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There are, however, a number of types of caves that are formed through different processes (even volcanic action). A new theory says that some caves (about 5%) are caused through the action of sulfuric acid produced by microbial life. In this theory, microbes consume materials, oils, etc. And release hydrogen sulfide gas, which then in turn rises through rocks and combines with groundwater to produce sulfuric acid, which then eats away at the surrounding rock and mineral deposits (Cave Formation, 2002).
Guided Inquiry Method on Caves-
What are caves? How are they formed?
Brief PowerPoint or video on cave formation.
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource / ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.cavebiogeo/
Ask: How are caves formed? What are different processes? What kinds of processes act together to form caves? Why are caves near volcanos different than caves near limestone mountains?
List all the facts learned about caves. Visit some of the cave websites available…… [Read More]
Winds had been blowing from the south and southeast all day, but at 22:00 the wind had shifted to the northeast and had dropped to 9km/hr, accompanied by a drop in temperature and pressure and a rise in relative humidity.
Wednesday, November 23rd
Weather stayed relatively stable throughout the day on Wednesday, with temperatures ranging only from five to seven degrees Celsius throughout the day. Cloud cover was complete and consisted of nimbo-stratus clouds, and relative humidity fluctuated by only twelve percentage points between eighty-three and ninety-five percent; no precipitation was observed. Pressure also remained fairly consistent and increased slightly as temperatures dropped at the 22:00 observation, the combination of which staved off rain.
Thursday, November 24th
Wind picked up and temperatures dropped on Thursday, with the temperature starting out at three degrees Celsius at the 4:00 measurement and reaching a high f six degrees Celsius by the 16:00 reading.…… [Read More]
"From the beginning, slowness defined it. Tedious, plodding, grinding, unrelenting slowness…And when the storm system took an unexpected turn as it spread into the central Plains, the table was set for violent weather," (Hoedel & Gutierrez, 2012). Hoedel & Gutierrez (2012) are describing the mysterious origins of the 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado, one of the deadliest in American history. After its tumultuous journey "down the Pacific Coast, across the California highlands, over the ocky Mountains," the weather system culminated in 200-mile-an-hour winds and a storm radius of, at times, a mile. The tornado that hit Joplin, Missouri in 2011 was rated EF-5 on the Enhanced-Fujita Scale. The scale measures approximate wind estimates, based on damage incurred. In fact, the day after the tornado hit, it was rated EF-5 and was later upgraded (Dolce, 2011). In the case of the Joplin tornado, damage was extreme and extensive. More than a…… [Read More]
Weather and Construction:
Las Vegas Valley
The Las Vegas Valley, including the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, and North Las Vegas is the fastest growing region in the United States. Some reports indicate that ten thousand people move to the city every month with a mere four thousand leaving. The result is that the city is growing by six thousand people every month. The valley's permanent population currently exceeds one million people, this does not include the tourist population which can exceed a half million people in a single weekend. It is estimated that by 2015, the regional population will double.
Construction in the area is constant. New subdivisions are being built at a tremendous rate to keep up with those who are moving into the area. New tourist attractions and large casino resort hotels are also being built and opened on a regular basis. The city is growing at…… [Read More]
Following the introduction, the report discusses framing issues, including international policy. The social and international context of global climate change is given a great deal of emphasis in this section. The relationship between climate change and sustainable development are also discussed in the framing concepts section of this report. This concept is important in order to deal with climate change because sustainable development models are what most of the development and climate change prevention models have been based upon. In order to understand how to deal with the current situation, then, developers must understand the current paradigm (123). Energy supply, transport and its infrastructure, residential and commercial buildings, industry, agriculture, waste management, mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective, sustainable development and mitigation, and policies, instruments, and co-operative arrangements are the following chapters of the lengthy report. The report suggests that climate change is, indeed, affected not only by humans and their…… [Read More]
Background- During almost every major conflict in United States history there have been protests against involvement in that conflict. However, it was not until the Vietnam "Police Action" of the 1960s and 1970s that so much popular student protests coalesced into such a popular uprising that it had a significant effect upon foreign policy. eally, though, it was not just the U.S. presence in Vietnam that caused the protests, it was more a reaction of the past twenty years of middle class growth and social change. Among these, a large surge in births, meaning more younger people during the 1960s; more permissive social mores in terms of child rearing, television and popular culture teaching this demographic that happiness was important (e.g. many of these people were the first generation that had modern television coverage as part of their childhood and adolescence); and the media allowing them to experience…… [Read More]
Ask students to use their notes and Venn diagrams to discuss in small groups why the primary differences exist. In particular, ask students to consider whether there is anything humans can do to improve the situation. Closing: Have students convene in an "international assembly" (similar to the United Nations), representing different nations to debate what the earth's governments can do to make the distribution of water more equitable.
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Adams, S. (2008). The Best Book of Weather. Kingfisher.
Breen, M. And K. Friestad. (2008). The Kid's Book of Weather Forecasting.
Brown, L. (2005). How to Make Your Classroom Bloom: Success on Standardized
Tests Using Bloom's Taxonomy. Performance Education Press.
Cherry, L. And G. Braasch. (2008). How We Know What We Know About Our Changing
Climate: Scientists and Kids Explore Global Warming. Dawn Publications.
Clark, D. (2009). "Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains." Cited in:
Cosgrove,…… [Read More]
The terrorists estimated that it would be necessary to eliminate some 25 million people in this fashion, so as to advance the revolution (Bill Ayers: 1, 2). Although always numerically tiny, the cadre's members were charismatic, provocative, articulate, and intelligent. They commanded news media attention (at the expense of other leftist groups) with their brash rhetoric, violent actions, and, in the eyes of many, romantic allure.
At whom and/or does the group direct its attacks? Is this static or progressive?
In October 1969, we witness UO's early experimentation with using force to make itself heard. The first attempt is to be seen in the "Days of Rage," an anarchic march of destruction through Chicago, with windows smashed and cars destroyed, which culminated in a brawl with the local police. This was far removed from SDS's peaceful protests but as the UO leadership soon realized, indiscriminate violence of this type only…… [Read More]
weather acts positively Geoturisim Grand Traverse egion. I point research. First Tourism is one of the most longstanding industries within civilized society. So long as people have the means to travel, they will always desire to access new places where they can experience different cultures, sights, foods, drinks, and ultimately, a variation on the concept of beauty. Partially because of the constant desire that people have to travel and tour various locales, it is necessary to shift this industry in a way so that it is actually beneficial to the area in which people travel to frequently. The concept of "sustainability" (National Geographic, 2012) certainly applies to tourism, as without dedicated efforts to maintain and preserve the sights that people desire to see, they will (at some point) no longer be able to see them. This notion of sustainability is an important part of the concept of geotourism, which is…… [Read More]
3. The aftermath
With the end of America's involvement in the Vietnam there was a reduction in motivational impetus of the movement. There were also a number of incidents which contributed to the decline of the organization. For example on October 20, 1981 a rinks armored truck was robbed outside New York and a number of policemen killed. This resulted in the arrests of members of the organization and the discovery of a cache of arms and explosives. (George & Wilcox, 1996, p. 135) These arrests opened up various leads which led to further arrests and to the discovery of the Weather Underground's involvement in other acts of violence and terrorism.
However only a very few of the Weathermen were captured and many of the members actually turned themselves over to the police. The most notable members who surfaced were ernardine Dohrn, and ill Ayers. They were married in 1982.…… [Read More]
Modern industry and land development has also greatly reduced the availability of their traditional hunting prey that is necessary for their existence. Likewise, the mandatory inclusion of Inuit children in formal public education systems has made it very difficult for the Inuit to retain their cultural integrity and heritage among the new generations.
Even worse, the infusion of modern outside society into the world of the Inuit has made it impossible for many adults to secure steady employment because they are not formally educated and lack marketable skills required for professional success in the wider society. Crime, substance abuse, and alcoholism have become serious problems throughout their community, largely as a result of despair and lack of opportunity to secure gainful or rewarding employment. Even the traditional Inuit cultural practices have been diluted by the need to use them to make money from tourism. Whereas their ancestors made clothes and…… [Read More]
Major dvancements in Weather Forecasting
Predicting the weather has always been of utmost importance to our ancestors, who had to focus upon weather patterns in order to predict the weather and prepare themselves for various phenomena, especially since they had to take into account the fact that agriculture was their only means of sustenance often times. However, recently, our ability to predict the weather has increased substantially, due to various technological innovations. Today, with a simple click, one can know if it will be sunny or rainy in a few seconds, as well as what weather the next 10 to 15 days will bring, for instance. This paper will thus describe the advancements in weather forecasting in order to better understand how humans are now able to predict the weather.
ccording to NS, modern technology, and especially weather satellites and the computers they connect to, are vital in…… [Read More]
skeptics extreme weather caused global warming show global warming fact extreme weather.
Connections between Global arming and extreme weather phenomena
There is much controversy regarding climate change in the recent years and the reasons for which it is happening. hile the majority lobbies with regard to global warming as being one of the principal reasons, it has recently become a trend for many scientists to argue with regard to extreme weather phenomena actually having nothing to do with climate change. Extreme weather phenomena are becoming even more severe as a result of the progress that global warming experienced in the last few years. Considering conditions in the contemporary society, it appears that there is a strong connection between global warming, human actions, and extreme weather phenomena.
Summer days are getting hotter, floods occur more frequently, hurricanes become stronger, and drought seems to be more common. Global warming plays an important…… [Read More]
or, on a rainy day, students could demonstrate staying inside, doing chores or crafts, catching up on homework while talking to friends over the phone or the computer, and so on.
Every weather day must also contain a reference to a different verb or activity as well as noun. For instance, one can't just say, 'there will be sun,' one must also say, 'it is sunny, so it is a good day to take a walk outside.' These illustrations of activities should include short conversations to reinforce vocabulary like, 'it's so warm in here, but it is so cold outside!' With students with a higher level of English proficiency, they might include things like how to stay safe in very cold or icy weather, or how to stay cool in hot weather. Lastly, using the newspaper as a resource, at the end of the broadcast, students could bring up an…… [Read More]
These companies work with beer companies Anheuser-Busch for example to predict peak demand for their beverages in the late July and August time periods when temperatures are the highest throughout all regions of the U.S. These companies complete assessments and analysis of brand perception and also test new advertising programs that underscore the refreshing experience of drinking cold beer at events and when socializing with friends. Heineken has used these firms to plan out entirely new marketing campaigns that stress the reward aspects of their beers while consumers are engaged in fun events. The concept Heineken is trying to create is one of shared victory and reward for being at a social event when it is hot outside.
Additional examples include how General Mills relies on these companies to plan when the best time is to launch a new packaged food product. The selection of which geographic market to launch…… [Read More]
In addition to their obvious elevation difference, the distinct differences in climate are likely influenced by the two cities vastly different geographic features. Perhaps most importantly, an Francisco sits directly next to the ocean, and thus its climate is especially affected by the formation of water vapor over the ocean. The ocean serves to moderate an Francisco's temperature, so it rarely if ever gets cold enough to snow. Denver, on the other hand, sits on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, which blocks most water vapor coming in the ocean and so feels the moderating effects of the ocean far less immediately than an Francisco. In fact, the water vapor which does eventually reach it from the ocean makes it way through Canada before heading south, and so it is likely far colder than it would be without the barrier the mountains provide. Thus, Denver gets huge amounts of…… [Read More]
Air Pressure and Weather
Atmospheric pressure is the most reliable source for predicting weather because it reveals studied and time-tested trends within the weather that consistently occur. Weather throughout the world can be predicted based upon specific air stream trends known as high and low pressure systems. In fact, these systems are so precise that even tornado and monsoons can be predicted through the studying of these trends.
When the air pressure is low with a cold air core, it reveals rain and prime pressure for cyclones. In this form of air pressure, air in all levels of the atmosphere is rising, making the overall pressure very low (Ahrens, 2011). In fact, low pressure systems are so relatively predictable for rainfall, that atmospheric circulation reconstructions over the earth have been produced and distributed to farmers to help the better understand the relative rainfall in their area compared to other areas…… [Read More]
ecause of this, the Outer anks - barrier islands off the coast of North Carolina - often did not get timely weather information. The hurricane of 1944, which hit the Eastern coast from Cape Hatteras all the way up to Newfoundland, resulted in a major loss of life and significant damage on the Outer anks (4).
The United States, because of its climate, has experienced numerous devastating tornado outbreaks and flash floods, the hurricane that hit Galveston, Texas in 1900 was the worst single weather disaster in United States history. A Category 4 hurricane (severe but not the strongest, which would be Category 5) came ashore into Galveston, a beach town, on September 8, while the town and island still had a large population of vacationers. While the weather predictors had neither satellites nor Doppler weather, they realized a hurricane was approaching, and they did warn the population to leave…… [Read More]
The Potomac adds more moisture to the air and the weather, creating more potential for precipitation and a variety of other weather events (Weather Underground, 2011). The record precipitation for a single day during this time of year is still under an inch, however, and ultimately many of the disparate weather effects that various factors have in this area appear to essentially negate each other -- weather is relatively mild year-round, with few disturbances of note even in the past several years (ational Weather Service, 2011).
The possible human impact on the climate and weather patterns at Gaithersburg also are difficult to understate, although these effects might not be especially direct and are in fact more global and cumulative in their ultimate results. Global warming brought about by the high and increasing use of fossil fuels by citizens of the United States and other countries is believed to create greater…… [Read More]
Bront plays with foreshadowing with this scene because Blanche Ingram will soon enter the story.
Another powerful scene that connects weather and Jane's emotional state occurs when Jane realizes that Rochester is already married. She writes from a forlorn state of mind:
Jane Eyre, who had been an ardent expectant woman-almost a bride-was a cold, solitary girl again: her life was pale; her prospects were desolate. A Christmas frost had come at midsummer; a white December storm had whirled over June; ice glazed the ripe apples, drifts crushed the blowing roses; on hayfield and cornfield lay a frozen shroud; lanes which last night blushed full of flowers, to-day were pathless with untrodden snow... My hopes were all dead... my cherished wishes, yesterday so blooming and glowing; they lay stark, chill livid corpses that could never revive" (324)
Bront successfully captures the depth of Jane's despair with the images of weather.…… [Read More]
Climate change has proved to be a controversial subject over the past decade. Every time you turn on your television or when you are reading the newspaper, you must always come across something new about climate change (Depledge, J. 2004). Climate change is basically based on science, the understanding of earth's climate system revolve around scientific knowledge that is obtain from the electromagnetic radiation, non- linear, fluid dynamics, physical chemistry, ecology among many other aspects.
In tackling this issue of global warming there are unique chances that arises in the minds of atmospheric scientist, our friends, neighbors and family members is ask, is our climate changing?. The records of temperature from the weather station all around the world are the most appropriate place to get the information on whether the climate is changing. Climate is the average weather condition over a period of 20-30 years or more (Oberthu-r,…… [Read More]
Television can influence kids in many ways, some of them great, and some of them not so great. In my future, I see science and the weather playing a big part, and because of that, I think the Weather Channel has most influenced me and my choices for the future. I was not a fan of weather or of science for that matter, until I got hooked on the Weather Channel. I first started watching some of their series, like "Storm Stories," which were intriguing to me because I liked to watch people who had survived some pretty stupendous weather events. Then I began to wonder about the weather itself, and what really caused weather to change, and to become violent.
I began to study weather, and the science behind the weather forecasts. I began to learn about jet streams, troughs aloft, cumulonimbus clouds, thunderstorms, air pressure and much more.…… [Read More]
2ndGrade/Weather Lesson Plan
Weather: A Second Grade Thematic Unit
The proposed thematic unit is designed for a general education classroom at the second grade level. The suggested time frame is three weeks, but the unit could be either shortened slightly or extended by adjusting the number of activities. eading activities include shared reading and self-selected reading from a variety of books provided by the teacher. The book selection should include multiple genres and multiple reading levels. A suggested list is included. Writing activities engage students in the five stages of the writing process. Students will create a weather journal that includes their writing and a reading log. Students may also include notes about weather observations.
Instructional Focus: Grade 2
Literacy and Writing Standards for Pennsylvania
Met in this unit:
eading Informational Text: Students read, understand, and respond to informational text -- with emphasis on comprehension, making connections…… [Read More]
Servant leadership is often based on Christian principles, although this is not required. It is a leadership concept that is designed to show that a leader can be a steward for the company, lead by example, help others, and not have to use any of the more 'heavy handed' leadership styles. While the servant leadership style is more often employed by women, men are becoming increasing more aware of (and more interested in) this particular style, because it seems to work well. The easiest way to show what servant leadership is would be to discuss the work of Stephen Covey, as he advocates this style in "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and many other books.
Even though Stephen Covey is seen by many to be extremely important when it comes to management and effective individuals Covey himself appears to be somewhat scattered and disorganized. This is not actually…… [Read More]
Anniversary Day Trip
The weather starting out on our trip to White mountain was dark and ominous. I remember the two of us joking as we were packing the car that morning before we headed out. It was mid-morning and on a normal day, they sun would be out, the sky would be blue. Typical spring weather is what we expected to be traveling with but on this day, they sky was so dark, it seem like late evening. The air was slightly cool and there was a slow breeze that was very nice blowing. In the distance, lightening danced ever few minutes we could hear a distant roll of thunder. It was a gloomy beginning to what was going to be a day trip -- just the two of us -- in celebration of our seventh anniversary.
The rain was light and we were grateful as we hurriedly packed…… [Read More]
Voluntary Consent: Discuss Fully Weather Jerome Can Set Aside This Contract
Yes, Jerome can set aside the contract. This is because he was pressured to make a land deal that would benefit his nephew and caregiver (Phillip). In this situation, the transaction will be financially advantageous for Phillip by purchasing it 30% below market value. If Jerome refuses to sell Phillip the property, he will not help him anymore.
This is problematic, as Jerome is an elderly man who needs assistance with a number of daily activities. Phillip is the primary caregiver for support. This places added amounts of stress on Jerome as he will not be able to perform essential functions. If he is unable to do so, he could have complications from preexisting conditions and not receiving the assistance that he needs.
In this case, Jerome can set aside the contract. As the pressure and stress he endured…… [Read More]
Hurricanes and NASA Problems
Finding the Distance to Stars Using the Parallax Angle
Given the above equation and information provided, about how far away is HT Cas?
Your answer was calculated in parsecs. Given that 1 parsec = 3.2616 light years, about what is the distance to HT Cas in light years? (Your answer in parsecs X 3.2616 light years = The Distance to HT Cas in light years).
217 light years
434 light years
219 light years
Based on your answer, do you think this is a star that we might be able to send a space probe to? Why or why not? Support your answer.
1,287,418,956,726,420 After reviewing some information about probes, I do not think this star is one that we might be able to send a probe to. Voyager 1 is the probe that has gone the furthest in…… [Read More]
Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system
1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes
2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding
B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating
1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather
2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems
VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans
A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise
1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents
2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands
B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather
VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals
A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit
1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this
2. Global warming trends…… [Read More]
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…… [Read More]
"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).
A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).
Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…… [Read More]
He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.
Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote ensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049. http://web.ebscohost.com.
This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of outhern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.
Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated
Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological ociety. 83.3 (2002): 393-403. http://web.ebscohost.com.
ince the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists…… [Read More]
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…… [Read More]
Renting the pavilion becomes a kind of insurance strategy for the Smiths. In the case of most insurance policies, the worst-case scenario is not realized, even though the payer is poorer than if he or she assumed the 'best case' scenario and the catastrophic event did not occur. People pay for traveler's insurance, if there is likelihood of a trip being cancelled because of inclement weather or if they know there is a possibility they will not be able to attend. They also pay for house and car insurance, even though they hope nothing will happen to these valuable assets. But because the dangers of something going wrong are so great, insurance is seen as a necessity. The damage done to the parties involved is not as great as a flooded basement, if the reunion is rained out. But the relatively small fee of renting the facility, and the small…… [Read More]
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]
The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.
Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).
Question Four…… [Read More]
The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.
hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…… [Read More]
While the city does have a good levee system, it failed during Katrina and many parts of the city - including much of the Lower Ninth Ward - was flooded. People lost their lives and everything they had, and the argument made by many individuals in the aftermath of Katrina was that not enough was done by the government in order to protect the people of New Orleans and to help them out after the storm had passed. Criminal activity was on the rise when the city was attempting to recover from Katrina. Looting and pillaging were common, and they were not the only issues post-Katrina survivors had to face (Springgate, et al., 2009). There were rooftop rescues and other serious concerns, along with many health and safety issues. Of course, not everything that was said about New Orleans after Katrina was true. Many of the reports of criminal activity…… [Read More]
They then separated the core, according to Science News, into 2-mm layers. Those 2-mm layers were carbon-dated (a very accurate way of telling how long a substance has been in the ground) and carefully examined for G. bulloides.
As a result of this research, the team was able to check the intensity of monsoons for as far back as 1,000 years. And what did they discover regarding monsoons over the past one thousand years? There was a "low in monsoon wind intensity" around the year 1,600, the article reports, but since then there has been "a steady increase." And moreover, the abundance of G. bulloides shows the scientists that there has been "a more marked increase in monsoon during the past 100 years.
Researchers attribute the rise in wind intensity from monsoons over the past 100 years to global warming. The reason scientists involved with this research feel sure that…… [Read More]
Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)
In the last twenty…… [Read More]
This means that the state of the cryosphere has the capability of changing the economy either in a positive or a negative way. Therefore the cryosphere directly relates to the economy and anything that affects the cry sphere negatively or positively will impact various sectors of the economy that is dependant on the cryosphere.
How the economy is impacted by the cryosphere
Climatic changes due to the continuous build up of anthropogenic green house gases will have significant consequences on the cryosphere. Cyrosphere loss has great implication and posses numerous threats to the ecosystem services as well as potential costs to the economy of the world worth trillions of dollars. It is estimated that over the 21st century alone one meter rise in sea level represents an economic impact to be one trillion. The loss of the cryosphere will result to impacts that are far reaching on the social, economic…… [Read More]
Hurricane Andrew is a storm that originated from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic in 1992. It first started as a low-pressure system off the coast of Africa and seemed no different from many other atmospheric ripples that form every summer in this part of the world (Pimm, Stuart & Gary 19). However, the seemingly innocent weather system slowly gained enough strength and by August 16, 1992 Hurricane Andrew had grown into a significant tropical storm and officially given the name: "Andrew."
Shear from strong wind prevented intensification of the storm at first. However, the following day saw a decrease in shear, which allowed the strengthening of the depression thus becoming Tropical Storm Andrew. On August 18, convection associated with the storm diminished due to increase in wind shear. Andrew later headed westward due to the effect of a high-pressure system. It then increased rapidly before crossing Bahamas (Pimm,…… [Read More]
cold autumn Tuesday night. Everything around was silent and the wind that comes from the partly open window was blowing cold air. It seems like a bad weather is coming. Apart from the slight whirling sound of the wind blowing from the east, and the ticking of the small clock on top of the desk, the night was still and the boy had just gotten himself to bed. He was wearing a blue night pants and shirt, printed with smiling teddy bears that was a birthday gift he got from his grandmother 2 weeks ago.
First in the boy's habit upon getting on bed is to tuck half of his body under his comforter, from waist to his feet. He always likes it that way not only to protect his body from the cold weather of the coming winter season, but also because he somehow feels secured when something in…… [Read More]
Tomorrow was an excellent film that definitely fuels interest in climate change. The film is an action packed portrayal of how climate change could potentially cause extreme weather events, though the scientific basis for the events shown in the movie are extremely exaggerated. The abrupt climate change that is shown is has no real basis in the current literature, however it does provide an entertaining and thought provoking view of some of the consequences of anthropogenic influences on the Earth's natural systems.
I had mixed emotions about the dramatizations about climate change. On one hand, it definitely makes the viewer wonder if such occurrences are even remotely possible. The way that the director presents the viewer the perception of real science that is taken place can lead the viewer to do their own investigations to verify if the science behind the movie is true. However, if they do this then…… [Read More]
"If the victim refuses water, is vomiting, or there are changes in the level of consciousness, they should not be given anything to eat or drink (http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat)."
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition which should be treated as quickly as possible. hen Korey Stringer began to exhibit signs and symptoms of heat stroke, such as complaining of being sick during practice and difficult breathing, help should have immediately been called for. He should have been moved to a cool place and measures should have been taken to cool down his body.
By understanding and implementing first aid measures recommended by the American Red Cross, victims have a greater chance of survival with fewer potential side effects.
American Red Cross - Heat ave. (accessed 18 April 2005).
ORIGINALDOCUMENT http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat).… [Read More]
They eat on ice and they give birth on ice. So if ice will disappear for a significant part of the year, these animals will be lost. The number of polar bears has already started to decrease and that is due to global warming. Scientists believe that although polar bears are great swimmers and they can swim for long distances, they drown because the number of ice sheets is becoming lower and lower.
Another arctic animal that is affected by the global warming is the walrus. Scientists discovered in summer of 2004, in the Canada Basin, a number of lonely walrus caves. They were swimming alone, far away from shore. Until then, scientists did not see walrus calves swim so far away from the shore in the summer. But because of the ice melting and the warmer temperature they need to look for food far away and let their pups…… [Read More]
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…… [Read More]
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…… [Read More]
City of Miami Gardens is vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly flooding because of the location of the area and extreme weather events like heavy rain. One of the major reasons for these extreme weather events that increase the likelihood of heavy rain and subsequent flooding is global climate change. Global climate change contributes to unprecedented weather incidents through which the earth cools and warms over geologic time. While the city has created canal systems and neighborhood drainage system to help in drainage of water during periods of heavy rainfall, the problem of flooding continues to persist. When flooding occurs, it leads to considerable business disruptions, power outages, and other negative impacts on the community.
A hazard scenario in this area would involve a series of storms that are characterized with heavy rains for several weeks. The city's weather department has issued warnings that the heavy rains will continue for several…… [Read More]
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner,…… [Read More]
experienced a series of extreme and devastating weather events including Hurricane Katrina's destruction of New Orleans, Louisiana and other parts of the south in 2005, flooding in Europe in 2005, heavy snowfall in Europe in 2010 and 2011, and flooding throughout Asia from 2005 to the present. Many of these weather patterns are related to El Nino or La Nina storms, which are two-to-eight-year weather patterns where changing wind streams pick up warm surface water from the oceans and increases humidity, according to Tim Flannery in his 2005 book The Weather Makers. When the clouds reach a saturation point, they release horrific storms and subsequent floods in some parts of the world and parching droughts in others.
Extreme weather caused by warming oceans is one of the many environmental disasters scientist link to global warming, which is the increasing warming of the planet. In the midst of a cold winter,…… [Read More]
These jet streams, found over both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, redistribute and influence weather patterns. They have created currents and trade winds which people have used as oceanic trade routes for centuries.
At the other extreme of the spectrum is the Polar Cell, located in the much cooler areas of the Earth. It is located in the most remote regions of the Earth, starting at around the 60th parallel. The Polar Cells are dominated by cold air caused by "Strong radiational cooling near the poles causes polar air to become cold and dense, which in turn causes it to sink," (Washington & Parkinson 2005:17). Cold air becomes extremely heavy and falls back towards the Earth's surface. The cell itself is extremely weak "although it remains detectable in times of averages of the air circulation," (Washington & Parkinson 2005:17). Like the Hadley Cell, the Polar Cell is driven by heating…… [Read More]
Clay and materials similar are more readily subject to the environmental and atmospheric meteorological conditions that can impact the sustainability of a clay-based foundation.
Another problem that can cause problems for a foundation subject to weak soil characteristics is "subsidence" (Shabha, Kuhwald, 1995). According to Shabha & Kuhwald (1995), "Subsidence can be defined as a downward movement or a soil on which buildings stand from causes unconnected with loading from the building. Examples are underground mining, clay shrinkage (especially due to the action of tree roots) and erosion due to water passing through the subsoil, but excluding the compaction of made-up ground or infill
." (Shabha, Kuhwald, 1995)
Subsidence is in part a natural process but yet is also in part a man-made process. Throughout millennia, the process of water creating soil erosion has changed the landscape of particles that comprise the rocky granular landscape, such as silica and including…… [Read More]
hurricanes Floyd and Grace both brought devastating damage, Floyd's impact came largely from the Floyd itself, while Grace's impact came from the combination with two other weather systems. By itself, Floyd was a force to be reckoned with: a Category 3 hurricane that stretched from Canada to the U.S. that came on the heels of Hurricane Dennis. In contrast, Grace was a less powerful storm that would have dissipated naturally before causing serious damage.
Hurricane Floyd first formed as a tropical depression on September 7th 1999. Floyd formed about 1,000 miles east of the Lesser Antilles, and gradually grew in strength over the next few days while moving in a west-northwest heading for several days. During this time of growth, Floyd moved over the islands of the Bahamas and began to parallel the southern coast of the United States. During this time, Floyd fluctuated between a Category…… [Read More]
The 1900 Storm of Galveston
Galveston was one of the most promising cities in the state of Texas. ith a population of around 37,000 people it was one of the richest cities in the U.S.A. It was one of the most conveniently located cities among the Gulf Coast. Galveston boasted of an excellent seaport. The city's good fortunes gave birth to a lot of millionaires. Most of their revenue came from the ships, which used its port to load and unload cotton. The warm climate attracted a lot of tourists who wanted to bath in the warm waters of the Gulf Coast. A lot of money was being made in every way possible. Morale was very high as the U.S. was getting more industrialized and adapting new technologies. Due to the turn of good events the people of Galveston thought that their city was invincible and nothing could go wrong.…… [Read More]
These short-term agreements should be among contingency plans drawn up before a flood arrives, although it would not always be possible to predict the dimensions of floods and the resourcefulness and responses of individuals facing the emergency. The proper approach would be a mingling of a lot of intergovernmental planning and voluntary agreements among city, county and State governments and federal agencies (Wahl).
The widespread human and material distress, caused by the 1993 Mississippi River Flood would provoke the mind of sober individuals as the wisdom of the policies and programs, which contributed to that disaster (Myers 1993). In confronting the cause and effects of the Great Flood, the nation first needed to decide whether to rebuild, strengthen, raise, lower or simply abandon the levees along the Upper Mississippi and lower Missouri Rivers. Then focus should be made on the long-term quality of natural landscapes and human communities in the…… [Read More]
The systematic changes to the environment that takes place on a planetary scale may in a manner influence the global markets, the geopolitics as well as other social systems in a different manner when compared to the location-specific shocks in weather conditions that are totally uncorrelated with the state of weather in certain other regions. The predictable weather changes as well as the unpredictable nature of weather shocks may in a way generate various different social responses regardless of their state and nature (whether identical or not).The paper argues out the correlation between weather and war in a unique and yet clear manner.
Glazebrook, T (2011).Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.
Hypatia. Vol (26) 4
In this paper, Glazebrook (2011) investigates the influence of weather on women via a case study conducted in Northeast Ghana. The argument is that there is a need, both practical and ethical…… [Read More]
Although it had lost some pop, Andrew was still a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Category 3 hurricane on the second go around. but, the first round was enough to know that Andrew was bad. From a business perspective, Hurricane Andrew crippled the offshore oil facilities on its second approach throughout the gulf coast and in Louisiana where the storm added another billion dollars in damage.
These financial losses did not even take into consideration the badly deteriorated Everglades ecosystem which would be restored several years later after a second hurricane, Opal, crippled the ecosystem even more.
The state of Florida had one of its worst hurricane seasons on record in 2004 yet the state was much better prepared. The state seemed to have learned some valuable lessons from 1992. "As hundreds of millions of dollars in hurricane relief become available to Florida, Lt. Gov. Toni Jennings declared ednesday that she…… [Read More]
Heading Towards a Future of Food Insecurity
We have all had the experience of going to the grocery store, picking up a box of cereal or a bunch of bananas, and finding ourselves surprised, or even shocked, at how much more it costs than it had just a week before. Most of us, after that initial surprise, will chalk that rise in prices down to inflation and either put the item back or sigh and put it into our cart, thinking that such increases in price are a natural part of life due to inflation.
However, there are a number of other reasons why food prices rise, and one in particular ensures that the prices for basic foodstuffs will continue to rise for the foreseeable future. This paper examines how the price of food will continue to rise in tandem with the rate and degree of climate change.…… [Read More]
The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.
A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…… [Read More]
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…… [Read More]