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Asia Pacific Business
Australia is a large island continent that is located on the south-east of Asia. Covering a total area of 7,617,930 km2 (Australia G., 2012) with a population of 22,876,023 individuals as per the 2012 estimate (Australia), it happens to be very large country with a relatively small population. Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world. Since vast tracts of the country are not only uninhabited but also uninhabitable, there is a lack of a domestic market. Hence, there is a need for Australian businesses to look for international markets in order to ensure their future prosperity.
Currently, Australia has the world's thirteenth largest economy and the fifth highest GDP per capita of $66,984 as of 2011 (Fund, 2012). The Australian Securities Exchange is now, the ninth largest stock exchange in the world (On the International Realignment of Exchanges and Related Trends in Self-Regulation,…
(n.d.). Retrieved 2012, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2195.html
A Mid-Term Stocktake of the Bogor Goals. (2005). Retrieved from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation: www.apec.org
As approved by the 42nd National Conference. (2000). ALP Platform 2000. Canberra: Australian Labor Party.
Australia, C. o. (n.d.). Population Clock. Retrieved April 12, 2012, from Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/1647509ef7e25faaca2568a900154b63?OpenDocument .
Asia Pacific usiness China and Australia
A Contrast and Comparison
The purpose of this paper is to:
Compare and contrast the characteristics of industrial and institutional environments in one of the nine (9) Asia Pacific countries identified by Lasserre and Schutte with those of Australia; and II. Further this work will discuss South Korea in relation to their adoption of a similar business system and institutional framework which is the same as that applied successfully by the Japanese.
"In the international financial institutions (IFI), governance takes places under explicit sets of binding rules. Key to any discussion of any international institution is the question of what rules members use to organize and operate the institution. Voting procedures in international institutions can be structured in a variety of ways. The United Nations General Assembly, for example, utilizes the logic of one nation, one vote. Other international assemblies explicitly grant some members…
Manufacturing stabilizes Economic structure (2003) From the Economist Intelligence UnitSource: Country Profile [Online] at: http://www.economist.com/countries/SouthKorea/profile . cfm?folder=Profile%2DEconomic%20Structure
Jones, Janet T. et al. (nd) Managing People and Change: Comparing Organisations and Management in Australia, China, India and South Africa SCHOOL OF COMMERCE RESEARCH PAPER SERIES: 01-5 ISSN: 1441-3906 [Online] located at: http://www.ssn.flinders.edu.au/comme rce/researchpapers/01-5.htm
Lindholm, N. (1999) Performance management in MNC subsidiaries in China: A study of host-country managers and professionals. Asia Pacific Journal of Human esources, 37(3): 18-35.
Lasserre, P. And Schutte, H. (1995) Strategies for Asia Pacific. Melbourne: Macmillan.
Similar juxtapositions of traditional (in both patriarchal and Asian cultural influences) elements with emerging values, sensibilities, and desires exist in Fire. Mehta's film centers on the growing self-direction and self-realization of a middle-aged woman in a traditional Hindu marriage. Her attraction and budding relationship with another newly wed bride is in many ways the catalyst for the actions and the investigations that occur in the film, but the same-sex attraction is truly secondary to the issue of self-direction and an assertion of feminine identity. This is shown to be an extreme conflict with the traditional values of the Hindu culture, yet at the same time these traditional values are seen to be in a state of complete erosion and emptiness through the treatment of the grandmother character and even the treatment of the central character by her husband. The female and the elderly are essentially treated as non-persons or purely…
Goto, Hiromi. Chorus of Mushrooms. Edmonton: NeWest Press, 1994.
Mehta, Deepa. Fire. Zeitgeist Films, 1996.
There are additional considerations, such as political risk and accounting standards." (Grote, 2009) According to Grote (2009) the fund "has proven to be a consistent performer." The following chart labeled Figure 4 in this study lists the performance indicators for the First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund (2009).
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund Performance
FIST STATE ASIA PACIFIC LEADES
SIZE OF FUND
No OF HOLDINGS
SET UP DATE
MANAGE STAT DATE
TOTAL EXPENSE ATIO
Source: Investors Chronicle
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Top 10 Holdings
Hong Kong & China Gas
Cheun Kong Holdings
Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp
First Asia Pacific and Leaders Fund (2009) First State Investments. 2009. Online available at: http://www.fundslibrary.co.uk/fundslibrary.dataretrieval/documents.aspx?user=finex&sedol=3387421&track2=&ext=ut5181&type=packet_fund_class_doc_factsheet_private
First State Asia Pacific Leaders (2009) Trustnet. Online available at: http://www.trustnet.com/Factsheets/Factsheet.aspx?fundCode=QIF52&univ=U
First State Asia Pacific Leaders Fund Leads the Pack (2009) Investors Chronicle. 2009. Online available at: http://www.investorschronicle.co.uk/InvestmentGuides/Funds/article/20090720/41d5825e-7210-11de-a4d6-0015171400aa/First-State-Asia-Pacific-Leaders-Fund-leads-the-pack.jsp
First State Investments ICVC (2009) Simplified Prospectus 8 Apr 2009. Online available at: http://www.fundslibrary.co.uk/fundslibrary.dataretrieval/documents.aspx?user=finex&sedol=3387421&track2=&ext=ut5181&type=packet_fund_class_doc_simplified_prospectus
Business Strategies Found in Asia Pacific and Its Future
Upon completion of this paper many avenues pertaining to business in Asia Pacific will be discussed. The nature of doing business in the region involves an understanding of many elements. These elements include the characteristics of the industrial and institutional environments of business there. There are many different business systems used in the region and knowledge of how these firms operate is important. How these firms operate with in a business system carries over and predicts a firm's ability to compete. Its success and growth are directly related. It is also important for one to have an awareness of the differences in culture and how culture plays a huge role in doing business within the region. It is significant to assess the potential of this area as a collection of key markets and players within the global market. It is due…
"Asia Holds the Key to the Future of GM Food." [Internet]. 9 Feb. 2005.
Available at http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=4956 .
"Asia Leading the Future." [Internet]. 9 Feb. 2005. Available at http://www.itu.int/ASIA2004/media/asia2004.html.
"Australia: Country Profile." [Internet]. 8 Feb. 2005. Available at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/as.html .
Economic, Political, And Social Changes Impact on Growth
egion of the world: Asia
The region of Asia contains some of the world's most rapidly-growing economies. China's middle class is now securely established; India offers one of the most desirable arenas for outsourcing, given its low labor costs, English-speaking population, and technologically-literate workforce. More and more retail companies are targeting Asia due to the fact that many Asian nations boast expanding populations of young people and the sheer size of China and India's untapped markets. "If current trends continue, Asia's economy will surpass those of the United States and Europe combined in less than two decades -- a prospect that has prompted some to dub the 21st century the Asian century" (Asia faces five challenges to its economic future, 2014, IMF).
Asia's economy as a whole has been relatively durable when compared with its Western competitors: "while the financial environment for…
Asia faces five challenges to its economic future. (2014). IMF. Retrieved from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2014/res052914a.htm
Chapter 1: Asia's momentum is set to continue. (2014). IMF. Regional economic outlook:
Asia and Pacific. Retrieved from: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/reo/2014/apd/eng/areo0414.htm
India's corruption problem. (2014). CFR. Retrieved from:
Hotel industry is one of the major sectors in the leisure industry across the globe that accounts for a significant percentage of the global Gross Domestic Product and a huge portion of jobs across the globe. The global hotel industry has experienced tremendous growth and development in the recent past despite various economic challenges across the world. As this industry becomes more geographically diverse, its projected revenue by 2012 was $567.5 billion (Szulanski, Zee & aver, 2009). One of the unique segments in the global hotel industry is the luxury hotel segment that is characterized by premium room rates, comprehensive luxury amenities, luxurious design aesthetics, and a high-end clientele. The luxury hotel segment comprises several players that are defined by brand position, business models, and number of rooms. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Marriot Hotels & esorts are two examples of the key players in the luxury hotel segment.…
Butler, P. 2009, Marriott Jumps 10 Places in the Sunday Times 'Best Big Companies to Work
For' List, Marriot Hotels and Resorts, viewed 16 October 2015,
Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group n.d., Cafeteria Attendant, Boston, Mandarin Oriental Hotel
Group, viewed 16 October 2015,
East sia, 1800-1912
The dominance of European powers in East sia and its center of accumulation in the last decades of the 20th century have posed enormous challenges in the understanding of industrialized nations. Modernization and national development theories have received notable criticisms from well-developed experiences such as plan vs. market, and this looks like regional and not national. The phenomenon has been characterized by a regional scope that has challenged theories of global systems, which depend heavily on the global economic tripartite division into semi-periphery, periphery, and core. Regional integration theories formulated from experiences in contemporary Europe have been challenged relating to the success of non-governmental infrastructure connecting East sia sub-regions. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North merican and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.
t the primary cause of all these challenges lies the significant and peculiar trajectory of East sia…
As official sanctions were brought up, European powers spread rapidly across the region resulting in massive deaths of Chinese populations and hundreds of European foreigners. In the 1900 spring, the imperial army helped the European powers to penetrate Beijing laying a siege to the legation district. This led to the murder of the Chinese chief legato prompting quick international condemnation. This made China declare war on all foreign powers. The royal family flees following the efforts of the European forces in relieving the legation siege. Following this development, the Chinese dynasty entered unequal treaties with European forces and troops regarding major routes between the sea, Beijing and in the capital city.
Looking at the phenomenon in reverse, the history of the Chinese encounter with the European powers in the 19th century looks like a tale of inexorable and woe decline. With this hindsight benefit, the first encounter between Chinese Dynasty and European powers looks like a self-deception study. This opened formal diplomatic relations between Europe and China, which opened free trade between the two nations. Frustrations were experienced by London, which limited all maritime trading activities between China and Europe. Consequently, this denied European powers from accessing much of the prosperous and huge Chinese markets. Because of the gross trade inequality between Europe and China, acute commercial pressure existed. This took place even with the lack of intergovernmental organizations characterizing the North American and the European Union Free Trade Treaties.
This development was the longest in the entire debacle of China's defeats. A battle between European forces and China in 1895s traditional sphere of influencing Japan was more than humiliating to the Chinese troops. However, European forces had suppressed the Chinese troops as European forces engaged thousands of troops to protect their own interests, as well as wring concessions from China. At the beginning, European forces pursued diplomatic solutions to the set of crisis. This was through assuring the Chinese mediation, however, this only paved way for China to have more time for mobilizing and waging western styles of fighting an albeit more westernized foe. As hostilities took shape, the European troops' success was total, incorporating lopsided victories on both sea and land.
Therefore, policy initiatives and public resources are primarily confined to basic religious beliefs and practices. This has lead to a serious imbalance in social, political, and religious developments. Asia has already realized the rapid expansion in the religious sector hence the need to expand social and political developments. The region has noticed that religion is essential for social and political growth. It is also equalizer in the allocation of policy initiatives, and public resources in case Asia is to become successful in the highly globalized world (Esposito, John, & Bakar 2010).
It is clear how economic, social, and political developments have a positive response towards the magnitude of some religious practices and beliefs but negatively responds to church attendance. Therefore, economic and political development depends on the magnitude of believing in the religious beliefs and not belonging to a religion. In this case, it can be concluded that Asia…
Devasahayam, W., 2009. Gender Trends in Southeast Asia: Women Now, Women in the Future. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Esposito, L., John O. And Bakar O., 2010. Asian Islam in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hooker, MB., 2008. Islam in South-East Asia. Leiden: E.J. Brill
Kuhonta, Erik M, Dan S. And Tuong V., 2008. Southeast Asia in Political Science: Theory, Region, and Qualitative Analysis. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Ideally, rather than a hostile action, the activity should be motivated in a spirit of mutual cooperation, in a manner which would be advantageous to both entities -- both BEA and the purchasing entity. In the case of ICBC's venture with the bank, "The transaction would mark the first purchase of a majority stake in a U.S. depository institution by a Chinese bank. If completed, it may give financial firms in both countries greater access to each others' markets" (Campbell 2011). It may also stimulate BEA's desire to engage in similar partnerships with other institutions
Thus, if a large corporation wished to purchase BEA outright, it should be aware of the roots that BEA has created internationally and its particular strengths in establishing connections with expanding enterprises in Mainland China. This would likely make BEA unwilling and able to resist a takeover or purchase. Its soaring stock prices make 'buying…
Bank of East Asia. (2011). Banks Rating. Retrieved September 26, 2011 at http://www.banks-ratings.com/bea/
Bradsher, Keith & Heather Timmons. (2008). Anxious depositors withdraw cash from Asia banks. The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/25/business/worldbusiness/25emerging.html
Campbell, Dakin. (2011). ICBC to acquire stake in BEA. Business Week. Retrieved September
26, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-01-21/icbc-to-acquire-stake-in-bank-of-east-asia-network.html
Capacity Constraints at Air Asia
Air Asia follows a low cost carrier model, offering a range of flights across more than 20 countries and working with associate companies to provide access to more destinations, including long haul flights through Air Asia X. A key success factor for low cost airlines is the efficient use of resources in order to maximize revenues while holding down costs. In any industry there will be capacity constraints; factors which limit the level of production or service provision. evenue management requires an understanding of capacity constraints in order to manage them in an effective manner. The airline industries, and therefore Air Asia, have some significant constraints, such as the number of aircraft, number of available seat for passengers, availability of staff and constraints due to international aviation regulations. The way constraints impact on operations and revenue management, along with the way in which the firm…
Air Asia, (2013), Corporate Profile, [online] accessed 19th September 2013 from http://www.airasia.com/ot/en/about-us/corporate-profile.page
Air Asia, (2012), Annual Report, [online] accessed 19th September 2013 from http://www.airasia.com/iwov-resources/my/common/pdf/AirAsia/IR/annual-report-2012.pdf
Airbus, (2013), A330-300 Family, Cabin Layout and Comfort, [online] accessed 19th September 2013 from http://www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a330family/a330-300/cabin-layout/
Dana, James, (1999), Equilibrium Price Dispersion under Demand Uncertainty: The Roles of Costly Capacity and Market Structure, RAND Journal of Economics, 30(4), 632 -- 660
The Dutch and the French followed their example. In England, tea was introduced during Cromwell's rule.
The evolution of tea in the European market followed several periods. In the beginning, the price of tea reached quite high levels. Therefore, the product was only available to the rich, usually represented by royalties and nobles. From this point-of-view, tea's evolution on the European market is similar to that on the Chinese market. This is because tea started to be purchased by the masses when its price lowered and became more available.
The increased demand for this product on the English market determined traders to intensify their efforts in order to import larger amounts of tea from China. This is where the clippers interfered. Clippers were rapid ships that were designed in order to serve traders in their expeditions. The most circulated trade routes used for importing trade and spices from Asia were…
1. The History of Tea (2003). Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.houseoftea.ie/html/allabout/history.htm .
2. Chinese History (2000). China Knowledge. Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Qing/qing-econ.html .
3. The Tea Trade (2010). Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.icons.org.uk/theicons/collection/cupoftea/biography/the-tea-trade .
4. Trade and Trade Routes (2010). Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.cpamedia.com/trade-routes/ .
AIDS in Asia
The elationship of AIDS and Poverty in Asia
Historically diseases such as the Black Plague, Tuberculosis, Influenza, and several others have shaken the constraints of society. In modern times a new disease, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), has arisen and is just as damaging or worse than any that have come before it. AIDS is a disease that attacks an individual's immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and there is no cure once an individual has contracted HIV / AIDS. Biologists and genetic researchers have concluded that HIV originated in west-Central Africa during the late 19th or early 20th century (Fan, Conner, & Villarreal, 2010). The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention first declared AIDS in 1981, and diagnosed HIV as its cause shortly after (Fan, Conner, & Villarreal, 2010).
Since the early 1980s this major health epidemic arrived in modern society,…
Bloom, D.E., & Sevilla, J. (2002). Health, wealth, AIDS, and poverty. 1-32.
Fan, H., Conner, R.F., & Villarreal, L.P. (2010). Aids: science and society. Sunbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hunter, S.H. (2005). AIDS in Asia: a continent in peril. NY, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mahmud, J. (2004). AIDS in the world. New Delhi, India: APH Publishing Company
Democratic Transition in Asia
Transition and Structural Theories of Democratization
Important Asian countries participated in the Third Wave of democratization from the 1970s to the 1990s, including South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. In China and Burma, there might have been a democratic revolution in 1989-90 had the ruling regimes not suppressed their own people with utmost brutality. This Third Wave, which according to Samuel Huntington started in Spain and Portugal in 1974-75, spread to Southern and eastern Europe and then to Asia, Africa and Latin America (Haynes 1999, p. 80). It demolished the Soviet Union and the apartheid regime in South Africa, and today seems to be rising yet again in North Africa and the Middle East. These unexpected events have led scholars of history, political science and international relations to delve into the questions of how transitions from authoritarianism to democracy occur and what structural factors…
Anderson, L., ed., 1999. Transitions to Democracy. Columbia University Press.
Bandyopadhyaya, J., 2004. A General Theory of Foreign Policy. New Dehli: Allied Publishers.
Berger, M.T., 2006. "The Neo-Liberal Ascendancy in East Asia: Geo-Politics, Development Theory and the End of the Authoritarian Development State in South Korea" in Plehwe, D. et al., eds. Neoliberal Hegemony: A Global Critique, pp. 105-19.
Bevir, M., 2010. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. SAGE Publications, Inc.
economic interdependence among North Asian states overcoming historical animosities and improving their political relationships?
The tendency to speak of "Asia" as a homogenous region in the West should not erase the memory of the deep historical animosities that have existed within the area. In the past, Japan has been an aggressor against both China and Korea. Recently, Japan has felt threatened by China's size and economic and territorial ambitions and strength. owever, the forces of globalization and the economic interdependence demanded by the new global economy have been an important force in facilitating regional cooperation.
Prior to the 1990s few would have predicted that Japan, China, South Korea and the Southeast Asian nations would have forged free trade agreements and would be "meeting on a regular and structured basis to advance regional cooperation at the ministerial level in over twenty policy domains" as they do now within the ASEAN Plus…
Harumi Ozawa, "Japan economy, Toyota feel effects of disaster," Reuters, April 13, 2011, http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110413/wl_afp/japandisasteraccidentnuclear_20110413201919 (accessed April 13, 2011)
"Top officials defend Japan's response," AP, April 13, 2011, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/04/top_official_defends_japans_re.html (accessed April 13, 2011)
In "Once Were Peripheral: Creating Media Capacity in East Asia," Keane argues that it is important to develop new paradigms or models of analysis when addressing emerging media in Asia. Some of the elements that Keane addresses include deterritorialization, isomorphism, cultural technology transfer, niche markets, and local clustering via cultural and industrial milieu. The author focuses specifically on the People's epublic of China, and applies his proposed new framework for a more globally integrated and culturally relative media. According to the author, the new growth models can better account for the current and future state of media as it manifests in East Asia. Prior debates have been concerned mainly with a total critique of Western media hegemony, and in particular with corporate conglomeration. While this critical analysis has been helpful, it might not be as relevant to the East Asian markets. Media plays a unique role in each…
Keane, M.A. (2006). Once were peripheral. Retrieved online: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/2426/1/2426.pdf
In terms of opportunities, the Asian market offers in itself a great potential of expansion for any company. With growing individual revenues and boosting economies, markets such as Singapore, Korea and, presently, China, are virtually limitless in the possibility that can be offered to the company. As far back as 2002, eay shifted its operations from Japan to areas such as Taiwan and Singapore (it closed its Japanese operations in March 2002), thus wanting to benefit from the economic expansion and potential in these countries.
The threats for eay Asia generally come from the same area of online services and sites providing similar services. For example, for eay Asia a serious competitor, Yahoo, forced it out of the Japanese market, because it was already established there and ensured that a eay received only a small market share. Companies such as Yahoo had had a longer time to establish on the…
1. Yahoo! Vs. eBay in Asia: Who Needs Desperate Housewives? Branding Asia. On the Internet at http://www.brandingasia.com/columns/013.htm.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007
2. Steineri, Ina. February 2002. eBay Regroups in Asia: Goodbye Japan, Hello China. AuctionBytes.com. On the Internet at http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abn/y02/m02/i27/s01.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007 http://www.managedns.eu/news.html?news_id=1579&archive=1.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007
Yahoo! Vs. eBay in Asia: Who Needs Desperate Housewives? Branding Asia. On the Internet at
hat impact did British rule have in South Asia in the political, economic and social arenas, especially during the period of formal rule under the Crown (1857-1947)?
Social unrest, political instability and fragmentation, and economic transformations led to the dismantling of the East India Company and the instatement of Crown Rule in 1858. The period during which Crown Rule, known colloquially as the Raj, was first established was known as the Great Rebellion. It was during this time that the Crown came to realize fully the extent to which colonial activities impacted political, economic, and social arenas. The Crown had also come to reckon with the enormous diversity of culture, language, and religion in India. During the Raj, India's strategic alliances shifted according to utility and opportunity. Alliances with the Crown and rebellions against it shaped modern Indian history. British rule introduced a burgeoning capitalist market economy in India,…
Basu, Tanya. "The Fading Memory of South Asia's Partition." The Atlantic. Aug 15, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/08/the-fading-memory-of-partition-india-pakistan-bangladesh/376120/
Bates, Crispin. "The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies." BBC. Mar 3, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/partition1947_01.shtml
Bhatti, Tariq Hameed. "Political Legacy of the Muslims in India." Journal of Political Studies. Vol 18, No. 2, 2001, pp. 225-242.
Kaul, Chandrika. "From Empire to Independence." BBC History. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/independence1947_01.shtml#three
Central Asia Extremism Government
Unfortunately, there is no research question in this paper. The author does not ask a single question which forms the proverbial puzzle which the research is attempting to solve. However, it is clear what the research is going to be about, and why the author is attempting to conduct this research. Still, it never hurts a study design to have a formal research question which is readily identifiable by those who review the document.
The theoretical debate and historical context of this research design is by far the strength of the overall paper. The author spends copious time explaining the context of the research. He or she details the current political situations in Central Asia, and the surging need to counteract extremism. Moreover, this information is posited within the historical context of the fall of the Soviet Union. The author has reviewed some salient pieces of…
1750-1914 present east asia 5 citations paragraph 1st paragraph - change 1914-present give explanation 2nd paragraph - change 1914 - present give explanation 3rd paragraph - a continuity 1914 present give explanation conclusion paragraph generalizations bogus sites wikipedia online encyclopedias MLA citation essay 12 pieces researched evidence, 3 paragraph 6 scholarly resources wikipedia mentioned orks cited page Entries single-spaced -- inverse indentation (double space entries) Entries alphabetized authors' names.
The Asian continent was less successful in keeping foreign influences away from its borders in the last three centuries, given that globalization made it increasingly difficult for nations across the continent to maintain their customs and traditions. Even with that, many Asian countries managed to adopt a series of practices from other cultures without losing their own cultural values. The industrial revolution is a step that did not take place in Asia as it did in Europe or America, given that…
Clyde, Paul Hibbert A History of the Modern and Contemporary Far East: A Survey of Western Contacts with Eastern Asia during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1937)
Embree, Ainslie T. And Gluck, Carol eds., Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997)
Gelber, Harry G. Nations Out of Empires: European Nationalism and the Transformation of Asia / (New York: Palgrave, 2001)
Jensen, Richard Jon Davidann, and Yoneyuki Sugita, eds., Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003)
Confucianism is one of the major factors that influenced gender views and perception in traditional East Asia, particularly in relation to the treatment of women in these societies. Confucianism is primarily a teaching that was brought by Confucius, a philosopher, political figure, and educator. The teachings of Confucius formed the foundation of education in the traditional societies in East Asia, especially in China, Korea, and Japan. Confucius teachings affected many things in these societies including fixing gender roles between women and men. Based on these teachings, which influenced nearly every facet of life in the conventional Korean, Japanese and Chinese societies, placed women at a disadvantaged position. The teachings contributed to the development of a patriarchal environment in these societies, which worked to the disadvantaged of women. This paper examines how women exerted power and influence in a patriarchal environment in these three societies and what it teaches us about…
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
There were many unsuccessful attempts to transition to examples put forth by other countries particularly in the west that received both acceptance and rejection. Some efforts proved fruitful but many were fought against by the intellectuals as those at the lowest end of the socioeconomic structure had no voice. The transition in East Asia has reached a level of plateau; however, national identity and unification continue to be a goal that East Asia strives to maintain.
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. oston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
Shillony, en-Ami. Politics and culture in wartime Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1991.
Sommerville, Donald. The complete illustrated history of World War Two: An authoritative account of the…
Duiker, W., and Spielvogel, J. The Essential World History. Boston, MA: Wadsworth,
Cengage Learning, 2011.
McNelly, Theodore. Induced revolution: The policy and process of constitutional reform in occupied Japan, in Democratizing Japan, pp / 76-106.
Rhoads, Murphey. East Asia: A New History. Pearson Longman, 2004.
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
Attending the 2004 USC Asia Conference can help further my teaching, my professional role in my school district, as well as enhance my long-term professional growth objectives. As an AP economics teacher with the Los Angeles Unified District, the USC Asia Conference will provide me with the opportunity to improve my teaching on an immediate and measurable level. Gaining a broader understanding of teaching within Pacific Rim societies will help me pass on this level of cultural knowledge, and my desire to learn about other cultures to my students. This is especially useful for students in my Advanced Placement classes, as a better understanding of the interaction of economics and culture in the Pacific Rim is crucial in this time of globalization and outsourcing.
A strong understanding of cultural diversity and the broader world in which we live is essential for today's professional educator. The USC Asia Conference offers a…
Sample, Steven B. Welcome Letter from President Steven B. Sample. 19 August 2004. http://www.usc.edu/programs/asia/sample.html
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
7 per cent. In general, GDP growth has ranged 6-7 per annum for the last 4 years. Such growth is likely to continue" (Presidency of Mongolia, 2007).
At the same time however, there are still several aspects of the issue which are not fully developed, such as the corruption issue which is a traditional aspect for a former communist state. Nonetheless, there are tendencies which point out the fact that the country is heading in the right direction.
Concerning China, the matter is more delicate. The fact is that there is little consideration for the way in which the political evolution of the country is concern; therefore, the economic situation can develop according to the general lines of the party. Indeed, China entered the road of modernization in terms of the new technologies, as it is one of the most advanced technology-based economies in the world. yet the manufacturing facilities…
Echeverria, Bolivar. "Modernity and capitalism." Revista Theomai. N.d. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/124/12401105.pdf
Hu, Weixing. "China's security agenda after the cold war." The Pacific Review, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1995, pages 117-135.
Presidency of Mongolia. Consolidating economic growth. 2007. http://www.president.mn/show_module.php?index=intvw&intvwid=32
Teo, C. 2006. "Ho Jintao's consolidation of power." Opinion Asia. http://www.opinionasia.org/HuJintaoConsolidationOfPower
One excellent example in this sense is Chinese competitor alibaba.com. The results were that in China alone, eay's revenue share of the C2C market dropped by 16% in the first quarter of 2007. Again, the lack of knowledge on the local market, combined with the incapacity to react to local market stimuli, despite hiring a local company to manage operations there, were direct causes of these problems.
There are two potential recommendations for the company at this point. First of all, it could diversify its services more, such as with the purchase of the shopping search engine shopping.com. This could both diversify the business and increase potential new customers. At the same time, it could also reduce its expected revenue levels so that it can accept a competition on prices from companies such as Yahoo and alibaba.com. This could create the appropriate premises for increasing the number of customers that…
1. Rogers, Matt. August 2007. eBay's Mistakes & What You Can Learn From Them. On the Internet at http://www.foundread.com/view/ebays-mistakes-what.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007
2. Regan, Keith. Yahoo, Bidding for eBay Market Share, Cuts Auction Fees. E-Commerce Times. June 2005. On the Internet at http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/43591.html.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007
3. Ebay's market share plummets in China. August 2007. On the Internet at http://texyt.com/node/116.Last retrieved on September 6, 2007
Rogers, Matt. August 2007. eBay's Mistakes & What You Can Learn From Them. On the Internet at
The social impact of the Islamic revival, however, produced a third alternative that is both modern and firmly rooted in Islamic faith, identity, and values. Muslim women, both modernists and Islamists, have argued on Islamic grounds for an expanded role in the society (Iqbal)."
In a political sense, "most of the regimes in the Islamic world are authoritarian, undemocratic and lack legitimacy. These governments must divert public attention from the human development gap to other more unworldly matters. This is especially the case in the Arab/Muslim Middle East (Alvi-Aziz)."
hen referring to the religious aspects of its citizens, the "establishment clearly prefers to keep the masses obedient and faithful. This allows the male-dominated religious institutions to maintain the status quo and their authority (Alvi-Aziz)."
Buddhism receives much of its funding from followers who are extremely "wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has led critics to charge that certain monks…
Alvi-Aziz, Hayat. "Sinful Arab neglect." The Jerusalem Post. (2005): 01 April.
Iqbal, Anwar. "Women in Mosque and Society." World & I. (2004): 01 November.
The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism. (accessed 20 April 2005). http://wikipedia.lotsofinformation.com/wiki/index.php/The_Religion_of_India:_The_
Giants in Asia:
The two largest retailers i.e. American -- based Wal-Mart and France's Carrefour have targeted the Asian market with varying results. These varying results have been realized despite of the fact that these two giants have provided large stores stocked with general merchandise and groceries. Notably, the entry of Wal-Mart and Carrefour into new national markets is basically a major shock to local retailers who have seen the contemporary status quo of various decades influenced by these international competitors. Wal-Mart's entry into the Chinese market thrived significantly as the retailer revitalized the retail sector in China. On the contrary, the company's entry into the retail sector in Japan was more problematic than in the Chinese retail sector to an extent that it was forced to find a local partner after evaluating this market for four years. For Carrefour, its entry into Asia was mainly characterized by the movement…
Chan, J. (2012, May 11). Why Local Retailers are Winning in China? Retrieved October 13,
2012, from http://www.instoretrends.com/index.php/2012/05/11/why-local-retailers-are-winning-in-china/
Daily, N. (2012, August 7). Foreign Retailers Compete for Guangzhou Market. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://gochina.scmp.com/guangzhou/business/foreign-retailers-compete-guangzhou-market
Regmi, A. & Gehlhar, M. (2005, February). New Directions in Global Food Markets. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://faculty.arts.ubc.ca/nmalhotra/306/Global%20Food%20Market%20ERS%20USDA%20study.pdf
" (IST, 1)
Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'
Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). (2009). Pakistan Dealing With Challenges Courageously: Governor Sindh. Associated Press of Pakistan Corporation. Online at Dawn Media Group (DMG). (2009). 'U.S. Forces Not to Be Allowed to Operate Inside Pakistan. Dawn.com.
Hitti, P. (1943). History of the Arab People. Princeton University Press.
IST. (2009). Pakistan wants Unconditional Talks With India. The Times of India. Online at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/Pakistan-wants-unconditional-talks-with-India-Qureshi/articleshow/5022368.cms
Kronstadt, K. Alan. (Jan. 2005). Pakistan-U.S. Relations. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Online at < http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB94041.pdf >
Constantly updated information as to goods' and materials' whereabouts can also lead to more effective decisions by suppliers, consumers, and transportation firms alike, and the use of the Internet and other telecommunications systems will lead to exactly this ability to update.
Other applications for modern container tracking devices will continue to emerge as the technology becomes more refined. Tracking individual units is already possible, though expensive, but for sensitive and high-priced items this might already make fiscal sense. Security and efficiency will both continue to be improved by greater tracking abilities.
Video Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VBd7PB3rhk
This video provides an excellent yet brief version of the development of the railway, and specifically of the standardization of railway gauges, as it developed in England in the seventeenth century. This is something that is touched on only briefly in Chapter Three, towards the beginning of the section on railways, and it might seem to…
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
CPM (Asia) exam week. 1. Brand Audit case branding strategies 2. Complete Marketing Audit case 3. Customer Relationship Marketing.
Brand audit and branding strategies
BloomerHang is a customizable hanger that advertisers can use to promote their products. BloomerHang enables organizations to purchase additional advertising revenue by incorporating the hanger in some fashion into the presentation of their product, either in the form of a gym locker hanger or a dry cleaner's hanger. The product is customizable and can be tailored to the demographics which the company serves. It is a product with a wide potential applicability in both product and service-oriented industries. By advertising itself as recyclable as well as useful to vendors, bloomerHang also strives to cultivate a 'green' image. It is simultaneously serviceable yet can keep up with current trends, such as the need to be sustainable.
Marketing audit (SWOT)
In terms of its strengths bloomerHang is…
East Asia, 1800-1912
Even with the fact that it would be absurd to claim that Charles Darwin is responsible for the spread of Imperialism, it would only be safe to say that he played an important role in making particular influential bodies in feeling justified as they were conquering other peoples and imposing their power in these areas. orld powers such as the British Empire and Spain were inspired to look at the world as an environment consisting out of communities who were superior and communities who were inferior. As a consequence, it seemed that only those who were superior were worthy to survive while others needed to make place for evolution.
The fact that the British Empire was one of the greatest powers in the world during the nineteenth century and that Darwin issued a series of theories during the period enabled the English to look at life from…
Hawkins, Mike, "Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat," (Cambridge University Press, 13.03.1997)
"The New Imperialism," Retrieved Southern Utah University Website: http://www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/TheNewImperialism.pdf
Such loans have been immersed by the government or sold to private investors. The lenders and borrowers were also stimulated by Governments with entering into negotiations to reformulate the existing debts or to implement necessary measures for foreclosure. The private investors also were seen to have obtained or infused their funds in banks or low potential borrowers. However, the strategy of adjustment is not finished. The shortage of capital is still being felt by some of the banks in the region that reduces their lending capacity. The poor performance and liquidity crisis confronted by heavily indebted borrowers also adversely affected the financial strategies. (Moreno, 5)
It has been observed that the financial strategies of East Asia in the past have resulted in fast growth rates and also safeguarded the interests of lenders and borrowers that discouraged the efforts for taking precautions against potential risks involved. The continuing measures for developing…
Denis, Hew. Introductory overview: rethinking the east Asian development model.
ASEAN Economic Bulletin. April, 2002. Volume: 14; No:1; pp: 56-60
East Asia, the Pacific, and the U.S.: an economic partnership. Department of State bulletin, April, 1989. pp: 6-10
Eberstadt, Nicholas. Asia tomorrow, gray and male - demographic trends in East Asia. The National Interest. Fall, 1998. Volume: 12: No: 1; pp: 32-37
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.
Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994. http://hrd.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en/.
opportunities in Asia (South East and South Asia) are huge and so are the challenges
For the last decade the countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Hong Kong and South Korea that collectively forms the part of South East Asia have registered consistent growth year after year making an impressive position in the economic development on the international level (Pempel, 1999). These countries have shown the growth in terms of Gross Domestic Product at an average rate of 6% to 9% annually. The dawn of 1997 has darkened the glory of these courtiers with a major slump in the economic conditions and financial development. Asian financial crisis that erupted in 1997 has miserably affected the local stock market and currency market of the Asian countries. The Stock market of these countries had declined by 70% and with the same figure the currency of has also depreciated against dollar, forcing them…
Allen, F, & Gale, D 2000, 'Financial contagion', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1 -- 33.
Brunnermeier, M 2009, ' Deciphering the liquidity and credit crunch 2007-2008', Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 77 -- 100.
Bulow, J, Geanakoplos, J, and Klemperer, P 1985, ' Multimarket oligopoly: strategic substitutes and strategic complements', Journal of Political Economy, vol. 93, pp. 488-511.
Burnside, C, Eichenbaum, M, & Rebelo, S 2008, 'Currency crisis models', New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed.
Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…
The biggest challenge however over the long-tern is the lack of acceptance of foreign cards by Chinese merchants. There are an estimated 20 million businesses in China, and of these, 414,000 accept credit cards, and of those, 150,000 accept foreign credit cards (Worthington, 2003). At the infrastructure level this fact illustrates how pervasive the sociological factors that limit debt continue to influence the Chinese culture specifically and the Asian culture overall. As with every Asian culture, there is tremendous pride in not losing "face" or stature in ones' community. As a result, cash is king in the more conservative cities and regions of the country. The generation of 25 to 40-year-olds will change this, however it may take a generation or more to significantly increase American Express credit card use in Asia and China as a result.
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China.…
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China. New York Times,
Retrieved June 8, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/business/american-express-to-issue-cards-in-china.html
Owen Brown. (2004, December 9). China Banks Add Credit Cards With Help From AmEx and Visa. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. C.2.
David A Von Emloh, Emmanuel V Pitsilis, Jeffrey Wong. (2003). Credit cards come to China. The McKinsey Quarterly: Special Edition,20-23.
Economies of South and East Asia
Which realm will have the most success in economic growth in the next 20 years?
The economy of East Asia has been one of the most successful examples of economic growth that the world has ever known. This region includes developed economies found in countries such as China, Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. The level of economic growth that these countries have achieved has been referred to as an economic miracle by some. By contrast, the South Asian countries, have yet to develop as rapidly as those found in East Asia -- although economically impressive on their own right. India is by far the largest economy in South Asia but this group also includes countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Although these regions have developed on significantly different paths, one of the interesting questions will be how these regions will…
Hewitt, D. (2015, December 8). China Trade Data: More Bad News For China's Economy As Exports Fall 6.8% In November. Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/china-trade-data-more-bad-news-chinas-economy-exports-fall-68-november-2215464
Rama, M. (2015, April 13). South Asia, now the fastest-growing region in the world, could take greater advantage of cheap oil to reform energy pricing. Retrieved from The World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/ en/news/press-release/2015/04/13/south-asia-cheap-oil-reform-energy-pricing
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
The collapse of the Soviet Union is perhaps one of the most influential events in world history, with political and economic consequences that reverberated across the world.
The once-great nation's southern region, now divided into eight independent republics, have been attempting to enter democratic society, but the transition from republic to democracy has been difficult at best -- and in some cases has failed outright.
The Struggle for Dominant Nationalities
One of the largest impediments to true democracy in central Asia has been the unequal ethnic makeup of the new republics.
In Uzbekistan, for instance, many of the cities had been known since ancient times for their multiculturalism and multi-linguism -- even the capital city of Tashkent.
However, with the formation of this republic, the second-largest cultural group in these cities, the Tajiks, was betrayed; unable to form a territorial state of their…
Financial egulatory Harmonization in East Asia
As globalization continues to evolve local economies, there has been increasing pressure put on East Asian nations to implement corporate governance reform. Many East Asian nations lack the restrictions and regulations seen in Western nations that provide for more responsible treatment of corporate activities that impact the health of businesses in that economy and attract foreign investment.. Moreover, the lack of corporate governance regulations have also been thought to have played a role in the 1997 Asian financial crisis, as there were not checks in place to curb corporate behavior that contributed to economic decline. In his 2010 article, "Financial egulatory Harmonization in East Asia: Balancing Domestic and International Pressures for Corporate Governance eforms," ichard W. Carney discusses how harmonization of international and domestic expectations of corporate governance in the region is possible.
The international community has long been putting pressure on East Asian…
Carney, Richard W. (2010). Financial regulatory harmonization in East Asia: Balancing domestic and international pressures for corporate governance reforms. ADBI Institute. Web. http://www.adbi.org/files/2011.03.18.wp269.financial.regulatory.harmonization.east.asia.pdf
Eastern Asia Society for Transport Studies, (2005). The Role of Transportation in Logistics Chain. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1659. Retrieved June 7, 2013 from http://www.siam.org/journals/plagiary/1657.pdf
This is a publication of a society that is made u of professionals in the field of transport and logistics. As a matter of fact, the paper was written by three selected professionals in the field, two of them were directors of transport systems in University of Australia and the third being a PhD candidate. This is a reliable source and people with vast knowledge in the arena of transport and logistics hence the reliability on them and the proceedings paper that they co-authored.
The publisher of the article is Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies which is a reliable publisher and an authority in the transport sector since that is their area of specialization.…
Hats and Globalization
The hat stand in South Korea is visible in the picture "global" in a cultural sense because it is reflective of the cultural changes swirling all around the South Korean market. It sits, first of all, in front of a Western bakery shop -- a Dunkin' Donuts -- which is in and of itself an emblem of a foreign culture within the Asian culture of South Korea. The hat stand benefits from the sign hanging over the stand, like a cultural guardian angel, pointing to the hats to show how Western culture is available for sale to the South Koreans not just in the form of food but also in the form of attire. Secondly, the hats themselves are a Western fashion statement. They stand out as a cultural statement of globalism. As Hansen points out, in the era of globalization, "dress has been analyzed, by and…
Given that the profitability rate is already very low and that other costs have already been cut, the only practical response to rising fuel costs (assuming that they do not fall drastically very quickly) is to raise fares.
This will be problematic for the company, of course, since it has established as its major selling point the fact that it offers the lowest fares possible. However, having to raise fares is something that will no doubt happen at other companies as well since all companies will be affected. Thus it is entirely possible that the company will be able to raise fares and yet remain the lowest priced company in its market (Creaton, 2007, p. 48).
While rising fuel costs are the most significant costs that are beyond the control of the company, other external factors can have important impacts as well. Among potential issues in terms of overall costs…
Bamber, G.J., Gittell, J.H., Kochan, T.A. & von Nordenflytch, a. (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging their Employees. New York: Cornell University Press.
Creaton, S. (2007). Ryanair: The Full Story of the Controversial Low-Cost Airline. Dublin: Aurum.
Davies, R. (2011, March 7.) Soaring Fuel Costs Spark New Airline Fees: Sky-High Fuel Costs Are Behind Recent Fee Hikes. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Travel/soaring-fuel-costs-spark-airline-fees/story?id=13077127 .
Maoist China and Post-War East Asia
To Live and the oral interviews of Chinese citizens who suffered under the Maoist regimes should be on the list of essential reading material for any individual compiling an encyclopedia entry on the life of Mao Zedong. While reading Mao's actual biography by a credible author would be important, the impact of Mao's life upon the populace is equally significant. The biographical text would be used for the basic information about Mao's life -- the circumstances under which he was born, what moved him to adopt communism, and his struggle against the Chinese nationalists that ultimately cumulated in his ascendency to leadership in China.
However, these 'driver's license' facts only scratch the surface of how Mao is remembered by the Chinese people. Interviews such as "A foot of mud and a pile of shit" show the suffering of people forced to toil the land…
Q2. When the United States assumed control over Japan, Japan had experienced a reactionary period in which worship of the Emperor and a military dictatorship eradicated any democratic leanings that had existed in the country before. The victorious United States was determined to democratize Japan as a way of ensuring that Japan's remilitarization would never happen again. As well as disarming Japan, the U.S. created a Japanese national constitution that, in effect, imposed democratic values upon Japan. The 1947 Constitution enshrines individual rights as part of its essential fabric.
The economic and political success of Japan would seem to suggest that the U.S. was successful in its mission. However, it should be noted that certain aspects of Japanese culture remain fundamentally unchanged, despite the institution of the American-authored document. Collectivism remains a stronger philosophical value than individualism in Japan than the United States, and Japanese political life has tended to be characterized by far less external debate and divisiveness than in European parliamentary democracies. This suggests that changes in national culture are difficult to instate from without.
As depicted in the documentary about relationships between U.S. servicemen and East Asian women Outside, American has tended to see Asian nations as exotic and different, and either in need of taming or fundamentally different than the U.S. The 1947 Constitution began as a way of trying to make Japan like the West, and supposedly 'better' than it had been, but Japanese culture has since interpreted constitutional values through a uniquely Japanese lens. Although Japan has incorporated some aspects of European culture into itself, it has always done so with a Japanese perspective. This cultural clash between American and Japanese perspectives is dramatized in The Cocktail Party. The play suggests there is mutually justified anger on both sides: Japanese people are angry at Americans because of the mistreatment they suffered immediately after the war, while American soldiers and victims of Japanese wartime violence are slow to forgive.
China in the South China Sea
The geopolitical and economic consequences of China's occupation of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea can perhaps best be measured the est's (or simply ashington's) response to China's move. As Durden notes, the South China Sea is not just important to China; it is important to ashington, too, which is accused of "militarizing the region" by the Chinese. But this is essentially what the U.S. is accusing China of, while Japan meanwhile claims that China is siphoning natural gas from its side of the "economic zone" (Durden). Thus, by building islands and runways in the Spratlys and expanding itself in the South China Sea, China is provoking a host of reactions from other nations (estern or estern-supported), indicating that there is a serious economic and geopolitical clash at hand over this issue. The main economic consequence coming from the U.S. will be…
Assange, Julian. "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Secretive Deal Isn't about Trade, but Corporate Control." Democracy Now! Democracy Now, 27 May 2015. Web. 24 September 2015.
Butool, S. (2013). "Pakistani Responses to AfPak Policy Local Narratives and an Ending Global War?" Asian Survey, 53(6): 1005-1036.
"China's Maritime Disputes." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign
Relations, n.d. Web. 24 September 2015.
Asian Museum Exhibit
The Museum of Asia and India (MIA) is proud to host the traveling exhibition of Art and Society in Japan and China: Floral epresentation through the Centuries. The exhibit will run for three months at the MIA before traveling to other venues across the globe in the two-year schedule. Museums in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Madrid, Munich, New York, Nice, Oslo, Prague, San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, and Zurich will play host to the special exhibit from November 2011 through May of 2012.
The exhibit provides glimpses into the impact of religion, philosophy, language, and culture on Asian art. With artistic grounding in writing as an art form, Chinese and Japanese art often includes the written word as a visual element in art. Often, the writing conveys a wise aphorism or a blessing that exists harmoniously with the subject of the art. The influence of Confucius in Asian art…
The Gallery of China. Retrieved http://www.galleryofchina.net/floral.html
Culture of Japan, Every Culture. Retrieved http://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Japan.html#ixzz1biccnYtM
All Posters. (2011). Retrieved http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Chrysanthemums-Posters_i1585174_.htm?aid=1203620802&LinkTypeID=1&PosterTypeID=1&DestType=7&Referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Epaintingsoncanvas%2Enet%2Fprint-8042-1585174%2Fchrysanthemums-giclee-print%2F
Cargile, S. (2009). Cherry Blossoms in Japanese Art and Culture. Retrieved http://www.stolaf.edu/people/kucera/YoshidaWebsite/evolution/essay_pages/stephanie_cargile.htm
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…
hat were the external and internal factors that led to the collapse?
There are many factors that could explain the rapid failure of Peregrine's failure that seemed to appear in such a short time frame. It seems fairly obvious that management bears the burden of responsibility on many levels, however, there are other explanations that could also be introduced, although the causes are debatable. However, the mainstream press seemed to focus purely on the management capabilities of the company.
"The collapse of Peregrine Investments Holdings Ltd., the biggest business failure in Hong Kong during the Asian economic crisis, was caused by bad management and not the crisis itself, according to a government inspector's report (Manuel, 2001)."
In fact, it was recommended that the courts restrict the top-level management team from operating for fifteen years based on the management team's incompetence in running the investment bank.
Although such a…
Gargan, E. (N.d.). Hong Kong's Peregrine Soared Like a Falcon, Sank Like a Reckless Bank. Retrieved from NY Times: https://partners.nytimes.com/library/financial/011398asia-hongkong-peregrine.html
Manuel, G. (2001, March 27). Poor Management Triggered Collapse Of Peregrine Investments, Report Says. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB985626919629217466
Sykes -- Picot Agreement
As Iraq lurches deeper into turmoil, Kurdish leaders threaten to break away and declare outright independence, and the militants of the self-styled Islamic State (IS) are reshaping the border between Iraq and Syria, one must look to the history of the region to be able to put these conflicts in full perspective (Muir, 2016). The Sykes -- Picot Agreement was officially signed on May 16, 1916, however the agreement was in the workings for quite some time before it was officially signed. The deal was also known as the Asia Minor Agreement because of the geography that the agreement sought to affect. The Middle East has been a major strategic goal for policy planners and strategist for centuries. An author who published in the Smithsonian summarized the agreement as:
"Even before the final outcome of the Great ar has been determined, Great Britain, France, and Russia…
AFP. (2016, May 14). 100 years since Sykes-Picot: The deal that changed the Mideast forever. Retrieved from The Times of Israel: http://www.timesofisrael.com/100-years-since-sykes-picot-the-deal-that-changed-the-mideast-forever/
Christianson, S. (2015, November 16). The Origins of the World War I Agreement That Carved Up the Middle East. Retrieved from Smithsonian: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/sykes-picot-agreement-180957217/?no-ist
Muir, J. (2016, May 16). Sykes-Picot: The map that spawned a century of resentment. Retrieved from BBC News: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36300224
Myth of Asian Miracle
Critical Analysis of a Paper by Paul Krugman
The phenomenal growth in the East Asian countries and China during the 1980s-1990s startled the western world. Were they going to overtake the developed economies of the western countries was the question asked in the economic circles. Stanford economist Paul Krugman  wrote a controversial article, 'The Myth of Asian Miracle' in November / December 1994 issue of 'Foreign Affairs'.
In this article he compared the rapid growth of the 'Asian Tigers' to the economic development of the former USS during the 1950s and 60s. He argued that consistent economic development requires increased input of resources as well as increase in output per unit of input, which comes from increase in efficiency and technological advancement.
Krugman argued that rapid development of the U.S.S.. was due to increased input of resources, controlled economy and a rise in education level…
1) Krugman, P., 'The Myth of Asian Miracle', Foreign Affairs, Nov-Dec.1994, searched from Internet on 10 October 2005, http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/myth.html
2) The Financial & Economic Crisis, Retrieved from the Internet on 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.parl.gc.ca/36/1/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/fore-e/rep-e/rep08dec98part2-e.htm#TOP
Pan Chao's text "Lessons for Women" illustrates women's role and self-perception in first century China. These seven lessons were written out by Pan Chao for her daughters in an attempt to prepare them for married life and for their roles as women in Chinese society. Pan Chao's teachings stress the restrictions imposed on women by themselves and their society. Women were viewed as the weaker sex, as necessarily subservient to men, and of secondary importance to their husbands. Marriage is also portrayed as the culmination of a woman's life, as she has essentially no genuine personal life of her own save that which exists in the context of the marriage. "Lessons for Women" shows that a woman's daily life in ancient China consisted mainly of household duties and psychological obligations to her husband and her in-laws; the teachings underscore the remarkable strength of character exhibited by women like…
For that reason, a logistic related PE in Hong Kong in our case may find it challenging to align itself with certain standards embraced either in the United States or Western Europe in regard to due diligence.
It is also important to note that for the logistic related PE, general partner returns variability is yet another risk factor. It can be noted that for the eight years preceding 2005, Asia's fund returns variance was relatively higher in comparison to the U.S. And Western Europe variance (INSEAD 2010). While the variance in the U.S. And Europe stood at 15% and 13% respectively, Asia's fund returns variability was registered as 23%. Though this could be driven partly by manager-selection skills, such a selection could turn out to be an uphill task for such a logistic related PE given the nature of the market.
It may also be prudent to note that according…
INSEAD (2010). INSEAD -- AXA Private Equity Survey of Top LPs and GPs in Asian Private Equity. Retrieved January 8, 2012, from INSEAD website: http://www.insead.edu/facultyresearch/centres/global_private_equity_initiative/publications/documents/INSEADAsiaPESurvey.pdf
INSEAD (2010). Asian Private Equity (A): The Quest for Return. Retrieved January 8, 2012, from INSEAD website: http://www.insead.edu/facultyresearch/centres/global_private_equity_initiative/publications/documents/AsianPrivateEquity-A-TheQuestforReturn.pdf
Representation of Asian Women: American Television Sitcoms and Media
American Asian women exist within a culture that is at times resistant at providing a realistic portrait of what an Oriental woman is and how she expresses herself. This can be seen in personalities like Margaret Cho, whose sitcom, All-American Girl forced her to see the reality of how America perceived Asian American women and Oriental people in general. These negative images, stereotypes of Asian American women as 'demon women', 'hookers', and submissive, are translated not just in television sitcoms, but in movies like Ghost in the Shell and force cultivation of beliefs that stick to the minds of people long-term. It is through these shows and movies that people understand what is an Asian American and unfortunately, how badly they are depicted. This essay will shed some light on the potential origins of these negative stereotypes and why they…
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
" (Rossetti, 1886)
Mary Shelley is noted as having stated that it would require "…a mind as subtle as his own to understand the mystic meanings scattered throughout the poem." (Rossetti, 1886) Mary writes that rough the whole poem there "There reigns a sort of calm and holy spirit of love, it soothes the tortured, and is hope to the expectant, till the prophecy is fulfilled, and love, untainted by any evil, becomes the law of the world…" (as cited in: Rossetti, 1886) it is agreed upon by all Shelley critics, according to Ristic that the imagery of the "…lyric built drama is bold and original and that its lyrical splendor is one of the wonders of English poetry. Thirty-six different verse forms have been counted, "all perfectly handled," and the drama has been compared to symphonic music." (Ristic, 2000)
Shelley writes in the Preface to Prometheus Unbound that the…
Bromwich, David (2002) Love Against Revenge in Shelley's Prometheus. Philosophy and Literature. Vol. 26, No. 2, October 2002. pp. 239-259.
Reading Justice: From Derrida to Shelley and Back. (2007) Studies in Romanticism. 1 Jan 2007 Available online at: http://www.infoplease.com/t/lit/shelley/1/10/8.html
Ristic, Ratomir (2000) Shelley's First Major Lyrics and Prometheus Unbound. Facta Universitatis. Linguistics and Literature Vol. 2, No. 7, 2000.
Rossetti, William M. (1886) Shelley's Prometheus Unbound. Lecture Delivered to the Shelley Society December 1886. Online available at: http://www.archive.org/stream/shelleyspromethe00rossrich/shelleyspromethe00rossrich_djvu.txt
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth in Latin America." De Gregorio, Jose Journal of Development Economics 39(1): 59-84.
Typically, Japanese marry before a Shinto altar and are buried, after cremation, in a Buddhist funeral. Many people, young and old, pay a New Years visit to a Shinto shrine and visit family graves once or twice a year. Young couples take their children to a Shinto shrine at the shichi-go-san festival to celebrate the ages 3, 5, and 7. For funeral and periodic memorial services, a family invites a priest from a Buddhist temple that belongs to the same Buddhist sect with which the family ancestors were affiliated.
The Japanese, both officially and unofficially resisted the influence of the western religions, while at the same time conglomerating the traditional faiths of the region into an amalgamated faith of sorts.
In the past, every family in Japan had to be registered at a Buddhist temple to comply with the antiChristian policy of the Tokugawa government (1600-1868). After the…