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History In the Making: Fight for ights
There are numerous definition of history that are adapted by different groups. Of interest though is the fact that they share a period that is in the past. Among the many definitions fronted by Word Net (2011) is "the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future." This definition arouses interest in our case study as it spans from the past into the present happenings in the world.
It is apparent that history can be made and it is never static but is continually being made by people and events that surround us. Among the most recent noticeable events of our time in the history making are the events in Asia and China. In these two political demography there have been numerous fight for rights that have taken place in the past decade…
BBC News, (2009). Afghan Women Fight for Rights. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from www.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8204597.stm
Human Rights Watch, (2010). China: Rights Abuses Belie Success in AIDS Fight. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/01/rights-abuses-belie-success-aids-fight
IRIN, (2009). BANGLADESH: Biharis fight for their rights. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=85447
The Australian, (2009). Uighurs must fight for rights within China. Retrieved March 7, 2011
It was an important event in the nation's history because it was the first time that America was dominated by internal conflicts that challenged its democracy (Fortuna, n.d.). However, once the fighting came to an end, its significance became clear because of its effects on the American society.
Despite of taking more than 60,000 lives, the American Civil War contributed to the establishment of the Democratic South and Republican North. Secondly, the war enabled a reassurance of power in the national government through overturning concepts of secession and nullification. Third, the American Civil War brought the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution through its legislation. It also cemented Abraham Lincoln and other leaders into the historical glossary of the people of the United States. The Civil War is considered as a major factor that led to the increase in America's economic power to an extent that it…
Fortuna, Matthew. "About the Importance of the Civil War." EHow.com, May 3, 2013,
Smith, David. "Consequences of the War." 150 Pennsylvania Civil War, May 3, 2013
Therefore, the triple threats of physical violence, sexual violence, and disruption of the family were probably the most serious daily complaint of 19th century slaves.
Many of the complaints that slaves had were based on the limitations that they faced in their daily lives. In the early days of slavery, slaves had much more practical freedom than they had after the growth of plantations and the related dependence on slave labor. Although there were exceptions, almost all slave owning territories became more limited during the 19th century. As a result, slaves were forbidden from doing many of the things that seemingly separate man from lower animals, in an attempt to justify treating them like chattel. For example, slaves were prohibited from pursuing their own religious ideology or practicing traditional religions, and the religion taught to slaves preached that it was God's plan that they be enslaved. Slaves were prohibited from…
As many historians admit, his skills in argument and rhetoric were instrumental in getting the Declaration accepted by the American people. As mentioned, this was not an easy task, as there were many who were opposed and some leaders even threatened that "...their states would secede from the fragile union if independence were declared. Leaders of the Congress, such as Adams, risked being executed as traitors to the Crown" (Leopold).
It is possibly more correct when evaluating Adams as an individual to say that he was "... respected but not popular..." (John Adams: biography) However he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the United States, whose contribution to the reception and drafting of the Declaration of Independence was extremely significant, as would be his contribution as the second president of the country. (the Religious Affiliation of Second U.S. President John Adams) as David McCullough states; "He…
John Adams: 1735-1826. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/adams_j.htm . (Accessed June 24, 2007).
Leopold T. John Adams: A force for independence. http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/news/07/03/john.adams/index.html. (Accessed June 24, 2007).
John Adams: biography. http://www.answers.com/topic/john-adams . (Accessed June 24, 2007).
John Adams ? Second President of the United States of America. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A10083935 . (Accessed June 24, 2007).
History Of Native Americans
How did Native responses to European activities affect the direction that colonies took?
In 1585, ichard Hakluyt guaranteed that the economic potential of the North America is strong enough to provide the basis for the creation of a grand English commercial empire. He assured that the colonization by Englishmen would open profitable and productive new American markets. The next 178 years proved really beneficial for the Native Americans and settlers who transformed North America into a central part of the British North Atlantic commercial system. The businesses flourished and made an intense impact on the fiscal life of the Native Americans who started to import European goods that displaced "traditional tools, weapons, utensils, apparel, and ornamentation" (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000). Everything related to the Native American life altered when they started trading with Europeans. It not only disordered and transformed the patterns of…
This is not always the case. Some may be educated and economically well off, within particular fundamentalist sects, but use an idealistic vision of the past to provide a solution to what they see is lacking in the contemporary world. This was true of the Muslim Brotherhood of 1929, which used religion as part of its ideology of colonial resistance -- and is also true of many of the terrorist leaders of the modern groups threatening America today. (Gelvin, 2004, p.295) An advocacy of a return to origins has provided a powerful way for Muslims to advocate regional solidarity, national resistance to a hated leader or colonial power, or simply for a cause that is supposed to remedy the present.
The difficulty of articulating a liberating ideology within a fundamentalist mindset, however, should not be dismissed. Even the contemporary Egyptian author of The Committee, which portrays an Middle Eastern government…
Friedman, Thomas L. "Cursed by Oil." The New York Times. Op-ed. 9 May 2004.
Gelvin, James. The Modern Middle East: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ibrahim, A. The Committee. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2001.
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety & Prevention
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety and Prevention
Major Cases in the United States That Have Led to Changes in Fire Safety and Prevention in Building Construction
Though numerous tragic fires have contributed to our current Fire Safety and Prevention measures, a few cases dominate our country's collective memory in the establishment and refinement of the "Life Safety Code."
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
One hundred years ago, government did not exert much safety control over business, so the types and extent of fire safety were freely controlled by employers (Pinkerson, 2011). For example, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, employing hundreds of immigrants and was insured for fire damage to benefit the owners but had little concern for its workers (Pinkerson, 2011): Triangle arbitrarily provided 27 buckets of water to extinguish fires, doors that were either…
Command Safety. (2010). 1980 MGM Grand Hotel Fire - Thirty Years Ago. Retrieved from commandsafety.com: http://commandsafety.com/2010/11/1980-mgm-grand-hotel-fire-thirty-years-ago/
Firmage, J.P. (2006, August 8). Intersecting Facts and Theories on 09/11. Retrieved from Journal of 911 Studies: http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Intersecting_Facts_and_Theories_on_911.pdf
Flannery Associates. (2008, January). Section 1: Fire and People: Unit 4 - Occupancy Types and Means of Egress. Retrieved from cuny.edu: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~tflan/documents/101docs/FIS101OccupancyTypesandExits.pdf
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). Commission Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
History Of Understanding the Science of Meteors
hen did scientists first begin to understand what "falling stars" really were? hat did humans originally believe about those flashing lights that darted across the night sky -- and who were the scientific individuals who made and recorded the first accurate observations of meteors? These issues and others related to meteors will be presented in this paper.
Brief Review of Ancient Beliefs about Meteors
Author Tamra Andrews explains in her book Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky, that ancient people apparently associated meteors with evil. In particular, Tamara writes, "people believed these flaming rock fragments were demons" that were flying down to earth for "some malevolent reason" (Andrews, 2000, p. 123). Some ancient civilizations had a fear of fire and as Andrews mentions, seeing a "strange occurrence in the sky" seemed to be upsetting the universe in some…
Andrews, Tamra. Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000.
Byrd, Deborah L. "Falling Stars." The Alcalde, 65.6 (6-8), 1978.
Dana, J.D., and Dana, E.S. The American Journal of Science. Ann Arbor, MI: The University
History As Art
The past is not real, nor tangible. We cannot revisit the past as we are forever placed here, in the eternal now to navigate our existence. History provides our imaginations with concepts and ideas that allow us to seemingly describe the past. It must be remembered and heavily emphasized that history is in fact an art. It is not a science and it has no capability of being inductively reasoned and scientifically applied.
Although these limitations are often ignored by many historians and scholars, who feel that history is a guiding force, ignores the pulling forces of the needs of the future for mankind. The purpose of this essay is to explain the various considerations of diverse groups and how these themes impact the way we see the past. This essay will attempt to explain the thinking of other groups as it relates to history by giving…
Twentieth Century by Howard Zinn: Intro and Chapter 1 ISBN 0060530340
Give me liberty by Eric Foner: Chapter 15-17 ISBN 0393920313
. The Untold History of the United States by Stone/Kuznick: Intro to (to page xxxiii) ISBN 1451613520
The French in particular, as they are to this day considered to be one of the greatest losers of the war (and the most important battle field of the war)
were in desperate need of men to reconstruct the country. Therefore, the immigration policies changed and allowed for an increase in the labor force flow. More precisely, "due to a perceived demographic insufficiency and labor market needs, the French government had long authorized or allowed extensive recruitment of foreign workers and colonial workers. In 1945, there was a broad consensus in governmental circles that large-scale immigration should resume. To this end, a National Immigration Office was created and given a legal monopoly over recruitment of foreign workers. (...). It welcomed the immigration and settlement of Italians and Spaniards, judged to be assimilable, while pursuing temporary foreign worker policy when North African Muslims were recruited for employment."
Similar policies were adopted…
Anderson, John Ward. "Cartoons of Prophet Met with outrage." The Economist. 2006. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/30/AR2006013001316.html
Al Sayyad, Nezar and Manuel Castells (ed). Muslim Europe or Euro Islam. Lexington Books: Plymouth, 2002
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.
BBC.Cartoons row hits Danish exports. 2006. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5329642.stm
Although the consumers of Europe may have profited from cheaper goods in the short-term, the film shows that the oppression of the proletariat at home and the exploitation of natives abroad was in fact part of the same system that enriched the bourgeois and aristocracy, and kept others in their service either by fear or through the dispensing of small economic rewards.
Trade is thus viewed with a very cautious eye by this film, as the development of foreign trade is tied to colonialism and to the creation of exploitative forms of capitalism. In most conventional history books, European exploration and trade is viewed as a positive development. The creation of mercantilism during Medieval times, which spawned the first middle class, is usually seen as a democratic development, as it turned Europe away from the highly stratified feudal system. In the feudal system, serfs labored upon the land for their…
The African Slave Trade and the Middle Passage." PBS.org: Africans in America. 2006. [22 May 2006]
Colonialism." Answers.com. [22 May 2006] http://www.answers.com/topic/colonialism
The History Book." Directed, written, and compiled by Li Vilstrup and Jannik Hastrup 1975.
History Of General Motors:
General Motors is one of the major companies that have played an integral role in the international auto industry for over 100 years. The company has been able to establish itself in the global auto industry because of its rich history and innovative business strategies. An analysis of General Motors' history reveals that there was point it was the largest corporation in the United States. In addition to this, there was a point in the company's history that it was the single largest employer across the globe. The history of the company can be divided into various phases including creation, acceleration, emotion, revolution, globalization, innovation and challenges, and the modern GM.
Important Periods in General Motors History:
There are various important periods in the history of General Motors that can be classified into several major categories i.e. pre-era-2007 and before as well as during and after…
Halliday, D. (2009, January 20). A Short History of General Motors -- From Carts to Hybrid
Technology. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from http://www.driving.ca/short+history+General+Motors/1198858/story.html
"Innovation & Challenges 2000-2008." (n.d.). General Motors Company: History & Heritage.
Retrieved February 21, 2012, from http://www.gm.com/company/historyAndHeritage/innovation_challenges.html
History Book video presents a historical analysis of American and world history, where chronological timeline are based on significant and crucial events that have affected and influenced the historiography not only of human society in general, but American society as well. The documentary is divided into six major divisions, which illustrates the major developments of human history, and are abstractly, but aptly titled according to its relevance to human society.
An analysis of the documentary shows that there are two prevailing themes in which history was depicted, which are all thematic or theme-based in categorization. The first prevailing theme is that world history is connected largely with American society, interspersing significant events in America along with the discussion of significant events around the world. The second theme, which is the main focus of the documentary, is the discussion of history into three main components: social, political, and economic developments in…
Yet, it was nearly one hundred years later before a seconds hand was finally developed for the swinging pendulum clocks of illiam Clement.
However, as timekeeping was important to astronomers, having an apparatus that could tell time consistently was of some importance. Therefore, Taqi-al-Din, like Burgi, also sought to provide a more consistent and minute reading of time. Taqi-al-Din designed three dials, which showed the hours, degrees and minutes. In his clock, he incorporated the use of several escapements, an alarm, the striking trains that sounded at every hour, the visual relationship between the sun and the moon, the different phases of the moon, the devices that indicated the time for prayers and the dials that showed the first day of the Gregorian months. (Al-Hassani)
Al-Hassani goes on to describe the escapement as "the heart and soul of a clock…governing its regularity [and] enabling it to move in an incremental…
Al-Hassani, Salim. "The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction."
Muslim Heritage. 19 June 2008. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
Bellis, Mary. "Clock and Calendar History." About.com Inventors. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
De Solla Price, Derek. The American Clock. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic
Munich - the place where racial laws and measures against the Jews in Germany were established.
Each of these announced the type of extremist, xenophobic policies that the Japanese and the Germans would be using against their enemies in WWII.
11. Total war was a new type of warfare that was introduced in WWII and that relied on the idea that there could be no limits to the way war was carried out. This included, for example, attacks on the civil population and acts such as massive bombardments of cities. Further more, total war also relied on a full connectivity between all parts of the army: infantry, air force etc. In order to obtain a full surprise effect.
12. The firs phase of the war was a defensive phase, with the UK and Russia (in Europe) and U.S. In the Pacific trying to fight back the German and Japanese aggressions.…
History Of the Peloponnesian ar
Thucydides asserts that the Peloponnesian ar was caused by "…the rise of Athenian power and the fear this caused in Sparta." Does this argument place the blame for the start of the war on Athens or on Sparta? That is the thesis question to be approached in this paper. Using quality references -- books and scholarly articles -- this paper will answer the thesis question and provide the necessary research to verify any scholarly assertions. Indeed, the answer to the thesis question is that while Athens put pressure on Sparta's allies -- and hence, Sparta felt the heat of Athenian policies that harmed Sparta's allies -- it was Sparta that actually launched the war. So it can be said that Athens laid the groundwork by irritating and angering Sparta over a long period of time in many instances. But Sparta cast the first stone --…
Harl, Kenneth W. 2008. "Athenian Empire: 480-404 B.C." Tulane University. Retrieved September 20, 2013, from http://www.tulane.edu .
Kagan, Donald. 1995. On the Origins of War. New York: Doubleday.
Littman, Robert J. 2009. The Plague of Athens: Epidemiology and Paleopathology. Mount Sinai
Journal of Medicine. Volume 76, 156-167.
History Of Photography: From Ancient Times Into the Present Day
Photography can be traced back to ancient times. Camera obscuras were "used to form images on walls in darkened rooms...via a pinhole" and the use of shadows (Greenspun 1999). This primitive technology remained unchanged until the 18th century. Then, one day, Professor J. Schulze mixed "chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask," which caused him to notice the "darkening on [the] side of [a] flask exposed to sunlight," leading to the "accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound" (Greenspun 1999). Nicephore Niepce followed by combining the camera obscura with photosensitive paper, creating the first permanent reproduction on paper and the first 'photographic' image in history (Greenspun 1999).
Technology advanced rapidly afterward, particularly after the innovations of Louis Daguerre who created images "on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and 'developed' with warmed mercury (Greenspun 1999). Less involved methods of…
Cox, Richard. "Photography theory." Reading Archives. 29 Jul 2007. [11 Mar 2012]
"Early 20th Century Photography." Illinois State Museum. [11 Mar 2012]
History Of Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia
The economic history of Saudi Arabia dates back to the early civilization of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula played a central role in shaping the modern economic condition in Saudi Arabia as the key trade center. Various factors shape the economy of Saudi Arabia in different ways. Its location in the desert denies it a chance to practice any form of agriculture or livestock keeping. For many years, the economy of Saudi Arabia relied heavily on trade with its neighbors and the international community. With the development and progress in technology, Saudi Arabia can now practice significant percentage of agriculture and utilize a better portion of the desert land. Oil also forms the backbone of the Saudi Arabian economy today with 90% of its population relying on it for employment. It is now possible to practice agriculture through desalinizing seawater and practicing…
Owen, R & Pamuk, S. A History of the Middle East Economics in the Twentieth Century.
London: I.B Tauris & Co ltd, 1998. Print
Ramady, M.A. The Saudi Arabian Economy: Policies, Achievements and Challenges. New York:
Springer Publishers, 2005. Print
History Nazi Party
Cabaret (1972): History
The 1973 film Cabaret is set during the era of the Weimar Republic, just before the Nazi Party assumed control over Germany. Its main protagonist is Sally Bowles, an expatriate American who vaguely dreams of entering the film industry and becoming a singer and an actress. She performs nightly at the Kit Kat Club, a sleazy nightclub where women wear scanty clothes and dance in front of ogling men. Sally shares a room with Brian, a British, bisexual English teacher. Two of Brian's students, a man who conceals his Judaism and a woman who is a rich Jewish heiress, fall in love over the course of the film. The dangers of being open about one's religion in a society that seems so 'open' about everything else highlights the dangers on the horizon for Berlin and the rest of Germany.
Sally tries to ignore politics,…
History Of Africa
African nationalism is a political movement that desires to create one unified Africa. Their minor objective is to have national acknowledgement of African tribes by allowing them to create their own states within nations and to preserve their individual cultures. Political action began in the early 20th century with anti-colonial rebellions by natives who had been mission-educated. By 1939, there were nationalist groups in nearly every territory of the continent (African Nationalism).
President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. He was an anti-apartheid activist and the leader of the Umkhonto we Sizwe, (Spear of the Nation) the armed wing of the African National Congress (Umkhonto). In 1962, he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela stated that the move to violence…
"African Independent Church Origins." Balanced Views of Religion and Spirituality with Faith.
"African Nationalism." Helicon Publishing. 2011. Online.
Blumberg, Arnold. Great Leaders, Great Tyrants?. Greenwood Publishing. 1995. 221-222. Print.
History of Assessment/Testing in the United States
Assessment practices in the United States are not something that started yesterday. Assessment and testing in the United States began many years ago and they have taken several transformations throughout time. For over a century use of standardized testing for the assessment of aptitudes and achievement has played a major role in shaping the educational thinking in America. Today such tests are quite common .The paper will look at the history of assessment or testing in the United States from 1900 to 2010.a timeline of dates, significant events and the importance of these dates and events in the history of assessment and testing in the United States.
Assessment practices began in early 1900's with the United States government being the predominant driver. In public schools, IQ tests and other standardized tests became quite popular. The main focus of these early tests was the…
Fletcher, D. (2009). Standardized Testing. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1947019,00.html
Cobb, S.(2004). History of assessment practices in the United States. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://learn.midsouthcc.edu/learningObjects/assessment/history_of_assessment.pdf
History Of Guidance Movement: 1900 to Date
Prior to the final decades of the nineteenth century, there was very limited literature to which job seekers could make reference with regard to career guidance which was, at the time, referred to as vocational guidance (Ford & Alao, 2011). Knowledge of prospective work opportunities mainly resulted from close contact with the community, friends, family, church, and the education system (Ford & Alao, 2011).
Frank Parson, the founder of vocational guidance, in 1907, provided the stepping stone for career counseling with the formation of the Vocational Guidance Movement, which gave rise to the Vocational Bureau of Boston in 1908 (Ford & Alao, 2011). Parson used self-study and vocational counseling to make people more compatible with their interests, aptitudes, skills, and occupational demands, thereby leading them to the right careers (Ford & Alao, 2011). The bureau sponsored a number of national conferences; the third…
Campbell, D.P. (1971). Handbook for the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Ford, R.C. & Alao, K. (2011). Practical Counseling. West Sussex: Strategic Insight Publishing.
Patterson, S. (n.d.). Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 (PL 347). University of Georgia. Retrieved from http://jschell.myweb.uga.edu/history/legis/smithughes.htm
History Of Zionism
is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.
Origins and ackground
Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was…
Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002
Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."
Westview Press, 2000
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002
History As Myth
This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.
Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae
Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…
Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A
recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:
The war: The crossroads of our being. (2002). The Civil War. PBS. Retrieved:
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…
Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage
'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…
Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
History Of Softball
Softball has its origins in the game of baseball, the bat-and-ball sport which was first played in America with a codified set of rules in Hoboken, New Jersey on 19 June 1846. The game of softball appeared in the U.S. just over thirty years later in 1887. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.
With the first known game of softball being played on Thanksgiving Day in Chicago between Yale and Harvard football fans. The game began quite by accident and quite spontaneously when, after the results of the football game between the two rivals were announced and winning parties were awarded their money, a graduate from Yale hurled a boxing…
From the 1950s onward, an organization known as the International Softball Federation began to oversee softball competition across the entire world. In Australia in 1965, women competed for the first time in an international championship match that included five teams from around the world. Even though the game was invented by men, the women beat them in holding the world's first world championship softball tournament. The first men's world tournament did not take place until the following year in 1966 and it was held in Mexico City. The United States men's team won the championship. From that time on, every four years, a world tournament has been held for competing times within the international community.
Softball even became an Olympic event in 1996 when women's softball was included as an official sport in the Olympic Games. The United States women's team has shown nothing but dominance in the Olympic Games since softball was inaugurated, winning three gold medals. The sport was cut, however, not even a decade after its inauguration, by the International Olympic Committee. (Baseball was removed from the Games as well). Still, some speculate that softball will return to the world stage along with all the other major sporting events of the Summer Olympics.
In conclusion, softball was a game that began quite by accident when rowdy college football enthusiasts took up hitting around a boxing mitt in a boat club in Chicago. Thanks to the determination of a man named George Hancock, the oversight of Lewis Rober (a fireman in Minneapolis), and the organization skills of Leo Fischer and Michael Pauley, softball evolved from the boat club to the Olympics as one of the world's most popular sports for men, women and children.
History Of Suburbs
The term suburb is defined as an area that is adjacent to the town and it is occupied. It is a small community as compared to the town community that commune to and from town on a daily basis or regular basis (Meriam-Webster, 2012).
In the U.S.A., the Levittowns are noted to have been the root of the suburbs by a large extent. This was the event after the WWII when the population suddenly increased upon the return of the soldiers who had gone abroad to fight the war. This upsurge of the population prompted a bill known as the GI bill of 1944 that approved the provision of money for the education and building of houses for the returning population. It was at this point that a man called William Levitt set out to buy vast pieces of land outside of the main cities like Philadelphia…
Colin Stief, (2012). An Overview of Suburbs. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/suburbs.htm
Cornel University Department of Sociology, (2010). The Causes of Sprawl. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://cals.cornell.edu/cals/devsoc/outreach/cardi/programs/land-use/sprawl/causes.cfm
Meriam-Webster, (2012). Definition: Suburb. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/suburb
The degree to which a state could develop a sense of solidarity revolving around homogenous factors contributed to the development of a centralized government in certain countries and the lack thereof in others. Homogenous factors can be found in areas of race, nationality, and in religion in particular, all of which contributes to a sense of a national identity that a centralized authority of government both represents and reinforces. The influence of Catholic Christianity, which was widely based upon the Holy Roman Empire, had the effect of organizing certain countries in Europe under similar forms of authority which were, of course, manifest in a central branch of government. Due to the fact that Christianity as it is widely practiced today, spanned from the authority of the Roman Empire in Italy, the Italian country has frequently had this influence as a centralizing agency upon it government (although it should be noted…
The company that we will be examining is Apple. They are one the largest computer and electronics manufacturers in the world. At the same time, they also provide support to their various products through additional services they provide (such as: the I Tunes store). It is currently divided into several different divisions to include: Personal Computers, Network Solutions / Peripherals, Media, Digital Content and Third Party Digital Applications. ("Apple," 2011) ased on how Apple is structured, one way to improve economic performance is to re-establish its alliance with Google. What made the partnership fall apart is that Steve Jobs (the founder / CEO) believed that Google stole key I Phone features and placed them in the Android. This created contention between the two sides, as it appeared as if Apple was trying to prevent Google from releasing a competitor to the I Phone. If the company…
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL+Profile
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=AAPL+Analyst+Estimates
Apple's Core Values. (2009). Manueal Corpas. Retrieved from: http://manuelcorpas.com/2009/03/08/apples-core-values-according-to-its-ceo-tim-cook/
Apple is a Good Employer but Not as Amazing. (2007). Glass Door. Retrieved from: http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Employee-Review-Apple-RVW35192.htm
So let's change the interpretation a little bit so that it will be the way we wished it were." Well, that's not what history is. History is what happened, and history ought to be nothing more than the quest to find out what happened. Now, if you want to get into why what happened, that's probably valid too, but why what happened shouldn't have much of anything to do with what happened. (Limbaugh 1994)
The push for the elimination of negative stereotypes, and to encourage the diversification of perspectives through education of our youths is certainly a noble and worthwhile effort. However, there cannot be an absolute answer for all of the problems. Certainly racism, for example, needs to be abolished, and the tone and viewpoints of our educational tools is the perfect place to begin this alteration. However, is it necessarily beneficial to erase all evidence of racism from…
Cheney, Lynne V. 1994. The end of history. Wall Street Journal. 20 October 1994.Evans, R.W., & Pang, V.O. (1995). National Standards for United States History: the Storm of Controversy Continues. Social Studies, 86(6), 270-274.
Faulconer, T., & Freeman, A.C. (2005). Teachers, Classroom Controversy and the Media. Social Education, 69(6), 323+.
Garvey, J. (1995, December 15). The Earth Is Flat: My Textbook Says So. Commonweal, 122, 7+.
Heritage Foundation (2006). http://www.heritage.org/ .
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
The first piece of literature that has endured over the years, the Epic of Gilgamesh, also testifies about the existence and consumption of beer, even attributing it the power to signify the civilization as opposed to the world of the beast that did not have any use of such drink. One of the heroes in the legend, Enkidu, is brought into the civilized world though the contact with a woman, consumption of beer and hygiene: "Enkidu's primitive nature is demonstrated by his lack of familiarity with bread and beer; but once he has consumed them, and then washed himself, he too becomes a human and is then ready to go to Uruk, the city ruled by Gilgamesh" (the History of the World in ix Glasses, p.27). The first recorded literary piece is linked with the largest city in Mesopotamia and the first alcoholic beverage to be used by humans at…
Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York
Beer Institute. Retrieved: Oct 17, 2009. Available at: http://www.beerinstitute.org/tier.asp?bid=142
A History of Beer. Retrieved: Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.alabev.com/history.htm
" However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East sian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when…
At times, while reading about some of the Boxer's actions and beliefs, particularly in terms of their point-of-view of ritual purity, such a perspective can be difficult to assume. "The bandits passed the word around that, just as they were setting fire to the church in question, some woman from across the way had come out of her home and spilled dirty water. Their magic was therefore destroyed, and the misfortune extended [beyond the church]. On the basis of this [explanation], the families whose homes had been burned down didn't resent the Boxer bandits; they all cursed the woman." However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East Asian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when navigating the territory of the recent past, where there are more concrete documents for him to deal with, in terms of how the Boxers were viewed, but his approach could be applied to events of the even farther, as well as the more recent past.
Paul Cohen, "History in Three Keys," (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p.3
The History of Resurrection Tradition
According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.
Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.
For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).
It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…
Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.
Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011
Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)
In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…
Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116
Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24
Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52
Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X????[X??H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
History Naval Warfare
What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?
"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…
BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]
The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.
Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.
History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing
The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.
Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.
Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…
Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm
The Ancient Maya.
Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm
Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.
The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.
Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.
Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times
Oct. 18, 2010: 3
111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.
long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…
After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.
Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York
Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/events/calendar/drink.htm
Anyone can virtually make wine out of grapes. The quality of the grapes is the first and most important feature in the wine production and only after that are there other factors involved that influence the final product.
Standage considers the first distinction between Eastern and Western thught and civilization closely linked to the attitude the two cultures from two opposite regions of the globe had when it came to wine consuming. While Greeks drank wine at formal parties, making it more a part of a ritual destined to loosen tongues and relax while sharpening the minds and setting imagination loose, the Persians, mostly drank beer as a part of their nourishment and even when they drank wine, it was not for intellectual purposes of for the pleasure of savoring it, but more as a display of wealth and power, as it was the case mentioned before. Based on such…
Like, beer, the wine was nourishment, the beverage for feasts, celebrations and intellectual gatherings, but also an element of religious rituals and even medicine. As alcoholic beverage on the table of the poor and rich alike it is still praised for its benefits just as it is blamed for the destruction of families and the perversion of whole societies that fell its victim. It is, of course, not the wine, but the human nature, subject to greed and sometimes the victim of its own inability to keep moderation in sight at all times.
Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York
McGovern, P. Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. 2003. Princeton University Press. Princeton Historical Timeline. Georgian Spring. A Magnum Journal. Retrieved; Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.georgianspring.com/timeline.php
Even in the second half of the 17th century did doctors prescribe apparently absurd remedies such as viper's flesh, red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers for diabetes sufferers (DiabetesHealth.com). Of course, these had little effect, and sufferers were generally condemned to death. The first breakthrough before the 1920s came in the form of Dr. John Rollo, who built on the work of Dr. Dobson of Liverpool to prescribe the first relatively successful treatment of the disease: a diet that was high in fat and meat and low in grains and breads. This improved the prognosis significantly, and for the first time in history could diabetes sufferers expect an extended life.
The year 1921 saw a miraculous discovery that would change the treatment of diabetes forever (Sattley). The surgeon Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best were instrumental in the discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for the disease.…
Canadian Diabetes Association. The History of Diabetes. 2009. http://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/what/history/
Diabetes Health. History of Diabetes: From Raw Quinces & Gruel to Insulin. http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/1992/11/01/25/history-of-diabetes-from-raw-quinces-and-gruel-to-insulin/
Health.Savvy. A Timeline of the History of Diabetes. Feb 8, 2008. http://health.savvy-cafe.com/a-timeline-of-the-history-of-diabetes-2008-02-08/
Sattley, Melissa. The History of Diabetes. Dec. 17, 2008. Diabetes Health. http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/2008/12/17/715/the-history-of-diabetes/
In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).
German occupation in iga during World…
History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.
Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.
New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon December 1, 2008.
U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…
Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
This social, cultural, and economic war has only brought on more disgrace to neighborhoods that are still torn with violence and poverty. The shady history that this war has, makes it that much more doubtful that there were ever any good intentions involved in the first place. It has been a war for power, money, and regulation by the United States' own government. It has been a way to keep the poor poorer and to make the rich even richer.
The War on Drug's history is only reason enough to discontinue its implementation. No actual noticeable achievement has been made to even put a dent into a system of illegal drug trafficking, and although Baum declared a failure in this system more than fifteen years ago, it has officially been declared that the War on Drugs has been lost. Billions of dollars in taxpayer money has gone into a system…
Baum, Dan. Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure. Little Brown and Company: United States, 1997. Print.
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…
Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,
Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel
Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…
A good example of this can be seen in the passage which says, "She gave him a photograph of a boy who was now five. She said you stopped writing. I thought you were dead. He looked at the photograph of the boy who would grow up to look like him, who, although the man didn't know it would go to college, fall in love, out of love and become a famous writer." (Krause) This is illustrating some of the losses that Leo is seeing with Alma and his son.
The way that love creates bonds for Leo is through observing his son from a distance and seeing him develop over the years. This occurs after Alma dies and he watches him become a famous writer. At the same time, Leo wants to receive the credit for writing a novel that was published. These events are showing how love creates…
Krause, Nicole. The History of Love. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005, Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/06/
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…
Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners
Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
and, that do to so would contradict Judeo-Christian values of morality (Wilson, 2009). Additionally, opponents of the death penalty note that there is no evidence that lethal punishment has any effect whatsoever on whether or not criminals will commit a murder; and, that retribution here does not help to bring about closure. ather, it perpetuates the underlying violence and had a tendency to bring about more anger as opposed to peace. In the words of Jesuit Priest and Community Professor, aymond a. Schroth, S.J., "It [capital punishment] contaminates the otherwise good will which any human being needs to progress in love and understanding" (Schroth, 2008). Thus, capital punishment as a means to provide retribution for families fails to take into consideration the immense toll that the process of putting another human being puts another under.
In addition to the foregoing reasons against capital punishment, a review of the implementation of…
America's Tug of War over Sanctioned Death. (2009, September 9). Retrieved from Random House.
Banks, Cyndi. 2005. Punishment in America. Contemporary World Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Banner, Stuart. 2002. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.
Budziszewski, J. (2004). Capital punishment: The case for justice. Journal of Government and Philosophy. Retrieved from University of Texas at Austin.
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.
The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.
Jordan believes if there had…