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North American Literature of the 20th Century: A Literature of Alienation
North American literature of the twentieth century began as a predominantly white male-dominated literature, on the heels of 19th century romantic literary expression, such as within the works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Mark Twain, illiam Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, and others. Similarly, in the early decades of the 20th century, American literature was dominated by the likes of illiam Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Theodore Dreiser, and other white male authors, whose works (understandably) reflected their own experiences and world views. In the latter half of the 20th century, however, subsequent to orld ar II, more diverse voices began to appear within North American literature. By the time authors like Maxine Hong Kingston; Toni Morrison; James Baldwin and others came on the scene, diverse literary viewpoints were beginning to be seen as integral to the American literary cannon. In my…
Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Speaks of Rivers." The Harper American
Literature, Vol. 2, 2nd Ed. Donald Mc Quade et al. (Eds). New York:
Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. In The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women. (Eds. Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar). New York: Norton, 1985,
Psychology and Literature
Both psychology and literature explore how people interact with each other. Both psychology and literature explore how prior events affect what follows. Both psychology and literature look at how a person grows, develops and changes over time. However, psychology looks at how events affect what people do and how they act in very precise ways, while literature fictionalizes and supposes what an imaginary person might do. Psychology looks at growth and development based on real cases studied scientifically while literature uses imagination go suppose what people might do as they develop. Psychology looks at how people react in given situations in a scientific way, while literature looks at it in terms of how the events drive a story forward.
Examples of how social-psychological issues are portrayed in literature can be seen, for instance, in the stories of Edgar Allen Poe, such as in "The Cask of Amontillado,"…
classroom, regardless of the age of the learner, we realize that there are multiple learning styles and responses to divergent stimuli. he modern pedagogical environment is faced with a number of challenges that are directly related to learning. In fact, as an educational pendulum swings, we find any number of methods that are thought to be new and innovative; yet it is sometimes the tried and true methods that are more efficacious. For instance, peer-to-peer learning improves cognitive and higher level questioning, humor bolsters biological reactions to learning, and changing the learning environment improves cognition and attention span (Harlin, 2008).
Howard Gardner, for one, has written extensively about the idea of multiple intelligences in learning. this theory holds that traditionally defined intelligence does not really describe the actual innate intelligence of the person. For instance, a child may learn mathematical forumulas quite easily, but that does not mean they are…
Theoretical and Philosophical Tenants - When we look at the philosophical tenats of using literature to develop a philosophy of teaching, we find that a 2006 novel by New Zealand author Lloyd Jones shows us a rather perfect template in our philosophical journey. Of course, one will remember that Pip is the lead character in Charles Dickens' Great Expectations, one who enjoys privledge, has it taken away, then understanding the true meaning of emotion and friendship, until finally realizing his potential and recapturing his fortune.
Mister Pip tells the story of a girl caught in the midst of a war. During this time of trials and tribulations, it is through the guidance of her mother and teacher, and her connection with the fictional Pip, that allows here to continue to wish to live, particularly after her mother and then support group, do not. The novel is multidimmensional, uses situations and a compare and contrast theme to build characters and how inter-relationships build character, and most importantly, how people can put aside their individual differences to display what is the very best about humanity (Jones, 2006).
To be sure, we can take this a step further and integrate other disciplines within the art and science of pedagogy. The world does not exist in a vaccum and neither should the learning experience of the student. A multidisciplinary approach, then, could include other topics that are germaine (psychology, communication, languages, literature, philosophy, etc.) or an approach that changes the way the classroom approaches the curriculum (Lonberger and Harrison, 2008). Cooperative learning, for instance, is much more than putting students into groups. It is ensuring individual accountability and robust communication within the group, as well as helping to learn and master such social skills as sharing, accepting others' ideas, learning about different individual attitudes, and being able to work
OCTAVIO PAZ "TRANSPLANTED LANGUAGES"
Octavio Paz's 1990 Nobel Lecture accentuated the issue of transplanted languages and the literature that emerged in a transplanted culture. Latin-American and Caribbean literature is good example of the use of transplanted languages since the influence of European and American cultures is quite pronounced. hen people migrate from one place to another or are forced to endure foreign rule, the impact on the language is usually the most marked. ords and concepts are borrowed from other languages and cultures, incorporated in native languages and from this fusion, emerges a language which lacks the beauty and grandeur of the original but is well-understood and even widely accepted by the natives influenced by transplantation. This is what Octavio Paz was referring to when he spoke of transplanted languages and its use in Latin American literature.
Languages are born and grow from the native soil, nourished by a common…
1. Octavio Paz, In Search of the Present -- Nobel Lecture, 1990
2. Harris, The Womb of Space: The Cross-Cultural Imagination (Westport, Connecticut:
3. Greenwood, 1983
4. Doris Sommer, Foundational Fictions: The National Romances of Latin America, Berkeley -- Los Angeles 1991
courtly love your purchase.
COURTLY LOVE AND MIDDLE AGES LITERATURE
In this paper, we shall study the tradition of Courtly love in the Middle Ages as reflected by literary works produced in that period. The paper will first focus on what the exact nature of Courtly Love, then proceed to briefly discuss its development and finally take into account the literary works of Middle Ages that contained elements of this tradition.
Courtly love refers to romance in chivalric tradition that emerged during the first Millennium and endured throughout the medieval period. Andreas Capellanus, in his book, The Art of Courtly Love, defines courtly loved as ". . . A certain inborn suffering derived from the sight of and excessive meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex, which causes each one to wish above all things the embraces of the other and by common desire to carry out all of…
Abbe Prevost's tale of Manon Lescaut performs several different functions at once. It is in part a cautionary story. It is in part a push to create a fully modern sensibility in French literature. It is in part an exploration of the trope of Romanticism. And in all of these things it is partly a story about the New orld, for to Prevost, as to other Europeans of his time, the New orld was a place in which new rules could be written for human behavior. The New orld was a metaphor for new ways of looking at what it meant to be human - and not usually complementary ways. This paper examines some of the ways that Prevost used the New orld in metaphorical and symbolic ways in Manon Lescaut.
Although Prevost was in fact a very productive writer during his lifetime, he is now remembered almost entirely for…
During Leo Tolstoy's lifetime (1828-1910), Russia and Europe went through a number of political and intellectual changes. Writing evolved from Romanticism to Realism during the period. As the term "realism" implies the realistic novelists like Tolstoy focused on observation and attention to detail. In Russia the czars retained absolute power by preventing the political and social changes that the Western European countries were experiencing. Intellectuals including Tolstoy led the effort toward reform. The reform efforts met with considerable resistance until the twentieth century. For the writers, retention of power by the czars meant repression of writing. This repression had a severe impact on the realistic writers like Tolstoy who presented a true picture of political and social conditions. Nicholas I, who ruled until 1855, was particularly repressive. In spite of his conservatism, Russian literature experienced a tremendous upsurge during his reign and that of this son, Alexander II.…
Crankshaw, Edward. "Tolstoy: The Making of a Novelist." New York: Viking Press, 1974.
Kropotkin, Petr. "Russian Literature." New York: Benjamin Blom, 1967.
Mirsky, D.S. "A History of Russian Literature." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966.
Beowulf: A Classic Medieval Archetypal Leader
Beowulf is one of the earliest epic poems. It tells a classic tale of a great hero. he style of the epic reflects a much earlier writing style found in the Viking sagas. Yet the story is that of a Danish King. Literature and art are the keys to understanding society. Art is not random, but rather is a product of the society in which it lives. Beowulf is a hero in the society that produced him. It is not known it Beowulf is an exaggeration of a real king, or if he is simply a composite of the values that the society held dear. We learn much about Beowulf through this epic. hrough the following research we will examine this idea more carefully. hrough examination of other medieval works, a composite will be created of medieval society expected of their leaders. It will…
The Dream of Rood is another example of the hero (Christ) overcoming an evil force (sin) (Alvin, 1975, p. 172). This poem places the classic medieval heroic figure in a Christian atmosphere and setting. However, it is still the same heroic icon, in the same battle for good vs. evil. It is apparent that many works were written on this theme at the time and that they contained the same message adapted so that it would gain the attention and acceptance of audience for which it was intended. The Dream of Rood presents Christ as a triumphant warrior, much like Beowulf returning after victoriously defeating Grendel.
The Dream of Rood's description of Christ varied drastically from the earlier accounts of the crucifixion. According the Swanton (1987, p. 100), the main differences between gothic descriptions are that the earlier versions tended to dwell on the intense details of the torture itself. Whereas, the Dream of Rood concentrated more on the heroic characteristics of Christ. This is an example where two different versions of the same event reflect an entirely different set of values and ideals. This is a good example of how literature serves as a reflection of the values associated with the society in which it was written.
It is easy to devise a composite set of characteristics that can be considered a standard of conduct that was expected by medieval society. A. leader must be strong, steadfast in the face of danger, place the well-being of other before his own, be generous, kind, fair in gifts and in punishments. He must always help those in need and maintain unwaivering allegiance to King and country under any circumstance. These characteristics are found in many heroic characters throughout the early, middle and late middle ages. They are found in almost every classic work of
Gothic novel era is widely accepted as the years from 1764 to 1834. The Gothic genre has remained "an elusive minor literary upheaval that has had eminence influenced on most genres today" (Summer 164). The Gothic novel includes magic and mystery; horrors abound, while ghosts, castles, and charnel houses take part in adding to the mood of terror. The true Gothic novel creates an "atmosphere of brooding and unknown terror" (Holman). In addition, Gothic fiction is usually characterized by "a chronic sense of apprehension" (Tracy 1981). "Although all Gothic fiction is tragedy, its key component is the edifice [or building].... Gothic fiction usually takes place in an ancient castle or abbey whose owner discovers his noble line is doomed, usually because some past misdemeanor has caused the family to be cursed" (Ashley 147).
alter Scott said Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, is a different kind of Gothic novel, or a "philosophical gothic"…
Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Ashley, Mike., The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Frederick, Karl. The Adversary Literature: The English Novel in the Eighteenth Century, A Study in Genre. New York: Farrar. 1974.
Hadfeild, J.A. Dreams and Nightmares. New York: Pelican. 1974.
American Cultural Values: hitman and Otsuka
America has been criticized and praised as having one of the most individualistic systems of cultural values in the world, rather than any cohesive system of national ethics. This is partly the result of America's status as a nation of immigrants. However, merely because America is an individualistic nation, and made up of many peoples and ways of life does not mean that the American government and populace has not acted in a racially exclusive and oppressive manner, at times, such as the case of the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II.
The poet alt hitman embodies the individualistic, idealized system of American values in his verse, although he oversaw the tragic consequences of American racism in his own lifetime, in the form of the civil war. hen but when hitman the poet wrote that he sang of himself, he not only celebrated…
Otsuka, Julie. When the Emperor Was Divine. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Philadelphia: David McKay, [c1900]; Bartleby.com, 1999. www.bartleby.com/142/. [14 November 2004].
judge books by covers.
But it is something entirely different to job a story by its form, for the way in which an author chooses to frame a story is as important to our understanding of it as the content of the story itself - something that is becomes clear to us when we examine books that tell very different stories shaped by very different forms. Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights could not have conveyed either the passion or the essential, existential solitude of the characters had it not been written as an amalgam of first-person narratives wrapped in a Romantic form. Likewise, Theodor Fontane's highly realistic Effi Briest would also have been a very different novel had it been written - for example - as a Romantic work. This paper examines the ways in which form and content affect each other in these two works to the extent that they…
British and Australian characters based on stereotypes. Discuss how the characters are different.
Review the book and relevant literature on the book and the author.
Nevil Shute's characters epitomize the British and Australian stereotypes but are also characters of depth with moral values.
Town Like Alice, (Alice) written in 1950 is often categorized as one of Nevil Shute's "anti-war" novels and is part of a set of novels that was not produced sequentially.
During the 1950s, Shute's writing took a drastic turn and was an affirmation in support of the democratic spirit of the "plain and simple" people, a description that fit many of his characters. Shute had strong ideas about how society should be organized and maintains a credo that is evident in his writing
Town Like Alice is the story of two people who meet during WWII. Jean Paget, who is an Englishwoman and Joe Harmon, an Australian…
House of Mirth, by Edith harton. Specifically, it will look at the theme of success in the novel, and how a success-oriented society can destroy the weak and untrained.
THE HOUSE OF MIRTH"
Lily Bart begins her tumble into poverty from the very beginning of the book, because she does not conform to society, and she cannot become a success in the world of business, because she does not even understand what success is. From the very start of the novel, success is a strong and prevalent theme, and it is clear Lily is not going to be a success, when she does not even understand the concept. "Later he [Selden] inquires: 'Is there any final test of genius but success?' Lily replies: 'Success?' She hesitated. 'hy, to get as much as one can out of life I suppose. It's a relative quality after all. Isn't that your idea of…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14448934"Underwood, John Curtis. Literature and Insurgency: Ten Studies in Racial Evolution: Mark Twain, Henry James, William Dean Howells, Frank Norris, David Graham Phillips, Stewart Edward White, Winston Churchill, Edith Wharton, Gertrude Atherton, and Robert W. Chambers. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1974.
Wharton, Edith. The House of Mirth. Ed. Martha Banta. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Art, as defined by Plato in his paradigmatic work The Republic, serves both as a definition qua definition - a way of telling us what art should be in and of itself - and as an exemplar of other aspects of society. Plato was fundamentally concerned with the relationship between the world and art (including all media of art) because he argued passionately that the true purpose of literature was a mimetic one. Art should, in other worlds, imitate life in all things and as closely as possible. (Aristotle, one of Plato's students, would extend this idea of Plato's even farther.) This paper examines how Plato's understanding of the form and function of art can help us to situate the epistemological stance of Gothic Victorian literature - a set of literary endeavors that was also deeply committed to the mimetic, although not precisely in the way that Plato…
Gordon, J. (ed.). (1997). Blood Read: The Vampire As Metaphor in Contemporary Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvannia.
Plato. (Rouse, W.H.D., trans.) Great Dialogues of Plato. New York: Signet, 1999.
Skal, D. (2001). Vampires: Encounters With the Undead. London: Black Dog.
Stoker, B. (1997). Dracula. New York: Signet.
Department of Science
Over time, dry needling has turned out to be a well-liked therapy method in manual physical rehabilitation (Dommerholt et al., 2006). Physiotherapists as well as other healthcare service providers in numerous nations utilize dry needling within the clinical therapy of individuals with myofascial discomfort and trigger points. Within the U.S.A., roughly 20 states and also the District of Columbia have authorized dry needling by physiotherapists, that is an impressive improve ever since 2004, when only 4 states authorized dry needling (Dommerholt, 2004). During 2009, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physiotherapists implemented a position proclamation that dry needling is actually in the capacity of manual physical rehabilitation. The benefits of dry needling happen to be significantly reported (Dommerholt and Gerwin, 2010) and consist of an instant decrease in local, known, as well as prevalent discomfort (Hsieh et al., 2007), recovery of variety…
Affaitati G, Costantini R, Fabrizio A, Lapenna D, Tafuri E, Giamberardino MA. Effects of treatment of peripheral pain generators in fibromyalgia patients. Eur J. Pain 2011;15:61 -- 9.
Al-Shenqiti AM, Oldham JA. Test -- retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in patients with rotator cuff tendonitis. Clin Rehabil 2005;19:482 -- 7.
APTA. Physical Therapists & the Performance of Dry Needling: An Educational Resource Paper. Produced by the APTA Department of Practice and APTA State Government Affairs 2012.
Birznieks I, Burton AR, Macefield VG. The effects of experimental muscle and skin pain on the static stretch sensitivity of human muscle spindles in relaxed leg muscles. J Physiol 2008;586:2713 -- 23.
Chastity in Renaissance Literature and Political Power
Chastity was a concept that was promoted throughout Renaissance society by the church and those in political power. Chastity was promoted not only as a virtue and measure of the worthiness of a woman at the time of her marriage, it was also utilized as a means to repress women and their ability to gain their own power in society. However, in some ways, it served as a route to power for women as well. Although chastity was promoted for both men and women by the church, in reality it was not applied equally. Men were expected to have extramarital affairs, while women were expected to may remain faithful throughout her marriage and to place all of her efforts on raising children in taking care of the home. This research will explore the ideal of chastity and political power among both the genders…
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Translated by Robert Hurley. Pantheon Books: New
Greenblatt, Stephen. "Culture." Critical Terms for Literature Study. Ed. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin. Chicago: U. Of Chicago P, 1995. 225-32.
Spenser, Edmund (1984). Thomas P. Roche, Jr., with the assistance of C. Patrick O'Donnell Jr.
Diversity Management -- Literature Search
he following articles provide an overview of diversity in the workplace, specifically within teams and managerial groups. With respect to team effectiveness, these articles address how various conceptualizations of diversity can impact team effectiveness. Overall, many of the articles point to mixed results, with some studies finding positive effects on team effectiveness and others finding negative outcomes. Other articles therefore discuss the best ways of managing diversity so that the best possible outcomes can be achieved while minimizing the potential negative outcomes of diversity in management teams. With respect to team leadership, one article discusses how diversity within upper management can lead to positive outcomes in some respects, but also lead to the development of social subgroups that can lead to division within the upper management teams which can inhibit a company's ability to move into new geographic areas.
Bunderson, J.S. & Sutcliffe,…
This study was also a meta-analysis examining team diversity and team outcomes. This analysis placed a special emphasis on moderating variables. Task related diversity was found to have a positive effect on team performance, while bio-demographic diversity was not related to team performance. Social integration was also not significantly impacted by team diversity.
Bassett-Jones, N. (2005). The paradox of diversity management, creativity and innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(2), 169-175.
This paper places the seemingly paradoxical outcomes of diversity against one another. On the one hand, diversity can lead to innovation and creativity, which can give companies and teams a discernable advantage. On the other hand, diversity can also lead to misunderstandings, conflict in the workplace and this can result in negative outcomes for team processes, team affect, social integration and ultimate team performance. The question then for management and companies is to determine what the optimum level of diversity is that will allow for the positive outcomes but prevent the negative outcomes. The paper discusses the best ways to manage diversity and how to implement it in teams and organizations such that it produces the best possible outcomes in all areas.
Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under, by Phyllis Edelson. Specifically, it will contain an analysis of pages 1-52, "What is the Australian's view of the Bush?"
AUSTALIA'S VIEW OF THE BUSH
Australian's love the bush. They hate it; they suffer when they live there. It is dangerous, deadly, and always dramatic, but they love the bush. The bush makes them tough, especially the women. They have to make due while their husbands are gone, and so they learn how to fight bush fires, have their babies on their own, and battle deadly diseases miles from their nearest neighbor. "She put on an old pair of her husband's trousers and beat out the flames with a green bough, till great drops of sooty perspiration stood out on her forehead and ran in streaks down her blackened arms" (Lawson and Edelson 7).
Of course, the stories in…
Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under. New York: Ballentine Books, 1993.
Plato, Marx, And Critical Thought
David ichter's book is absolutely indispensable, as it is one of the few anthologies willing to acknowledge the existence of and include well-chosen examples from the long history of critical thought and how it helps us understand what we read, why we read, and what we value.
The greatest strength of ichter's work is that it simply starts at the beginning of classical literature and moves forward until about the mid-19th century, charting a course through what is aptly termed "the critical tradition." This movement provides a broad context in which one can more usefully engage contemporary thinkers. Present-day debates over representation, for example, and the dangers thereof, weigh a great deal more when one is familiar with the long history that underpins this debate, from Aristotle to Horace, Plato to Marx
The critical tradition in ichter is shaped in such a way to choose…
Tim Addey, Letter: Socratic road to political wisdom., Independent, 05-07-1997, pp 15.
HW.B. Joseph, The Form of the Good in Plato's Republic, London, 1948.
W. Jaeger, Paideia: The Ideals of Greek Culture, 3 Vols., New York: Oxford University Press, 1945. (Excellent for its analysis of Plato and the cultural background.)
Sontag, Susan. "Against Interpretation" The Critical Tradition. Ed., David H. Richter, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
Religion features prominently as a theme in literature. In fact, some of the earliest works of literature are rooted in their religious and cultural traditions, including the ancient literatures of the Middle East and Mesopotamia.
As the role of religion in society changed, so too did the role of religion in literature.
Modern literature, including work by Nathaniel Hawthorne, often offers scathing critiques of religion, whereas postmodern literature allows religion to play a more complex role in shaping individual identity.
Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter heavily criticizes the role of religion in a patriarchal society, whereas Yann Martel's Life of Pi presents religion more as a subjective phenomenon, revealing an important cultural shift from religion to spirituality.
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter, the author shows how religion becomes a tool of social oppression and political control.
A. Hawthorne shows that religious authorities are hypocritical, and especially fundamentalists, as the…
This article offers some interesting background information on Yann Martel as an author, showing that the author's secular background proves that Life of Pi is making a clear statement about the difference between religion and spirituality. Religion is an outmoded social institution, whereas spirituality remains central to the human experience. The character of Pi illustrates the similarities between faith in God and faith in one's own ability to succeed, and through the motif of the journey also shows that "a journey toward enlightenment" can be stripped of any religious or even cultural context (Stephens 41).
Stratton, Florence. "Hollow at the core": Deconstructing Yann Martel's Life of Pi" SCI/ELC, Vol, 29, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved online: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/SCL/article/view/12746/13690
This article critiques Yann Martel's novel by showing that the protagonist fails to actually show any growth, while also noting that the author takes a firm postmodern stance on the nature of truth or reality. The author points out that Life of Pi in part addresses the question of objective reality and whether a human being can even determine whether there is any objective reality, a core feature of postmodernism in general. This article offers a refreshing counterpoint to the other articles about Life of Pi.
Greek Hero Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey and the Northern Hero Beowulf in the saga BeoWulf, discussing how either can be heroes and arguing in some ways that it is more than deeds that marks a hero, but also the way in which they behave and relate to others.
Anonymous, 'Beowulf' [online] access at http://www.promo.net/pg/;(2001)
Homer 'The Oddessy' Noonday Press; (1998)
Search Tips and Tricks
There are a number of ways to find relevant academic literature. The first thing to remember is that most academic databases are designed with fairly rudimentary search functions – if you're accustomed to Google you'll be disappointed with the terrible U/X and primitive search of most academic databases. One of the most important ramifications of this is that you have to plan your search out a little bit more comprehensively. It goes without saying that knowing what databases are best for your subject matter is a critical precursor step – if you're just starting out you may wish to just ask your advisor or Google what the best databases for your field are in order to avoid wasting time on this step (Ecker & Skelly, 2010).
The first step is that you'll want to carefully define your keywords (Fonseca, 2013). For an academic database, keywords have…
records court transcripts from "The Trials of Oscar ilde," when the opposing council at the trial asks the defendant, Oscar ilde, if he kissed one of the boys whom ilde was supposed to have engaged in homosexual practices, ilde appears unfazed. hen asked if he kissed the boy, ilde, with customary wit, responded that he did not, because "he was a very ugly boy." This kind of exchange forces the reader to ask the question not so much why ilde was found guilty of gross indecency, but why ilde ever believed he could be found innocent of the love that "dare not speak its name." (Longman Anthology 2125)
Throughout both of his trials, ilde adopts a kind of insouciant, provocative pose that seems, to the modern eyes, to be a 'typical' portrait of a flamboyant male homosexual. Because Oscar ilde's artistic medium has become synonymous with such a posture it…
Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester University Press, 2002.
Longman, Addison Wesley. The Longman Anthology-British Literature-Compact Edition-Volume B2. University of Southern California Press, 1999
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) wrote his 1913 poem "e ear the Mask" in open defiance of the commonly accepted fallacy of his day that African-Americans were happy in the subservient roles they were forced to assume in the face of white racism. Dunbar, through the use of irony, through inverting the positive connotations of smiling, and through the religious rhetorical tropes of exclamation and crying out to God, conveys the cognitive dissonance between the false face African-Americans were forced to portray to earn a living in white society.
The title of Dunbar's and first lines of the poem may at first suggest a mask that an actor or a performer wears. "e wear the mask that grins and lies, / It hides our checks and shades our eyes." (Lines 1-2) However, the next lines of the poem suggest that the nature of the mask that is worn is far more…
DuBois, W.E.B. "Of the Sons of Master and Man" from The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Penguin Classics, 1989.
Dunbar, Paul. "We Wear the Mask." 1913.
King, Martin Luther. Why We Can't Wait. New York: Penguin Books, 1963.
Harlem Renaissance. Web Site accessed July 11, 2002. http://csis.pace.edu/amlit/proj3d/harren.html
Measure for Measure," and "As You Like it," by Shakespeare. Specifically, it will explain how Shakespeare developed the three themes of love, the stages of human life, and the city vs. The country in these two plays.
THEMES IN TWO PLAYS
Love is a common theme in many of Shakespeare's plays, and these two are no exception. "As You Like It" is a romantic comedy filled with love and romance, and Shakespeare seems to be saying that love is not always courtly and refined, that it can be bawdy, and bring happiness to everyone involved. In fact, at the play's end, Rosalind has shown that love is really a source of absolute happiness, because she has successfully arranged four happy marriages and made sure the government will be more just. In fact, she says at the end of the play, "My way is to conjure you and I begin with…
Shakespeare, William. "As You Like It." All Shakespeare. 2002. 15 June 2003. http://www.allshakespeare.com/ayli.php
Measure for Measure." OnlineLiterature.com. 2000. 15 June 2003. http://www.online-literature.com/shakespeare/measure/
what is multicultural literature? What are the characteristics of quality multicultural literature?
Within the latter part of the twentieth century, a pattern referred to as multiculturalism acquired popularity in American education (Almerico et al., 2006). Gay (1994) within an intensive research of the very commonly used meanings of multicultural literature recognized 13 particular explanations involving the idea and mentioned that a number of factors had been typical out of all definitions for the reason that all of them concur that the content material of multicultural literature ought to include:
Cultural pluralism, ethnic identities, unequal division of resources as well as
Opportunities along with other socio and political issues arising from extended track records of oppression
Multicultural education like a school of thought, a strategy for education transformation, along with a collection of particular subject material within just educational courses. (p. 3)
In her own book, Affirming Diversity, Nieto…
Almerica et al. 2006:
The authors in this research carried out a content evaluation of children's literature college books to find out the way the phrase multiculturalism had been interpreted within just the perspective of children's literature. They established the way the idea had been outlined, the degree to which various subcultures within the America had been depicted, the quantity of textual content dedicated to every depicted cultural group, and also the quantity of suggested trade books for every group.
• The racial foundation involving the classroom has and also will continue to transform.
Because schools matter so greatly in shaping the destiny of each child, they have always been the focus of intense, often unfriendly, attention. Criticisms of the system have always been abundant, and the targets of dissatisfaction have remained virtually the same over generations (13).
By properly utilizing children's literature to identify and then to address social issues, more equity can be engendered within a social system in which those from "privileged backgrounds" are favored.
An analysis of present and previous literature on the methodology of most prudently employing children's literature to address social issues readily indicates that the most successful, thought-provoking manner for doing so lies in utilizing an approach of cultural literacy. This principle denotes an active exploration on the process of both children and their teacher to bring their viewpoints to the literary works they are engaged in, in order to "construct meaning" (esponding to Literature, 419). Critical…
Pinnell, G.S., Fountas, I.C. (2007). The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades K-8. Portsmouth: Heinneman.
Energizing Ontario Education. (2008). Reach Every Student. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/energize/
For the Love of Learning. (1994). Ontario: Queens Printer.
No author. (2010). "Literacy Statistics." Canada.com. Retrieved from http://www2.canada.com/national/features/raiseareader/statistics.html
ith the link to the Bible, the story "…resonates with the richness of distant antecedents" and it no longer is "locked in the middle of the twentieth century"; hence, it never grows old, Foster concludes (56).
C.S. Lewis on the Importance of Reading Good Literature
C.S. Lewis, noted novelist, literary critic, lay theologian and essayist, advocates reading literature in his book an Experiment in Criticism. He is disappointed in fact when individuals only read important novels once. Reading a novel the second time for many on his list of incomplete readers is "…like a burnt-out match, an old railway ticket, or yesterday's paper" (Lewis, 2012, p. 2). Those bright alert people who read great works will read the same book "…ten, twenty or thirty times" during their lifetime and discover more with each reading, Lewis writes. The person who is a "devotee of culture" is worth "much more than the…
Draughon, Earl Wells. A Book Worth Reading. Bloomington, in: iUniverse, 2003.
Files, Robert. "The Black Love-Hate Affair with the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 35.4 (2011): 240-245.
Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor: A Lively and Entertaining Guide to Reading Between the Lines. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.
Lewis, C.S. An Experiment in Criticism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…
Davis, Dick. "Introduction." The Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings. Trans. Dick Davis. Korea: Mage, 2004. 7-15.
Doostkhah, Jalil. "Shahnameh and the Oral Epic Traditions: A Brief Note." Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001): 157-162.
Gay, David Elton. "The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry, and: Sunset of Empire: Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. Vol. 3." Journal of American Folklore 119.472 (2006): 243-245.
Karaomerlioglu, Asim. "The Peasants in Early Turkish Literature." East European Quarterly 36.2 (2002): 127-154.
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
Human esources Literature eview
In an article titled "Management Derailment: Personality Assessment and Mitigation," which was published in the American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in 2010, the research team of Joyce Hogan, obert Hogan and obert B. Kaiser conduct a thorough literature review on the subject of management derailment. By examining over 100 scholarly articles and case studies, the reviewers sought to determine why a curious phenomenon within the study of human resource practices has consistently emerged. As the authors of the literature review observe in their Introduction, although "the economic literature clearly shows that good management enhances organizational performance and that some managers are better than others & #8230; there is little consensus in the psychological literature regarding the characteristics of good managers & #8230; (while) the research on bad managers converges rather well" (Hogan, Hogan & Kaiser, 2010). The thrust of the authors' research…
Hogan, J., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R.B. (2010). Management derailment: Personality assessment and mitigation. American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 555-575.
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
traditional Japanese literature interests ? How element/aspect important? How, hypothetically, justify weight? Here topic I picked: relationship nature natural world Traditional Japanese literature.
The relationship between nature and the natural world in Traditional Japanese literature
Nature has often been considered to represent one of the most important sources of inspiration for national cultural heritage throughout the world. It is present in some of the world's most impressive past civilizations as well as part of the most modern cultures nowadays. From the perspective of the Japanese culture, nature has been the constant source of inspiration in many areas, from ceramics to crafting, to literature.
Japanese literature is from this point-of-view one of the most important cultural expressions in terms of dealing with nature as a source of inspiration. This can largely be resulted from a clear affection for nature from a religious as well as historical point-of-view. At the same time…
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: a Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford
University. 1997. Print.
"Gossamer Journal." Classical Japanese Prose: an Anthology. Ed. Helen
McCullough. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. 1990. 256-63. Print.
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…
Chaucer, Geofrey. & Purves, Laing, D, the Canterbury Tales, Auckland: The Floating Press, 2012
Cunningham, J. S, Samuel Johnson: The vanity of human wishes and Rasselas, London: Edward Arnold, 1982
Flohr, Birgitt, Swift's Attitude to Reason in Book IV of Gulliver's travels "Swift Was a Rationalist with No Faith in Reason." Retrieved August 5, 2013, http://www.itp.uni-hannover.de/~flohr/papers/m-lit-18-century1.pdf
The Life and Death of Julies Caesar Shakespeare homepage | Julius Caeser | Entire play, Retrieved, August 5, 2013, http://shakespeare.mit.edu/julius_caesar/full.html
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.
Some of the spatial plots that were obtained are shown below.
Figure 2: Diagrams showing the Mean vortex (a and b) of the azimuthal velocity profiles at different positions along the tunnel length.
Phillips and Graham (1984) carried out a study on how to measure Reynolds-stress in a turbulent trailing vortex. The work described into detail how the measurement of turbulent trailing vortex in a condition of zero pressure is carried out. The measurements included the mean velocities as well as all components of the all important Reynolds-stress tensor. These measurements were made via linearized hot wires at different chordlengths (45,78 as well as 109) downstream of the aircraft wing.Axisymmetric wakes and jets were then added in a coaxial fashion to the vortex while holding the total calculation costant.Their effects were then studied. The study reveled that just as indicated in the work of Mason & Marchman and Poppleton, the…
Daughters in literature requires a thorough analysis of gender roles and norms. The concept of daughter is directly linked to gender roles, as being a daughter entails specific social and familial responsibilities. Daughters' rights, roles, and responsibilities vis-a-vis their male siblings can therefore become a gendered lens, which is used to read literature. This is true even when the daughters in question are not protagonists. For example, Sonya in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment is not a protagonist but her supportive role has a tremendous impact on main character Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov. Likewise, no one of King Lear's three daughters is the play's protagonist but they nevertheless propel the plot of the play and are central to its outcome. Virginia oolf's To the Lighthouse barely features any of the Ramsay daughters, and yet there are ample textual references to the role of daughters in families and correspondingly, the role of…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited by Stephen Orgel. New York, N.Y: Penguin Books, 1999.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. , c1955.
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
It enlivens what many people see as the isolating abstractness of mathematics
Lipsey and Pasternack).
A study of the literature on this issue brings clearly to the fore the realization of the importance of the integration and intersection between various subjects that were in the past seen to be separate and even in opposition to one another. There are an increasing number of cogent and well researched books and articles which suggest ways and means of linking mathematics and literature to the benefit and advantage of both subjects.
Books by Marilyn Burns. etrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, . (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Kolstad, ., Briggs, L., & Whalen, K. (1996). Incorporating…
Books by Marilyn Burns. Retrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, R. (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Further, I believe the best American (and other) literature, has always done that, and does that now, within any age.
However, I also do not feel that American literature should do anything different from other national literatures (except to spring, which it would and does naturally) from the distinct environment in which it was or is written). It should definitely not be confined, either, to focusing only on American topics (another category difficult to actually limit or define). If American literature anthologies or collections are any guide to what the term "American literature" may actually mean, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity," composed as sermon to be read at sea to the author's fundamentalist flock of Puritan Dissenters sailing toward an unknown New World; and the 20th century ussian emigre Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pnin (about a ussian emigre professor and writer in America), qualify equally well (and is included,…
Literature. (1995). Webster's New American dictionary.
New York: Merriam-
Tocqueville, a. de. (1998). Democracy in America [online text]. Retrieved March
Evaluating theoretical framework also assists in determining whether the structure directs the research study. This process entails identification of constructs or concepts, assessment of definitions, relationships, variables, hypothesis, methodology and findings.
Discussion Question Two: Will there always be a theoretical framework that aligns with your chosen topic of study? Why or why not?
Theoretical framework entails the collection of combined concepts that are not essentially well established (Aparasu, 2011). Theoretical framework determines the things a researcher measures and the statistical link to look for. Through theoretical framework, researchers engage preconceived ideas. For instance, some people deem that human beings are untrustworthy and lazy. Such basic beliefs regarding human temperament influences how a researcher views things when conducting a research. In this regard, not understanding the actual framework is an enormous concern. Theoretical framework directs the researcher to what he/she views in his/her environment, and what he/she does not notice in…
Aparasu, R. (2011). Research methods for pharmaceutical practice and policy. New York:
Beck, C., & Faan, C. (2013). Routledge international handbook of qualitative nursing research.
New York: Routledge
technologies redefining notion literature?
The story of literature is a long and well told one, as the written form used to produce it to some degree always transforms its definitions and defining characteristics at least incrementally. Each and every time a new novel, poem or article is put to press it changes what literature is to some degree, some more than others but still at least a small change each time. Yet, more recently a new written format is the source of the potential and real change associated with literature. Prior to the 20th century even the smallest written message, a short poem or just a sentence had to be written in some form on paper that was then only limitedly transferable, to allow for the dissemination of the message it developed. Yet, with the development of word processing, the orld ide eb and various other technologies came change. The…
"Books or Bytes?." Newsweek 142.10 (2003): E16. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct. 2011.
Epstein, Jason. "What's Wrong with the Kindle." Technology Review 111.2 (2008): 12. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct. 2011.
Harper, Eliot. "You've Got Literature!" Publishing Books in E-Installments." Seybold Report: Analyzing Publishing Technologies 8.23 (2008): 10. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct. 2011.
Heater, Brian. "India's Government Unveils $35 Tablet Prototype." PC Magazine 29.9 (2010): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct. 2011.
American and European Literature
Suggesting that there is a fundamental difference between American and European literature means much more than acknowledging that the culture produced by geographically distinct regions is similarly distinct, because it suggests that there are much deeper underlying symbols and tropes which mark these cultural productions as distinctly American or European regardless of the wide variety of genres and themes present in the literature of either region. hile the claim of an identifiable distinction between American and European literature feels accurate due to the clear differences between American and European culture, this claim requires critical examination because of the potential for stereotype and condescension inherent in it. Examining some of the more important factors which might produce a recognizable difference between these two canons, as well as the processes responsible for the formation of literary canons in the first place, reveals that the differences between American and…
Guillory, John. Cultural capital: the problem of literary canon formation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Kronick, Joseph. "Writing American: Between Canon and Literature." CR: The New Centennial
Review. 1.3 (2001): 37-66. Print.
Messent, Peter, and Louis Budd. A companion to Mark Twain. Malden: Blackwell, 2005.
Teaching classic literature as the focus of a language curriculum for high school is an issue that has enjoyed considerable attention. ome critics feel that there is little purpose in focusing on ancient works of literature when attempting to cultivate a love of reading in children. Others again feel that an important part of human history and culture is lost when these works are ignored. According to the latter group, the way in which literature is taught determined whether it is useful or not, rather than the content of the literature as such. An argument stemming from the same basis relates to some negativity towards the way in which classics are taught. ome critics claim that authors such as hakespeare are being used to further dogmatic political goals. These views will be examined to determine whether using the classics as a focus for language education is a valid educational tool.…
Cantor, Paul A. "Shakespeare-"for all time"? - politicizing the teaching of Shakespeare's works." In Public Interest, Winter 2004. The National Affairs, 2004.
Donelson, Ken. "The Student's Right to Read." http://www.ncte.org/about/over/positions/category/cens/107616.htm
Kern, Andrew. "Teaching Classical Literature Classically." Memoria Press, 2004. http://www.memoriapress.com/articles/classicallit.html
La Vigne, Michelle. "Firing the Canon: Teaching Literature in Secondary Schools." Notes from the Hartland, 2004.
WWI and Literature
World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature.
In England alone, more than 2000 poets emerged during this period as Harvey (1993) elaborates: "From the very first week, the 1914-18 war inspired enormous quantities of poetry and fiction. The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W. eilly has counted 2,225 English poets of the First World War, of whom 1,808 were civilians. For example, William Watson (then…
A.D. Harvey, First World War literature. Magazine Title: History Today. Volume: 43. Publication Date: November 1993.
Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.
Hemingway, Ernest. Complete Poems. Lincoln: U. Of Nebraska, 1983.
Granville Hicks, The Great Tradition: An Interpretation of American Literature since the Civil War. Publisher: Biblo and Tannen. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1967.
The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not southern, continent, with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms, and by similar laws; nor can we contemplate with satisfaction either blot or mixture on that surface." (Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation, 1970, p. 746) Turner was the one who has actually laid the basis for a theory of the frontier in American history in the nineteenth century. Before him however, Jefferson, long before he came…
Donald McQuade, Robert Atwan et all. (1999) Harper American Literature, Single Volume Edition. Third Edition. New York: Harper.
Peterson, Merrill D. 1970. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. New York: Signet
Smith, Greg. (2001) "Supernatural Ambiguity and Possibility in Irving's 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'." The Midwest Quarterly 42.2: 174.
The Frontier and the West.(2001)" Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons.
The same goes for Christian literature. Non-secular literature can also benefit society by introducing individuals to faith-based ideas and can help individuals find their own truth within the scope of the world.
It is not impossible to discover different worldviews within a Christian context, but it can be argued that non-secular literature and contexts are inherently more able to do this because there is not an ulterior motive in the literature. That is to say that non-secular literature doesn't have to have the motive of teaching or sending a very specific message. In this way, secular literature can benefit society by encouraging openness to differences between people and cultures. Non-secular literature is also beneficial in that it can challenge individuals in different ways than Christian literature because it doesn't have to adhere to certain spiritual guidelines. Non-secular literature can encourage individuals to find their own beliefs within a certain text.
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…
Soyinka, Wole. Myth, Literature and the African World. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1976.
. Wole Soyinka, Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), ix.
Father Figures Arabian Asian Literature
Father Figures: Arabic / Asian Literature
Father figures all across the world embody a phenomenon which encompasses all attributes of a role model. They are meant to stand for discipline, caution, protection, guidance, and of course, love. The perfect amalgamation of all these can be found in the patriarch of any household, or any culture, for that matter. As such, the perfect patriarchal example is nothing short of a literary archetype. From Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" to Puzo's "The Godfather" we can find numerous examples of father figures establishing the age-old belief in fatherly conduct.
It is true, that the general conception of father figures is more or less the same in all areas of literature. However, one must pay heed to the fact that just like miscellaneous traditions; the perception towards father figures varies from culture to culture. Needless to say, the significance of…
Kanafani, Ghassan. "A Hand in the Grave." Roberta Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 427.
Mukherjee, Bharati. "A Father." Robert Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 660.
Ramanujan, A.K. "Self-Portrait."
Classic Literature for a New Generation
When one watches "Rambo: First lood Part II" are we actually watching a contemporary version of the Iliad about the ferocity of Achilles on and off the battleground? When we watch Francis Ford Coppola's "Godfather" trilogy, are we really watching Aeschylus's Oresteia trilogy? Is today's "Jerry Springer" yesterday's Euripides' Hippolytus? Is Rodney Dangerfield's "ack to School" really Aristophanes's The Clouds? Could flicking through the pages of Playboy be tantamount to listening to Plato's Symposium, a discourse on sex and love, or reading Castiglione's Renaissance courtesy novel The ook of the Courtier? (Spectrum, Australia, 1)
Richard Keller Simon, in his book Trash Culture advocates the simultaneous study of classic literature through its traditional forms and contemporary interpretation, highlighting the importance of promoting popular culture in conjunction with classic literature in order to comprehend the crucial perspective in which the books materialize. (R. K. Simon, California,…
Bloom, Harold (1994) The Western Canon: the Books and School of the Ages. New York, Harcourt Brace.
Burgess, Anthony (1984) "Modern Novels: the 99 Best." The New York Times, late city final edition, section 7, p. 1, col. 1, Book Review Desk.
Fiedler, Leslie (1982) What Was Literature? Class Culture and Mass Society. New York, Simon and Schuster.
Kernan, Alvin. (1992) The Death of Literature. U.S., Yale University Press.
In spite o the accusations of being a misogynist and encouraging the young minds to embrace such theories related to gender stereotypes, Polly and Diggory, the first two children to populate the series, are far from impersonating stereotypes. Polly appears to be a smart and sensitive young girl, wiser to some degree than her friend, Diggory. In opposition to the children who regardless of their gender, seem to share similar degrees of intelligence, courage and common sense, the adults they describe as part of their reality are more likely to express what to some degree could be the result of certain personal convictions of the author in the two fields of gender that are not very flattering for women in general.
Nevertheless, the novels of the Chronicles are valuable, among other things, because of their potential to enchant, keep the reader interested and intrigued all the way up to the…
Lewis CS. Dorsett LW. Mead, ML C.S. Lewis' Letters to Children. Simon and Schuster, 1996
Hooper W.C.S. Lewis: A Complete Guide to His Life & Works. HarperCollins, 1998
Lindsley a.C.S. Lewis: His Life and Works. C'S. Lewis Institute. Discipleship of Heart and Mind. Last updated on Tue, 2009-09-29. Available at: http://www.cslewisinstitute.org/cslewis/index.htm
Regional Differences in American Literature
In American literature, the region of the country that the author was from had an impact on their writing and the kind of story they were telling to the audience. This is because each area had its own unique culture and tastes. The combination of these factors, were integrated together to create works that are a reflection of these attitudes.
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than observations from atts (2007). She found that regional factors had an impact on the author and their writings. This is because these ideas would have an effect on their beliefs. Over the course of time, these views were integrated into various forms of literature with different styles (depending upon the area of the country). (atts 382 -- 285) This is illustrating how these ideas have been used throughout American literature to influence the audience.…
Frost, Robert. The Road Not Taken. Claremont: Claremont Canyon Press, 2010. Print.
Miller, Randall. Daily Life Through American History. Santa Barbra: Greenwood, 2011. Print.
Moss, Elizabeth. Domestic Novelists in the Old South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Press, 1992. Print
Tischler, Nancy. Student Companion to Tennessee Williams. Westport: Greenwood, 2000. Print.
The stories of traditional Japanese literature contributed to the creation of Japan's cultural identity, just as all national literature contributes to the country of their origin. There are specific characteristics of a nation which influence and are influence by the psychological and sociological setting in which they were created. In the Japanese culture, there is a high emphasis placed both on nature and the natural world. hat is granted to humanity by a higher power must be protected, preserved, and appreciated. This love and care for the natural world is evident in many pieces of Japanese literature, particularly in the short stories "The Lady who Admired Vermin" and "The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter."
In the story "The Lady ho Admired Vermin," the main character is interested in vermin, rather than butterflies or flowers as other young women care about. The reason for this is that she finds…
Abe, Hajime. "The View of Nature in Japanese Literature." Nagareyama, Chiba, Japan: Toyo
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory: a Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford
University. 1997. Print.
"The Lady Who Admired Vermin." Classical Japanese Prose: an Anthology. Ed. Helen
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…
Baum, F. (1900). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Gonzalez, R. & Montano, T. (2008) "Critical analysis of Chicana/o children's literature: Moving from cultural differences to sociopolitical realities," Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 6. DOI: 10.9741/2161-2978. Available at: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jpme/vol3/iss1/6
Herge. (1930). Tin in the Congo.
Riorden, R. (2007). The Titan's Curse.
The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what orrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. uch of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.
Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.
Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would…
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.
Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
John Dryden, English poet and critics who was is well-known for his political and religious poetry, explicates on the nature of good writing in his essay, "An essay of dramatic poesy." In this discourse, Dryden looks into the qualities that best defines good writing in literature as a literary work created through three important elements: the work must have a purpose, has a well-conveyed message comprehensible to the reader, and is expressed with wit and intelligence in the simplest and easiest language to understand.
For Dryden, works of literature must be created for a purpose, an honest purpose with strong effectiveness, not a literary works written for the writer's benefit only. This kind of writer, which Dryden identifies as the 'first sort of poetry' -- that is, good poetry -- is synonymous with the writer who is "...so much a well-willer to the satire that he spares no…
Abrams, M. (Ed.). (2000). The Norton anthology of English Literature, Vol. 1. NY W.W. Norton.
Pride in Literature
As a universally human characteristic, pride plays an important part in world literary themes. However, pride can be defined and perceived differently, and the term also has many different definitions. For example, pride can refer to a dignified type of satisfaction, as comes from taking pride in one's work. More often in literature, though, pride is depicted in a negative light and is usually featured as a tragic flaw that, if not overcome, brings about the hero's downfall. Moreover, the implications and meaning of pride in literature has changed over the course of time. Pride was portrayed as a necessary but dangerous trait of powerful leaders in the ancient epics of Greece and Mesopotamia like Gilgamesh, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The trait of pride reached a sort of thematic culmination in the Old English work Beowulf, in which the title character's pride contributes positively to his…
I should wish her to be brought up in a manner suiting her prospects," continued my benefactress; "to be made useful, to be kept humble: as for the vacations, she will, with your permission, spend them always at Lowood." (Bronte, 1922, p. 28)
The young girl was to be defined by her future prospects, being meager, as she was an orphan with little income, she was to be taught an even more extreme form of humility because she would have to use her charm alone to get a good match or secure a position as a governess or ladies maid. There was little love in her early years, whether with her hostile relatives or in her school. As any reader would find it was this poor disposition she gained from her early life that she had to overcome to gain her match.
Just as women were ideally brought up by…
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49023764 "(1998). Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain. Oxford: Oxford University. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99268553
Bronte, C. (1922). Jane Eyre. London: J.M. Dent & Sons. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=80978341
Oliver, E.J. (1956). Coventry Patmore. New York: Sheed and Ward. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=88994351
Patmore, D. (1949). The Life and Times of Coventry Patmore. London: Constable. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27215314