"As I Lay Dying Essays"

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Dying William Faulkner Is a Essay

Words: 2326 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35345491

In the opening paragraph, his detailed physical description of Jewel and him walking on the path exhibits what we soon see is a strong faith that language makes memory, perception, and action real. (Lockyer 74)

She also notes that Darl is the character who speaks the most in the novel, thus showing his adherence to the value of language in his actions as well as his words. In doing so, she says, "he displays the omniscience, verbal range, and responsibility for interpretation that we associate with a narrator" (Lockyer 74). What Darl says also solidifies the view that Addie has been isolated and has also been deceived by her former faith in words. Faulkner develops a range of views of language and its use and of the degree to which different characters express their own relationship with language.

Lockyer discusses this further and cites Mikhail Bakhtin on the novel to the effect that "the word does not exist in a neutral and impersonal language" (Bakhtin 294), an idea that infuses as I Lay Dying. Lockyer notes that Cash is the only character able to accommodate the idea of the other in language:

The novel, according to Bakhtin, is the ultimate recognition of language as always contingent upon context and thus never absolute nor static. His theory offers a way to read the subtext of as I Lay Dying. The novel moves, always in the shadow of Addie's words, to seek connections among its fifteen separate narrators. (Lockyer 75)

Those connections are made on the basis of ideas of time, of language, of the relationship to the mother, and of the power of the mother as a female force in the world.

Daniel J. Singal considers this issue as he compares Caddy in the Sound and the Fury and Addie in as I Lay Dying as well as several other women in different works by Faulkner and notes how "all the characters, in one form or another, take on maternal roles toward boys or young men" (Singal 77) and that Faulkner repeats the disyllable "addie" in many of…… [Read More]

Resources:
As I Lay Dying (August 1998). Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan. November 22, 2008. http://www.lib.umich.edu/spec-coll/faulknersite/faulknersite/majornovels/dying.html.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. "Discourse in the Novel." In the Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, edited by Michael Holquist. Translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, 259-422. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.
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Dying Five Critical Perspectives on Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87957317

1). For Lester, the novel is a novel of migration and the ambiguous benefits of Southern culture and traditions: when Addie demands that her family lay her body "to rest forty miles away, in Jefferson, where her relatives are buried" her "request places a burden on her family, who subsist on limited means as small farmers and occasional wage laborers in rural Northern Mississippi in the late 1920s" (Lester 2005, p.1). The burden upon the family of social obligations is a heavy one: they must honor the past and custom, but Addie's body becomes a heavy weight to bear, just as the ties that bind them together are heavy and strangle one another, physically, emotionally, and economically.

Marc Hewson of The Mississippi Quarterly offers a feminist reading of the book. The centrality of Addie and her profound influence upon her sons forces the reader to question Southern patriarchal norms: "The trip to Jefferson thus becomes for her boys a form of education in her ways. By mourning her and contemplating their relationships with her, Cash, Darl, Jewel, and Vardaman learn to emulate her and adopt her suspicion of patriarchal constructs" (Hewson 2000, p.1). Addie ties her boys to the land and their common mother, even in death. Her maternity is a source of self-realization and identity for herself and her sons. The piecemeal nature of the work exemplifies how all of her sons make up different pieces of Addie, who lives on in all of them.

However, Cinda Gault offers a 'reverse' feminist understanding of the text: according to Gault,… [Read More]

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Dying the American Family in Essay

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62649036

It is thus that he helps to establish the truly tragic abstractions that characterize the family's individual experiences. Where a broad, unilateral overview of the story might direct the reader's focus to the burial plot, an objective set of narratives articulated by the character's themselves suggests that Faulkner intends the story more as a lamentation for the living.

In As I Lay Dying, Faulkner delivers a treatise on the American condition too often unconsidered in either the literary or the public forums. The Bundrens can be considered less a family comprised of actual individuals as a unit of caricatures. The characters are altogether conflicted by selfishness and emotional ambivalence, divided by an unrefined sense of loyalty and an incapacity to truly experience mourning and relentlessly driven to their goal even as they are guided by cloudy ambitions. In this regard, it is difficult to even determine that Faulkner finds redemption for his characters. Though in resolution they do deliver Addie to her final resting place, the novel's end is shrouded in uncertainty, just as is the rest of the narrative. Indeed, if the literary features discussed here can be said to align toward any one conclusion, perhaps it may be that of ambivalence. The consequence of the lifestyle described in his novel and the larger American society which is an unspoken backdrop thereto, it is this numbing of the human condition that preoccupies Faulkner even at the novel's restless denouement.

Works… [Read More]

Sources:
Faulkner, W. (1930). As I Lay Dying. Vintage.

Levinger, L. (2000). Prophet Faulkner: Ignored for Much of His Own Time and Then Embalmed in Dignity by the Nobel Prize, William Faulkner Spoke to the Violence and Disorder of Our Time. The Atlantic Monthly, 285.
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Dying Is William Faulkner's Story Essay

Words: 1409 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29016597

But since their sense of righteousness is flawed, their plans fall apart and the ending is quite disastrous as Howe explains: "When they reach town, the putrescent corpse is buried, the daughter fails in her effort to get an abortion, one son is badly injured, another has gone mad, and at the very end, in a stroke of harsh comedy, the father suddenly remarries" (138).

Addie and Cora represent two different versions of right. For Cora faith is on lips all the time and she expresses righteousness through words, for Addie, actions are more important and thus she appears vain compared to Cora but has a deeper and more accurate sense of right and wrong. While Cora appears with utterances such as "I trust in my God and my reward" (70) and "Riches is nothing in the face of the Lord, for He can see into the heart." (7) Addie is not interested in this lip service and for her words are hollow expression of faith while actions are what really count. She says, "people to whom sin is just a matter of words, to them salvation is just words too." (168).

Right and wrong and what man considers right are important considerations in this story. We notice that despite what our faiths or religious beliefs might teach, people have their own innate sense of right and wrong that is grounded in nothing but selfish fulfillment of their desires. This truth has often been exposed and elaborated in literature. King Lear is a classic example of man's weird sense of right and wrong. While Cordelia believes she is correct in her assessment of her love for her father as she declares: "I love your majesty/According to my bond, no more nor less" (1.1.92-93), King Lear cannot see it as such. He sees it as a sign…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Howe, Irving. William Faulkner: A Critical Study. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1975.

William, Faulkner. As I Lay Dying. New York: Random House, 1985.

John Gledson, the Deceptive Realism of Machado de Assis (Liverpool, UK: Francis Cairns, 1984).
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Effect of WWI on Literature Essay

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8625859

WWI and Literature

World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature.

In England alone, more than 2000 poets emerged during this period as Harvey (1993) elaborates: "From the very first week, the 1914-18 war inspired enormous quantities of poetry and fiction. The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W. Reilly has counted 2,225 English poets of the First World War, of whom 1,808 were civilians. For example, William Watson (then an esteemed poet, today virtually forgotten) quickly decided that his war poems should be 'so much in evidence that people [would] be saying that W.W. is the real national poet in this crisis', and had sixteen different war poems printed in various newspapers in the first six weeks."

But while WWI produced a vast number of poets and writers in every part of the world, these literary figures lives a life of anonymity after the war ended with the exception of few such as Ernest Hemingway, Edith Wharton. No particular reason can be given for this drastic change of fate but it is believed that the quality of their work may have been responsible for their post-war obscurity.

First World War had a profound impact on literature as it gave birth to some common literary characteristics in fiction and poetry of the time. In the initial stages of the Great War, literature was particularly known for its patriotic themes as writers and poets felt a sudden urge to protect and support their respective countries. But with the passage of time, this feeling wore off as literary figures realized the horrors, absurdity and futility of war and his resulted in the growth of realism literature as cynicism and disillusionment replaced any feeling of patriotism. Poetry and fiction depicted horrific scenes of war and of men dying aimlessly. Some of the best work emerging out of this period revealed the psychological impact of war on…… [Read More]

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Family Dysfunction Economic Distress and Essay

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24044401

It shows the selfishness of Dewey Dell, who is only concerned about her pregnancy and gives other family members little thought. It shows the long-suffering, to the point of self-immolation, of Cash. It shows the rivalry of Darl and Jewel, both vying for their dead mother's affection. And it shows the innocent simplicity, bordering on mental instability, of the young Vardaman. Each of these family members was affected in different ways by this destructive family dynamic.

Anse, in one of the most telling passages in the book regarding his relationship to the family, goes down the list of family members and whines about how each has cost him money in some way, further complaining that he has to work, when he does so, even though he doesn't have any teeth (35-37). Wadlington argues that because the story is set in the south and Anse is the "master" of the house, such laziness sets in motion a story of economic neglect in a culture where the male parent should be the breadwinner but isn't in this case. This selfishness of the father toward his children and wife is certainly evident, and it impacts negatively on the children. For example, in the youngest child's narratives, Vardaman speaks often of his mother and siblings but almost never talks about Anse. In the one extended passage where the father is mentioned, Vardaman repeats that "Pa Walks around. His shadow walks around." (65-67). The father is just a peripheral figure in the children's lives. And when he does come around, he makes no effort to hide his selfishness and pettiness, even going to the extreme of marrying a new bride and getting new teeth the day after he places his old wife, the children's mother, in the ground, as noted by Cash (261). Because he has also sold Jewel's horse and used Cash's phonograph money previously to buy new mules, the fact that he wore new teeth had to come as a double insult. (He got his dream, but deferred theirs.) He was even willing to allow his son Darl to be committed to a mental institute to save…… [Read More]

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EVA Peace and Addie Bunden Essay

Words: 1769 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51138320

When pushed too far, when too greatly damaged, when the soul has been taken away, when the resilience is gone, all that is left is the act of birth, the cold and empty soul, and a generalized feeling of resentment and anger coming from mother and directed at life and history and the self. Faulkner's Addie's rotting body is an act of revenge, Eva's burning of her son is an act of insanity, both seek the harm of those closest to them, because their disappointment in life is so profound, and they are so utterly trapped in their surroundings, that being a good and wholesome person, being a healthy, nurturing mother, is simply no longer possible. This, then, is the nature of the South for both authors, and it is that nature which tells us that until the bodies are buried, and the souls put to rest, and the corrupted offspring are gone, perhaps then there can be a true rebirth.… [Read More]

Sources:
Davis, Anita Price. Toni Morrison's Sula. New York: Research and EducationAssociates, 1999.

Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying. New York: Penguin, 1982.
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Friends and Family Dealing With Essay

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78071998

Dickson had to deal with a few close relationships end in death, including that of her father, (Crumbley, 2000). Due to her nature of solitude, a death hit Dickenson hard. In her writing she tends to obsess over the act of dying. Much of her poetry features a first person narrator speaking about the actual experience of dying, "I hear a Fly buzz - when I died," (Dickson, 111). The grief she feels from the death of a loved one in a very personal way, so much so that she envisions experiencing her own death over and over again in several of her poems. She internalizes the grief of death into an obsession with the act of dying, "And then the Windows failed - and then / I could not see to see," (112).

William Shakespeare presents a King who had his Queen killed, and the devastating affects of overzealousness and jealousy combined. King Leontes overcomes to his insecurities regarding the faithfulness of his wife, and later has her condemned to death for her supposed disloyalty, "my wife's a hobbyhorse," (Shakespeare 15). However, once Hermione died, Leontes was struck with an heirless and lonely empire. He regretted the murderous over assumption, a complete turn around from his initial pride, "The wrong I did myself, which was so much / That heirless it hath made my kingdom and / Destroyed the sweetest companion that e're man / Bred his hopes out of," (96). Leontes' redemption is so great, that Shakespeare rewards him with Hermione's return at the end of the play.

These works show the variety of literary characters coping methods for dealing with the loss of a loved one. It is a twisted emotion, which many times cause the characters to internalize in a seemingly unhealthy way. Therefore we have strange reactions and inner neurosis blanket the pages of classic literature.

Works… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Crumbley, Paul. "Emily Dickinson's Life." 25 Apr. 2008. Modern American Poetry. http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/a_f/dickinson/bio.htm

Dickinson, Emily. Final Harvest. Back Bay Books. 1997.
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received Essay

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant differences between historical biblical elders and leaders and the leaders of the modern church. Prior to this course, I had a historical awareness of the interrelationship between the church and monarchs, but the reading really helped me understand how that relationship developed. I also had a strong belief in the notion of original sin, and it was not until this class that I learned that the notion was not only not found in the New Testament, but also that the person who coined it was considered a heretic. Finally, the reading helped me understand Gnosticism.

For most Christians, membership in a church and adherence to the rules and norms established by the earthly leaders of those churches is considered an integral part of Christianity. However, in Matthew, Jesus makes it clear that he is establishing his church on himself, not on Peter. This notion was subverted throughout much of early Christianity when popes were considered to be necessary interceders between men and God. In fact, a huge portion of modern day Christians still consider earthly leaders to be able to define elements of Christianity and what it means to be devout. This contravenes the idea that Jesus alone is the foundation of the Church, which is specifically mentioned in the church. To me, this notion encourages Christians to consider the Gospel from a personal perspective and interpret the message that God/Jesus is…… [Read More]

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Stand Proud as You Can See I've Essay

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61690154

stand proud as you can see, I've survived and thrived and lived

Sometimes I have erred but other times I did succeed

I've reached a level in my life where there is less want and need

There are good memories behind me and many sad ones too

Things that I've regretted and moments I stood tall

A life is made of both, harshest times and all

Everyone I think of had issues just like mine

Maybe different circumstances and others they've done wrong

Harming people harming self and forgetting all along

If I be you then maybe I can understand my self

Or perhaps there is no understanding only something else.

I see others walking all around their phone clenched in their hand

No one's talking to each other and I cannot understand

Inhumanity is normal; a robot; a machine

My nightmares every single night; what is the dream I dream?

Response:

When reading the poems, the line from "A Lower East Side Poem" which is from the end spoke to me. Despite all the bad…… [Read More]

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Childhood Home the House I Lived in Essay

Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3972417

Childhood Home

The house I lived in when I was a child lay quietly shaded by forty acres of trees. In the springtime, we would hear the soft tapping of the newly sprouting leaves in the wind. The summer would come with the pervading squeal of tree frogs that could be heard when eating a Popsicle on the deck or answering the phone, when we would have to cover up one ear to help stop the noise. In the autumn, the leaves of these trees would drift lazily down to earth by the dozens. And even in winter, when the leaves were under the snow and it seemed that even the trees great lives were stagnant, their shadows would loom over and calm the glare of the bleach-white snow.

Although everyone lived amongst them, we, the children of the neighborhood, owned the trees and woods. At least that was how it seemed to us. So we claimed the land under the trees as our own land, vehemently building adult-proof forts and exploring as far out as we dared. While the line of woods that stretched the line of my friends' houses was all filled and inhabited, I remember my family's two acres of it the most.

The beginning of the two-track path marked the edge of our property and of the path up the hill. If you turned immediately right, you would come to another, smaller path. My friends and I had blazed this one by ourselves. The path weaved through the fallen trees and outreaching undergrowth, and soon you were upon the steepest part of the hill. The path here went over a patch of loose gravel, which made walking up nearly impossibility. It was comparable to walking on a floor covered with small marbles. But my friends and I felt an overwhelming need to conquer this hill. Finally, we chipped in our saved-up quarters, and bought a rope. We tied one end to the tree nearest to the bottom and then struggled up to the top. Once…… [Read More]

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Congress Northwest Nazarene a Universal Answer Identify Essay

Words: 1682 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96807507

Congress

Northwest Nazarene

A Universal Answer

Identify means of applying social justice for vulnerable populations that eliminate health disparities. (paper)

Audience: Policy makers in government or an organization

Describe your audience.

Describe the method of communication.

Describe the goals of the communication of what you want to accomplish.

Present the communication in a format that fits the audience- email, letter, letter to the editor of the newspaper or a response to a blog posting, etc.

Evaluate how you would know if the communication was effective.

Include documentation to support the action that you are requesting.

APA format and spelling, grammar, writing scholarly.

Audience

This letter addresses an important problem in today's society: applying social justice for vulnerable populations to eliminate health disparities. Policy in this field is debated and concluded at a Congress/legislative level, so this paper will take the form of a letter addressed to a Congressman. It is thus a generic letter that could be sent to all members of Congress. The preference for a letter has several arguments, but it is primarily related to the fact that it is a direct form of communication that links the interlocutors in a better manner than others. It also gives Congressman time to read it and increases the chances that he will receive the message, as compared to other forms, such as an email or an attempt for a direct meeting.

In terms of the characteristics of the audience, the most important is that members of Congress are extremely busy and work on different types of legislation at the same time. As a consequence, the letter has to be concise and present arguments in a manner that is easily intelligible. The goal of the communication is thus to attract the attention of the reader (the Congressman) and implement a couple of ideas in his mind for future discussions on this topic in Congress. In order to evaluate whether communication was effective, a monthly review of the Congressman's website will…… [Read More]

References:
Fukuda, S.P. (2001). The human development paradigm: Operationalizing Sen's ideas on capabilities. Feminist economics, 9(2 -- 3), 301-317. Abstract retrieved from http://www.ibero.edu.mx/humanismocristiano/seminario_capability/pdf/11.pdf

Harkness, G.A., & Demarco, R.F. (2012). Community and public health nursing evidence for practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Perinatal Loss Support at Time Essay

Words: 5174 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41031712

Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)

Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:

1) mood;

2) appetite;

3) energy or fatigue levels;

4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in the unique position to counsel with the parents. (Armstrong, 2007)

The healthcare provider should not hold an expectation that parents will offer up this information or ask for assistance but should encourage neonatal nurses to ask questions and to assess the psychological needs of parents experiencing perinatal loss including parents who are becoming parents to a healthy newborn since the impact of perinatal loss is many times ongoing and continues to contribute negatively to the parent's psychological state of mind. Armstrong specifically states that neonatal nurses comprehend the necessity to "...assess adaptation to parenthood and continued psychological distress for both parents in the weeks after birth. Neonatal nurses working with these families should be aware of the potential for continued psychological distress after the birth of a healthy infant and educate parents about this possibility." (2007)

The work of Gold, Dalton, and Schwenk (2007) entitled: "Hospital Care for Patients After Perinatal Death" reports a systematic review of the experiences of parents with hospital care following perinatal loss. The study reports having evaluated in excess of 1,100 articles from 1966 to 2006 in order to identify studies of fetal death occurring the second or third trimester as well as neonatal death during the first month of life. The studies were limited to English studies evaluating care in United States hospitals and those containing direct data or opinions of parents. Results reported by Gold, Dalton and Schwenk (2007) are reported to be compiled…… [Read More]

Resources:
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.

Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
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Heart and Home in Frost's Essay

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14528509

Mary tells Warren that home is the "place where, when you have to go there, / They have to take you in" (122-3). This displeases Warren because he does not feel Silas deserves to call their home his own. Warren is not convinced and as he discusses Silas' brother with Mary, he claims Silas is "worthless" (149). Here we see how Warren thinks people should earn most of the things they have in life, including a place to call their own. Mary, on the other hand, understands Silas' need to feel as though he has returned to a safe place to spend his last days. With Silas at "home" she has hope for the future, even though Silas' state is grim.

Through irony, Frost also demonstrates how we all die alone despite our best efforts. Silas returns to a place he knew as home but in the end, Warren and Mary were bickering while he lay dying. Silas looked to the couple for companionship during his last days but he found none. Silas wants to do things to help Warren around the farm and while this sounds good, it may too little too late. Warren has no faith in Silas and Silas is too old and frail to be of much help. He is alone even though he did not want to be. When Warren returns and tells Mary Silas is "dead" (175), he encapsulates everything he knew about Silas' life, past and present. We may not all live like Silas did but we will probably all want to have someone near us when we die -- preferably someone we consider like family. While this is a nice image, Frost is pointing out how unnecessary it is because it will not change the fact that we pass through the pearly gates with no one holding our hand. Silas returned to the only home he knew but it did not do him much good in the end.

"Death of a Hired Man" is a poem that tells different stories about humanity. From the beginning, Frost illustrates the differences between men and women using the sad image of Silas. Warren takes the more harsh approach while…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Frost, Robert. "Death of a Hired Man." Robert Frost's Poems. New York: Pocket Books, 1916.

Print.
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Imitate Short Passages by Hemingway and Salinger Essay

Words: 353 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90109726

Sun Also Rises" by Ernest Hemingway, and a passage in "A Perfect Day for Bananafish," by J.D. Salinger.

IMITATE SHORT PASSAGES BY HEMINGWAY AND SALINGER

Hemingway's short, staccato style and "macho" man image has often been parodied, reviewed, and dissected. "The Sun Also Rises" has been called one of his best books. This passage parodies Hemingway's macho style, and outlook on women as the weaker sex.

Paris again, and another broad in another taxi. How do I get myself into these things? Last thing I knew, I was in Pamplona, running with the big dogs. Now, I'm in a taxi with Brett, who's married to somebody else, and flirting with me. She's not half bad looking for a dame. Maybe I should just kiss her. Let her know I'm interested. What the hell. "Don't touch me, please don't touch me," she says to me, and I'm a pretty damned good kisser. What's the matter with this dame? This is Paris for chrissake, the city of romance. She shimmied over into the corner of the…… [Read More]

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Gender in Romeo and Juliet Judith Lorber Essay

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372562

Gender in Romeo and Juliet

Judith Lorber, author of "Night to his Day: The Social Construction of Gender" asserts that gender is not biologically determined, but is a construct of society. This would indicate that the process of socialization is a prime determinant in the development of gender. In other words, how a child is raised will determine his or her gender-based behavior. With this theory in mind, it is interesting to examine traditional gender roles in literature; to examine how literature of the past treated the traditional roles of male and female. William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is one of the most famous works of literature in Western culture. It was written around the end of the 1500's, at a time when actors were exclusively male, and therefore all the women's roles would have been played by men. This alone would be enough to base a discussion on the traditional gender roles in society, but a more intensive look into the play will shed even more light on the role of the depiction of gender at that time. With Lorber's theory that gender is a product of socialization, the role of gender in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet will be discussed.

The esteemed sociologist Judith Lorber claims that "gender cannot be equated with biological and physiological differences between human females and males. The building blocks of gender are socially constructed statuses." (Lorber 17) It is society that defines gender, and the behavior associated with it, and in Western society there are two genders: male and female. How individuals that are male and female behave is a learned process called socialization, which begins in childhood and develops fully as one reaches adulthood. It is society that both expects and defines what gender is, and once it has been ascribed, "the social order constructs and holds individuals to strongly gendered norms and expectations." (Lorber 25 )

While Lorber demonstrated that gender is a social construct, she also demonstrated that gender is not always the same in all cultures. While some cultures blur the distinction between male and female, Western culture has created a tradition of only the two genders. This tradition has been a strongly held belief and attempts to cross the traditional boundaries have been vigorously opposed. Western culture strictly enforces the traditional genders roles that have been developed in order to create a clear and well…… [Read More]

References:
Lorber, Judith. "Night to his Day." Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven: Yale UP. 1994.

Shakespeare, William. "Romeo and Juliet Script." Scribd. Web. 13 July 2011. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13433084/Romeo-Juliet-Script
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Hamlet by William Shakespeare the Play Hamlet Essay

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41762395

Hamlet" by William Shakespeare

The play "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare has a story that revolves around the main themes of revenge and search for the truth. Shakespeare's male characters, in particular, are portrayed somewhat villainously because of the element of revenge inherent in each character's motivations in the play. Among the male characters in the play, the characters of Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras emerge as the most remarkable among the numerous character in Shakespeare's piece. Many characteristics are shared among these three primary male characters. The first characteristic is that they possess the vitality of their youth, and the second one is that all of them face the world in an idealistic and somewhat naive perspective. Their being young, naive, and idealistic are the main reasons why, throughout the play, they have resorted to radical actions and behavior that will cause either their victory or downfall.

This paper will conduct a character analysis of Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras' characters in relation to the events and circumstances that happened in the play "Hamlet." Furthermore, this character analysis will be accomplished using the comparative essay analysis, where the researcher will be able to give a causal relationship among the three characters, further discovering the actions, behavior, and motivations of each through their differences and similarities with each other. Texts from Shakespeare's original play and critiques on the play's character will also be used in support of the claims that will be presented in the paper.

It is evident that Hamlet, Laertes, and Fortinbras share one common similarity in the play, which determines their actions and behavior in the first place: all of the three men's fathers are dead. Hamlet's father, Old Hamlet, was killed by his brother Claudius; Laertes' father, Polonius, was mistakenly killed by Hamlet while he was listening to Hamlet and Ophelia's conversation; and Fortinbras' father, the King of Norway, was slain by Old Hamlet during battle. Because of their fathers' deaths, each of the young man's motivations became revenge, determining their actions and behavior throughout the play.

Fortinbras' course of action upon learning of his father's death is to invade the kingdom of Denmark, kill Old Hamlet and his kingdom, as well as usurp the Hamlet throne. Laertes, on the other hand, challenges Hamlet to a duel that will determine who will and will not live. Hamlet,…… [Read More]

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Jane Eyre the Single Most Essay

Words: 2206 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93295106

..(Lamonaca, 2002, pg. 245)

Within the work is a clear liberalization of Jane's ideas of spiritual fate and a challenge to the standards of the day, of a wife as a spiritual and physical subordinate to a husband.

Jane's insistence on a direct, unmediated relationship with her Creator uncovers a glaring inconsistency in Evangelical teaching that posed for women of faith a virtual theological impasse: Evangelicals championed the liberty of discernment and conscience for all believers, but also prized a model of marriage in which wives were spiritually subordinate to their husbands.

Given the religious and cultural context in which it was written, Jane Eyre proclaims what could be considered a message of radical spiritual autonomy for women. (Lamonaca, 2002, pg. 245)

Following in the line of her progression through the work the ending passage, including her no less than perfect description of her marriage to Rothschild is a picture of the demands of her autonomy and Bronte's radical ideas of independence for women and equality in relationships, so historically unequal.

I have now been married ten years. I know what it is to live entirely for and with what I love best on earth. I hold myself supremely blest_blest beyond what language can express; because I am my husband's life as fully as he is mine. No woman was ever nearer to her mate than I am: ever more absolutely bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh. I know no weariness of my Edward's society: he knows none of mine, any more than we each do of the pulsation of the heart that beats in our separate bosoms; consequently, we are ever together. To be together is for us to be at once as free as in solitude, as gay as in company. We talk, I believe, all day long: to talk to each other is but a more animated and an audible thinking. All my confidence is bestowed on him, all his confidence is devoted to me; we are precisely suited in character_perfect concord is the result.

(Bronte, 1922, p. 455)

As eloquently expressed by Gezari, Jane defends herself from the tyranny of others. She challenges family, school, and church. She is designing her…… [Read More]

References:
Bloom, H. (Ed.). 1987, Charlotte Brontee's Jane Eyre. New York: Chelsea House.

Bronte, C.1922, Jane Eyre. London J.M. Dent & Sons.