Bangladesh's poverty situation
Poverty is a major issue in today's world and it remains one of the biggest challenges for humankind to overcome. A third world country, such as Bangladesh, is defined as an underdeveloped nation that faces challenges in growth (either economic, agricultural, social, etc.). Bangladesh, a country with a population of 164 million, is one of the poorest countries in the world with a high poverty rate of 40% and a literacy rate of just 51%. Poverty in Bangladesh exacerbates the problem of the large social divide between the rich and the poor. Some of the causes for poverty in Bangladesh are unemployment, income distribution, natural disasters, and the lack of education -- among others. The poverty rate in Bangladesh has contributed to several issues such as child labor, high crime rates, as well as the gaping social divide. This paper will examine the issues associated with poverty in Bangladesh including the lack of education in Bangladesh, the vulnerable landscape, the great social divide between the rich and the poor, and the issues related to crime and child labor.
Bangladesh is considered one of the world's poorest countries, ranking third after India and China (Rural Poverty Portal 2011). Since its independence from Pakistan in 1971, Bangladesh has been striving to reduce its poverty (Ali & Talukder 2010).
In 1971 [it] was a very poor country. The general people had a hope and dream that the political parties will develop the country and will eradicate poverty gradually, will provide jobs to the 50% unemployed people, will educate the 60% illiterate people; but their holy hope and dream have not been fulfilled due to frequent hostile political culture, beating, killing among the political party members, no patriotism among the political leaders, massive corruption, unnecessary frequent strike, unnecessary opposition to the government policy, etc. (Jalil & Rahman 2011)
Bangladesh has been labeled a "chronically poor country" (Sen & Hulme 2004) and the consumption of 1,805kcal per capita per day is variously termed as "extreme poor," "hardcore poor," or "ultra-poor"…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy Dealing With Clothing Manufacturing in Over Seas Third Countries Bangladesh
The objective of this study is to answer as to what the problem is in dealing with U.S. clothing manufacturers who have their clothing created in third world countries such as Bangladesh in the view a leader and specifically a president in the free world. Specifically this work will answer as to what can be legally done and what sanctions might be put in place. This work will identify stakeholders and makers of the program and who would be involved in providing input during the programs development stage and what problems with the cultural environment might exist in addressing this problem. Further, this work will answer as to what might assist or present as a barrier to the program and examine historical implications and treaties or amendments that might be enforced. This work will additionally address how the message might be best spread and how success would be measured. Finally, this work will address the implications of violation of the program and sanctions that might be imposed if the laws in place are violated.
According to the Cultural Survival website, there is presently a debate "among feminists as to whether industrialization is good for women." (2010, p.1) Industrialization has presented the chance for women to "get out of the house, to break away from the stifling constrictions of domestic patriarchy." (Cultural Survival, 2010, p.1) The manufacturing countries in foreign countries such as Bangladesh hired women workers in those countries in an effort to reduce labor costs and it is reported that these labor practices were specifically adopted by manufacturers or textiles, garments, and footwear. Simultaneously, international lending and aid agencies including the International Monetary Fund is reported to have pushed the Third World country elites to focus on increases of foreign financed industrial goods for export which would serve to bring about an increase in the imbalance of payments that…… [Read More]
Training can be provided, which will assure that teachers in the IT group at least have the basic tools that they need to administer the course effectively.
The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into the potential effectiveness of a program that combines e-learning with traditional face-to-face classroom instruction in rural areas of Bangladesh. The results of this study are intended to serve in the development of policies that can be used by the government of Bangladesh in the establishment of effective IT policies. At the present time, much skepticism exists as to the effectiveness of this proposed initiative. This research will shed light onto the real potential of the initiative and the real results of the initiative the student learning, classroom attendance and other factors that might be affected by this initiative. The most important outcome of the study will be the ability to develop consistent and affective policies regarding the place of e-learning in the rural areas of Bangladesh.… [Read More]
Operating in these conditions helped Telenor gain valuable experience and insights into how to plan future joint ventures and alliances in emerging, high growth 3rd world nations.
Indirect benefits included gaining greater insight and intelligence with regard to the Indian consumer cell phone market in general, and the village and rural market needs specifically. Partnering with Grameen Bank provided invaluable experiences in seeing how to create profitable businesses in each village. There are many indirect benefits to Telenor and Grameen from a CSR standpoint as well, as the cell phone service they provided turned out to be a critical catalyst for growing the economies of these rural communities. By participating in the joint venture, Telenor helped create a platform of economic growth for the 29,000 villages participating in the program.
How would you calculate the SROI (Social Return on Investment) for the Village Phone Project?
The Social Return on Investment (SROI) for the Village Phone Project needs to be calculated by comparing the costs and benefits of the investment from a social value perspective. Telenor and Grameen Telecom both shared a common vision of bringing telephone service to the most impoverished areas of Bangladesh. Telenor's investment of $40M and commitment to the program, combined with the $43.7M from Grameen Telecom along with two other partners, delivered mobile phone services to 68,000 villages, giving women in these villages a chance to significantly increase their incomes to $80 per month. Women reported that they were able to use these earnings to pay for their children's education, subsidize the development of new businesses and farms, and increase the quality of life for them and their families. This program also generated 600 jobs internally and 40,000 jobs externally by 2003, leading to a major contribution to employee's quality of life. When SROI is used for calculating the…… [Read More]
Crisis at Footwear International
A multinational shoe manufacturing company has been accused of deliberately designing a shoe with an insole that is offensive to Muslims. Footwear International consists of a number of companies that are semi-autonomous with regard to operations, and are governed by boards of directors that include local business community members. The Footwear International company in Bangladesh experienced severe criticism from local activist student groups who interpreted the design of an insole to include the name of Allah. Further, the students charged the manufacturing company of being owned and financed by Jews, and somehow linked the entire episode to Salman Rushdie. The designer of the shoe -- a devout Bengali Muslim who does not speak or read Arabic -- declared that the pattern integrated into the insole design was inspired by Chinese temple bells that she purchased. Further, the insole design had been considered and approved for inclusion in the manufacturing by the designer's supervisor.
Issues. The primary issues related to the footwear design crisis in Bangladesh are as follows:
The student protest escalated into a criminal charge under Section 295 of the Bangladesh Criminal Code which considers "deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious believers unlawful."
The students' proclamation accuses Jews of being behind the purposeful and audacious act, thereby rendering the situation ineligible for any compromise.
Inflammatory remarks by the student groups appear to be focused on turning public sentiment against Footwear International by irrationally linking the presumed offense to Muslims in Afghanistan and Palestine who have given their lives in what radical Muslims perceive to be a defense of the sanctity of Islam.
Footwear International is one of the few multinational companies in Bangladesh with a long history of providing jobs in the country and the prospect of significantly growing its market share, which will provide a strong boost to the manufacturing industry and economic stability of Bangladesh.
The managers of the production, marketing, and sales departments of Footwear International and the managing director of the company are the only foreigners working for the company at its Bangladesh presence.
Impact of the Incident Business Environment
Although the case study does not provide information beyond the initial events that led to -- and are contributing to --…… [Read More]
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated with an cholera outbreak. To know the enemy in this fight is invaluable to creating an effective and efficient strategy to combat the ill effects. The World Health Organization provides some enlightening guidance in their reports such an occurrence. The report stated "The potential impact of communicable diseases is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters. Increases in endemic diseases and the risk of outbreaks however, are dependent upon many factors that must be systematically evaluated with comprehensive risk assessment. This allows the prioritization of interventions to reduce the impact of communicable diseases post disaster. "
Although this advice is general in nature, it is wise. Since the individual circumstances of each type of outbreak are unique, there can be no substitute for experience in these matters. It is therefore prudent to call upon those who have handled such a situation before and can apply their expertise in a fine and purposeful manner. This organization should concentrate on delegating the many responsibilities that accompany such a response.
Putting together a team requires addressing the problem from all known angles. Obvious medical and front treatment units are obvious, but other logistical resources many not be as readily noticeable. In a recent outbreak in Haiti, where many similar circumstances concerning demographics and socio-economic status are very similar to Bangladesh, many different organizations contributed to that cholera outbreak and would provide an excellent source of knowledge in delivering some relief.
Tappero &…… [Read More]
While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).
Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).
The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those actions as punishable by Jihad (Muktadhara, 2001b).
The Jamaat justifies their activities in the name of Islam, and jihad. According to their beliefs, anything that goes against the teachings of Islam is punishable, and to be fought. Their funding for such jihad's comes mostly from other nations and drug trafficking and arms dealing. Their annual budget is approximate to 10% of the entire Bangladesh government budget (Muktadhara, 2001b).
While the number of Jamaat e-Islami terrorist cells in the United States is unknown, it is estimated that there are at least 16 operating cells in the U.S., comprised of over 800 members. While their activities in the United States are generally centered on education, there have been some acts of violence against American citizens. None, however, rival the attacks against the people of Bangladesh and Pakistan (Raman, 2000).
The Jamaat organization is one of the most organized, logical terrorist groups operating the in world today. Their leaders are known for war crimes, and their tactics involve the killings of many people. In the future, it is likely the group will continue to expand their hold, not only in Bangladesh and Pakistan, but also throughout the world.… [Read More]
Their job is: to ensure that all regions are receiving the proper amount of support, to prevent opposition forces from taking advantage of the situation and to communicate with local government / military officials / NGOs / nonprofit organizations. This will streamline decision making and ensure that there is effective collaboration among personnel. Moreover, this individual has experience in working with disasters and other security operations. (Warning Order) ("Navy Warfare Development Command")
The lower levels of command will be subdivided among various battalions, companies / air wings and platoons / flights. These individuals will be responsible for achieving the different mission objectives that are provided by the theater of operations commander. This will ensure that there are reduced levels of bureaucracy and effective procedures for addressing any kind of potential challenges. (Warning Order) ("Navy Warfare Development Command")
As a result, there will be a combination of land, air, sea and Special Forces that are utilized during the operation. These units will quickly respond to any kind of issues and provide the flexibility to adjust to changes in the mission. When this happens, everyone will be more effective in addressing a number of different challenges. (Warning Order) ("Navy Warfare Development Command")
The below table is illustrating a rough outline as to the command structure for operational performance.
Operational Command Structure
Bangladesh Government / Military
Theater of Operations Command
Company / Wing
Platoon / Flight (Warning Order) ("Navy Warfare Development Command")
This kind of structure will steam line decision making. At the same time, it is utilizing flexibility to address potential security and logistical challenges. When this happens, there is an effective tool for providing aid to most impacted areas and safeguarding personnel during the process. (Warning Order) ("Navy Warfare Development Command")
This course began with a discussion of the challenges involved in planning for the full range of military operations. In recent years there has been significant discussion on how to balance the need to "win" the current war(s) with the need to be prepared for the next war. Using the concepts presented throughout this course, describe the key air, space and cyber capabilities required to support/execute the full range of military operations now and in the future. Explain in which capability area(s) the Air Force can best accept risk.
In the future, the nature of warfare will have changed completely. This means that all commanders must…… [Read More]
The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care products into sources of water should be viewed as a felony by the state and judicial system and be enforced as such.
After the numerous Wall Street scandals caused major corporations to be instructed to stop the spread of greed and corruption within their organizations by praising and rewarding good behavior, so should the government begin to reward behavior that benefits the common. For example, organizations that create green methods of chemical disposal or which find ways to re-purify bodies of water are all ways the major powers can take a stand on what is most valuable to society and the common good.… [Read More]
My project is to open a microfinance bank, which specializes in low value, non-collateral loans for small business, typically in underprivileged parts of the world (Opportunity.org, 2013). This will open in New York, serving people in the city's poorest communities, especially those struggling with unemployment. In some parts of the city, the annual median household income is below $10,000, and people in those communities become trapped in poverty (Venugopal, 2011). Microfinance was instituted by Grameen Bank in Bangladesh by Mohammed Yunus, who won a Nobel Peace Prize for the project (Grameen, 2013; Nobelprize.org, 2013). The project would utilize funds raised in New York's banking community to provide loans for people in New York's poorest areas, and to provide business skills training to help them to improve their earnings and standard of living.
Model and Competition
The business model of microfinance is different from that of a conventional bank. Microfinance does not aim to maximize profits for its shareholders but to maximize opportunity for its customers. The financiers of microfinance typically earn a nominal return on their investment, while most profits are plowed back into more lending, which helps to grow the bank. It is necessary, however, to strike a balance between community and commercial objectives (Lutzenkirchen, 2012). Microfinance has been utilized throughout the developing world, in nations where the conventional banking systems do not deal with small borrowers. However, if growth is too fast, the quality of the borrowers declines, leading to crisis in the microfinancing industry (Chen, Rasmussen & Reille, 2010).
The business model is structurally similar to that of other banks. The bank must first raise money, something that can be done through small scale donations from New York's financial community. There should not be any shortage of people to lend to as well, and they must be vetted by the bank. The United States is a relatively untapped market for…… [Read More]
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to Bhawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic, and hence is not counted because of the gendered system of accounting in some regions of India (Upadhyay, 2005, p. 412).
Upadhyay's article argues that based on empirical evidence from North Gujarat, if women were officially recognized as multiple water users -- and not just domestic water users -- that fact could be used to assure more reliable access to clean water and in the process promote the productive use of water to make life better for the household economy (Upadhyay, 2005, p. 412). The study that Upadhyay references was conducted in the Banaskantha district, in the extreme western region of India. In this region the villages are labeled "source" villages or "no source" villages, depending on whether or not the village had access to a good source of water, Upadhyay continues (p. 412).
In the no source villages women walked on average one kilometer to fetch water for their domestic purposes and most households did not have an adequate supply of water, hence the government brings in water tankers from time to replenish supplies. Very little green fodder grows in these villages and albeit the agriculture is primarily grain-fed (Upadhyay, 2005, p. 413). The source villages however do have plenty of fresh water, their crops are irrigated, and these villages have healthy dairy cattle…… [Read More]
9%-11.2% while the proportion of Hindus decreased from 84.9%-82.7%. He could not attribute the proportional changes to differences in migration or mortality, but to differences in fertility. Census and survey data show fertility is higher among Muslims than among Hindus, he claims. The total marital fertility rate for Muslim women was 11% higher in urban areas and 20% higher in rural areas than the rate for Hindus in those same areas, according to the 1971 census data. Even when education was controlled, the Muslim rate was higher. The 11 demographic survey findings reveal consistently higher fertility rates for Muslims than Hindus. When education and socioeconomic factors were controlled, studies demonstrated that differences narrowed yet remained.
Balasubramanian claims that one of three hypotheses is generally used to explain the differences. The first hypothesis attributes the fertility differences to background or socioeconomic characteristics of the two populations, but this explanation can not be supported when socioeconomic controls are introduced. The second hypothesis states that minority status is the cause of high fertility. But this hypothesis is easily refuted. In predominantly Muslim countries, Hindu minorities have lower fertilityrates. The third hypothesis claims fertility differences are due to religious beliefs concerning reproduction. However, both Islam and Hinduism are pronatalist religions, even though the two religions differ in regard to their beliefs concerning marriage, reproductive behavior, and fertility control. These differences have differing impacts on the variables influencing fertility. The intermediate variables include age at marriage, marriage stability, and contraceptive use.
In contrast to Hindu beliefs, Islamic beliefs support polygamy, allow for easy divorce in case of infertility, and allow widows to remarry. Yet Hindu women are more likely than Muslim women to return to their family for a period of time following the birth of their first and second children, and this reduces exposure to the risk of pregnancy for Hindu women. Muslim women are less receptive to family planning. A national survey indicated that 17% of Hindu women compared to 13% of Muslim women ever used contraception. Hindu women not only use family planning, but sterilization rates are higher among them.
Rural and Urban Effects on Fertility
Balasubramanian's goal was to demonstrate how,…… [Read More]
There may be other reasons that have to do with cultural implications as well when it comes to population / fertility growth. Some people in LDNs may have religious reasons for not wanting to use birth control and may have major issues with abortion. In DNs, most women go to college, they have a career, they put off marriage, and when they do decide to get married, they may have one or two children. However, in LDNs, women may marry quite early, sometimes as early as fourteen, and may believe that having as many children as possible is what life is about. There are so many cultural factors in LDNs that people in DNs are unaware of.
It's interesting to note that in some countries in Europe especially, the government is actually trying to promote pregnancies because of the slow population growth rate. While this hasn't happened in the United States, as the population seems to be growing steadily, it is interesting to consider. However, in 2010, Bangladesh was estimated to be on of the ten most highly estimated countries in the world, just under 160 million (Asian Info 2011) and this is a country that is half the size of Italy (FAO 2011).
Bangladesh and the United States are so different in terms of culture, economic level, and education. The GNI PPP / capita of Bangladesh is $1,1980 while the United States is $39,710. There is an association between GNI PPP and female literacy and fertility. In the United States, female literacy is 99% while in Bangladesh it is 31.4% and the U.S.'s total fertility rate is 2.0 while Bangladesh is 3.0 (p. 151). This shows that there is a correspondence between education (literacy), economic status, and fertility rate.… [Read More]
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and bringing improvement in communal life, peoples' circumstances and positive environmental change. Though it seems that social enterprises work as charities, they do not. They are businesses but of different sorts. Just like other businesses, social enterprises create and accomplish things that produce capital and generate earnings.
However, their objective is different i.e. they aim to work for making bigger differences in society by reinvesting the generated money to do more good in a number of ways. Social enterprises create employment opportunities for people who are jobless otherwise. They reinvest the earned revenue to accomplish community schemes. They also use the generated money to improve and save the environment.
Above all, social enterprises offer significant services for the destitute and impoverished individuals/families in the society (Borzaga & Defourny 2001). For all these reasons, social enterprise can be categorized among the most exhilarating and rapidly developing movements all over the world. There are both big and small social enterprises ranging from cafes to multinational organizations. They are, in general, started by an individual or a group of passionate, dedicated and determined members.
Social enterprise, if truth be told, is a subdivision of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship can be defined as "an…… [Read More]
Palmeri, C&Rupp, L 2013, May 3, Disney Bangladesh Exit Pressure on Clothes makers Who Stay, Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-03/disney-bangladesh-exit-puts-pressure-on-those-who-may-stay-1-.html
The work of Palmeri and Rupp (2013) is focused on highlighting the issues faced by the multinational organizations while operating in developing markets. It is highly likely for large organizations to develop their overseas presence. However the economically developing markets a number of issues including environmental, infrastructural, and compliance with health and safety standards according to internationally acceptable norms. The research is about the decisions of multinational corporations including Disney, Wal-Mart, and J.C. Penney initiating a closure of their manufacturing sub-contracts with multiple suppliers present in Bangladesh. However Gap and Children's Place Retail Stores Inc. (PLCE) are reported as continuing their operations in the country and providing assistance to improve working conditions.
The incidents of carrying risks for health and safety regarding workers in the Bangladesh market have instigated the concerns of large organizations. Two notable incidents are reported as causing 501 casualties during a building collapse as well as the building fire incident causing 112 deaths. These incidents raised international community concerns about the safety standards followed in the country. It is also noted that the country's economy has gained a growth momentum after governments facilitated international investments.
The corporations are not only informing the consumers of their products that their products were not being manufactured at the incident sites. The contrary view of organizational leaders is based on the principles of providing assistance to the country as well as placing their weights behind the efforts for improving the health and safety standards in the market. It is also argued that while working closely with corporate leaders, pressure groups and other stakeholders it can be an effective approach to mobilize support and as a result the government and local manufactures taking appropriate measures to improve…… [Read More]
Pakistan and Bangladesh
The theme of these articles is a lack of dependable democratic stewardship, and leadership, which includes failure to respond to citizens' needs due to social chaos and civil unrest. Bangladesh is mired in political corruption; Pakistan is engaged in jihadist-related civil strife and has struggled historically with floods, hostility and distrust vis-a-vis India and Afghanistan -- in part due to the use of "relentless propaganda" (Khan, 2010).
In the Khan article Pakistani relations with the U.S. have been strained due to the U.S. support of India, and yet the U.S. needs a strategic relationship with Pakistan. Pilling's article shows that Pakistan has attempted to help the U.S. By disrupting the Taliban and the Green / Bokhari piece reflects that six million people were impacted by floods. Jones points out that the enclaves between India and Bangladesh are "inherently misrepresented/underrepresented" (Jones, 2013). And Mahmud writes that there is so much corruption in Bangladesh that the top leaders of one party (BNP) are "…either behind bars on corruption charges" or they are running away from law enforcement (Mahmud, 2008).
Do I agree or disagree with the article by Plaban Mahmud? I wholeheartedly agree with this article because Bangladesh has had a tragic history of political corruption, or terrible typhoons that have drowned hundreds of thousands and caused cholera outbreaks following the storms. As regards the political corruption, in the 2008 article the government had no choice but to postpone the election and to give in to the corrupt BNP party, simply because if the government did not give in to the unreasonable demands "…strikes and violence would return to the streets of Bangladesh," and hence, the government would be "dysfunctional" (Mahmud). But if a government is forced to bow down to a corrupt political party, it seems that it is already dysfunctional. The BBC reported that Bangladesh is ranked "as the most corrupt country on earth" and that "corruption is widespread" (Rahman, 2014). Meanwhile when an eight-story garment factory building collapsed in Bangladesh on April 24, 2013 "scores of…… [Read More]
Decisions about foreign direct investment can be complex, and require an incredible amount of information in order to evaluate the different options that a company needs to consider. The best methods of evaluation will apply a consistent set of criteria across a number of different variables and use these for all of the different countries. The company will also want to understand which key variables are the most important. How a country scores on a factor is one critical variable, but how important that factor is the final decision is also important. The following paper will work through a framework for understanding the desirability of a country for foreign direct investment, using the nation of Bangladesh as the prompt. The end result will be an example framework that illustrates the scoring system as applied to Bangladesh. In practice, this would then be used to evaluate Bangladesh against other countries that are competing for the business.
The underlying philosophy of this system is that it is a baseline. What this means is that there is no consideration of industry-specific variables. So for example a forestry company would obviously want to know about the nation's loggable forest cover, but this information is not of use in too many other industries, so it would not be included. Likewise, differential tariffs between industries and products are not going to be considered. Thus, issues such as these are going to be covered on an aggregate basis only. Tariffs would be evaluated for example on average tariffs or the country's general approach to free trade.
The framework is going to be built around the variables that are most important to business. Thus, the framework is going to take in demographic, macroeconomic, resource, political and cultural factors into this decision. Within each category there are going to be a number of different variables.…… [Read More]
Audit Management DQ
Consider the governance of the company owning Rana Plaza and describe the regional expectations as well as best practice in this area and the benefits that adoption brings. Evaluate the governance of Rana Plaza during and after the collapse of the building against these and explain how this helped or hindered Rana Plaza.
The management of Rana Plaza failed to ensure employee safety. In such a case, workers and suppliers equate the weakest points in relation to conditions of order and input dependency, footloose sourcing practices, and hand-to-mouth contracting. One of the incidents that happened in 2013 at Sadia Garments Ltd. saw new unionized workers facing aggressive campaigns on factory management (Ayres, 2014). Workers faced threats of violence while lead organizers were sent death threats. Later, one factory supervisor attacked the Union General Secretary for Sadia Garments with a pair of scissors while demanding for the resignation (Cleanclothes.org. (n.d.). Apparel companies have shaky relationships with the major contract manufacturers from low-cost countries and often become transient as they work on contract-to-contract grounds. The deals can last shortly after the brands have a continuous pursuit of lowest cost operations and average thirds or quarters of the brand contractor portfolio turning over each year (Harris & McCaffer, 2013).
The management and governance of any company play a critical role in ensuring that the company follows all the desired industry practices. Sohel Rana owns Rana Plaza, a building that collapsed killing over 1300 people and injuring over 2500 people. Several companies majorly banks and those dealing with garments had rented the facility (Ranaplaza-arrangement.org. (n.d.). The interviewed experts on purchasing and supply in the research refer to relativity in the low industry investment level for supply chain management. As compared to subsequent sectors, there is the lack of awareness of quality issues and reliability of the suppliers in fifth and sixth tiers. The levels of risk awareness within Rana Plaza extend towards the second tier that is beyond a point that the buyers are aware of risky products that face the markets. Some of the brands that were investigation had a policy that does not source cotton from Uzbekistan that is accessible for cotton production involving child labor (Loosemore, 2013). This shows a strong…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the Cold War era and beyond (Wadlow 2003). These foreign policy positions were primarily based on India's official foreign policy of nonalignment, an approach that was adopted early on in an effort to help India maintain its independence and navigate its way in a bipolar world (Ghoshal 2003). According to Ghoshal, India's foreign policy of nonalignment "was aimed at drawing economic and technological aid for development from both powers as well as to provide an alternative model of international relations in a world which was then intensely bipolar" (2003:521). The objectives of India's foreign policy was to establish a buffer zone between the polarized blocs of the international community and minimize the potential for conflict with an ultimate goal of creating a new world order in which there were more than two primary spheres of influence (Ghoshal 2003). According to Ghoshal, the nonalignment stance adopted by India provided the country with influence that far outweighed its economic and military clout. For instance, Ghoshal notes that nonalignment "made it possible for India to maintain normal relations with all the major world powers, with varying degrees of warmth and intimacy, while facilitating the flow of technical and financial assistance from the two ideological blocs. In short, nonalignment gave India the maximum possible dividends in a bipolar world" (2003:521). Clearly, nonalignment during the 20th century was in India's best interests, but nonaligned does not mean disinterested and India's foreign policy has…… [Read More]
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy transportation system occasioned by the globalization trends has immensely increased the modern day slavery. There are between 700,000 to 4 million people who are shipped across borders against they wish on an annual basis (Kegley C.W. & Blanton S.L., 2011:Pp539).This population, upon landing on the other side of the borders or the destination land are subjected to sex slavery, prostitution, become domestic workers, held as child laborers with gross underpayment and in some instances are used as child soldiers. The leading form of human trafficking is sexual exploitation with the majority of the victims being women and children. Forced labor follows after sexual exploitation as a form of human trafficking with majority of the victims here being children. Majority of these victims of modern slavery are sold across the continents but there are some who are victims of interregional as well as domestic trafficking. This vice is a thriving business that is estimated by the UN to be generating between $12…… [Read More]