Atmosphere Essays

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Geology 1 Discuss Which of the Interrelationships Essay

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89475724


(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.

The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.

A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it. The atmosphere stabilizes the temperature of the earth and is the medium in which water evaporated from oceans as the first step in the hydrologic cycle is transported over land masses to fall as rain over land." (Manahan, 2005) The earth's water is contained n the hydrosphere.

The lithosphere ":is a thin layer extending from the surface of the earth to depths of 50-100 km. The biosphere is composed of all living organisms, which live on the surface of the geosphere on soil, or just below the soil surface." (Manahan, 2005) The water of the earth cannot do without the proper functioning of the atmosphere and neither can life on earth survive without the atmosphere. It is the belief of this writer that the atmosphere has suffered greatly due to industrialization and other process of civilization that have created harm to the atmosphere thereby harming all spheres of the environment.

(2) Discuss the characteristics of the Terrestrial and Jovian planets and their moons. Which might be likely to support life and why?

The Jovian planets are 'gas giants' and are not composed of solid matter. The planets are reported to have "10 times more mass than the Earth." (Buzzle, 2012) It is reported that the primary difference between Jovian and Terrestrial planets are their size as the terrestrial plants are small on comparison to the Jovian…… [Read More]

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Environmental Review the Carbon in Essay

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271345

10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.

11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed

12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.

Chapter 13

5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler temperatures. The preservation of certain rocks and their oxygen isotopes can yield clues about climate in ancient times.

6) One major problem that climatologists face in using computers to try and model future weather is the lack of adequate and reliable data, as accurate collecting methods have not been around for very long. The sheer complexity of modeling weather patterns is also largely prohibitive to accurate modeling.

7) the aspects of the Earth's movements that are taken into account in Milankovitch theory are the eccentricity of its orbit, axial tilt, and the precession or reorientation of the rotating axis.

8) Evidence of past carbon dioxide concentrations from ice cores show a strong correlation to temperature changes as measured through a variety of sources, suggesting that the two are very closely linked and that changes in carbon concentration can have major and rapid effects on temperature.

9) Ocean circulation has a huge effect on climate, changing and creating temperature patterns throughout the globe, and transferring heat from certain areas to others, and providing large amounts of water for evaporation and as carbon sinks, reabsorbing many atmospheric gases.

10) the Pleistocene epoch saw several periods…… [Read More]

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Global Warming Is Due to Human Actions Essay

Words: 2371 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91064799

Global warming is due to human actions.

Since the Industrial Revolution, there is an increase in the greenhouse gases all over the world. This, consequently, has turned out to be the cause of a slow but sure increase of the temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere. This phenomenon has been given the name of Global Warming ("Global Warming," 2009).

The greenhouse effect is a natural process due to which the temperature of the atmosphere in close proximity to the earth's surface is warmed. The sun gives off noticeable, short-wave light to the earth that transit through a blanket of greenhouse gases without hindrance. These gases are composed chiefly of "water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone" ("Global Warming," 2009). Infrared radiation reflects off the surface of the Earth toward space. However, it is difficult for it to pass through the thermal blanket. Therefore, some of this infrared radiation is "trapped and reflected downward, keeping the planet at an average temperature suitable to life, about 60 degrees Fahrenheit (16 degrees Celsius)" ("Global Warming," 2009).

Statement 1: Human Actions Cause Global Warming.

The human actions like industrial development and growth, agriculture, and transportation are blamed for the production of additional masses of the natural greenhouse gases. Moreover, the chlorofluorocarbons and other gases are also said to be supplementing the thermal blanket. It is widely acknowledged that the increased quantities of greenhouse gases is the sole reason of more trapped heat increased global temperatures. These outcomes have made a beneficial life, a potentially troublesome, upsetting and destructive one ("Global Warming," 2009).

How does the Human Society Impact Environment?

It is a modern trend that the society is now able to cause considerable interruption and disturbance in the environment. This ability of disrupting the atmosphere is powerfully influenced by the latest developments in demography and technology. The people in primitive times were a very small group and carried out their daily functions at low energy levels with the availability of basic tools only. Therefore, they had very little with which they could had a profound effect on their environment (D.Kemp, 1994, p. 4). The only available mechanism to those people was the human muscle that guaranteed a limited impact of the human beings on the environment. However, the development of technology with the passage of time…… [Read More]

Global Warming. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from Questia database:

Kemp, D. (1994). Global Environmental Issues: A Climatological Approach. New York: Routledge. Retrieved May 3, 2012, from Questia database:
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Geology I Am Implementing a Phase 1 Essay

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68962675


I am implementing a Phase 1 Investigation to determine the fundamental geology and geophysics of the planet in question. I will describe the critical features and characteristic ranges of the planet. I will also try to ascertain the feasibility of life and the history of this planet. To be successful on our mission, my team and I must study the whole of the planets with an emphasis on comparison and contrast. I plan to use Earth as the basis of our investigation proposal because I know Earth best and also because it is a planet of extremes. It has a crust that is very active as well as an atmosphere filled with water.

Earth is a terrestrial planet and as such has gone through differentiation, cratering, flooding by lava and water, and also has undergone surface evolutions. Differentiation is the separation of planetary material by density. I know Earth differentiated because seismic waves have revealed a core of metals (nickel and iron), a thick mantle of dense rock, and a think crust of low density. (The lithosphere and "plastic" asthenosphere). The core is molten except for the very center and this conducting liquid in the core is responsible for the planet's magnetic field.

The plastic rock of the upper mantle distorts plates of crustal rock and makes the Earth's surface active due to the circulation the upper mantle endures. The crust undergoes transformation, convergence, and separation. Mid ocean rifts create new rock by allowing lava to seep out. Old crust burrows into the deep trenches of some continents where it is remelted, thus causing volcanoes and earthquakes that recycle the Earth's crust. This is why we rarely see impact craters on Earth and so many on the moon. The moon is inactive and also has no atmosphere to mitigate the damage caused by any meteors, especially those that weigh over 350 tons.

The atmosphere of the planet will give us much information. Based on Earth's situation, we know that atmosphere is developed by gases and ices that were trapped in the pulled planetesimals that helped construct Earth. Volcanism has outgassed what used to be a set of other gases and oxygen has been added by plant life.…… [Read More]

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Behavioral Changes Reducing the Effects Essay

Words: 1835 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10604564

Why the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan Walsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (Walsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.

Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and cracks around windows and doors) should be taught beginning in grammar school and in high school. If students' parents are listening to Rush Limbaugh or Sean Hannity, and getting propaganda that denies climate change, that shouldn't stop young people from following the easy strategies that can save energy and limit the release of greenhouse gases.

Works… [Read More]

Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
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Geography Climate Meteorology Essay

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94285361


Nitrogen and oxygen are the most abundant gases in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a full 99% of its content. After these two gases, water vapor is second highest in concentration, followed by carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Ozone gas is also present in the atmosphere, along with a few other less common gases like Argon.

The four "spheres" of the atmosphere include the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and thermosphere. The isothermal layer and ozone layer are layers of the stratosphere.

In the stratosphere, which is above the troposphere, temperature remains constant for the first nine kilometers. Within the isothermal layers of the atmosphere, temperature is constant. Moreover, nearing the ozone layer, temperatures rise with increased altitude. Therefore, temperature does not constantly decrease the higher we move up in the atmosphere.

Based on the graphic function of "air" pressure, we can see how gravity causes air density and air pressure to decrease as we move away from the surface of the earth.

5. "When temperature is held constant, the density of a gas is proportional to pressure, and volume is inversely…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere. < >.
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Environmental Issues Essay

Words: 2082 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67135693

Environmental are vital to the survival of the human beings, animals, and plants in relation to the planet earth. One of the essential environmental issues across the globe drawing critical debate is the aspect of global warming. This relates to the rapid increase in the levels of temperatures thus realizations of the droughts and famine because of climate change. One of the major causes of global warming is human activity. The concept of industrialization is an essential part of the development in the context of the 21st century. It is essential to note that industrialization is one of the major contributors of the increase in the level of carbon or greenhouse gases. This contributes massive towards the essence of global warming or climate change thus the need for the adoption and implementation of accurate and extensive measures towards the limitation of the level of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. In the execution of this research, the focus will be on the examination of the social perspective of global warming. This is through focusing on five critical ecological influences of global warming: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy.

Intrapersonal/individual factors

This focuses on the examination of the individual characteristics influencing behaviour. In this analysis, it is essential to focus on attitudes, personality traits, and knowledge. Individuals have their roles in the essence of global warming. This is through activities such emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere thus affecting the level of temperatures. It is ideal for the individuals to adopt and implement valuable information or knowledge of the concept of global warming (Hernandez-Deckers et al., 2012). This is because of the need to reduce the levels of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere under the influence of individual activities in relation to power and transport purposes. Global warming affect individuals through negative impacts on the development and production levels within the society hence the need to avoid or limit is deterioration across the globe.

Climatic changes or global warming has negative effects within the form of drought or floods thus affecting agricultural activities of individuals. Some of the essential factors towards minimization of the rate of emissions of the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere include awareness of the individuals on the safe components of energy and transport, transformation of attitude, and perspective in relation to global warming. This is…… [Read More]

Hernandez-Deckers, D., & von Storch, J. (2012). Impact of the Warming Pattern on Global

Energetics. Journal Of Climate, 25(15), 5223-5240
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Exploration Global Warming Essay

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85214741

Global Warming Reduction

Global warming is caused by human activities of burning solid waste, wood, and fossil fuels, release of hydroflurocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from industrial processes, and deforestation (Rey, 2011). Burning fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas, and coal puts greenhouses gases that affect the atmosphere. The industrial processes increase heat more than normal and when released into the air, it gets trapped into the atmosphere. And, deforestation allows carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere that also causes the global warming.

As the human population grows, so does the demand for housing that uses more trees, the number of vehicles that are operated that release more greenhouse gasses, and more demand for industrial processes that also release more gasses into the atmosphere and increase the demands that are needed to meet human needs. All these gasses going into the air and land are harmful to the atmosphere and cause the global warming of the earth. As a result of the global warming, the earth's temperatures are increasing more every day.

Trees absorb the carbon dioxide by 20% (mtrguanlau, 2011). Planting more trees can help to decrease the carbon dioxide that is released into the atmosphere. Trees are also useful to reduce electricity costs used from air conditioning by 15%. Tree planted around a home can block some of the harmful UV rays that cause the home to heat up. It is important to protect the forests to create more effort to control the carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere.

Looking for ways to reduce the use of electricity reduces the gasses released into the atmosphere from industrial processes. Unplug appliances when not in use. Even though it is not turned on, it will still use a certain amount of…… [Read More]

Rey, M. (2011, Feb 11). Factors Contributing to Global Warming. Retrieved from EZine Articles:
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Analyzing Group Process and Skill Selection Essay

Words: 2342 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50824851

Group Process and Skill Selection

Recent developments at the medical industry increase the life expectancy. Census reported that 36.3 million Americans were 65 and over in 2004 and 71.5 million Americans will be 65 and over in 2030 (see, Therefore, the age related diseases and related industry (i.e. eldercare) have been taking an important part of the American society. Taking care of a person with memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a demanding task as it requires mental and physical strength. Social supports groups are very helpful to deal with mental and physical distress for Alzheimer's patients' caregivers. In this brief document, a social group session is discussed.



Garvin, Gutierrez, and Galinsky (2004) describe the social work groups in which the social workers participate as part of their professional activities either as participants or facilitators. The interaction between social workers and group incorporates groups that individuals exchange their issues, improve their life, enhance their functionality, refine their methods to deal with challenges and evaluate the social justice. In the same book, Garvin et al. (2004) point out two important factors -the personal boundaries and mutual respect- that form the quality of mutual interaction between group members. In this aspect, the social worker, as a facilitator, should facilitate the value of each individual and emphasize on interactive help between group members. The latter would help individuals to understand the importance of interdependence. This interdependent relationship between the group members would provide the positive and the negative aspects of their experiences. However, there might be a disadvantage that some group members would not like to work together as they would feel a competition or vulnerability. Although there is not a common way to degrade the group member's hesitations to interact, the more suitable model for a particular group would improve the outcomes of the social work. The well-known models are mutual aid and cognitive-behavioral models. The motivation of mutual aid model is…… [Read More]

Garvin, C.D., Gutierrez, L.M., & Galinsky, M.J., (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of social work with groups. New York: Guilford Publications.

Gitlin L.N., Corcoran M., Winter L., Boyce A., & Hauck W.W. (2001). A randomized, controlled trial of a home environmental intervention: effect on efficacy and upset in caregivers and on daily function of persons with dementia. Gerontologist 41 (1): 4 -- 14.
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Global Warming There Is a Essay

Words: 738 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59152620

It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.

Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this and trying to make too many changes is not going to fix things overnight, and it may not fix things at all. Waiting and seeing is a much better idea.

I, personally, am not interested in changing the way I do things, like riding a bicycle instead of driving a car. I do not feel it will make a difference, and there are not enough people interested in doing these kinds of things to have an effect, even if it would matter to the environment. No matter what humans do or have done throughout history, the climate has changed. It gets warmer and colder, and there is no proof of anything specific causing it. While scientists have said it is caused by people, other scientists say this is not the case. Without proof, it becomes very difficult to say that I must do something to save the planet. What am I saving it from? Will it work? Will others help? Until more is known about the true causes of global warming, I…… [Read More]

Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.