Weather Essays (Examples)

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Warming Research CO2 Global Carbon

Words: 1927 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33622009

Warmer temperatures mean more energy in the climate system

1. Warmer oceans and air current mean more violent and frequent hurricanes

2. More frequent and harsher rainstorms may cause flooding

B. Overall changes to weather patterns could be devastating

1. Ocean and air temperatures and current create weather

2. Disrupting these temperatures/currents would lead to major weather changes in many regions of the world, destroying ecosystems

VII. Effects of Global Warming: Melting Ice and ising Oceans

A. In addition to warming, ocean levels will rise

1. Melting ice sheets will cause higher oceans and flooding on continents

2. ising oceans destroy many coastal lands

B. ising oceans and water levels will have severe regional effects on weather

VIII. Effects of global Warming: Animals

A. Many animals are already changing the regions they inhabit

1. As temperatures change, so do ecosystems, and shifting animal populations reflect this

2. Global warming trends…… [Read More]

References

Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html

Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html

JunkScience (2007). "The real 'inconvenient truth'." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/

NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
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Global Warming An Overview of

Words: 2690 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67217060

These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.

The Effects of Global Warming

Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…… [Read More]

References

Bryner, J. (2006). "Climate Change Has Animals Heading for the Hills." LiveScience. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.livescience.com/environment/061214_animals_retreat.html

Howden, D. (2007). "Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming." The independent 14 May. Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause-of-global-warming-448734.html

JunkScience (2007). "The real "inconvenient truth." JunkScience.com. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.junkscience.com/Greenhouse/

NASA. (2009). "Global warming." World Book at NASA. Accessed 13 December 2009. http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/global_warming_worldbook.html
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Local Climate Investigation Climate Investigation

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50033349

"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).

A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).

Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About our office." (2008). National Weather Service (NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/office.htm

The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm." (2004) National Weather Service Forecast Office

NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/projects/xmasevesnow04.htm

Houston." (2008). Environmental Protection agency EPA. Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/hiri/pilot/houston.html
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Buckley Bruce Edward J Hopkins

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49046560

He also provides a quick guide as to how to deal with issues of cold and heat exposure and exhaustion.

Peng, Xulong, Jinfei Wang, & Qiaofeng Zhang. "Deriving Terrain and textural information from stereo RADARAT data for mountainous land cover mapping." International Journal of Remote ensing. 26.22 (January 2005): 5029-5049. http://web.ebscohost.com.

This article provides information about a new form of technology called stereo RADARAT. The technology provides data useful in land cover mapping, especially in mountainous areas where cloud cover is often a problem. A test case is reviewed of a mapping done in a remote region of outhern Argentina, which was finally successfully mapped due to the new technology.

Pielke Jr., Roger, and R.E. Carbone. "Weather Impacts, Forecasts, and Policy: An Integrated

Perspective." Bulletin of the American Meteorological ociety. 83.3 (2002): 393-403. http://web.ebscohost.com.

ince the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists…… [Read More]

Since the affects of extreme meteorology have been felt upon the nation, more and more meteorologists have called for greater federal funding for the study of weather. This relatively old article suffers by virtue of being written before the political fallout that occurred after Hurricane Katrina. Still, it provides useful information about the interaction between policy and weather science, in terms of their effects upon human life. It is an opinion piece that stresses that weather research cannot meet society's need to know more about the weather unless the government invests more money in the science and technology of weather services such as forecasting, observational and computational weather mapping infrastructure, and research and development into the causes of climate change and extreme weather conditions. Of course, government's financial resources are strained today, but the article makes a persuasive point that the loss may be far larger if no investment is finally made, because of the ensuring weather-related damage.

Shelter Building." Basegear.com. 2008.  http://www.basegear.com/shelters.html 

This commercially-sponsored website is hosted by a popular purveyor of wilderness goods. It does not provide specific information about how to build a shelter, but it does provide information about the best locations about where to construct one, and also where not to construct one. It warns of the dangers of using caves and other tempting 'readymade' hideaways likely to contain animals. It also gives cautions against over-exertion and reminds the builder to make any temporary shelter in a prominent location, to ensure the lost backpacker is found as quickly as possible.
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Global Warming and Climate Change

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45380201

Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.

In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.

There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm

Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/

Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Jordan, Stuart. "The Global Warming Crisis." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2005: 23+.
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Smith Family Reunion Risk Management

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32301444

Renting the pavilion becomes a kind of insurance strategy for the Smiths. In the case of most insurance policies, the worst-case scenario is not realized, even though the payer is poorer than if he or she assumed the 'best case' scenario and the catastrophic event did not occur. People pay for traveler's insurance, if there is likelihood of a trip being cancelled because of inclement weather or if they know there is a possibility they will not be able to attend. They also pay for house and car insurance, even though they hope nothing will happen to these valuable assets. But because the dangers of something going wrong are so great, insurance is seen as a necessity. The damage done to the parties involved is not as great as a flooded basement, if the reunion is rained out. But the relatively small fee of renting the facility, and the small…… [Read More]

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Environmental Review the Carbon in

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271345



10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.

11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed

12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.

Chapter 13

5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]

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Johannes Kepler Made Important Contributions

Words: 1059 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872704



The greenhouse effect is a condition that occurs when the Earth's atmosphere captures radiation from the Sun. Solar heat is trapped by certain gases (including carbon dioxide and methane). These gases allow sunlight in but not back out of the atmosphere. This effect can be seen on a small scale when a car parked in the sun with its windows closed heats up. Global warming is the relatively gradual increase in Earth's surface temperature that results from human activity. It has been set in motion by the greenhouse effect but is more complicated because there are feedback effects involved in climate change that magnify the initial effect of the build-up of gases such as carbon dioxide.

Global warming has the capacity -- indeed, probably the inevitable capacity -- of transforming nearly every aspect of our lives, and in most ways for the worse (Solomon etal, 2009, p. 1706).

Question Four…… [Read More]

References

Brock, Claire (2007). The comet sweeper: Caroline Herschel's astronomical ambition.

London: Icon Books Ltd.

Glantz, M, H. (2001). Currents of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, F. (1997 February). From holistic geography to GIS. The professional geographer
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Science v Society the Politics

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28472548

The release of fossil fuels has been driving industrial and civic expansion for the past century and a half, and there is therefore a compelling reason to deny such causes: "some corporations whose revenues might be adversely affected by controls on carbon dioxide emissions have also alleged major uncertainties in the science (Oreskes). Just as in the debate over the heliocentric solar system, issues of political and/or economic motive are raised to cloud the science at issue.

hat truly separates the global warming debate from the issues that Galileo dealt with, however, is that there really is hard science at the base of both camps with vastly different interpretations. This has made the contention all the more fierce, and personal accusations only seem more rampant now than during Galileo's trial due to the increased difficulty of a scientific attack. One example of this is Gore's insistence on using Revelle's name…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coleman, John. "The Amazing Story behind the Global Warming Scam." http://www.kusi.com/weather/colemanscorner/38574742.html

"Gore's Grave New World." http://www.americanthinker.com/printpage/?url=http://www.americanthinker.com/2006/06/gores_grave_new_world.html

Henderson, Mark. "Why Global Warming is Not Natural." http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article516179.ece

Oreskes, Naomis. "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change." http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/306/5702/1686.pdf
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Heat Deaths and Illnesses Post-katrina Reforms

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91828555

While the city does have a good levee system, it failed during Katrina and many parts of the city - including much of the Lower Ninth Ward - was flooded. People lost their lives and everything they had, and the argument made by many individuals in the aftermath of Katrina was that not enough was done by the government in order to protect the people of New Orleans and to help them out after the storm had passed. Criminal activity was on the rise when the city was attempting to recover from Katrina. Looting and pillaging were common, and they were not the only issues post-Katrina survivors had to face (Springgate, et al., 2009). There were rooftop rescues and other serious concerns, along with many health and safety issues. Of course, not everything that was said about New Orleans after Katrina was true. Many of the reports of criminal activity…… [Read More]

References

GAO (2006). Status of the health care system in New Orleans. United States Government Accountability Office. Washington, DC 205-48.

Harmon, K. (2010). How does a heat wave affect the human body? Scientific American.

Springgate, BF, Allen, C, Jones, C, Lovera, S, Meyers, D, Campbell, L, Palinkas, LA, & Wells, KB. (2009). Rapid community participatory assessment of health care in post-storm New Orleans. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 37: 6S1.
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Monsoons What Is a Monsoon

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42916943

They then separated the core, according to Science News, into 2-mm layers. Those 2-mm layers were carbon-dated (a very accurate way of telling how long a substance has been in the ground) and carefully examined for G. bulloides.

As a result of this research, the team was able to check the intensity of monsoons for as far back as 1,000 years. And what did they discover regarding monsoons over the past one thousand years? There was a "low in monsoon wind intensity" around the year 1,600, the article reports, but since then there has been "a steady increase." And moreover, the abundance of G. bulloides shows the scientists that there has been "a more marked increase in monsoon during the past 100 years.

Researchers attribute the rise in wind intensity from monsoons over the past 100 years to global warming. The reason scientists involved with this research feel sure that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

McKnight, Tom L.; & Hess Darrel. Monsoons. Physical Geography. A Landscape Appreciation.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

New Scientist. "Deluged Nepal blames India. 195.2626. August 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2008 at http://www.newscientist.com.

Science News. "Data hint at wet and blustery future." 162.4. July 2002. Page. 54.
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El Nino Southern Oscillation Enso

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9924721

Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)

In the last twenty…… [Read More]

(2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In K. Trenberth, P. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, et al., S. Solomon, & M.M.D. Qin (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project. (1998). What is an El Nino? Retrieved December 1, 2011, from El Nino Theme Page: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.html

Yeh, S.-W., Kug, J.-S., Dewitte, B., Kwon, M.-H., Kirtman, B.P., & Jin, F.-F. (2009). El Nino in a changing climate. Nature, 511-514.
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Cryosphere and Economy the Cyroshpere

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66401146

This means that the state of the cryosphere has the capability of changing the economy either in a positive or a negative way. Therefore the cryosphere directly relates to the economy and anything that affects the cry sphere negatively or positively will impact various sectors of the economy that is dependant on the cryosphere.

How the economy is impacted by the cryosphere

Climatic changes due to the continuous build up of anthropogenic green house gases will have significant consequences on the cryosphere. Cyrosphere loss has great implication and posses numerous threats to the ecosystem services as well as potential costs to the economy of the world worth trillions of dollars. It is estimated that over the 21st century alone one meter rise in sea level represents an economic impact to be one trillion. The loss of the cryosphere will result to impacts that are far reaching on the social, economic…… [Read More]

References

Greenpeace. (2005).What is the Cryosphere and why Should we care. Retrieved March 11, 2013 from  http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/ice-melts-as-globe-warms/ 

Grete, K. (2010).Arctic societies, cultures people in a changing cryosphere. Retrieved march 11,2013 from http://amap.no/conferences/conf2011/3%20-%20Hovelsrud%20-%20SWIPA%20CPH%2010%20%20Hovelsrud%20AMAP%20may%202011.pdf

Maurer, J. (2004). Importance of the cryosphere. Retrieved March 11, 2013 from  http://www2.hawaii.edu/~jmaurer/scatterometry/cryosphere_importance.html 

National Snow and Ice Data Center. (2013).All about the cryosphere. Retrieved March 11, 2013 from  http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/allaboutcryosphere.html
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Hurricane Andrew

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87715680

Hurricane Andrew is a storm that originated from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic in 1992. It first started as a low-pressure system off the coast of Africa and seemed no different from many other atmospheric ripples that form every summer in this part of the world (Pimm, Stuart & Gary 19). However, the seemingly innocent weather system slowly gained enough strength and by August 16, 1992 Hurricane Andrew had grown into a significant tropical storm and officially given the name: "Andrew."

Shear from strong wind prevented intensification of the storm at first. However, the following day saw a decrease in shear, which allowed the strengthening of the depression thus becoming Tropical Storm Andrew. On August 18, convection associated with the storm diminished due to increase in wind shear. Andrew later headed westward due to the effect of a high-pressure system. It then increased rapidly before crossing Bahamas (Pimm,…… [Read More]

Work cited

Pimm, Stuart L., and Gary E. Davis. "Hurricane Andrew. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 224-229. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Zhang, Yang, and Walter Gillis Peacock. "Planning For Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew." Journal Of The American Planning Association 76.1 (2010): 5-24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Tilmant, James T., and Richard W. Curry. "Hurricane Andrew's Effects On Marine Resources. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 230-237. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Smith, Stanley K., and Christopher Mccarty. "Demographic Effects Of Natural Disasters: A Case Study Of Hurricane Andrew." Demography 33.2 (1996): 265-275. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
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Cold Autumn Tuesday Night Everything Around Was

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41872195

cold autumn Tuesday night. Everything around was silent and the wind that comes from the partly open window was blowing cold air. It seems like a bad weather is coming. Apart from the slight whirling sound of the wind blowing from the east, and the ticking of the small clock on top of the desk, the night was still and the boy had just gotten himself to bed. He was wearing a blue night pants and shirt, printed with smiling teddy bears that was a birthday gift he got from his grandmother 2 weeks ago.

First in the boy's habit upon getting on bed is to tuck half of his body under his comforter, from waist to his feet. He always likes it that way not only to protect his body from the cold weather of the coming winter season, but also because he somehow feels secured when something in…… [Read More]

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Tomorrow Was an Excellent Film That Definitely

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24682871

Tomorrow was an excellent film that definitely fuels interest in climate change. The film is an action packed portrayal of how climate change could potentially cause extreme weather events, though the scientific basis for the events shown in the movie are extremely exaggerated. The abrupt climate change that is shown is has no real basis in the current literature, however it does provide an entertaining and thought provoking view of some of the consequences of anthropogenic influences on the Earth's natural systems.

I had mixed emotions about the dramatizations about climate change. On one hand, it definitely makes the viewer wonder if such occurrences are even remotely possible. The way that the director presents the viewer the perception of real science that is taken place can lead the viewer to do their own investigations to verify if the science behind the movie is true. However, if they do this then…… [Read More]

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Heat Stroke There Is One

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53787744

"If the victim refuses water, is vomiting, or there are changes in the level of consciousness, they should not be given anything to eat or drink (http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat)."

Conclusion

Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition which should be treated as quickly as possible. hen Korey Stringer began to exhibit signs and symptoms of heat stroke, such as complaining of being sick during practice and difficult breathing, help should have immediately been called for. He should have been moved to a cool place and measures should have been taken to cool down his body.

By understanding and implementing first aid measures recommended by the American Red Cross, victims have a greater chance of survival with fewer potential side effects.

orks Cited

American Red Cross - Heat ave. (accessed 18 April 2005).

ORIGINALDOCUMENT http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat).… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Red Cross - Heat Wave. (accessed 18 April 2005).

ORIGINALDOCUMENT http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat).
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Earth Passed Through Various Processes

Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98884197

They eat on ice and they give birth on ice. So if ice will disappear for a significant part of the year, these animals will be lost. The number of polar bears has already started to decrease and that is due to global warming. Scientists believe that although polar bears are great swimmers and they can swim for long distances, they drown because the number of ice sheets is becoming lower and lower.

Another arctic animal that is affected by the global warming is the walrus. Scientists discovered in summer of 2004, in the Canada Basin, a number of lonely walrus caves. They were swimming alone, far away from shore. Until then, scientists did not see walrus calves swim so far away from the shore in the summer. But because of the ice melting and the warmer temperature they need to look for food far away and let their pups…… [Read More]

Reference:

1. Adam, David, Ocean warming threatens Antarctic wildlife, October 19, 2005, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2005/oct/19/frontpagenews.climatechange

2. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Impacts of a Warming Arctic -- Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, December 13, 2004

3. Baker, Stuart, in the Artic, Marshall Cavendish, September 1, 2009

4. Effects on Wildlife and Habitat, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the National Wildlife Federation website:  http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats-to-Wildlife/Global-Warming/Effects-on-Wildlife-and-Habitat.aspx
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Risk of Climate Change Implications for Architects and Engineers

Words: 6494 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63054256

Risks of Climate Change

THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure

Key Impacts on Water and Resources

Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability

Theories

Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate

Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis

THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS

This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf

Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1

Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1

Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
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Geology 1 Discuss Which of the Interrelationships

Words: 3109 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89475724

Geology

(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.

The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.

A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Website:  http://eo.ucar.edu/asl/pdfs/ASLbrochureFINAL.pdf 

Thomas, WA (2004) Meeting Challenges with Geologic Maps. AGI Environmental Awareness Series. Retrieved from:  http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/mappingbook.pdf 

Choi, CQ (2012) Jupiter's Moon's Ocean May Be Too Acidic for Life. Space. Retrieved from:  http://www.space.com/14757-europa-moon-ocean-acidic.html 

Jovian Planets vs. Terrestrial Planets (2012) Buzzle. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jovian-planets-vs.-terrestrial-planets.html
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Miami Gardens' Hazard Mitigation Plan

Words: 1906 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71432039

City of Miami Gardens is vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly flooding because of the location of the area and extreme weather events like heavy rain. One of the major reasons for these extreme weather events that increase the likelihood of heavy rain and subsequent flooding is global climate change. Global climate change contributes to unprecedented weather incidents through which the earth cools and warms over geologic time. While the city has created canal systems and neighborhood drainage system to help in drainage of water during periods of heavy rainfall, the problem of flooding continues to persist. When flooding occurs, it leads to considerable business disruptions, power outages, and other negative impacts on the community.

A hazard scenario in this area would involve a series of storms that are characterized with heavy rains for several weeks. The city's weather department has issued warnings that the heavy rains will continue for several…… [Read More]

References:

"Flood Awareness." (n.d.). Miami Gardens. Retrieved from City of Miami Gardens, Florida

website:  http://www.miamigardens-fl.gov/flood/flood.html 

"Flood Emergency Response Plan." (2004). FM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.fmglobal.com/shamrock/p0589.pdf

"Floor Risk Assessment." (2014, May). Floodplain Mitigation Plan. Retrieved from Town of Cutler Bay, Florida website: http://www.cutlerbay-fl.gov/announcement/1403186000_DRAFT%20Floodplain%20Mitigation%20Plan_Cutler%20Bay%20Risk%20Assessment%20Section.pdf
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Satellite Imagery Has Recorded Rainfall

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75958886

The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).

Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).

Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.

orks Cited

Asner,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649

Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html

EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en

Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
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Stop Global Warming

Words: 3122 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72397561

experienced a series of extreme and devastating weather events including Hurricane Katrina's destruction of New Orleans, Louisiana and other parts of the south in 2005, flooding in Europe in 2005, heavy snowfall in Europe in 2010 and 2011, and flooding throughout Asia from 2005 to the present. Many of these weather patterns are related to El Nino or La Nina storms, which are two-to-eight-year weather patterns where changing wind streams pick up warm surface water from the oceans and increases humidity, according to Tim Flannery in his 2005 book The Weather Makers. When the clouds reach a saturation point, they release horrific storms and subsequent floods in some parts of the world and parching droughts in others.

Extreme weather caused by warming oceans is one of the many environmental disasters scientist link to global warming, which is the increasing warming of the planet. In the midst of a cold winter,…… [Read More]

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Global Air Circulation Patterns We

Words: 1136 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6023546

These jet streams, found over both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, redistribute and influence weather patterns. They have created currents and trade winds which people have used as oceanic trade routes for centuries.

At the other extreme of the spectrum is the Polar Cell, located in the much cooler areas of the Earth. It is located in the most remote regions of the Earth, starting at around the 60th parallel. The Polar Cells are dominated by cold air caused by "Strong radiational cooling near the poles causes polar air to become cold and dense, which in turn causes it to sink," (Washington & Parkinson 2005:17). Cold air becomes extremely heavy and falls back towards the Earth's surface. The cell itself is extremely weak "although it remains detectable in times of averages of the air circulation," (Washington & Parkinson 2005:17). Like the Hadley Cell, the Polar Cell is driven by heating…… [Read More]

References

Manahan, Stanley E. (2006). Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green. CRC Press.

Vallis, Geoffry, K. (2006). Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation. Cambridge University Press.

Vecchi, Gabriel a.; Soden, Brian J.; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Held, Isaac M.; Leetmaa, Ants; & Harrison, Matthew. (2006). Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature. No. 441:73-76.

Washington, Warren M. & Parkinson, Claire L. (2005). An Introduction to Three Dimensional Climate Modeling. University Science Books.
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Foundation Problems in Clay Soils

Words: 2845 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84999666

Clay and materials similar are more readily subject to the environmental and atmospheric meteorological conditions that can impact the sustainability of a clay-based foundation.

Another problem that can cause problems for a foundation subject to weak soil characteristics is "subsidence" (Shabha, Kuhwald, 1995). According to Shabha & Kuhwald (1995), "Subsidence can be defined as a downward movement or a soil on which buildings stand from causes unconnected with loading from the building. Examples are underground mining, clay shrinkage (especially due to the action of tree roots) and erosion due to water passing through the subsoil, but excluding the compaction of made-up ground or infill

." (Shabha, Kuhwald, 1995)

Subsidence is in part a natural process but yet is also in part a man-made process. Throughout millennia, the process of water creating soil erosion has changed the landscape of particles that comprise the rocky granular landscape, such as silica and including…… [Read More]

References

Bombardieri, M. 1999, Charles May Require Soil Surveys to Curb Cracking Foundations: [FINAL Edition], Washington, DC, United States.

Drazga, B. 1998, "Homeowners fight swelling soil Multimillion-dollar problem endangers foundations of Colorado homes," The Denver Business Journal, vol. 49, no. 34, pp. 33.B-33.B.

Gallagher, K., Brown, R. & Johnson, C. 1998, "Fission track analysis and it's applications to geological problems," Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 26, pp. 519-519.

Haywood, P. 2005, Cracks appear in village building, McClatchy - Tribune Information Services.
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Hurricane Grace and Hurricane Floyd

Words: 1102 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54058038

hurricanes Floyd and Grace both brought devastating damage, Floyd's impact came largely from the Floyd itself, while Grace's impact came from the combination with two other weather systems. By itself, Floyd was a force to be reckoned with: a Category 3 hurricane that stretched from Canada to the U.S. that came on the heels of Hurricane Dennis. In contrast, Grace was a less powerful storm that would have dissipated naturally before causing serious damage.

Hurricane Floyd

Formation

Hurricane Floyd first formed as a tropical depression on September 7th 1999. Floyd formed about 1,000 miles east of the Lesser Antilles, and gradually grew in strength over the next few days while moving in a west-northwest heading for several days. During this time of growth, Floyd moved over the islands of the Bahamas and began to parallel the southern coast of the United States. During this time, Floyd fluctuated between a Category…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cappella, Chris. 1991's 'perfect storm' a hybrid hurricane. USA Today. 23 April 2005.

http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wdisguis.htm

Herring, Dennis. Hurricane Floyd's Lasting Legacy. 23 April 2005. Earth Observatory.

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/FloydIntro/
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Galveston Storm of 1900

Words: 1474 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75176545

The 1900 Storm of Galveston

Galveston was one of the most promising cities in the state of Texas. ith a population of around 37,000 people it was one of the richest cities in the U.S.A. It was one of the most conveniently located cities among the Gulf Coast. Galveston boasted of an excellent seaport. The city's good fortunes gave birth to a lot of millionaires. Most of their revenue came from the ships, which used its port to load and unload cotton. The warm climate attracted a lot of tourists who wanted to bath in the warm waters of the Gulf Coast. A lot of money was being made in every way possible. Morale was very high as the U.S. was getting more industrialized and adapting new technologies. Due to the turn of good events the people of Galveston thought that their city was invincible and nothing could go wrong.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The 1900 Storm: Tragedy and Triumph, 2003 (http://www.1900storm.com/storm/storm2.lasso)

T.H. Watkins, Blown Away, The Washington Post, 1999

Erik Lawson, "Isaac's Storm: A Man, A time, and the deadliest Hurricane in History, Random House, 1999

John Christian Hoyle, The Worst weather ever, Christian Science Monitor, 1999
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Mississippi River Flood of 1993

Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94956938

These short-term agreements should be among contingency plans drawn up before a flood arrives, although it would not always be possible to predict the dimensions of floods and the resourcefulness and responses of individuals facing the emergency. The proper approach would be a mingling of a lot of intergovernmental planning and voluntary agreements among city, county and State governments and federal agencies (Wahl).

The widespread human and material distress, caused by the 1993 Mississippi River Flood would provoke the mind of sober individuals as the wisdom of the policies and programs, which contributed to that disaster (Myers 1993). In confronting the cause and effects of the Great Flood, the nation first needed to decide whether to rebuild, strengthen, raise, lower or simply abandon the levees along the Upper Mississippi and lower Missouri Rivers. Then focus should be made on the long-term quality of natural landscapes and human communities in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Gomez, Basil, et al. Sediment Characteristics of an Extreme Flood: 1993 Upper Mississippi River Valley, 1995. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~fjmagill/geology_ms_miss_pdf

2. Gutin, James E. Effect of 1993 Flood on Plant and Animal Life. Discover, 1994. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_n1_v15/ai_14902683

3. Kolva, James R. Effects of the Great Midwest Flood of 1993 on Wetlands. U.S. Geology Survey, 2002. http://www.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/flood.html

4. Knutson, Melinda and Klaas, Erwin E. Declines in Abundance of Species, Richness of Birds Following a Major Flood in the Upper Mississippi River. The Auz: American Orinthologists Union, 1997. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1076/is_n10_v35/ai_14687892
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Hsiang Et Al 2011 and

Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43657722

The systematic changes to the environment that takes place on a planetary scale may in a manner influence the global markets, the geopolitics as well as other social systems in a different manner when compared to the location-specific shocks in weather conditions that are totally uncorrelated with the state of weather in certain other regions. The predictable weather changes as well as the unpredictable nature of weather shocks may in a way generate various different social responses regardless of their state and nature (whether identical or not).The paper argues out the correlation between weather and war in a unique and yet clear manner.

Glazebrook, T (2011).Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.

Hypatia. Vol (26) 4

In this paper, Glazebrook (2011) investigates the influence of weather on women via a case study conducted in Northeast Ghana. The argument is that there is a need, both practical and ethical…… [Read More]

References

Glazebrook, T (2011).Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.

Hypatia. Vol (26) 4

Hsiang, SM and Meng, KC and Canes, MA (2011).Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate. Nat u r e Vol (476).
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What Is the Best Hurricane Model for Insurance Company

Words: 2110 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85501872

Insurance in Illinois

Hurricanes and Insurance Burdens & Considerations

The insurance industry in the United States is a major economic force in the country, but is the largest commercial entity regulated at a state, rather than a federal level. This has been the case since the McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945. An insurance policy company mush go through regulation on a state-to-state level, where policies and practices often differ. While outsourcing has been a major business force in most other financial markets, insurance companies are largely American-owned and traded due to the obstacle that state by state regulation poses on foreign influences (Lehrer 2010).

Due to the fact that Illinois in an inland state, it is geographically protected from most major hurricanes, although tropical system remnants that move in from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean do move up onto the area occasionally. The majority of data regarding the…… [Read More]

Resources

Associated Press (2008). "Thousands Still Without Power in Illinois." WTHI-TV. http://www.wthitv.com/Global/story.asp?S=9009105&nav=menu593_2.

Angel, James, R. (2005) Tropical storms reduced drought in Illinois in 2005. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science July, 2006 Volume: 99 Source Issue: 3-4.

CBS/AP (2008). "Millions Still In Dark Over Ike Recovery." CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/18/national/main4457061.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-30.

Changnon, Stanley A. (1996)
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Hurricane Andrew in May of

Words: 1998 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40357988

Although it had lost some pop, Andrew was still a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Category 3 hurricane on the second go around. but, the first round was enough to know that Andrew was bad. From a business perspective, Hurricane Andrew crippled the offshore oil facilities on its second approach throughout the gulf coast and in Louisiana where the storm added another billion dollars in damage.

These financial losses did not even take into consideration the badly deteriorated Everglades ecosystem which would be restored several years later after a second hurricane, Opal, crippled the ecosystem even more.

Today

The state of Florida had one of its worst hurricane seasons on record in 2004 yet the state was much better prepared. The state seemed to have learned some valuable lessons from 1992. "As hundreds of millions of dollars in hurricane relief become available to Florida, Lt. Gov. Toni Jennings declared ednesday that she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biscayne National Park Plaque Commemorates 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Andrew. Ed. NOAA. NOAA Hurricane Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/mfl/newpage/biscayne_andrew_plaque.html.

Hurricane Andrew. 8/23/1992. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/andrew.htm.

Hurricane Andrew CSC. August 16-28, 1992. csc.noaa.gov. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/crs/cohab/hurricane/andrew/andrew.htm.

Hurricanes: Unleashing Natures Fury. Ed. NOAA. National Weather Service. 13 Nov. 2004  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/hurr.pdf .
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Food Prices Heading Towards a Future of

Words: 1299 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11941560

Food Prices

Heading Towards a Future of Food Insecurity

We have all had the experience of going to the grocery store, picking up a box of cereal or a bunch of bananas, and finding ourselves surprised, or even shocked, at how much more it costs than it had just a week before. Most of us, after that initial surprise, will chalk that rise in prices down to inflation and either put the item back or sigh and put it into our cart, thinking that such increases in price are a natural part of life due to inflation.

However, there are a number of other reasons why food prices rise, and one in particular ensures that the prices for basic foodstuffs will continue to rise for the foreseeable future. This paper examines how the price of food will continue to rise in tandem with the rate and degree of climate change.…… [Read More]

References

Peters, G. (2011). A Look Behind Rising Food Prices: Population Growth; Rising Oil Prices; Weather Events. Retrieved from http://ourfiniteworld.com/2011/02/16/a-look-behind-rising-food-prices-population-growth-rising-oil-prices-weather-events/.

The Telegraph (2012). Extreme weather will push food prices higher, consumers warned. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/personalfinance/consumertips/household-bills/9520973/Extreme-weather-will-push-food-prices-higher-consumers-warned.html.

The following graph documents recent increases in food costs, a relationship that necessarily reflects a range of causes but reflects as the primary cause the effects of climate change:

downgraded for use only as animal food. Historic flooding in Pakistan damaged grain crops there as well. Right now severe drought is threatening the wheat crop in parts of China.
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Hydrological Hazard or Water Resource

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75990949

The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.

A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Elliot Larry & Tremlett Giles. "Madeira floods: death toll rises to 40." Retrieved April 27, 2010, from the Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/feb/21/madeira-floods-death-toll-rises