Similar juxtapositions of traditional (in both patriarchal and Asian cultural influences) elements with emerging values, sensibilities, and desires exist in Fire. Mehta's film centers on the growing self-direction and self-realization of a middle-aged woman in a traditional Hindu marriage. Her attraction and budding relationship with another newly wed bride is in many ways the catalyst for the actions and the investigations that occur in the film, but the same-sex attraction is truly secondary to the issue of self-direction and an assertion of feminine identity. This is shown to be an extreme conflict with the traditional values of the Hindu culture, yet at the same time these traditional values are seen to be in a state of complete erosion and emptiness through the treatment of the grandmother character and even the treatment of the central character by her husband. The female and the elderly are essentially treated as non-persons or purely as functionaries with the manner of degradation that traditional patriarchal Hindu values have come to, and an assertion of self-identity by women -- while decidedly "Western" and forbidden -- does not necessarily compromise the integrity of the true depth and import of certain of these values. That is, Mehta shows that the rejection of certain patriarchal constructs is actually in keeping with certain Hindi values.
Both of these texts demonstrate an independence in sexuality and femininity emerging precisely form the conflict between Asian and Euro-American values. In some manner, this conflict seems to actually serve as a point of liberation for the women in the film.
Works… [Read More]
There are additional considerations, such as political risk and accounting standards." (Grote, 2009) According to Grote (2009) the fund "has proven to be a consistent performer." The following chart labeled Figure 4 in this study lists the performance indicators for the First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund (2009).
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund Performance
FIRST STATE ASIA PACIFIC LEADERS
SIZE OF FUND
No OF HOLDINGS
SET UP DATE
MANAGER START DATE
TOTAL EXPENSE RATIO
Source: Investors Chronicle
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Top 10 Holdings
Hong Kong & China Gas
Cheun Kong Holdings
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp
Source: Investors Chronicle
As shown in the previous figure the top ten holdings of the First State Asia Pacific Fund are those of Newcrest Mining, Swire Pacific, Brambles, Taiwan Semiconductor, Hong Kong & China Gas, Cheung Kong Holdings, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation, CSL, Chunghwa Telecom, and Hong Lung Group, with percentage holdings ranging from 9.0 to 2.9% respectively.
VI. Fund not for Risk-Taking Investor Expecting a Quick and Large Return
Grote (2009) states of the First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund that if one believes that Asia "...is about to enter a thundering bull market again in the short-term, this fund is probably not for you. But if you think Asia is less affected than the rest of the developed world by events of the past 12 months or so, and you believe the region offers potential to return more than the UK, Europe or the U.S. As we emerge from the mess we are in, then the First State Asia Pacific Leaders fund should be on your short list." What the investor will have will not be "stellar returns" however they are much less likely to "see huge losses" and it is concluded that the "steady Eddie" approach of Tulloch should serve the investor well. (Grote, 2009)
VII. First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund Investment Risks
It is stated in the First State Investors IVCV April 2009 report…… [Read More]
Business Strategies Found in Asia Pacific and Its Future
Upon completion of this paper many avenues pertaining to business in Asia Pacific will be discussed. The nature of doing business in the region involves an understanding of many elements. These elements include the characteristics of the industrial and institutional environments of business there. There are many different business systems used in the region and knowledge of how these firms operate is important. How these firms operate with in a business system carries over and predicts a firm's ability to compete. Its success and growth are directly related. It is also important for one to have an awareness of the differences in culture and how culture plays a huge role in doing business within the region. It is significant to assess the potential of this area as a collection of key markets and players within the global market. It is due to the advent of telecommunication and computer technologies that the global marketplace is rapidly shrinking. Globalization has sharpened competition. More than ever, it is imperative a corporation build an international presence to remain competitive. The Asia Pacific market has been at the tail end of benefiting from this new business tool. Therefore, the countries and areas of commerce are relatively untapped and a new world to take advantage of for future gain. Challenges exist such as: how to take advantage of new resources and how governments design and implement supportive policies and strategies. Also "Powerful factors are driving globalization: falling trade barriers; fast paced technological advances; declining communications and transport costs; international migration; and highly mobile investment" (Wignaraja, 2004). As a result, this is an extremely crucial character and will flourish as a new business mecca in the near future. It seems despite differences in business practices and cultures, the people in this region have embraced the new technologies in such a way to facilitate massive growth in a short timeframe. This is why focus on this region is so immensely significant.
This paper asks three questions pertaining to the Asia Pacific business climate and marketplace. First one was asked to choose two countries out of the nine Asia Pacific countries identified by Lasserre and Schutte and indicate how cultural differences between the two countries and Australia would mean adopting different methods of conducting business. This may mean changing the frame of reference but really it implies that…… [Read More]
Economic, Political, And Social Changes Impact on Growth
Region of the world: Asia
The region of Asia contains some of the world's most rapidly-growing economies. China's middle class is now securely established; India offers one of the most desirable arenas for outsourcing, given its low labor costs, English-speaking population, and technologically-literate workforce. More and more retail companies are targeting Asia due to the fact that many Asian nations boast expanding populations of young people and the sheer size of China and India's untapped markets. "If current trends continue, Asia's economy will surpass those of the United States and Europe combined in less than two decades -- a prospect that has prompted some to dub the 21st century the Asian century" (Asia faces five challenges to its economic future, 2014, IMF).
Asia's economy as a whole has been relatively durable when compared with its Western competitors: "while the financial environment for emerging markets has been challenging, financial conditions across Asia have remained broadly conducive. Domestic credit growth and corporate bond issuance have been strong" (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 2). The market for exports, particularly in China and Korea, remains robust and product as diverse as SUVs and Starbucks are being devoured in particular by Chinese consumers, newly flush with the ability to engage in conspicuous consumption. "With its combined population of more than 600 million people, strong economic growth and a growing middle class, Southeast Asia offers superb business opportunities for corporations" (Southeast Asia, 2014, J.P. Morgan).
From an investor's perspective, however, the Asian region does pose some concerns due its fluidity. "Set prices in Asia have…experienced large swings, in many instances coinciding with episodes of capital flow surges and reversals and underscoring the potential vulnerability to global bouts of volatility" (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 8). India and Indonesia in particular have shown themselves vulnerable to external economic influences (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 9). Still, within most nations "asset prices do not appear greatly out of line with fundamentals" (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 10-11). Despite concerns about the housing market bubble bursting in Hong Kong SAR, and high credit growth in Malaysia and Singapore, Asian governments have shown themselves to be relatively responsive to the need to enact reforms in an aggressive fashion to deal with structural vulnerabilities. "Actions taken have included policy rate hikes, increases in fuel prices, and other…… [Read More]
Hotel industry is one of the major sectors in the leisure industry across the globe that accounts for a significant percentage of the global Gross Domestic Product and a huge portion of jobs across the globe. The global hotel industry has experienced tremendous growth and development in the recent past despite various economic challenges across the world. As this industry becomes more geographically diverse, its projected revenue by 2012 was $567.5 billion (Szulanski, Zee & Raver, 2009). One of the unique segments in the global hotel industry is the luxury hotel segment that is characterized by premium room rates, comprehensive luxury amenities, luxurious design aesthetics, and a high-end clientele. The luxury hotel segment comprises several players that are defined by brand position, business models, and number of rooms. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriot Hotels & Resorts are two examples of the key players in the luxury hotel segment.
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group v. Marriott Hotels and Resorts
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriot Hotels & Resorts are two leaders in the global luxury hotel segment that have achieved considerable competitive advantage over their rivals through brand position, suitable business models, and number of rooms (Szulanski, Zee & Raver, 2009). In addition to having brand portfolios that cover several customer segments, these key industry players have experienced tremendous growth since their inception despite being founded in different regions i.e. Asia and the United States. Actually, The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriott Hotels and Resorts have established individual sets of luxury hotels in several countries across the world based on their respective flagship brands.
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group is a global hotel chain that opened its flagship brand in Hong Kong in 1963 under the name, The Mandarin (Susie, 2012). However, the company was established as a hotel management firm in 1974 following the acquisition of a 49% interest in the Oriental Bangkok. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group was birthed in 1985 in order to incorporate the two names into a common flagship property and brand. Since its inception, this brand of hotel chains has more than 15 fully-owned hotels and 13 managed properties in several countries worldwide.
In contrast, Marriott Hotels & Resorts is a flagship brand of Marriott International, which is an American diversified hospitality firm that manages and franchises a wide range of hotels and related lodging facilities. The…… [Read More]
East Asia, 1800-1912
The dominance of European powers in East Asia and its center of accumulation in the last decades of the 20th century have posed enormous challenges in the understanding of industrialized nations. Modernization and national development theories have received notable criticisms from well-developed experiences such as plan vs. market, and this looks like regional and not national. The phenomenon has been characterized by a regional scope that has challenged theories of global systems, which depend heavily on the global economic tripartite division into semi-periphery, periphery, and core. Regional integration theories formulated from experiences in contemporary Europe have been challenged relating to the success of non-governmental infrastructure connecting East Asia sub-regions. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North American and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.
At the primary cause of all these challenges lies the significant and peculiar trajectory of East Asia for both the future and past world history. East Asia has been regarded as one of the stable and great nations of the past. This was until the 19th century when it suffered a major deep felt eclipse. Through the projection of world achievement, patterns and trends of families shifting abroad, studies indicate that observers reported that East Asia has promised to develop into a great future hub of attraction. This implies that the relationship between European powers and East Asia can be defined by three different temporalities. First, the recent trends are applicable in all territories in the region. These patterns of periods of centuries have separated the European powers from the defeat of China in the Opium Wars. The East Asia divisions and the establishment of the Chinese regime have divided the world into two antagonistic units dominated by the Soviet Union and European powers. In a thorough manner, these events have acknowledged that the region in its external and internal relations, hence creating an environment for the subsequent expansion of European powers. This was the trend of expansion was witnessed across industrializing…… [Read More]
Ideally, rather than a hostile action, the activity should be motivated in a spirit of mutual cooperation, in a manner which would be advantageous to both entities -- both BEA and the purchasing entity. In the case of ICBC's venture with the bank, "The transaction would mark the first purchase of a majority stake in a U.S. depository institution by a Chinese bank. If completed, it may give financial firms in both countries greater access to each others' markets" (Campbell 2011). It may also stimulate BEA's desire to engage in similar partnerships with other institutions
Thus, if a large corporation wished to purchase BEA outright, it should be aware of the roots that BEA has created internationally and its particular strengths in establishing connections with expanding enterprises in Mainland China. This would likely make BEA unwilling and able to resist a takeover or purchase. Its soaring stock prices make 'buying out' the company financially unfeasible. However, BEA's openness to advantageous partnerships, particularly outside of its core, regional base of the Pacific Rim might make it hospitable to working with other institutions. Purchasing specific branches in desirable components of BEA's empire could open up access to new markets and also generate new relationships with consumers who are drawn to BEA's Asian orientation and its diversity of financial services combined with its strong connections with China. But the agreement must be mutual, otherwise BEA will surely resist such efforts.… [Read More]
Therefore, policy initiatives and public resources are primarily confined to basic religious beliefs and practices. This has lead to a serious imbalance in social, political, and religious developments. Asia has already realized the rapid expansion in the religious sector hence the need to expand social and political developments. The region has noticed that religion is essential for social and political growth. It is also equalizer in the allocation of policy initiatives, and public resources in case Asia is to become successful in the highly globalized world (Esposito, John, & Bakar 2010).
It is clear how economic, social, and political developments have a positive response towards the magnitude of some religious practices and beliefs but negatively responds to church attendance. Therefore, economic and political development depends on the magnitude of believing in the religious beliefs and not belonging to a religion. In this case, it can be concluded that Asia did not evolve into a full region because the prosperity seen in conflict resolution has existed over the need for stability and peace among the populations in the region. Asia can only hope that zealous trends would continue to encourage the desire to impart the eluded quality of religion across Asia even in the future. The region must still be optimistic that region can influence and implement untimely solutions creating a more cohesive, socio-politically and economically stronger region.… [Read More]
Capacity Constraints at Air Asia
Air Asia follows a low cost carrier model, offering a range of flights across more than 20 countries and working with associate companies to provide access to more destinations, including long haul flights through Air Asia X. A key success factor for low cost airlines is the efficient use of resources in order to maximize revenues while holding down costs. In any industry there will be capacity constraints; factors which limit the level of production or service provision. Revenue management requires an understanding of capacity constraints in order to manage them in an effective manner. The airline industries, and therefore Air Asia, have some significant constraints, such as the number of aircraft, number of available seat for passengers, availability of staff and constraints due to international aviation regulations. The way constraints impact on operations and revenue management, along with the way in which the firm may reduce or overcome those constraints will all be examined individually.
The most obvious capacity constraint for an airline is their fleet. Air Asia has a fleet of 123 aircraft, all provided by airbus (Air Asia, 2012). If the airline has only 123 aircraft, the maximum capacity at any point in time will be the number of passengers that the fleet can carry if fully booked; in turn each aircraft will have its own maximum capacity for the number of passengers that it can carry. If an aircraft can only seat 120 passengers, they cannot carry 121, the capacity is fixed. The capacity of an aircraft is fixed at the time the order is placed; aircraft manufacturers provide different potential configurations, which different numbers of seats. For example the Airbus 330 family gives the choice of different seat types ranging from business class seats that are 27 inches wide, to the high efficiency economy seats which have a cushion of 16.7 inches (Airbus, 2013). The smaller the seat size the greater the number of seats in the aircraft (Airbus, 2013). For airlines seeking to maximize capacity, including the low cost carriers, there will usually be a preference for the smaller seats so a flight can carry more passengers. Larger seats reduce…… [Read More]
Private vessels and cruisers have built a gap within the international provision for maritime security.
The maritime industry has been greatly been affected by the terrorist attacks. This is a different environment from the 9/11 attacks. However, there is no major credibility to the threats because they have little effect to the nation compared to land attacks. Research shows that the maritime attacks affect only the seaborne trade and movement of ships leaving lesser costs on the nation. The methods used to counter the threats are general although new standards are in place and every ship should meet its requirements. These measures have come up with raised costs in maritime security. There are extra charges that have been put in order to meet the rising costs in the region. It is notable that the maritime security is not getting enough funds compared to other security departments like Homeland Securities.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Security in Maritime
Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact, Paris: OECD, July 2003, p. 5
Rommel C. Banlaoi, 'Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia -- the Abu Sayyaf Threat', Naval
War College Review, Autumn 2005, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 63-80.
Christopher P. Cava, 'U.S. Navy Chief calls for New 'Maritime Strategy," Defense News
online, June 15, 2006, and Sam Bateman, 'Navies of the World Unite! Will the New U.S.
Maritime Strategy Work?', IDSS Commentary 79/2006, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), 11 August 2006
Tom Quiggin, 'Time for a Different Approach in the War on Terrorism?', IDSS Commentary
82/2006, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), 15 August 2006.
Captain James Pelkofski USN, 'Before the Storm: Al Qaeda's Coming Maritime Campaign',
U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 131 No.12, December 2005, p. 22,
David Munns, '121,000 Tracks', Seapower, July 2005, pp. 10-13. 40 Hartmut Hesse and Nicolaos L. Charalambous, 'New Security Measures for the International Shipping
Community' WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2004, Vol.3, No.2, p. 138.
David Munns, '121,000 Tracks', Seapower, July 2005, pp. 10-13. 40 Hartmut Hesse and Nicolaos L. Charalambous, 'New Security Measures for the International Shipping Community' WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2004, Vol.3, No.2, p. 138.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact, Paris:…… [Read More]
The Dutch and the French followed their example. In England, tea was introduced during Cromwell's rule.
The evolution of tea in the European market followed several periods. In the beginning, the price of tea reached quite high levels. Therefore, the product was only available to the rich, usually represented by royalties and nobles. From this point-of-view, tea's evolution on the European market is similar to that on the Chinese market. This is because tea started to be purchased by the masses when its price lowered and became more available.
The increased demand for this product on the English market determined traders to intensify their efforts in order to import larger amounts of tea from China. This is where the clippers interfered. Clippers were rapid ships that were designed in order to serve traders in their expeditions. The most circulated trade routes used for importing trade and spices from Asia were the Eastern ones. These trade routes also reached the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa.
The Europeans did not have many products that interested the Asian parties. This is the reason for which tea trade was difficult and European traders had limited negotiation possibilities. However, the European countries exported wool and woolen products to Asian countries (Culture Online, 2010).
In addition to this, European traders found it useful to import opium to China. This allowed them to solidify their position in the economic relationships between Europe and Asia. The Opium War that followed China people's addiction to opium also favored the British part. This is because China was forced to accept the economic conditions imposed by Britain.
This allowed British traders to import large quantities of tea to Europe. The country also managed to start cultivating tea on national level. The country was therefore able to establish itself as one of the most important tea producers.
1. The History of Tea (2003). Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.houseoftea.ie/html/allabout/history.htm.
2. Chinese History (2000). China Knowledge. Retrieved October…… [Read More]
British Westernize Southeast Asia
Introduction- What is 'westernization'
Westernization is when the European countries would impose their way of life on the colonies they rule to include: the economic system, values, religion and beliefs. The idea was that European views were more progressive and superior to those of the indigenous population. As result, the ultimate objective was to have everyone in the various colonies to accept these different principals in one form or another. The East India Company was an extension of the British government's attempts to impose Westernization on Southeast Asia. (Phillips, 2008)
Initial Government in Bengal - 'dual government'
There were two forms of government that were mainly utilized under this system to include: regions that company would exercise direct control and those that they controlled through treaties. The regions that were controlled by the company would have increased amounts of jurisdiction, in all areas of government and daily life. The reason why, is these areas were considered to be a vital part of the operations for the East India Company, as this was seeded to it after the Battle of Plassey. The regions that were brought under the control of the company (through various treaties) were given greater amounts of local authority. This meant that the company would have less influence upon these areas, as there was mainly a business arrangement vs. allowing the area to be annexed. (Phillips, 2008)
Civil Service - lower level Indians
In the lower levels of the government, the East India Company would offer the citizens from Bengal greater authority over other members within Indian society. Where, they would use the Caste system to establish a social structure throughout regions that the company would directly control. This would help them to have a local administrators and civil servants that could be utilized, to deal with various situations that arise. (Phillips, 2008)
Land revenue systems - adapting to pre-existing ones- land as property
As far as land revenues were concerned, the East India Company would collect a percentage of the…… [Read More]
AIDS in Asia
The Relationship of AIDS and Poverty in Asia
Historically diseases such as the Black Plague, Tuberculosis, Influenza, and several others have shaken the constraints of society. In modern times a new disease, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), has arisen and is just as damaging or worse than any that have come before it. AIDS is a disease that attacks an individual's immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and there is no cure once an individual has contracted HIV / AIDS. Biologists and genetic researchers have concluded that HIV originated in west-Central Africa during the late 19th or early 20th century (Fan, Conner, & Villarreal, 2010). The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention first declared AIDS in 1981, and diagnosed HIV as its cause shortly after (Fan, Conner, & Villarreal, 2010).
Since the early 1980s this major health epidemic arrived in modern society, and it has caused fear and poverty in every area of massive outbreaks. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that there is an estimated 33.4 million individuals globally living with HIV / AIDS, and that there are 2.7 million new cases per year along with another 2.0 million deaths caused by AIDS (2011). In 2009 UNAIDS released a report stating that 60 million people have been infected with the disease, and it is believed that 25 million of them have perished (2011).
The epidemic HIV / AIDS has hurt many populations in the world economically and has led to mass poverty and decline in some areas. Many experts point to Africa and the damage the HIV / AIDS has caused in that area, but the continent of Asia has been severely affected as well. To understand better the relationship of AIDS and poverty in Asia the ideals of poverty and HIV / AIDS will be explored. Once garnering an understanding of poverty and HIV / AIDS a connection will be made economically to the relationship of the two ideals in Asia, and several solutions and recommendations will be offered to solve the complexity of the problem in Asia.
To obtain a greater understanding…… [Read More]
Democratic Transition in Asia
Transition and Structural Theories of Democratization
Important Asian countries participated in the Third Wave of democratization from the 1970s to the 1990s, including South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. In China and Burma, there might have been a democratic revolution in 1989-90 had the ruling regimes not suppressed their own people with utmost brutality. This Third Wave, which according to Samuel Huntington started in Spain and Portugal in 1974-75, spread to Southern and eastern Europe and then to Asia, Africa and Latin America (Haynes 1999, p. 80). It demolished the Soviet Union and the apartheid regime in South Africa, and today seems to be rising yet again in North Africa and the Middle East. These unexpected events have led scholars of history, political science and international relations to delve into the questions of how transitions from authoritarianism to democracy occur and what structural factors seem to make these more likely. Another related set of questions concerns the social, economic and cultural factors that offer the best chance for the consolidation and stabilization of democracies over time.
Given the immense cultural, historical and ethnic diversity of Asia, attempting to come up with a theory that fits all cases is probably a hopeless task. There very likely is a correlation between social and economic development and an eventual transition to democracy, for example, but even then there are exceptions like Singapore -- rich countries that have no democracy at all. Even in countries that have strong civil societies and people power movements like the Philippines, capable of overthrowing dictatorships, there is often a persistent danger of military coups as well as feudal-oligarchic tendencies that limit real democratization. Some countries with strong Confucian values became democratic, while others never did. Some countries that had been within the British Empire developed a strong liberal-democratic political culture but this hardly exists at all in others. There is simply no theoretical consensus on democratization that…… [Read More]
economic interdependence among North Asian states overcoming historical animosities and improving their political relationships?
The tendency to speak of "Asia" as a homogenous region in the West should not erase the memory of the deep historical animosities that have existed within the area. In the past, Japan has been an aggressor against both China and Korea. Recently, Japan has felt threatened by China's size and economic and territorial ambitions and strength. However, the forces of globalization and the economic interdependence demanded by the new global economy have been an important force in facilitating regional cooperation.
Prior to the 1990s few would have predicted that Japan, China, South Korea and the Southeast Asian nations would have forged free trade agreements and would be "meeting on a regular and structured basis to advance regional cooperation at the ministerial level in over twenty policy domains" as they do now within the ASEAN Plus Three (APT) regional framework.
Intra-regional trade now accounts for 55% of Asia's total trade; the number of air routes within East Asia doubled from 54 in 1985 to 117 in 2000.
Future proposed efforts for economic cooperation include the Asia Highway project and a collective enterprise designed to improve the highway system in Asia. A Trans-Asian Railway project has also been proposed.
However, tensions remain between regional actors in terms of foreign policy. On one hand, Japan has fostered a more positive relationship with its new ally South Korea. It recently apologized for the "suffering inflicted during Japanese control of the peninsula from 1910 to 1945," and the relatively youthful nation of South Korea now has fewer residents with fresh memories of the Japanese occupation during World War II.
But "territorial disputes, competition over resources and Japanese concern over Chinese food safety have also hampered co-operation."
And some regional agreements do not necessarily foster harmony within the entirety of Asia. Along with the United States and Australia, Japan has united with South Korea to "counter immediate and longer-term threats from rising tensions on the Korean Peninsula" and China's increasing strength.
Because of its small military, a…… [Read More]
In terms of opportunities, the Asian market offers in itself a great potential of expansion for any company. With growing individual revenues and boosting economies, markets such as Singapore, Korea and, presently, China, are virtually limitless in the possibility that can be offered to the company. As far back as 2002, eBay shifted its operations from Japan to areas such as Taiwan and Singapore (it closed its Japanese operations in March 2002), thus wanting to benefit from the economic expansion and potential in these countries.
The threats for eBay Asia generally come from the same area of online services and sites providing similar services. For example, for eBay Asia a serious competitor, Yahoo, forced it out of the Japanese market, because it was already established there and ensured that a eBay received only a small market share. Companies such as Yahoo had had a longer time to establish on the Asian markets, where the eBay brand is still relatively less well-known than in Europe.
Even more so, they also come from extremely successful local brand sites, like alibaba.com in China, which managed to provide B2B, B2C and C2C services for its clients.… [Read More]
Vietnam and Indonesia, for example were governed by democratic powers, nowadays leaning more and more towards liberalization. These countries did not enclose themselves within the geographical boundaries of the territory, but initiated business relationships and partnerships with neighbor countries or across the globe countries. These countries understood the concept of compared advantages and applied them in practice.
One of the most relevant examples of economic success due to international trade based on imports and exports is Indonesia, which has been able to increase its inhabitants living standards throughout trade activities.
The economic status of the southeastern Asian countries was highly disputed along the years. "Analyzes of economic growth have drawn on the experiences of the East Asian newly industrializing countries to highlight the contribution of cohesive and autonomous states in the resolution of market failures."
Whichever the current situation of the countries in southeastern Asia, fact remains that their development is highly interesting to the specialized economist. Their common conclusion remains the strong influence that the states' political had upon the development.… [Read More]
There seems to be several situations in Southeast Asia that have the potential of greatly influencing other parts of the world.
One disturbing element in Southeast Asia is the growth of al Qaeda there during the past decade and its link with local radical Islamists (Palmer Pp).
The organization has developed strong roots in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia with Indonesian agents working in close partnership with al Qaeda in promoting terrorism in the region (Palmer Pp). According to Ronald Palmer the "Jemaah Islamiya goal of establishing an Islamic state encompassing Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Southern Philippines is only in its early stages and has been stymied for the time being," however, it appears that the al Qaeda cells which have thus far been discovered may only be the "tip of a terrorist iceberg of unknown dimensions" (Palmer Pp). Local governments face severe challenges to maintain security, requiring a "policy framework much larger than merely fighting terrorism" (Palmer Pp). The Regional Forum on Security was established with its main function being to promote stabilization processes (Security Pp). Any changes and transformations in the countries of the region, "must be effected on the basis of the law," therefore, it is necessary to define, for example, exactly what the term terrorist means and who can be regarded as "a fighter for freedom" (Security Pp).
Perhaps the most disturbing element present today in Southeast Asia is the Avian flu.
In February 2005, it was reported that despite the quarantine and monitoring measure established by health officials throughout Southeast Asia, "World Health Organization officials and health leaders in the region acknowledge that the disease virus is now likely deeply embedded in both wild and domestic bird populations and they do not expect to eradicate it fully" (Stewart Pp). The virus thrives in the brew created by birds, animals and humans living in proximity in large numbers, "whatever and wherever the arrangement" (Stewart Pp). An article in the January 2005 journal, "Vaccine, speculates that the…… [Read More]
In "Once Were Peripheral: Creating Media Capacity in East Asia," Keane argues that it is important to develop new paradigms or models of analysis when addressing emerging media in Asia. Some of the elements that Keane addresses include deterritorialization, isomorphism, cultural technology transfer, niche markets, and local clustering via cultural and industrial milieu. The author focuses specifically on the People's Republic of China, and applies his proposed new framework for a more globally integrated and culturally relative media. According to the author, the new growth models can better account for the current and future state of media as it manifests in East Asia. Prior debates have been concerned mainly with a total critique of Western media hegemony, and in particular with corporate conglomeration. While this critical analysis has been helpful, it might not be as relevant to the East Asian markets. Media plays a unique role in each society, and it cannot be assumed or inferred that media serves the same functions in East Asia as in North America.
The peripheral vision thesis that lends the article its title refers to such things as media exportation via diaspora communities. Whether peripheral media are representative of Western media imperialism remains up for debate. In some cases, media penetrates neighboring markets in an organic, rather than imperialistic fashion. Peripheral vision thesis does, however, taken into account the necessity of language and cultural tropes in media when it is exported. While the peripheral vision thesis applies well when analyzing media in South America, for example, it does not have as much relevance when examining the Asian market. Media capital, and the flow of capital and information exchange has led to different models for success in Asia. In ironic but rather predictable ways, Asian media has engaged in its own colonization of the rest of the world. Changes in the global economy, outsourcing, cloning, and other issues are all pertinent to the discussion.
The strengths of the article include its careful scrutiny of Asian…… [Read More]
What impact did British rule have in South Asia in the political, economic and social arenas, especially during the period of formal rule under the Crown (1857-1947)?
Social unrest, political instability and fragmentation, and economic transformations led to the dismantling of the East India Company and the instatement of Crown Rule in 1858. The period during which Crown Rule, known colloquially as the Raj, was first established was known as the Great Rebellion. It was during this time that the Crown came to realize fully the extent to which colonial activities impacted political, economic, and social arenas. The Crown had also come to reckon with the enormous diversity of culture, language, and religion in India. During the Raj, India's strategic alliances shifted according to utility and opportunity. Alliances with the Crown and rebellions against it shaped modern Indian history. British rule introduced a burgeoning capitalist market economy in India, while allowing Indian business concerns to access global markets via the Crown. The groundwork for democratic institutions through the British parliamentary system were firmly laid during the Raj as well. Social class stratification changed surprisingly little with British rule, as India proved only to be a mirror through which British social class stratification could be viewed in a unique light. However, British rule in South Asia did foment tensions between different ethnic groups and those tensions have remained unresolved more than a half century after Independence.
British Crown rule led to tremendous shifts in the social culture of the Indian subcontinent, transforming relationships between different ethnic groups. Immediately after Crown Rule began, the once-trusted Bengali Army rebelled in a highly organized mutiny. The British responded immediately with a "divide and rule" methodology that would characterize many of its social policies in addition to its military organizational strategy (Soherwordi 2). Indeed, ethnic tensions came to a head during the period of formal Crown rule, as centuries of perceived oppression under Muslim Shahs had irked Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, and other ethnic groups. British rule provided a false and temporary colonial umbrella, but fomented tensions by favoring some ethnic groups over others. These tensions especially came to a head after Independence, throughout Partition, the creation of Bangladesh later, and the…… [Read More]