read More]

References Cited.

Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.

Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65

Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131

Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
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History-u S Before 1865 the Diplomacy

Words: 1269 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74980073

Pletcher puts forth the point that many wished to overtake Texas, for example, from Mexican control because of a certain level of hatred on the part of Americans for their neighbors south of the border. Perhaps, as well, there was a certain level of jealousy on the part of Americans for the extensive culture, lifestyle and tradition of the Mexican people, something which was not existent in any major way in the United States at that time.

It is said that history repeats itself, and in the connection between racism and early annexation, there is no exception. Pletcher is correct in his discussion of the very real possibility that the seeds of racism against Mexico that started so many years ago were something that was still alive and well in the 1970s. Also, this point is still emerging in the current events of today.

Southerners Seeking to Extend Slavery

As…… [Read More]

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African Nationalism or Nationalist Movement

Words: 1093 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30191048

By nationalism they meant not only the cultivation of love for their land and nation but also the development of an identity -- A sense of who Africans were and what they stood for which would be based on nothing that white people had been teaching but on something that would be exclusive to Africa and African consciousness.

The new sense of self would then reflect in all the actions of African people including their writings. It was believed that oppressors so dominate the minds and souls of the conquered people, that the latter start believing in their inferiority and try to please their oppressor by producing work that would be more universal in its subject. However that had to change if Africans wanted to believe in themselves. They would need to address their own people, their own problems and their own cultures and write for their own audiences which…… [Read More]

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African-American Culture

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92761997

African-American Culture

Culture comes into existence with the development of various beliefs and values shared by people living together. Many cultures take part in shaping and molding the life practices of people and construct a framework, which serves as a guidance in many aspects. A culture is what creates an identity of people, gives them a name to be known by people and delivers the characteristics solely attributed to that specific group of people. A culture is also responsible for shaping the religious beliefs of a person. In true sense the religious practices, health practices and other relating practices combine to grow into cultures, which eventually distinguishes them from other people of unique culture (Purnell, 2009). In the book Guide to Culturally Competent Health Care written by Larry Purnell there are various cultures discussed with respect to their health behaviors and nutrition. For this research paper, African-American culture has been…… [Read More]

References

Fabre, G., & O'Meally, R. (1994). History and Memory in African-American Culture. London: Oxford University Press.

Nichols, C. (2006). African-American Culture. Vero Beach, Fla.: Rourke.

Purnell, L.D. (2009). Guide to Culturally Competent Health Care. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.
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African-American Literature

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70377917

African-American Literature

Unfortunately, the perverted socio-economic institution known as slavery has always had significantly greater psychological ramifications and horrors for women, than it has traditionally had for men. This is particularly the case when one considers chattel slavery, such as that which was prevalent in the United States in the inception of this country's founding. Many of the perverse manifestations made evident by slavery's effects upon women are detailed in Harriet Jacob's thinly veiled fictional/autobiographical accounting of her life entitled An Incident in the Life of a Slave Girl. hile the inhumane, unnatural occurrence of having one's body, soul and mind owned as a piece of property by another is similar for both men and women, the effects of this perceived ownership are inherently different for women and affects the nature not only of their servitude, but of their attempts to escape it.

The attempt to escape slavery is one…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Barnes and Nobles. 2005. Print.
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History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]

References

McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from   http://www.pbs.org /wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html 

Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from  http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/ 

Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439

Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  
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History Politics

Words: 484 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19414299

History / Politics

There are a number of salient issues to consider when discerning a mayoral candidate for a city as large and as prominent as New York City. Many of these issues are discussed within this week's readings, the introduction to Bruce Berg's New York City Politics: Governing Gotham, and "The Tiger" from Luc Sante's Low Life. The principle point of commonality dealt with between these two works is social issues pertaining to the results of economic prowess (or the lack thereof). There are many poor people in disadvantaged social positions in New York (Sante 258). Viewed from this lens, I whole heartedly advocate Bill de Blasio as the next mayor of New York.

De Blasio, who is a Democrat, is the antithesis of the Republican candidate, Joe Lhota. Lhota and his vision of the city and its governance are widely in accordance with that of incumbent Michael Bloomberg,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berg, Bruce. New York City Politics: Governing Gotham. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 2007. Print.

Sante, Luc. Low Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1991. Print.
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African Beginnings Africa Was the

Words: 8160 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90731928

This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."

This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.

In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible,"      http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html      (accessed September 20, 2010).

BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).

"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES,"       http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html      , (accessed September 20, 2010).
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History of the Buffalo Soldier

Words: 830 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17665059

History Of the uffalo Soldier

The First uffalo Soldiers

Origins and Honors of the uffalo Soldiers

Prejudice

Monument and Conclusion

The History of the uffalo Soldier

uffalo soldier, dreadlock rasta:

There was a buffalo soldier in the heart of america,

Stolen from africa, brought to america,

Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival.

I mean it, when I analyze the stench

To me it makes a lot of sense:

How the dreadlock rasta was the buffalo soldier,

And he was taken from africa, brought to america,

Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival.

"uffalo Soldier," Marley/Sporty

The uffalo Soldiers may be best known in modern popular culture because of the song "uffalo Soldier" by ob Marley and King Sporty. Unfortunately, even though masses of people can sing along to this reggae classic, few people understand the deep significance of this song as a celebration of overcoming racial boundaries in the United States.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

'Buffalo Soldier." Wikipedia. 26 July 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_soldier

IMSD. "Buffalo Soldier Monument." International Military Student Division. Command & General Staff College. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/dsa/iosd/graduates/pubs/bsmonument.asp

Marley, Bob and Sporty, King. "Buffalo Soldiers."

Texas Parks & Wildlife. "Texas Buffalo Soldiers" Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. 24 May 2005. http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/park/admin/buffalo/
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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7745289

Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113156830

Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
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History of Wars

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653256

History Of ars

The years of the late 16th century witnessed the colonial conquests of the Americas by the British powers. In "A People's Army" Anderson shows that the King of England was interested in an expansionist policy during this time. The British forces already present in America had laid the ground ready for any war. In defiance of authority, the local people also organized themselves in readiness to face the incoming British forces as well as the French forces that had been hired. Their major aim was to fight and defend their land with all it could take

The author shows that the people who had been in America for far too long as natives had managed to convince many more of their colleagues to stage a fight to defend their heritage. In response to the desire to stay strong, they organized themselves into groups. After this, they undertook…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984)

Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984): p.30

Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984): p.52

Fred, Anderson. A People's Army -- (Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War 1984)
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Pre-Historic African Development the Concept

Words: 2501 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10467725

It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…… [Read More]

References

Brass, Mickey. The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa. Retrieved at  http://www.antiquityofman.com/Complex_WA_EA.html . Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: History of Africa. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Africa. Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: History of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Ancient-Egypt. Accessed 14 September, 2005

Encyclopedia: Sahara. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sahara#History. Accessed 14 September, 2005
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History of Slavery

Words: 3408 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66576323

Abolitionist Movement

Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]

Reference

Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.

Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.

Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm

Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
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African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans Education

Words: 1468 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47009040

African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans

Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…… [Read More]

References:

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1845. Available from http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/f-douglas/Narrative-Douglass.pdf. 2012 May 05.

Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Our Spiritual Strivings." The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Available from  http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html . 2012 May 05.

Rowley, Stephanie J., Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Smith, Mia A. "The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African-American College and High School Students." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3., 715 -- 724, 1998.

Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Cooke, Deanna Y. "Racial Ideology and Racial Centrality as Predictors of African-American College Students' Academic Performance." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 8 -- 27, 1998.
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History of the Atlantic Slave

Words: 4085 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86148004

A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anstey, Roger. (1975). The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition 1760-1810. Atlantic

Highlands, NY: Humanities Press.

Dodson, Howard, Moore, Christopher Paul, and Yancy, Roberta. (2009). Becoming American:

The African-American Journey. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
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History Slavery North Atlantic British Colonies United

Words: 3188 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9055543

history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States

Observations egarding Slavery

One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.

Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…… [Read More]

References

Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10

"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html

Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.

Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4