Asia Pacific Business
Australia is a large island continent that is located on the south-east of Asia. Covering a total area of 7,617,930 km2 (Australia G., 2012) with a population of 22,876,023 individuals as per the 2012 estimate (Australia), it happens to be very large country with a relatively small population. Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Since vast tracts of the country are not only uninhabited but also uninhabitable, there is a lack of a domestic market. Hence, there is a need for Australian businesses to look for international markets in order to ensure their future prosperity.
Currently, Australia has the world's thirteenth largest economy and the fifth highest GDP per capita of $66,984 as of 2011 (Fund, 2012). The Australian Securities Exchange is now, the ninth largest stock exchange in the world (On the International Realignment of Exchanges and Related Trends in Self-Regulation, 2010). In 2011, it was the 13th largest national economy by nominal GDP of U.S.$1.6 trillion. (12ht) (Field listing - GDP (official exchange rate)).
Australia is self sufficient with rapidly developing agricultural and manufacturing industries. In recent years, Australia has increased its economic focus and has become one of the most dominant and advanced market economies in the world with increasing demands from its trading partners. Australia's main trade partners are Japan, Europe, China, Indonesia, Korea, USA and New Zealand (Compostion of Trade Australia 2008-09, November 2009). These are basically Australia's largest export markets. Australia makes export revenue of approximately $103 million per annum. Its major exports are agricultural produce, including wheat, meat, and wool. In addition to these, it also exports minerals such as gold, iron ore, alumina and fuels such as coal and natural gas. Australia also is the fourth largest exporter of wine, with a whopping $5.5 billion industry contributing to the country's GDP. Machinery and transport equipment are also essential exports that contribute to the country's economy.
Striving for this constant progression is backed by certain key business elements that are also an essential part of the Australian culture. Being a nation that is defined by multi-culturism and opportunities, there are underlying concepts to understanding the complexity of this nation's culture. One of the defining aspects of its culture is Egalitarianism. This means that it is a culture that avoids any…… [Read More]
Asia Pacific Business China and Australia
A Contrast and Comparison
The purpose of this paper is to:
Compare and contrast the characteristics of industrial and institutional environments in one of the nine (9) Asia Pacific countries identified by Lasserre and Schutte with those of Australia; and II. Further this work will discuss South Korea in relation to their adoption of a similar business system and institutional framework which is the same as that applied successfully by the Japanese.
"In the international financial institutions (IFI), governance takes places under explicit sets of binding rules. Key to any discussion of any international institution is the question of what rules members use to organize and operate the institution. Voting procedures in international institutions can be structured in a variety of ways. The United Nations General Assembly, for example, utilizes the logic of one nation, one vote. Other international assemblies explicitly grant some members more influence"
In terms of the organization and its' operational and strategic orientations it has been suggested by Lasserre and Schutte (1995) that a "satisfactory fit along four dimensions (strategic, organizational, resources and cultural) must be achieved."
The four dimensions are those listed as:
Strategic: Includes a level of compatibility between the partners and their strategic objectives.
Review of Case Study:
A study conducted and the results are still current has made identification of differences of a significant nature between Australia and China. Stated in the study is that: Sharing the same business logic is a requirement for cultural fit. However, in relation to principles in management there are vital differences between Australia and China and it is clear that "such differences have the potential to cause considerable problems managers need to be aware of, and resolve."
There are four archetypes of organizational forms existing in Southeast Asia which are those of:
1. Colonial Business Groups
2. Family Business Groups
3. Government Linked Enterprises; and
4. New Managers.
The decline of colonization as well as industrial growth and other factors of the cold war, privatization and the free-trade blocks creation are not elements that are nationally contained but are global in the impact with the effect of…… [Read More]
Similar juxtapositions of traditional (in both patriarchal and Asian cultural influences) elements with emerging values, sensibilities, and desires exist in Fire. Mehta's film centers on the growing self-direction and self-realization of a middle-aged woman in a traditional Hindu marriage. Her attraction and budding relationship with another newly wed bride is in many ways the catalyst for the actions and the investigations that occur in the film, but the same-sex attraction is truly secondary to the issue of self-direction and an assertion of feminine identity. This is shown to be an extreme conflict with the traditional values of the Hindu culture, yet at the same time these traditional values are seen to be in a state of complete erosion and emptiness through the treatment of the grandmother character and even the treatment of the central character by her husband. The female and the elderly are essentially treated as non-persons or purely as functionaries with the manner of degradation that traditional patriarchal Hindu values have come to, and an assertion of self-identity by women -- while decidedly "Western" and forbidden -- does not necessarily compromise the integrity of the true depth and import of certain of these values. That is, Mehta shows that the rejection of certain patriarchal constructs is actually in keeping with certain Hindi values.
Both of these texts demonstrate an independence in sexuality and femininity emerging precisely form the conflict between Asian and Euro-American values. In some manner, this conflict seems to actually serve as a point of liberation for the women in the film.
Works… [Read More]
There are additional considerations, such as political risk and accounting standards." (Grote, 2009) According to Grote (2009) the fund "has proven to be a consistent performer." The following chart labeled Figure 4 in this study lists the performance indicators for the First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund (2009).
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund Performance
FIRST STATE ASIA PACIFIC LEADERS
SIZE OF FUND
No OF HOLDINGS
SET UP DATE
MANAGER START DATE
TOTAL EXPENSE RATIO
Source: Investors Chronicle
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Top 10 Holdings
Hong Kong & China Gas
Cheun Kong Holdings
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp
Source: Investors Chronicle
As shown in the previous figure the top ten holdings of the First State Asia Pacific Fund are those of Newcrest Mining, Swire Pacific, Brambles, Taiwan Semiconductor, Hong Kong & China Gas, Cheung Kong Holdings, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation, CSL, Chunghwa Telecom, and Hong Lung Group, with percentage holdings ranging from 9.0 to 2.9% respectively.
VI. Fund not for Risk-Taking Investor Expecting a Quick and Large Return
Grote (2009) states of the First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund that if one believes that Asia "...is about to enter a thundering bull market again in the short-term, this fund is probably not for you. But if you think Asia is less affected than the rest of the developed world by events of the past 12 months or so, and you believe the region offers potential to return more than the UK, Europe or the U.S. As we emerge from the mess we are in, then the First State Asia Pacific Leaders fund should be on your short list." What the investor will have will not be "stellar returns" however they are much less likely to "see huge losses" and it is concluded that the "steady Eddie" approach of Tulloch should serve the investor well. (Grote, 2009)
VII. First State…… [Read More]
Business Strategies Found in Asia Pacific and Its Future
Upon completion of this paper many avenues pertaining to business in Asia Pacific will be discussed. The nature of doing business in the region involves an understanding of many elements. These elements include the characteristics of the industrial and institutional environments of business there. There are many different business systems used in the region and knowledge of how these firms operate is important. How these firms operate with in a business system carries over and predicts a firm's ability to compete. Its success and growth are directly related. It is also important for one to have an awareness of the differences in culture and how culture plays a huge role in doing business within the region. It is significant to assess the potential of this area as a collection of key markets and players within the global market. It is due to the advent of telecommunication and computer technologies that the global marketplace is rapidly shrinking. Globalization has sharpened competition. More than ever, it is imperative a corporation build an international presence to remain competitive. The Asia Pacific market has been at the tail end of benefiting from this new business tool. Therefore, the countries and areas of commerce are relatively untapped and a new world to take advantage of for future gain. Challenges exist such as: how to take advantage of new resources and how governments design and implement supportive policies and strategies. Also "Powerful factors are driving globalization: falling trade barriers; fast paced technological advances; declining communications and transport costs; international migration; and highly mobile investment" (Wignaraja, 2004). As a result, this is an extremely crucial character and will flourish as a new business mecca in the near future. It seems despite differences in business practices and cultures, the people in this region have embraced the new technologies in such a way to facilitate massive growth in a short timeframe. This is why focus on this region is so immensely significant.
This paper asks three questions pertaining to the Asia…… [Read More]
Economic, Political, And Social Changes Impact on Growth
Region of the world: Asia
The region of Asia contains some of the world's most rapidly-growing economies. China's middle class is now securely established; India offers one of the most desirable arenas for outsourcing, given its low labor costs, English-speaking population, and technologically-literate workforce. More and more retail companies are targeting Asia due to the fact that many Asian nations boast expanding populations of young people and the sheer size of China and India's untapped markets. "If current trends continue, Asia's economy will surpass those of the United States and Europe combined in less than two decades -- a prospect that has prompted some to dub the 21st century the Asian century" (Asia faces five challenges to its economic future, 2014, IMF).
Asia's economy as a whole has been relatively durable when compared with its Western competitors: "while the financial environment for emerging markets has been challenging, financial conditions across Asia have remained broadly conducive. Domestic credit growth and corporate bond issuance have been strong" (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 2). The market for exports, particularly in China and Korea, remains robust and product as diverse as SUVs and Starbucks are being devoured in particular by Chinese consumers, newly flush with the ability to engage in conspicuous consumption. "With its combined population of more than 600 million people, strong economic growth and a growing middle class, Southeast Asia offers superb business opportunities for corporations" (Southeast Asia, 2014, J.P. Morgan).
From an investor's perspective, however, the Asian region does pose some concerns due its fluidity. "Set prices in Asia have…experienced large swings, in many instances coinciding with episodes of capital flow surges and reversals and underscoring the potential vulnerability to global bouts of volatility" (Chapter 1, 2014, IMF: 8). India and Indonesia in particular have shown themselves vulnerable to external economic influences…… [Read More]
East Asia, 1800-1912
The dominance of European powers in East Asia and its center of accumulation in the last decades of the 20th century have posed enormous challenges in the understanding of industrialized nations. Modernization and national development theories have received notable criticisms from well-developed experiences such as plan vs. market, and this looks like regional and not national. The phenomenon has been characterized by a regional scope that has challenged theories of global systems, which depend heavily on the global economic tripartite division into semi-periphery, periphery, and core. Regional integration theories formulated from experiences in contemporary Europe have been challenged relating to the success of non-governmental infrastructure connecting East Asia sub-regions. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North American and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.
At the primary cause of all these challenges lies the significant and peculiar trajectory of East Asia for both the future and past world history. East Asia has been regarded as one of the stable and great nations of the past. This was until the 19th century when it suffered a major deep felt eclipse. Through the projection of world achievement, patterns and trends of families shifting abroad, studies indicate that observers reported that East Asia has promised to develop into a great future hub of attraction. This implies that the relationship between European powers and East Asia can be defined by three different temporalities. First, the recent trends are applicable in all territories in the region. These patterns of periods of centuries have separated the European powers from the defeat of China in the Opium Wars. The East Asia divisions and the establishment of the Chinese regime have divided the world into two antagonistic units dominated by the Soviet Union and European powers. In a thorough manner, these events…… [Read More]
Ideally, rather than a hostile action, the activity should be motivated in a spirit of mutual cooperation, in a manner which would be advantageous to both entities -- both BEA and the purchasing entity. In the case of ICBC's venture with the bank, "The transaction would mark the first purchase of a majority stake in a U.S. depository institution by a Chinese bank. If completed, it may give financial firms in both countries greater access to each others' markets" (Campbell 2011). It may also stimulate BEA's desire to engage in similar partnerships with other institutions
Thus, if a large corporation wished to purchase BEA outright, it should be aware of the roots that BEA has created internationally and its particular strengths in establishing connections with expanding enterprises in Mainland China. This would likely make BEA unwilling and able to resist a takeover or purchase. Its soaring stock prices make 'buying out' the company financially unfeasible. However, BEA's openness to advantageous partnerships, particularly outside of its core, regional base of the Pacific Rim might make it hospitable to working with other institutions. Purchasing specific branches in desirable components of BEA's empire could open up access to new markets and also generate new relationships with consumers who are drawn to BEA's Asian orientation and its diversity of financial services combined with its strong connections with China. But the agreement must be mutual, otherwise BEA will surely resist such efforts.… [Read More]
Therefore, policy initiatives and public resources are primarily confined to basic religious beliefs and practices. This has lead to a serious imbalance in social, political, and religious developments. Asia has already realized the rapid expansion in the religious sector hence the need to expand social and political developments. The region has noticed that religion is essential for social and political growth. It is also equalizer in the allocation of policy initiatives, and public resources in case Asia is to become successful in the highly globalized world (Esposito, John, & Bakar 2010).
It is clear how economic, social, and political developments have a positive response towards the magnitude of some religious practices and beliefs but negatively responds to church attendance. Therefore, economic and political development depends on the magnitude of believing in the religious beliefs and not belonging to a religion. In this case, it can be concluded that Asia did not evolve into a full region because the prosperity seen in conflict resolution has existed over the need for stability and peace among the populations in the region. Asia can only hope that zealous trends would continue to encourage the desire to impart the eluded quality of religion across Asia even in the future. The region must still be optimistic that region can influence and implement untimely solutions creating a more cohesive, socio-politically and economically stronger region.… [Read More]
Capacity Constraints at Air Asia
Air Asia follows a low cost carrier model, offering a range of flights across more than 20 countries and working with associate companies to provide access to more destinations, including long haul flights through Air Asia X. A key success factor for low cost airlines is the efficient use of resources in order to maximize revenues while holding down costs. In any industry there will be capacity constraints; factors which limit the level of production or service provision. Revenue management requires an understanding of capacity constraints in order to manage them in an effective manner. The airline industries, and therefore Air Asia, have some significant constraints, such as the number of aircraft, number of available seat for passengers, availability of staff and constraints due to international aviation regulations. The way constraints impact on operations and revenue management, along with the way in which the firm may reduce or overcome those constraints will all be examined individually.
The most obvious capacity constraint for an airline is their fleet. Air Asia has a fleet of 123 aircraft, all provided by airbus (Air Asia, 2012). If the airline has only 123 aircraft, the maximum capacity at any point in time will be the number of passengers that the fleet can carry if fully booked; in turn each aircraft will have its own maximum capacity for the number of passengers that it can carry. If an aircraft can only seat 120 passengers, they cannot carry 121, the capacity is fixed. The capacity of an aircraft is fixed at the time the order is placed; aircraft manufacturers provide different potential configurations, which different numbers of seats. For example the Airbus 330 family gives the choice of different seat types ranging from business class seats that are 27 inches wide, to the high efficiency economy seats which have a cushion of 16.7 inches (Airbus, 2013). The smaller the seat size the greater the number of seats in the aircraft (Airbus, 2013). For airlines seeking to maximize capacity, including the low cost carriers, there will usually be a preference for the smaller seats so a flight can carry more passengers. Larger seats reduce the capacity, but when optimizing revenue streams, revenue managers will look at the…… [Read More]
Private vessels and cruisers have built a gap within the international provision for maritime security.
The maritime industry has been greatly been affected by the terrorist attacks. This is a different environment from the 9/11 attacks. However, there is no major credibility to the threats because they have little effect to the nation compared to land attacks. Research shows that the maritime attacks affect only the seaborne trade and movement of ships leaving lesser costs on the nation. The methods used to counter the threats are general although new standards are in place and every ship should meet its requirements. These measures have come up with raised costs in maritime security. There are extra charges that have been put in order to meet the rising costs in the region. It is notable that the maritime security is not getting enough funds compared to other security departments like Homeland Securities.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Security in Maritime
Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact, Paris: OECD, July 2003, p. 5
Rommel C. Banlaoi, 'Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia -- the Abu Sayyaf Threat', Naval
War College Review, Autumn 2005, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 63-80.
Christopher P. Cava, 'U.S. Navy Chief calls for New 'Maritime Strategy," Defense News
online, June 15, 2006, and Sam Bateman, 'Navies of the World Unite! Will the New U.S.
Maritime Strategy Work?', IDSS Commentary 79/2006, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), 11 August 2006
Tom Quiggin, 'Time for a Different Approach in the War on Terrorism?', IDSS Commentary
82/2006, Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS), 15 August 2006.
Captain James Pelkofski USN, 'Before the Storm: Al Qaeda's Coming Maritime Campaign',
U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 131 No.12, December 2005, p. 22,
David Munns, '121,000 Tracks', Seapower, July 2005, pp. 10-13. 40 Hartmut Hesse and Nicolaos L. Charalambous, 'New Security Measures for the International Shipping
Community' WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2004, Vol.3, No.2, p. 138.
David Munns, '121,000 Tracks', Seapower, July 2005, pp. 10-13. 40 Hartmut Hesse and Nicolaos L. Charalambous, 'New Security Measures for the International Shipping Community' WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2004, Vol.3, No.2,…… [Read More]
Democratic Transition in Asia
Transition and Structural Theories of Democratization
Important Asian countries participated in the Third Wave of democratization from the 1970s to the 1990s, including South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. In China and Burma, there might have been a democratic revolution in 1989-90 had the ruling regimes not suppressed their own people with utmost brutality. This Third Wave, which according to Samuel Huntington started in Spain and Portugal in 1974-75, spread to Southern and eastern Europe and then to Asia, Africa and Latin America (Haynes 1999, p. 80). It demolished the Soviet Union and the apartheid regime in South Africa, and today seems to be rising yet again in North Africa and the Middle East. These unexpected events have led scholars of history, political science and international relations to delve into the questions of how transitions from authoritarianism to democracy occur and what structural factors seem to make these more likely. Another related set of questions concerns the social, economic and cultural factors that offer the best chance for the consolidation and stabilization of democracies over time.
Given the immense cultural, historical and ethnic diversity of Asia, attempting to come up with a theory that fits all cases is probably a hopeless task. There very likely is a correlation between social and economic development and an eventual transition to democracy, for example, but even then there are exceptions like Singapore -- rich countries that have no democracy at all. Even in countries that have strong civil societies and people power movements like the Philippines, capable of overthrowing dictatorships, there is often a persistent danger of military coups as well as feudal-oligarchic tendencies that limit real democratization. Some countries with strong Confucian values became democratic, while others never did. Some countries that had been within the British Empire developed a strong liberal-democratic political culture but this hardly exists at all in others. There is simply no theoretical consensus on democratization that can encompass this vast, diverse reality that is Asia.…… [Read More]
These gang-related activities had a negative effect on the very industries on which Macau depended for much of its economic activity, and tourism dropped by almost 10% in 1998 (Kurtlantzick 1). A Macanese resident summed up the situation thusly: "I still won't walk around at night . . . And every sound makes me think of a gunshot" (quoted in Kurtlanzick at 1). In an interview with Macao's present and last Portuguese governor, Rocha Vieira, Borton also emphasizes the deleterious impact that gambling had on Macau. In this regard, Governor Vieira noted that, "For too long, Macao has been promoted through casinos, gambling and nightlife, which are associated with negative things such as loan sharks, prostitutes and triads, so we are trying to diversify" (quoted in Borton at 15). At the time, the governor, though, also stressed that gambling was not the only source of organized crime prior to the reversion to Chinese control: "In the case of Macau," Governor Vieira added, "the deterioration of public security has a lot to do with the regional environment, where triads or organized gangs from Hong Kong and Taiwan take shelter in Macao because of its lax immigration policies. This only serves to intensify the turf war between them" (quoted in Borton at 15).
Following a lengthy stay in Macau and interviews with several government officials and private Macanese citizens, Lintner also reported that, "Conveniently located at the crossroads of Asia, but under European -- Portuguese -- jurisdiction, Macau in the 1990s had become a unique mix of Chicago in the 1920s, pre-war Shanghai and Casablanca: a sanctuary for gangsters, gunrunners, pimps, prostitutes, gambling tycoons, corrupt officials and secret agents of western as well as Asian powers" (72). In an astounding display of political ineptitude, the Macanese under-secretary for security, Brigadier Manuel Monge, even attempted to reassure potential visitors to Macau that they would be safe by emphasizing the accuracy of the gangsters who were rife in the territory. In this regard, Lintner reports that, "While addressing the press in 1997, he said that 'our Triad gunmen are excellent marksmen', implying that there was…… [Read More]
There were many unsuccessful attempts to transition to examples put forth by other countries particularly in the west that received both acceptance and rejection. Some efforts proved fruitful but many were fought against by the intellectuals as those at the lowest end of the socioeconomic structure had no voice. The transition in East Asia has reached a level of plateau; however, national identity and unification continue to be a goal that East Asia strives to maintain.
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. Boston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
Shillony, Ben-Ami. Politics and culture in wartime Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1991.
Sommerville, Donald. The complete illustrated history of World War Two: An authoritative account of the deadliest conflict in human history with analysis of decisive encounters and landmark engagements. Lorenz Books.
Tsunoda, Ryusaku, de Bary, William & Donald Keene.… [Read More]
960). Just as American Imperialists exerted violent pressure to keep control of the islands they wished to inhabit, exploit and control for their own self-interest, the Japanese Imperialists exercised an equal and "undeniable harshness" in its reign over Korea (Schmid, p. 960).
But the killing of persons was not the only way to exert power. There was also the killing of a sense of nationalistic pride. Nationalism, it should be remembered, is one of the ideas at the heart of imperialism; therefore, it is necessary for the imperialistic power to embrace its own nationalism and to destroy the nationalism of the colony it governs. This may be seen in the way the Japanese Imperialists set out to convey to the Koreans the idea that their nation was culturally backward and behind on the progressive stage. Japan set about distributing photographic evidence of Korea's poverty and illustrating the need for Japanese authorities to guide the nation to a better standard of living (Cumings 1998, p. 203). This attitude of superiority on the part of the imperialists was also seen in the Philippines as America attempted to subjugate Filipino pride and assert an aura of superiority over a nation that it deemed just as backward as Imperialistic Japan deemed Korea.
The fact that neither country had much sympathy for the actual nations they colonized shows the true character of their imperialistic practices and allows one to discern the actual effects of their imperialism. In the rise of empire is the assertion of the need for dominance and the expansion of boundaries. The American Empire showed as much throughout the whole of the 20th century, a century of war and new imperialism. WWII may be seen in a sense as the culmination of imperialistic attitudes across the entire globe.
Japan, no less than America, sought to impose its own imperialistic attitude on Korea through means of conscription, political propaganda, the confiscation of all locally produced newspapers, the re-education of its citizens, the demolishment of its sense of nationalistic pride and the murder of its people.
The U.S. showed similar tactics…… [Read More]
Hotel industry is one of the major sectors in the leisure industry across the globe that accounts for a significant percentage of the global Gross Domestic Product and a huge portion of jobs across the globe. The global hotel industry has experienced tremendous growth and development in the recent past despite various economic challenges across the world. As this industry becomes more geographically diverse, its projected revenue by 2012 was $567.5 billion (Szulanski, Zee & Raver, 2009). One of the unique segments in the global hotel industry is the luxury hotel segment that is characterized by premium room rates, comprehensive luxury amenities, luxurious design aesthetics, and a high-end clientele. The luxury hotel segment comprises several players that are defined by brand position, business models, and number of rooms. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriot Hotels & Resorts are two examples of the key players in the luxury hotel segment.
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group v. Marriott Hotels and Resorts
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriot Hotels & Resorts are two leaders in the global luxury hotel segment that have achieved considerable competitive advantage over their rivals through brand position, suitable business models, and number of rooms (Szulanski, Zee & Raver, 2009). In addition to having brand portfolios that cover several customer segments, these key industry players have experienced tremendous growth since their inception despite being founded in different regions i.e. Asia and the United States. Actually, The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriott Hotels and Resorts have established individual sets of luxury hotels in several countries across the world based on their respective flagship brands.
The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group is a global hotel chain that opened its flagship brand in Hong Kong in 1963 under the name, The Mandarin (Susie, 2012). However, the company was established as a hotel management firm in 1974 following the acquisition of a 49% interest in the Oriental Bangkok. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group was birthed in 1985 in order to incorporate the two names into a common flagship property and brand. Since its inception, this brand of hotel chains has more than 15 fully-owned hotels and 13 managed properties in several countries worldwide.
In contrast, Marriott Hotels & Resorts is a flagship brand of Marriott International, which is an American diversified hospitality firm that manages and…… [Read More]
The Dutch and the French followed their example. In England, tea was introduced during Cromwell's rule.
The evolution of tea in the European market followed several periods. In the beginning, the price of tea reached quite high levels. Therefore, the product was only available to the rich, usually represented by royalties and nobles. From this point-of-view, tea's evolution on the European market is similar to that on the Chinese market. This is because tea started to be purchased by the masses when its price lowered and became more available.
The increased demand for this product on the English market determined traders to intensify their efforts in order to import larger amounts of tea from China. This is where the clippers interfered. Clippers were rapid ships that were designed in order to serve traders in their expeditions. The most circulated trade routes used for importing trade and spices from Asia were the Eastern ones. These trade routes also reached the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa.
The Europeans did not have many products that interested the Asian parties. This is the reason for which tea trade was difficult and European traders had limited negotiation possibilities. However, the European countries exported wool and woolen products to Asian countries (Culture Online, 2010).
In addition to this, European traders found it useful to import opium to China. This allowed them to solidify their position in the economic relationships between Europe and Asia. The Opium War that followed China people's addiction to opium also favored the British part. This is because China was forced to accept the economic conditions imposed by Britain.
This allowed British traders to import large quantities of tea to Europe. The country also managed to start cultivating tea on national level. The country was therefore able to establish itself as one…… [Read More]
economic interdependence among North Asian states overcoming historical animosities and improving their political relationships?
The tendency to speak of "Asia" as a homogenous region in the West should not erase the memory of the deep historical animosities that have existed within the area. In the past, Japan has been an aggressor against both China and Korea. Recently, Japan has felt threatened by China's size and economic and territorial ambitions and strength. However, the forces of globalization and the economic interdependence demanded by the new global economy have been an important force in facilitating regional cooperation.
Prior to the 1990s few would have predicted that Japan, China, South Korea and the Southeast Asian nations would have forged free trade agreements and would be "meeting on a regular and structured basis to advance regional cooperation at the ministerial level in over twenty policy domains" as they do now within the ASEAN Plus Three (APT) regional framework.
Intra-regional trade now accounts for 55% of Asia's total trade; the number of air routes within East Asia doubled from 54 in 1985 to 117 in 2000.
Future proposed efforts for economic cooperation include the Asia Highway project and a collective enterprise designed to improve the highway system in Asia. A Trans-Asian Railway project has also been proposed.
However, tensions remain between regional actors in terms of foreign policy. On one hand, Japan has fostered a more positive relationship with its new ally South Korea. It recently apologized for the "suffering inflicted during Japanese control of the peninsula from 1910 to 1945," and the relatively youthful nation of South Korea now has fewer residents with fresh memories of the Japanese occupation during World War II.
But "territorial disputes, competition over resources and Japanese concern over Chinese food safety have also hampered co-operation."
And some regional agreements do not necessarily foster harmony within the entirety of Asia. Along with the United States and Australia, Japan has united with South Korea to "counter immediate and longer-term threats from rising tensions on the Korean…… [Read More]
" (Rossetti, 1886)
Mary Shelley is noted as having stated that it would require "…a mind as subtle as his own to understand the mystic meanings scattered throughout the poem." (Rossetti, 1886) Mary writes that rough the whole poem there "There reigns a sort of calm and holy spirit of love, it soothes the tortured, and is hope to the expectant, till the prophecy is fulfilled, and love, untainted by any evil, becomes the law of the world…" (as cited in: Rossetti, 1886) it is agreed upon by all Shelley critics, according to Ristic that the imagery of the "…lyric built drama is bold and original and that its lyrical splendor is one of the wonders of English poetry. Thirty-six different verse forms have been counted, "all perfectly handled," and the drama has been compared to symphonic music." (Ristic, 2000)
Shelley writes in the Preface to Prometheus Unbound that the "only imaginary being resembling in any degree Prometheus…is Satan; and Prometheus is, in my judgment, a more poetical character than Satan, because, in addition to courage, and majesty, and firm and patient opposition to omnipotent force, he is susceptible of being described as exempt from the taints of ambition, envy, revenge, and a desire for personal aggrandizement, which in the hero of Paradise Lost, interfere with the interest… highest perfection of moral and intellectual nature, impelled by the purest and the truest motives to the best and noblest ends." (Shelley as cited in Ristic, 2000) While Shelley does not make any reference to his admiration for Christ and this in spite of Shelley's "hatred of institutional Christianity" there is a great deal of evidence in the Shelley's portrayal of Prometheus of this. (Ristic, 2000)
Asia questions Demogorgon on the nature of God and Demogorgon "refuses to utter his name..." stating only "he reigns" and…… [Read More]
In terms of opportunities, the Asian market offers in itself a great potential of expansion for any company. With growing individual revenues and boosting economies, markets such as Singapore, Korea and, presently, China, are virtually limitless in the possibility that can be offered to the company. As far back as 2002, eBay shifted its operations from Japan to areas such as Taiwan and Singapore (it closed its Japanese operations in March 2002), thus wanting to benefit from the economic expansion and potential in these countries.
The threats for eBay Asia generally come from the same area of online services and sites providing similar services. For example, for eBay Asia a serious competitor, Yahoo, forced it out of the Japanese market, because it was already established there and ensured that a eBay received only a small market share. Companies such as Yahoo had had a longer time to establish on the Asian markets, where the eBay brand is still relatively less well-known than in Europe.
Even more so, they also come from extremely successful local brand sites, like alibaba.com in China, which managed to provide B2B, B2C and C2C services for its clients.… [Read More]