AUSTRALIA'S PROPOSED NDIS
Australia's Proposed National Disability Insurance Scheme
Australia's Proposed National Disability Insurance Scheme
The Australian Government is proposing the adoption of the Productivity Commission's Inquiry Report into Disability Care, along with its two recommendations: the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS), a universal, no-fault, national social insurance scheme to fund basic services for any Australian born with, or acquiring, a severe disability, and the National Injury Insurance Scheme (NIIS), a state and territory-based scheme, which would provide lifetime support for people acquiring a catastrophic injury from an accident.
These systems will be significantly different from the existing system, in that they will be insurance-focused systems, founded on a similar modeling of the Australian public health care system, Medicare. The systems at hand propose a range of changes in the provision of services to the disabled, and the NDIS in particular is a scheme that would greatly benefit the Australian population as a whole in terms of its intended value to people with disabilities. In viewing the specifics of NDIS as well is its implications in Australian, history, government and society, one can see that its intended value to people with disabilities and the broader Australian population is one that will reap benefits long into the future.
While the general definition of disability is one that encapsulates a physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activities and is found to be a disadvantage or handicap, especially one imposed or recognized by the law, the intricacies of the concept vary in looking at the distinct definitions held by nations and organizations around the world.
The most commonly cited definition of disability is that of the World Health Organization which has been adapted by the United Nations and many other entities throughout the world. This definition draws a three-fold distinction between impairment, disability, and handicap. WHO notes that an impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function, a disability is any restriction or lack -- resulting from an impairment -- of ability to perform an activity in…… [Read More]
Australia's Foreign Policy
Australia has constantly been referred to as a middle power in terms of international relations. The term of "middle power" has been attributed to many other countries that have a saying in international relations, but that are not great powers. Although Australia is not one of the most important countries in the world in terms of international relations, it clearly plays a very important part as a political actor in regional and international politics. The fact that Australia is considered a middle power has an impact on its foreign policy agenda as there is definitely a lot less pressure on deciding in matters of foreign policy. Australia's foreign policy has influenced its image as a middle power and also its middle power status has influenced Australia's foreign policy.
Australia's foreign policy has always been connected with that of Great Britain, as Australia is part of the British Commonwealth, and with that of U.S. And other Western states. This orientation towards the west has always been obvious. It is particularly because of this historic influence in foreign affairs that Australia can not be considered one of the great powers as it always followed more powerful actors such as Britain or the U.S. In contrast with the relations that Australia always had with western nations, its relations with Asian nations, which are geographically closer, have been tightened only in recent history. Therefore, Australia is not exactly a great power in Asia. The status of middle power accurately describes the positioning of the country in relation with other nations in terms of international relations.
The fact that Australia is part of the British Commonwealth has had a great impact on its international relations. Not only that Australia followed the international policies dictated by Great Britain, but it also follows the same values and principles. Its historic development is closely linked with western values, which makes it difficult for the country to relate to its neighboring Asian nations. However, Asia remains the closest trading partner of Australia and it is only natural that the country's foreign policy…… [Read More]
(Wu, 2010) When you are avoiding segregating the different groups within Australian society, you are not touching upon the racist past that Australian society had towards the Aborigines. This is important because avoiding such a distinctions is: showing respect and understanding for Australian culture.
Whether these dimensions are always apparent or if they are somehow implicit in the culture.
The various cultural differences are both apparent and hidden at the same time. This means, that within Australian society many people will use the various cultural differences on a regular basis, without paying any attention to them. For foreigners and visitors this can be problematic, because the various cultural distinctions are generally assumed to be understood by everyone such as: not being overly emotional in public. While, there are also various distinctions that are obvious to foreigners and visitors such as: speaking directly. Where, society openly encourages everyone to say what is on their mind. This obvious difference between the two cultures can be seen in movies and with in the popular press. (Workman, 2008)
How an American should respond to these differences in order to bring a business transaction to a successful conclusion.
The best way for an American to respond to there differences is: to first understand the history and various cultural norms. At which point, they would then use the various traditions, to be able to discuss the business transaction in an atmosphere that embraces the culture they are in. This is important because when such distinctions are used, it is showing respect for the other person's culture. As the American, was willing to understand and embrace these traditions, which will increase the odds of being able to bring the business transaction to a successful conclusion.… [Read More]
Gelineau reports that "the 755-foot (230-meter) Shen Neng 1 was successfully lifted off the reef Monday after crews spent three days pumping fuel to lighten it. Salvage crews later towed it to an anchorage area near Great Keppel Island, 45 miles (70 kilometers) away. Its refloating left a scar 1.9 miles (3 kilometers) long and up to 820 feet (250 meters) wide." (Gelineau, 1)
Indeed, according to environmental workers reporting on the site, this is seen as one of the most catastrophic groundings in recent decades. The report claims that it will be at least another twenty years before the immediate ecosystem can recover from the damage inflicted upon it both by the flattening of reef and marine life and by the intrusion of toxins from paint on the ship's hull into the devastated habitat. For the wildlife sanctuaries which are in the immediate surround of the impacted area, the diminishing of variation and plenteousness in the food chain could have a ripple effect.
The same incident highlights another of the dangers to the environment from heightened imports which is correlated to accidental grounding. Reports have emerged in the weeks since the Chinese tanker ran aground that globules of oil have surfaced in the waters and on the beaches in close proximity to the point of collision. The presence of tanker fuel in the ecological system threatens also to rain further disruption upon the process of healing for the reef. The article by Gelineau indicates that "on Wednesday, a team of about 25 people was working to clean up bits of oil that had begun washing ashore on North West Island, a turtle hatchery and bird sanctuary about 12 miles (18 kilometers) from where the ship crashed into the reef, said Adam Nicholson, a maritime safety spokesman for the northeastern state of Queensland. The globules were about an inch (3 centimeters) wide, and were scattered across about a half-mile (1 kilometer) of beach on the island." (Gelineau, 1)
These…… [Read More]
A world without nuclear weapons is improbable at best. The presence of such technology and the increasing accessibility of the so-called 'nuclear secrets' that the U.S. And Soviet Union once guarded so jealously denotes that there is no credible way to eliminate the opportunity for acquisition where there is a will. Only by diminishing the desire for acquisition can we realistically consider removing the influence of nuclear weapons on the world. This is to say that the current American policy of using nuclear authority to control stockpiling is counterintuitive.
There is genuinely no situation conceivable in which it could be seen as reasonable to employ nuclear weapons. Destabilization which is met by the deployment of nuclear weaponry will only prompt a total-annihilation circumstance in which such rogue nations as North Korea would be removed of their one motive for withholding from use of nuclear arms.
At present, it must be seen as justifiable to use nuclear strategies as a way of achieving political objectives. Indeed, this is the circumstance which the U.S. has prompted by engaging the global community on its own terms. Its own nuclear posturing and its dominant status in global affairs denote that other nations are both likely to and categorically entitled to demonstrate their own intentions according to available nuclear weaponry.
Australia's policies suggest a less extreme approach to nuclear proliferation than the United States, with the extent of its involvement typically taking the form of non-proliferation advocacy but rarely even venturing into the type of language or posture demonstrated by its ally. This is why a focus on encouraging non-proliferation through leadership in peace throughout its region is its best chance at achieving balance.
The use of violence begets violence. Indeed, most evidence suggests that terrorism is deeply linked to the waging of aggression against developing nations. Any continuity in these tactics promises only…… [Read More]
In education this is particularly so, with the educator often functioning as an emissary for knowledge and perspective formulate by the culture of the nation-state. Australia's teachers are today in the difficult position of attempting to resolve this position with the needs posed by immigrant students. So denotes the text by Hassam (2007), which contends that "teachers who seek to critique the nation by deconstructing media knowledge need to consider the ethics of engaging with their students' sense of self-identity and the pedagogical risks of questioning their own authority to speak on behalf of the nation. Internationalising the curriculum means developing teaching methods and assessment instruments which will invite students to reflect on their imaginative journey into 'new' and 'different' cultures; but it will also require the teachers to reflect on their own conflicting identities and loyalties, and to make that journey alongside their students." (p. 1)
According to much of the literature confronted during the preliminary steps of this research project, the level of racism in Australia is itself complex and contributory to the sometimes difficult immigrant experience. Though it has dispatched with many of the aggressively and overtly racialist principles of its past, Australia remains a nation flowing with an undercurrent of discrimination, bias and inequality. Bryant (2009) points out with respect to the claim that Australia still struggles with this racist proclivity that "from the sometimes paranoiac reaction to the arrival of relatively small numbers of boat people on its shores to employment surveys which show that job applicants with Anglo names fare better than Australians with Chinese or Middle Eastern bloodlines, a persuasive case can quickly be assembled. There's also a counter-argument: that the bigger, more optimistic story about race in post-war Australia is how successfully immigrants from all over the world have successfully been assimilated without any great backlash." (p. 1)
This is the juxtaposition at the center of this preliminary statement, the intended research proposal and the question of globalization at large. For nation-states that have developed powerfully defined cultural identities, it is often the case that said identities have been established to the favor of a hegemonic order. This is quite so in Australia, where the racially…… [Read More]
However, this conflict in which the United States engaged military endeavors as a way to extend its ideological reach would pull Australia into a philosophically driven war that was not really its own. As with the War on Terror, this would make Australia a peripheral target to America's many enemies.
5) if you are requested by the Australian government to review the Australia-U.S. alliance in the contemporary global context, what recommendations would you propose so as to make it more effective and better suited to serving Australia's national interests?
A primary policy objective would be to remove Australia from involvement in conflicts that are neither United Nations alliance issues or those relating to regional affairs. Such examples might be Iraq, where pressure from a powerful ally in the U.S. would provoke involvement in a war with no bearing and no threat to Australian viability or security.
Sun Tzu . . . Is this concept of strategic thought still relevant today? Or has modern military planning and thought managed to eliminate this weakness?
This concept of disrupting the will and morale of the enemy seems less to apply to conflict today because it has become a far more frequently applied method to wage war through occupation. Current fronts in the War on Terror demonstrate that such occupation fails to break the will of the enemy when said enemy is defending his native soil. In such instances, the idea of break morale falls far short of realism, where enemy combatants are in fact intensified in their determination to withstand an overwhelming force.
Task 2: The Williams article begs a question concerning the approach of nuclear deterrence. Mainly, the discussion hinges on the idea of nuclear deterrence as a credible security policy but leaves open the question as to the approach and methods which should be taken by Australia in terms of preventing proliferation of nuclear capabilities.
The Metz article considers military phases according to revolutionary moments where technological, strategic, political and organizational factors coalesce to produce a moment of inflection.…… [Read More]
The degree to which Rudd has withdrawn from Howard's hardline stance has significantly and positively altered the scenario for refugees.
7. This is absolutely the case. The War on Terror period has been veritably defined by the imbalance with which the issue has been treated. With all respect to the tragedies of 9/11 and the Bali blast, the number of casualties in these isolated incidences is miniscule compared to those provoked by disease, poverty, environmental abuse and ecological disaster. Undue attention to security concerns has sapped us of the resources to adequately confront these problems.
8. The discussion here is not as much framed by whether or not Hezbollah is correct. Quite certainly, if it was to be seen as a true political organization or governing body as recognized by the world community, it would also be forced to commitment to greater acquiescence to global military and political will. Still, the term 'terrorists' carries its own political devices, used to identify actions that are not aligned with global community principles. This casts some doubt on its use in general, preventing a more honest discussion on the intent of 'terrorist' actions.
9. To the point, this is the only way to prevent future terrorism. Terrorism is bread by social, political and economic discontent. If we work to remove rather than instigate further these conditions, the motives which drive individuals to take such extremist actions may be diminished. For many such individuals, the view that they have nothing to lose or live for is the greatest motive for extremist actions.
10. Violence begets violence. This is the fundamental principle in play with respect to the current and failed strategy for combating terrorism. The notion that the waging of war might somehow improve global security is irrational and resists the logic that the creation of more widows, widowers, orphans and childless parents will inevitably produce more individuals with an intractable motive for waging…… [Read More]
These insights from the Simulation were meant to be a valuable contribution and reference for the effective implementation of Australia's health reform agenda, according to AHHA director Prue Power (AHHA).
Implications on the Medical Devices Industry
The Reform Plan may also trigger a series of swift market changes for this industry (MedicExchange, 2010). A Frost and Sullivan consultant projected that the U.S.$2.3-billion medical devices market would grow at an estimated 9% between 2009 and 2012. Approximately U.S.$98 billion was spent on healthcare goods and services in 2009 alone. . Government funding for healthcare steadily increased to respond to the need for better services especially to the ageing population and increasing rates of chronic disease. The consultant predicted that the Reform Plan would open many new growth opportunities for medical device companies. He foresaw the market achieving roughly U.S.$3 billion by this year. The Reform Plan will invest in primary and sub-acute care to reduce preventable hospital admissions, increase health awareness, improve healthcare infrastructure and improve access to emergency departments. About U.S.$530 million of the total budget has been reserved for the purchase of medical equipment, machines, the hiring of more physicians, adding more beds, providing more training and the like in order to reduce waiting time for elective surgery for four years. Other factors like increasing healthcare costs, the ageing population, high prevalence of chronic disease, rising need for personalized care and technological advances will fuel the growth the medical devices industry. Healthcare expenditures for those 65 years and older will be seven times today's level 40 years from now. The Commonwealth's health spending should rise to more than 200 Australian dollars by 2050 (MedicExchange).
Expansion in exports will also power the growth of the medical devices industry, which is extremely trade-oriented (MedicExchange, 2010). More than 90% of the country's domestic demands for medical devices is met by both imports and exports of 90% of products manufactured in Australia. Two such companies are Cochlear and ResMed with their niche products and innovativeness. The development of biotechnology and nanotechnology will lead to new materials and devices for medical and diagnostic use. The…… [Read More]
5. Though it would seem appropriate to enlist the IAEA to conduct
investigations backed by UN Security Council Resolution, the political
roadblocks to this action are indicative of the danger in policy
inconsistency. The IAEA must conduct the same probing exercises in all
nations without prejudice to avoid creating political entitlement to
nuclear weapons only for allies of the global power structure.
6. It is true that the IAEA is essentially an impotent force. Its use
in the lead up to the Iraq War demonstrated its simultaneous capacity for
effectiveness in the efforts at non-proliferation as well as its central
weakness. When Security Council Resolutions placed the IAEA on the ground
there, it suggested that the body would perform the function for which it
was intended. However, with the obstruction of the United States to its
efforts, it also proved essentially meaningless in the face of powerful
opposition. This denotes the far-reaching shortcomings of the global
community as a whole.
7. In sum, the United States and China already assume a unilateral
position where such nations as North Korea is concerned. Particularly, the
U.S. policy on North Korea tends to dominate its diplomatic scenario, and
stems from the U.S. perspective of itself as possessing the nuclear upper-
hand and intending to maintain it. However, the United States finds itself
battling an irresistible force, which is the proliferation of technology.
This is an evolutionary reality in which knowledge and technical ability
are disseminated without the possibility of retraction. This is a the
nature of the nuclear spiral.
8. This highlights one of the core conflicts in attempting to pin down
the issue of non-proliferation insofar as many nations desire nuclear
capability as a way to generate energy. This can be an affordable source
for developing nations. Until the world community can establish a
consistent policy for prevention of weaponization, this will be a loose end
that can lead to…… [Read More]
One of Kilby's contentions, however, was that Australia's hypothesis that increased economic growth would result to poverty reduction is a framework that is not responsive to the realities of poor, developing countries, which are almost always the recipients of AusAID's aid program.
The author's claim is that AusAID's thrust -- that economic growth will result to reduced poverty -- is developed from a neoliberalist framework, which is not as responsive to the "contemporary" framework in which the present state of poor, developing nations that are the recipient of these aid programs are situated in. Kilby contested that contemporary movements in the socio-economic states of poor nations do not actually adhere to the neoliberalist belief that the economy will run by itself, that is, that people's interest would influence economic behavior and the economy will work independently from other mechanisms present in the society, particularly political ones (115).
Instead of economic growth, said Kilby, aid programs such as the AusAID must focus on determinants that historical data have actually pointed out as more causal or influential to reduced poverty than economic growth. The author identified vulnerability as an important determinant of poverty reduction, as historical data on developing and poor nations have reflected. Kilby identified "vulnerability" as the "number of people exiting poverty and going into poverty," and this definition is what the author proposes as a more appropriate measure to determine poverty reduction (117). In addition to vulnerability, rural and urban divide, inequality and increasing social exclusion are other determinants influencing poverty reduction in AusAID's recipient nations. The author's research showed that historical data from these poor countries highlighted that an increase in urbanization actually resulted to slow economic growth. The author analyzed that lack of economic growth despite the rise in urbanization resulted from the fact that "agriculture and other industries in the rural areas" have slowed down, in effect influencing the rate of economic growth of the rapidly urbanizing country (118).
In addition to subsisting to economic growth as a determinant of poverty reduction, the AusAID program was also said to suffer from utilizing the neoliberalist approach through its "PRSP" approach by using Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. While Kilby determined this as AusAID's response to modifying the measures and methods by which the program identifies a country's growth and sustainability, the PRSP approach is actually a…… [Read More]
(Likewise, the Canadian comedy circuit, it must be noted, as proved a fertile stomping ground for future Saturday Night Life alumni such as Dan Ackroyd and Martin Short, amongst others.)
Australia remains condemned by the international community for its treatment of its native populace, again, another irony in a nation founded by cast-off English convicts, condemned by their own people -- who now condemn others, so it is alleged. However, recently, the Australian government issued a report stating "Australia's Indigenous people and their culture have made and continue to make a unique contribution to this country. Their contribution together with the significant contributions of the early settlers and more recent migrants has helped build the nation we belong to today." (New Agenda for a Multicultural Australia, 2003) it has renewed its efforts to better integrate aboriginal life into a livable national community, without outright assimilation.
The similarly of culture has provoked trade conflict between the United States and Canada, however, as many filmmakers sought to use Toronto as a 'cheap' version of New York, to much controversy. But much of the current cultural conflicts with Canada, and between Canada's neighbors have involved differences of culture, rather than similarities. For instance, the health Toronto's burgeoning Asian population caused widespread panic in the American financial district during the SARS epidemic, as many of New York's traders often traveled to Canada or used Toronto as a hub before hopping off to do business in Hong Kong.
Within these nation's borders, there has been a great deal of conflict as to how to create a society that is tolerant of local populations, yet is still modern. While, Australia's native aboriginal population has raised international cries, demanding their full basis of rights, Canada has had to accommodate the cultural needs of native populations across "five broad cultural regions, defined by common climatic, geographical and ecological characteristics. Each region gave rise to distinctive building forms that "reflected these conditions, as well as the available building materials, means of livelihood, and social and spiritual values of the resident peoples." (Kalman & Mills, "Native Architecture," the Canadian Encyclopedia, 2004)
Thus, Canada and Australia presents some particular problems for the social historian,…… [Read More]
S. "increased its production of goods and services in the first few months of 2009…Alone among the developed nations that belong to G-20, it was not being sucked into a world recession" (Stutchbury 2010). Its currency even reached parity with the U.S.
One unique facet of Australia's economy not present in the other developed nation that were hard-hit by the credit crisis is the expansion of its mining sector. In the years before the credit crisis "Australian iron ore was stoking the very Chinese industrialization that in turn was recycling a massive export surplus into excess U.S. consumption, driving up Washington's budget deficits, and inflating an American housing bubble that would almost bring down the global financial system" (Stutchbury 2010:4). This sustained demand for its commodities and mining products. Technology and globalization which has spread to the developing world was strong enough to keep the Australian economic 'miracle' afloat (PNC, 2011, Australia Banking and Finance).
Although technology and globalization fueled Australia's export boom, ultimately it was deregulation that laid the groundwork for its current state of financial health. During the 1980s, Australia's traditionally high import barriers were done away with, which had heretofore protected its manufacturing sector from global competition. Businesses were privatized and trade unions were substantially regulated, to reduce the unions' collective leveraging for higher wages and benefits. Regulations upon the financial industry were substantially curtailed, but not on as dramatic a level as occurred in the U.S. Or even in the UK. And "the Australian line is that on both sides of the North Atlantic, banking rules were not necessarily too lax -- supervisors simply had not enforced them" (Stutchbury 2010:5-6).
For example, within the agricultural sector it has been alleged that "deregulation inevitably invokes structural adjustment, forces farmers out of agriculture, depopulates rural areas, and creates social hardship" (Vanclay 2002:1). Australia's aboriginal population and members of various immigrant communities and the working class have also not enjoyed the benefits of the commodity boom.
Deregulation and globalization in Australia has not been embraced by all. Regardless, the success of Australia's…… [Read More]
This tax encouraged individuals who owned large tracts of land to make it available for settlers. Much of this land was held by residents of England who rarely used their land. The goal was to see the land used more productively (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004).
In 1915 the federal government instituted its own income tax as well. This federal tax rapidly swelled the country's income, and by 1918, income taxes made up one third of the federal government income and up to half of the states' incomes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004).
This tax system was refined in 1942, with much of the federally-collected revenue being returned to the Territories and States. Currently, Australia uses a "pay-as-You-Earn" (PAYE) system for wages and salary, and a support "provisional tax" pay method for income other than wages or salary (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004).
Australia also passed a sales tax in 1930. This tax is applied to imports and is paid at the wholesale level. The wholesaler builds the cost of that tax into retail pricing plans (Commonwealth of Australia, 2004).
Australia embarked on a major restructuring of its economy in the 1980's (USDOE, 2004) after experience severe inflation (Stevens, 2003). As part of this restructuring, the country shifted its economic emphasis from domestic emphasis to a country that competes on the world market. They reduced high tariffs and other barriers to world trade, floated the exchange rate for the Australian dolor, deregulated banks, loosened rules for foreign banking, reorganized labor relations, privatized many public utilities, and overhauled their tax system. This overhaul included the establishment of a Goods and Services tax (USDOE, 2004).
Australia has a variety of natural resources including bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum (CIA, 2004). Industries include mining, manufacture of industrial and transportation equipment, chemicals, steel, and tourism (CIA, 2004). Agriculture makes up a small amount of the country's GNP, as only about 6 1/2% of the country is arable (CIA, 2004). Australia's economy is based on a capitalist system, and its gross domestic product (GDP) is on a par with major European countries. It grew by about 3% in 2003 (CIA, 2004).
PER CAPITA INCOME
Australia's population was just under 20 million in July…… [Read More]
The will of external powers and multinational commercial interests would come to alter the political landscape, significantly diminishing the impact which those outside the evolving system could levy. It is thus that, Green points out, the modern anti-nuclear movement, has come to adopt certain grassroots devices for protest that denote a far greater willingness to stake a compromise. As Green reports of the anti-nuclear effort from the mid-1990s onward, "building and broadening mass campaigns gave way to reformism and individualism, in which supporters were called on to do no more than write letters to politicians, sign petitions and raise money to fund professional activists' behind-closed-doors lobbying of parliaments and business." (Green, 1)
It must be acknowledge that the nature of the current social activism movement is not thusly without its inherent risks. Most particularly, the tone on compromise which has necessarily entered into the discourse on certain subjects actually threatens to blunt the expectations of those movements most intended to protect our interests. For instance, the text by Jensen-Lee (2004) warns that there is a fundamental risk of accepting too readily the institutional claims of willingness to engage in progressive agendas such as that attached to the environmental movement. Attributing this to the disparate forces of influence over the Australian government as created by the globalization, Jensen-Lee warns that "the current period of institutionalisation or routinisation of environmental concerns is a danger time in which the public may simply assume that governments are acting to protect the environment while allowing the corporate sector to use greenwashing, green consumerism and appeals to sustainable development (ecological modernisation) to render the movement innocuous to the interests of global capital." (p. 1)
This denotes the considerable challenge which rises before members of the environmental movement, who must attempt to find a balance between a realistic participation in the mainstream political system and a fundamental definition of themselves as existing in resistance to the tyranny of institutionalism. In other words, the contemporary social movement diverges from the more radical class-based social action of the past to the extent that its ambitions may be co-opted, distorted and exploited in the interests of only furthering institutional power.
Still, with this balance in mind, it seems appropriate to predict that the compromise and measured participation in the political process approached by modern social movements is more likely to effect…… [Read More]
It is a collaborative program that discusses several priority issues and then subsequently uses those disease issues as markers for improvement. The work does not specifically address nutrition, nor does it specifically address the ageing population, in any way other than the fact that this segment is more susceptible than others to the sic of the seven disease/marker areas of focus; arthritis/musculoskeletal disease, cancer control, cardiovascular health, Diabetes mellitus, injury prevention and control and mental health. The last issue addressed is asthma, but this leaves out the longevity health issues associated with lung health like COPD and emphysema. (AIHW, 2000) Secondarily the plan addresses nutrition only in the manner in which it contributes to the development and alleviation of health, as it associates with the particular health priority disease or health issue. TI also does not specifically address the aging of the population or the fact that this growing segment is at greater risk for many of the health issues it focuses on.
Two much more specific initiatives that support the issue in a more specific way are the National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 1999), Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians. (NHMRC; 2005) and the National Public Health Partnership Eat Well Australia (NPHP, 2001) campaign which addresses the issues of nutrition as a public health concern in a more general sense. Both documents offer essential information and public health policy change plans for the future of the nutritional health of the whole and aging population of Australia. Dietary guidelines for Older Australians, offers the most specific information supporting prevention issues with regard to nutrition such as increased variety and healthy choice eating, eating three times per day, caring for food safely, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, high fiber carbohydrates, low saturated fat choices, drink plenty of healthy fluids, drink less alcohol, low sodium choices, decrease sugar intake, increase high calcium food consumption as well as improvement of physical activity level to reduce the incidence of obesity and therefore prevent disease among the elderly. The work is comprehensive but demonstrative of relatively low level address…… [Read More]
The hospitality and tourism industry desperately relies on the feelings and attitudes of its customer base. This industry was created to make people feel good in order that they spend large sums of money on the hotel or tourist activity. Therefore, it is of an extreme importance that an empathetic and understanding culture is built in the required areas. Tourism industry professionals such as hotel managers need to be aware of the many different cultures that are rampant throughout Australia and the rest of the world. The globe is shrinking and the world is getting smaller.
The Australian Government has pronounced a multicultural policy to help safeguard against some potential costly mistakes when dealing with people of scattered origins. The purpose of this essay is to review this policy and investigate its relevance to the hospitality industry. Furthermore, this essay will also address the three dimensions of Australian multiculturalism to help define and guide the argument. Included in this discussion, will be a review of the strengths and weaknesses of how best hotel managers can handle these types of situations. Finally, this essay will conclude by discussing the special skills and traits a manager of a multicultural workplace needs to have.
The Government Policy
According to this policy, " Multiculturalism is in Australia's national interest and speaks to fairness and inclusion. It enhances respect and support for cultural, religious and linguistic diversity. It is about Australia's shared experience and the composition of neighbourhoods. It acknowledges the benefits and potential that cultural diversity brings." The way we treat others and is a direct reflection on the way we feel about ourselves and our national pride. It is important to embrace our differences and diverse looks to join into something bigger than ourselves and become a unified nation under the guide of the government that can lead us to bigger and better things while ensuring…… [Read More]
In this scenario, two companies, one from Saudi Arabia and the other from Australia, send their top representatives to discuss business matters. The Australian company is represented by a highly professional and young woman, whereas the Saudi Arabian company is being represented by one of their directors (twice the age of the Australian representative). Due to numerous cultural differences, the business negotiations may be jeopardized. According to Hofstede's framework, the Saudi representative would expect his Australian negotiator to follow his lead for two reasons: he is older and he is a man. But the Australian representative would consider her Saudi negotiator her equal because she grew up in a low power distance society and rejects old masculine gender ideas. How can potential conflicts be avoided in this scenario?
If the negotiations do not succeed in this scenario, Hofstede's basic assumptions would be validated. But the conflict here can be avoided by building upon Hofstede's model and using it in a smart way. The Saudi representative should understand the realities of global business and also understand the cultural differences between the two countries. If he knows that, he will not expect the Australian representative to be a subordinate of his. He will treat her as an equal partner because he knows that in Australia it is normal for young managers to challenge the superiors openly. The oil company's top leadership, realizing the realities of contemporary global business, should also instruct their representative to be sensitive to Australian cultural values. Likewise, the Australian representative, despite her feminist convictions, should understand that she is dealing with a traditional and an older man from a conservative society (with high levels of power distance) and treat him accordingly. The Australian company's top leadership should instruct her to be sensitive with the Saudi values and use the art of cross-cultural communications for the benefit of successful business negotiations. If these communication methods are followed, potential conflicts due to cultural differences may be avoided.
As is clear from the literature review and the scenario discussed here, Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework is flawed since it is…… [Read More]
What steps did the Rudd government take to lessen the impact of the global financial crisis? Why do you believe they took these steps?
The global financial crisis has had a profound impact on nations around the world. I applaud Rudd in his efforts to abate and diminish the influence of an interconnected society on Australia. On method utilized in which to diminish the impact on the Australia was to instill confidence in the financial system overall. Rudd first guaranteed deposits of all major financial institutions in Australia. This prevented bank runs as consumers, fearful for their money, rush to withdraw much needed funding from banks. Instead, by guaranteeing deposits, the government was helping financial institutions avoid solvency risk. With no deposits, banks would be unable to lend or conducts other financial services oriented activities. This in turn would lower the likelihood of an Australian recovery which would be a detriment to entire global economy (Brooks, 2004).
Furthermore, this action helped quell investors concerns regarding the merit behind Australian issued debt. Without the guarantee from the government, investors would require a much higher risk premium in order to purchase Australian issued debt. A 100 basis point increase in interest rate would have a very profound impact on Australia as, at the time, 50% of GDP was financed through debt. As such, the government would be forced to pay more to investors over the course of the loan. In addition, as is typical in a period of extreme pessimism, government spending would be required simply to help keep an economy afloat (IMF 2006). This occurs as tax revenues are typically at their lowers levels. As such, governments must finance the difference by issuing debt in their native currency. If the required risk premium increases, the cost of issuing said debt could rise dramatically. By guaranteeing deposits, Rudd helped reduce this rise in costs.
In addition, Rudd attempted to incorporate a stimulus package into the economy designed to help foster growth within the region. However, much to the government's detriment, the consumer simply saved the stimulus as oppose to spending it. This reflects, I believe, a fundamental change in how the consumer approaches both consumption and savings. Australia, much like…… [Read More]
Case Study Report: Airlines
This paper provides a comparative study of the goals, management style, and labor relations policies of three Australian airlines: Qantas, Virgin Blue, and Air Australia Airways. It examines the recent history of these major airlines, with a specific focus on the labor relations difficulties of Qantas, Virgin Blue's attempt to create a more innovative model of customer service as a budget airline, and Air Australia Airway's challenge to Qantas' dominance. It suggests that ultimately Virgin Blue offers the best prospects for investment, given its track record, size, and strong human resource policies.
Conclusion and summary
The airline industry has been one of the most severely-affected industries by the recent global recession. Although Australia was mercifully not impacted as much as some other nations by the recent credit crisis, because airlines have a global focus as organizations, all of the major airlines that fly through Australia were shaken to some degree because of their international exposure to risk. The instability of the global economic environment is one reason that airlines are often considered bad investments. However, it is important to evaluate each airline on an individual basis before making such an assessment.
Qantas Airline is the major carrier within Australia at this time. It embraces both a 'budget' and a 'premium' strategy through its marketing of its main brand Qantas and lower-cost Jetstar. "Qantas was named "Airline of the Year" (2003) by Aviation Transport World magazine. Qantas' achievements in employee safety, and its subsequent cost and efficiency savings, were recognised as a key influence in winning this prestigious award," not simply the airlines' ability to solicit customers (Changing the culture of an Australia icon, 2004, Qantas.). Qantas often labels itself as 'the' Australian airline, given its size and venerability as an institution.
Qantas's dual-tiered budget-premium strategy can be contrasted with Virgin Blue Holdings Limited, which primarily deploys a budget-focused strategy. In contrast to Qantas' more traditional managerial approach, Virgin is noted for its freewheeling, fun attitude, similar to that of the Southwest and Jet Blue business models in the United States. According to charismatic and iconoclastic CEO Richard…… [Read More]