Caribbean and Filipino Culture
Culture is in the Details
An old expression is that the "devil is in the details," and this is as true in the field of human behavior as it is in any other arena. If one examines any arena of human behavior as it presents itself in different groups then there will always be substantial similarities between the members of the groups. All humans are more alike each other than they are different, and this fact means that the two groups being compared here -- Caribbean and Filipino Latinos -- will share many traits.
Indeed, from the outside (and perhaps even from the inside) these two groups of people may appear very similar to each other. Certainly they share a number of traits in terms of their history and the values that govern their everyday lives as well as influence the deepest values of who they are. Discussing the differences between Caribbean Latinos and Filipino Latinos is a way of delineating the most important things that they see as belonging to them: Writing about how these two groups see themselves is also a way of writing about the complex ways in which identity is constructed by those the intersections of past and present, of distant and near.
The scions of islands, the inheritors of post-imperial cartography, the skilled merchants bantering in a dozen creoles, inhabit their cultural identities in ways that are very different from other Latino groups such as those living in Mexico or Peru. This paper looks very briefly at the ways in which two different groups of Latinos can share so much of both recent and ancient past and yet remain so very different from each other.
However -- and this is the devil in the details -- there are at least as many important distinctions and differences between…… [Read More]
This system of government, with the many separate offices or audiencias each wielding authority largely in their own way in their own district, yet with each audiencia coordinated in its larger efforts and guiding principles by the Council of the Indies, appears to have been a highly successful government. For better or for worse, the Spanish government managed to maintain dominion over much of the Caribbean and in Central and South America for many centuries, and this system of government administration was in place for much of that time (Stearns & Langer 2001). The degree of autonomy that each audiencia enjoyed made it easy for them to govern both effectively and flexibility, responding to issues and opportunities within their district without the need to check with higher authorities in most regards. This greatly increased the efficacy of the overall governmental structure.
This does not mean that there isn't room for improvement in the system of government that the Spanish employed in the Caribbean and throughout the New World, however, and there are some changes that could have made the centralized control of these colonies more of a reality. The widespread nature of the colonies and the independent audiencias is not conducive to the central Spanish government receiving accurate information from the colonies, nor does it help to provide true control over these areas. Adding an additional layer of government with offices that oversaw multiple audiencias could have helped to create a more centralized system, much like state governments oversee (in some respects) individual county or city governments. This would not have led to a major sacrifice of the flexibility held by the audiencias that made them an effective source of government within their districts, but would have enabled greater centralized oversight than was provided by the Council of the Indies. Making this change would have been relatively easy an inexpensive, and could have greatly increased the revenues produced by the different colonies by allowing for more coordinated and cooperative efforts.
The Spanish system of administering government in the Caribbean was highly effective, even if t did appear rather fragmented and haphazard in some aspects. With some changes, it is possible that this government could…… [Read More]
Caribbean cuisine is a rich stew of geographic, political and cultural influence. The different colonial cultures all make a contribution to the cuisines, and local ingredients play a significant role. In addition, the African and Indian workers brought to the region have also made significant contributions to the food of the region. This paper will discuss Caribbean food today and the different influences that have gone into this unique and varied set of cuisines.
Once colonial powers left the Caribbean, nations developed cuisines that were based in large part on the ingredients available. The basic Caribbean meal features a protein, a starch and a legume or vegetable (Houston, 2005). For the most part, this basic meal structure reflects African heritage, in particular in the combination of stews and starches. The African heritage can be seen in the similarity with soul food in the Southern U.S. -- oxtail stew is common to both the Gullah cuisine in South Carolina and to Jamaican cuisine for example. The choice of ingredients often reflects local availability, however. Plantain is common -- Puerto Rican mofongo is mashed plantain similar to the mashed manioc found in West African cuisine. Yuca itself is common in the cuisine of many Caribbean nations, having traveled from Africa with the slaves.
Other dishes are strictly Caribbean, based on ingredients seldom found elsewhere. Ackee is a West African fruit commonly grown in the Caribbean and contributing to Jamaica's ackee and saltfish. Callaloo leaves are widely cultivated in the Caribbean as well, to contribute to the local dishes. Conch has worked its way into Bahamian cuisine and roasted breadfruit into the cuisine of St. Vincent. Fish has been included in the cuisine due to the proximity to the sea. Although fish is being replaced somewhat by beef and other protein sources, "fish frys" are common on some islands as a means of keeping touch with culinary traditions. Other local products that have been incorporated into the cuisine are papaya, chile peppers and allspice.
Sugar plantations gave rise to a dessert culture that is worthwhile. On…… [Read More]
Caribbean use ICT
How can SMEs in (Caribbean) use ICT to achieve competitive advantage?
Literature Review and Conceptual Framework
Research Philosophy and Paradigm
Sampling Techniques and Procedures
Data Analysis and Techniques
Research Ethics Codes and Policies of Research Ethics
Limitations to Methodology
Time Plan and Resources
The emergence of information and communications technologies or ICTs has a significant influence on different industries and organizations all across the globe. ICT refers to technologies, which provide access to information through the use of telecommunications (Maguire, et al., 2007; Chong, et al., 2012). Grandon and Pearson (2004) provide that ICTs are considered as such type of technology that offers organizations a huge range of hardware, telecommunications, and technology applications. This wide range of technologies and products are utilized to establish, analyze, develop, package, distribute, receive, and forward information electronically through emails, websites, social networking, and wireless communication devices. It can be said that the ICT is an important tool as it provides an opportunity for SMEs to improve their competitiveness in the areas of business (Schware, 2003; Ollo-Lopez & Aramendia-Muneta, 2012). The rapidly changing business environment of twenty first century provides the significant importance of adopting ICT to maintain the competitive edge and to establish a wider international network. Sheils, et al. (2003) highlight the effective use of information system and information technology for SMEs in terms of an opportunity for enhancing the ways of conducting business and of increasing competencies.
1.2 Research Aims and Objectives
The research aims and objectives of the proposed study are outlined as follows:
1. To identify the challenges faced by SMEs of Caribbean countries to implement ICT
2. To examine the characteristics of skills and innovation required by SMEs of Caribbean regarding implementation of ICT
3. To evaluate the solutions to overcome the challenges of implementing the ICT ins SMEs of Caribbean countries
4. To analyze the relationship between ICT skills, use,…… [Read More]
Drug trade in the Caribbean Islands
Scenario 1: The political scene
Unfortunately for those aiming to stop the drug exodus from the Caribbean islands into the United States and the drug trade in the region, it has often been the case that many of these governments were corrupt, encouraging thus money laundering and drugs for their own high profits, to the degree that they were themselves part of the chain. Additionally, in many countries, the democracy is unstable and unable to cope with its own, day-to-day problems, let alone fight drug trade. I am thinking here for example of the situation in Haiti, where a bloody civil war has been going on for several years, but the case is not singular.
What if governmental corruption and encouragement of the drug trade had not taken place in Bahamas much throughout the 70s and 80s?
In an investigation by the Royal Commission of Inquiry, the Prime Minister Pindling was found to have spent between 1982 and 1984 seven times more money than he had actually earned. Much of the officials of his government, as well as the Police Force and the Customs Department were found to be involved at some degree in the drug trade. If this had not happened, the drug trade would have not secured such a steady ground in Bahamas. Indeed, when making this assertion I have several reasons to back me up. As I have mentioned in the brief description of the scandal, many of the high ranking officials were involved in the trade. As it was, there was no better encouragement for the drug dealers to use the island in there trade. A strong and incorruptible government would have set the basis for a serious customs control, a police force that could operate anything that went past the customs and a government ready to enforce severe laws for those participating in the trade and even harsher laws for the officials involved. This would have probably wiped Bahamas off the drug trade map. As it was, Pindling won the 1987 elections, blaming the United States for its inability to control the drug problem. Many of the former officials involved in the scandal were rehabilitated and the drug trade continued.
2. What if…… [Read More]
Caribbean literature has been considered to reflect its political, cultural and linguistic fragmented region; this is due to its uniquely diverse and varied background (Jonnasaint, 2007). The Caribbean nations have undergone periods of long colonization, there is still a debate over which countries comprise of the Caribbean. The Caribbean culture has been influenced by its colonizers; these include the Dutch, Spain, England, and France. All of these bring the struggle for the need of a solid cultural identity; this can be seen in Caribbean literature. These influences have also been brought about by a culture of slavery and political tyranny which continued even after the countries have gained their independence; this gave a rise to their literature which is concerned with nation-building, ethnic-cultural identity and politics (Jonnasaint, 2007). Caribbean authors write in English, yet the islands are also home to Spanish- and Dutch-speaking authors, many of whose writings also speak about their concerns towards national and cultural identity by means of both prose and poetry. A main focus in the writing of these authors, particularly those who write in Spanish, is the need to articulate their awareness of the continued existence of inequality in society, and they often use colonial stereotypes in their writing to highlight this awareness (Jonnasaint, 2007). Due to the political unrest in the Caribbean and conflict which still is an issue of the islands, many authors were forced to leave their countries. The works of Aime Cesaire, George Lamming and Derek Walcott are representative of the voice of the Caribbean people, and this can be seen in their writings through their different styles.
Aime Cesaire is a Caribbean poet whom writes in French; he known as a man of resentment, he gives his expression of his tragic views on the black condition (Irele, 2008). This style of writing has determined his use of words which can be described…… [Read More]
Caribbean Express Shipping
The forthcoming study will present a training program, designed to specifically address and help foster changes that need to be made in three Palm Beach, Florida CES stores which currently experience a reported increase in damages. Regardless of the instructional methods the instructional designers decide to employ, the ADDIE model or a derivative of it gives designers the foundation to construct any curriculum. Classroom lectures, as well as an organization's training sessions begin and end with the same basics in the ADDIE model. Using components from the ADDIE and a number of other models, the proposed study will develop a training program that will address current performance problems relating to damages and secure solutions to those challenges; while also equipping and empowering CES employees to package items in a proficient manner that helps ensure help ensure the safety and security of items during handling and shipment
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement of the Problem 1
Purpose of the Proposed Study 2
Study Aim and Objectives 3
Chapter 2: Literature Review 5
Introducing the Need for Change 5
The ADDIE Model 7
FIT Model 11
The Systematic Training Model 12
Chapter 3: Methodology 16
Types of Analysis 16
Instruments 17… [Read More]
(4) Latin Music (15,16,17,18)- Write a short research essay on the Latin American composer of your choice. Be sure to include the following;
* Basic biographical data
* a work representative of that composer's style, with specific reference to what can be heard in the score
* That composer's significance both in Latin America and internationally.
One of the most compelling figures in Latin American music is the irrepressible Carlos Santana. From his roots as a psychedelic scenemaker in the 1960s to his rebirth as a pop music crossover in the late 1990s, Carlos Santana has long been central to the infusion of Latin sounds into mainstream music. The Mexican-born Santana began his career in Southern California, assembling percussively-based groups from his neighborhood and working his way up to the massing scene in Northern California. By the time he was leading a band playing under the name Santana, he was in San Francisco on culturally important stages at the Fillmore, the Winterland and Cow Palace. He would become the first Latin American music icon of the counterculture, bringing the tones of Tejano and Salsa to both artistic and commercial music-making communities.
(5) Native American Music (19,20,21)- After viewing the segment from the Pow-wow video "Into the circle: An introduction to Native American Pow-wow," write a short essay summarizing the historical information given on the beginings of Pow-wows in Oklahoma.
(6) Popular Music (25,26,27,28) - Compare Big Mama Thornton or Little Richard's recording of Hound Dog with that of Elvis. In what ways does each resemble the other and what ways are they different?
Elvis would be in many ways faithful in his version of "Hound Dog" to that of Big Mama Thornton, channeling a similar vocal ferocity in his take. But as is almost universally true when a white artist has recorded black music, there is a musical sanitation and a lyrical sanitation, both of which render the music more palatable to white audiences. There is a sexuality and abandon to the version by Thornton which is a feature common to black versions of songs ultimately made more…… [Read More]
Only Michener could so exquisitely bring the violent, exciting history of the attractive Caribbean to life. Swaying away from the European Courts of the 15th century that first claimed the area, to the Islands themselves, we lookout at the outburst of the magnificent sugar farm constructed on the backs of slaves, the bloodstained and triumphant revolt in Haiti in 1800.
And in recent times, the diffusion of the Rastafarian belief, the mass migration from Cuba ensuing the revolt and the general discontent of Caribbean people.
Strewn from beginning to end are engaging representation of historical heroes as they battle over against governmental, financial and ethnic persecution and cruelty.
In Caribbean, James A. Michener's engaging and interesting combination of truth and fantasy brings to life the imperious, unforgettable story of a land in search of its future.
Caribbean is a typical Michener book. He is the finest when it comes to narrate a story of a place, not of an individual.
Caribbean is a very lengthy book, elucidating roughly a millenium of history of one of the most engaging and charming places on Earth.
In this novel not only do we visit a wide array of islands, and other Caribbean location such as Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, Panama, and the coast of Colombia.
We also make widespread journey to such countries as Great Britain, Spain at the time of the Spanish Persecution, and France at the time of the French Revolution.
In the "Caribbean" Michener is able, through sixteen short stories, to hold forth what befall on the different islands and principal parts of the continent in places like northern Colombia and eastern Mexico, since the time of the pre-Colombian Indians, fleeting through Spanish rule, the attacks of English and French sea robbers and criminals, the mistreatment and indignation of the black people turned into slaves, till communism in the form of Castro in Cuba.
Moreover, he is able to narrate and relate all what was happening in the Caribbean connected to what was happening in the principal countries in Europe, and the mounting partaking of the United States in the worldwide scenario.
Altogether this was an engaging and…… [Read More]
Describe the personality of a famous Caribbean person from the perspective of two of the theories discussed in this course (not trait theory) and then conclude with your own impression of the adequacy of those two theories' explanation of the individual's personality.
When most people hear the name Bob Marley, they will often associate it with a singer who is: pointing out the social ills of the 1970's or the genre of music that he helped to make famous (Reggae). However, underneath it all he was more than just a great entertainer and song writer. As there were numerous aspects of his personality, that helped to define the music and his legacy.
Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that Bob Marley and the Wailers have sold 21 million albums since 1991. At the same time, Marley has received a number of favorable distinctions including: a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he was inducted into the Rock N Roll Hall of Fame, he is the recipient of a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and he has been honored with the Jamaican Order of Merit (one of the highest distinctions given in Jamaica). These different elements are important, because they are showing how Bob Marley would help to redefine an entire genre of music. (Moskowitz, 2007, pg. xii)
However, what made him larger than life were his personality traits that he exhibited. This created a sense of awe about the man and the ideas that he left behind. Over the course of time this helped him in characterizing the music and the message. Once this occurred, is when his popularity soared, as he became larger than life. To fully understand Bob Marley requires examining his personality in comparison with two different theories that were discussed in class…… [Read More]
Therefore, when the opportunity presents itself, as happened when coffee arrived, the group in question takes it upon itself to take control of the country. Of special interest is the note at the end of the article, when in 1944 a new wave of optimism broke forth. Guatemala, though, remains poor today, and it will be interesting to see if the reason is that the political structure has remained unchanged, despite this new optimism that was emerging at the time.
Puerto Rico - March 3
It is interesting to note the difference between the way that Puerto Rico has developed in relation to the other former Spanish colonies in Central America and the Caribbean. The United States had begun in the late 19th century to assert itself politically and economically in the region, but it was not until the Spanish-American war that Puerto Rico became part of the equation. Unlike other nations that have attained independence, Puerto Rico instead finds itself in a unique situation as a commonwealth.
The relationship between the U.S. And PR had improved, as colonial biases have begun to fade. There is yet, though, unwillingness on the part of the U.S. And Puerto Rico alike to grant the island more political power. The present situation seems untenable but yet no better solutions have appeared.
The article, however, does not fully address the issue. It spends a great deal of time dealing with the dull machinery of politics, yet the issue of Puerto Rico is directly related to the Puerto Rican culture. It affects the culture and is in turn affected by it. The ramifications for the islanders do not enter into the article, and this actually seems to reflect the current political reality. When Puerto Ricans go the polls on the issue of independence, do they not base their decisions on the impact such a vote would have on their day-to-day lives? I would have loved more insight on the non-political side of this discussion.
At the heart of this article is the question of how an ethnicity is defined. It was interesting to note the Cuban scientist who claimed that all Cuban Indians had been exterminated by 1550. Yet, clearly this was not the case. When we, of European descent, look back on…… [Read More]
Haiti Jamaica Comparison
Jamaica and Haiti share a common history of British and American influence. While both countries have been subject to a degree of political and economic instability, Haiti has a lengthy history of political oppression and economic chaos that continues today. Similarly, while both countries have ongoing relationships with the United States, Jamaica's relationship is much more stable. Today, Haiti's economic and political future seems uncertain, while Jamaica is a relatively stable and prosperous nation.
Jamaica - History
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Jamaica's history was dominated by the English, the slave trade and democratic socialism. At the beginning of the 1800s, Jamaican slaves were subject to terrible treatment, and a slave revolts were common. During the largest of these revolts, the 1831 Christmas Rebellion, over 20,000 slaves murdered planters and destroyed plantations. As retribution, over 400 slaves were hanged, and the resulting outcry in England forced the Jamaican parliament to end slavery in 1834 (Lonely Planet, Jamaica).
The resulting economic transition to wage labor was largely chaotic, as former slaves chose to leave poor wages on plantation estates. White plantation owners were the only people with voting power. Conditions on the island remained poor and naval blockades during the American Civil War cut off vital supplies and made conditions even worse. The Morant Bay Rebellion resulted in public executions, hangings, and destruction that forced England to send more "enlightened" governors to Jamaica (Lonely Planet, Jamaica).
The Great Depression hurt a recovering economic recovery in Jamaica, but WWII improved the economy as the island supplied food and raw materials to Britain. In 1944, adult suffrage came to Jamaica, and the island was given virtual autonomy from Britain in 1947. The island moved toward democratic socialism in the 1970s, and inflation and unemployment resulted in political instability. The U.S. government became unhappy with Jamaica's…… [Read More]
Black slavery in the Antilles helped define Caribbean culture. Most people living in Haiti, Jamaica, and the smaller islands of the Caribbean are descended from these slaves, something that can't be said for most of the American south. To understand this culture requires a careful analysis of the sugar trade, colonial powers, and the nature of society in these colonies.
Sugar cane became a profitable commodity in the Caribbean in the 1640's, when French and English exporters switched to cane production from indigo, tobacco and other goods. At the time, prohibitions on trade with other European powers were loosely enforced. According to economic historian Robert Batie, French and English colonies "experienced the same economic trends...since their settlers lived under similar free market institutions, raised nearly identical commodities, and bought their slaves from and sold their products to the same Dutch merchants." (Batie 38) Colonies switched to sugar production as tobacco commodity prices declined over the course of 20 years. This happened as settlers flocked to the New World to become planters and flooded the market. Colonies profited as long as they produced a product that was able to bear the costs of transatlantic shipping. Batie claims that under 20,000 Englishmen and as many Frenchmen dwelt in the Caribbean by 1640, and that only Barbados and St. Christopher contained substantial populations. Of these, St. Christopher was both English and French, the former displacing the latter in 1713. (Batie 45)
Unlike tobacco farms, sugar production required a prohibitive amount of investment capital. Sugar production necessitated the hire of individuals familiar with the manufacturing process. The smallest competitive sugar plantations contained several dozen workers. This lead to the establishment of a planter elite, as the wealthy were the only ones capable of borrowing such capital. Initially, indentured servants, including 12 thousand soldiers captured by Oliver Cromwell in 1647, worked sugar plantations. (Batie 47) However, price fluctuations in commodities such as sugar and indigo discouraged future white settlement and caused many whites to flee during price slumps. Planters quickly realized that the only social mechanism that could keep a cost-effective workforce in the islands so as to continue planting sugar cane was captivity.
According to Tomich's "Slavery in the Circuit of Sugar,"
Sugar was the foundation of the golden age of West Indian prosperity during the eighteenth century.…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Caribbean: Effects on Culture, Race and Labour
Origins of slavery
The Caribbean slavery began in the 16th and 17th century during the emergence of piracy. The basis for the modern Caribbean dates back to the slave trade and slavery. During the 16th century, outsiders settled in the Caribbean. This was a period characterised the European powers struggling for trade supremacy and the utilization of newly found resources. During the end of this century, sugar export emerged as a highly profitable trade as the cultivation of sugar developed into the main industry. The earnings from this trade were essential as they assisted in funding the Britain's and other European country's industrial revolution. Growing and producing sugar was not an easy task (Dowling, 2005).
This is since the plantations were large and needed to use the combination of agriculture and the sugar cane's mechanised processing. This meant that the semi-industrial process needed an intensive labour force. This was the main reason behind the massive expansion of the 17th and 18th century slave trade. The trade became popular and led to slavery in the Caribbean spreading its roots. The plantation owners decided to import people from the West Africa coastal regions as the native people were unsuitable for slavery in the Caribbean. This resulted to Africans forcefully becoming slaves and enduring torture in order to cope with the increasing slave demand (Dowling, 2005).
Promotion of slave trade
The emergence of piracy resulted to the promotion of the slave trade and sugar plantation. In order to promote the trade between American, European and Caribbean countries, the farm owners had to utilize a large workforce. This workforce was to cultivate a considerable amount of sugar cane along with other crops. The increase in the demand of sugar cane was proportional to the need for workforce. People began to understand the usefulness of resources in the Caribbean as more sugar and various relevant firms emerged. This resulted to the procumbent of labour force from outside. The main reason was that the indigenous people were unfit for slavery since they resented such an act. The promotion of the Caribbean slaver was due to the fact that the…… [Read More]
He suggests that other reasons were secondary and complementary to economic goals. First and foremost, Americans were interested in enriching themselves and the policy of the government reflected this goal.
Healy agrees that there were economic concerns but he argues that there was multiplicity of goals. He specifically emphasizes that Americans were concerned about German threat to American interests in the region. He also notes that Americans viewed Central Americans with disdain and racial arrogance, so their goal in the region was to "civilize" them and develop economically. While I believe these are noteworthy points, they do not negate the fact that economic concerns were at the forefront of U.S. policy in the Caribbean. American leaders were aware that German military threat to American national integrity was severely limited. The threat Germany posed was directed at American economic interests in the region.
American racial arrogance also does not negate the fact that American policy in the region was motivated by economic concerns. Racism simply complemented American economic goals because American leaders believed in the kind of Caribbean development that suited Americans. They did not care about Central American views on their own development (except for some local elites who did not mind American military intervention). Basically, American leaders believed that economic development of the Caribbean (again, in the manner understood by Americans) was fully compatible with American economic interests. Viewing Central Americans with racial arrogance was a convenient way of morally justifying American goals in the region.
Works… [Read More]
" Yun's work focuses most of the attention upon Chinese workers in Cuba. She bases her writing on the primary source of testimonies, petitions and depositions by Chinese workers in Cuba, highlighting many aspects of this group's suffering that have been either ignored or unknown to date.
One aspect of Chinese and Indian slavery is for example the internal diversity within the Coolie culture, mainly, according to the author, as a result of the diversity of situations to which these slaves were subjected
. Yun also speaks about the power relations between Chinese slaves and their owners. This takes a particularly distinctive form for the Chinese, who were removed from their families and their homes with little hope of returning. This lack of hope was the basis of power for the Chinese Coolie slaves. They had little respect for their individual lives, but worked collectively when revolting against their masters. Form the slave owner point-of-view, the result of such revolts was part of the "cost of production"
In return, slave owners maintained control by dividing the revolting workforce by various means; either by physically removing the revolting few to different work stations, by execution, or subordinating them by punishment. According to Yun, the replacement of Chinese slaves was relatively easy and cheap enough to make it a viable as opposed to other means of control. The power of slaves as incurred by an individual lack of respect for their own lives was therefore effectively countermeasured by a similar lack of respect for human life by slave owners themselves. The power of the latter lay in their economic prowess and the ability to replace slaves whenever this was necessary.
B). Slavery in the Danish West Indies
Gunvor Simsonsen's writing in Skin Colour as a Tool of Regulation and Power explores the central role of skin color in the Danish West Indies. According to the article, the social status of a person was directly related to the color of his or her skin. In addition, living conditions and opportunities were also directly affected in this way. Being seen as inferior, black people were then either slaves or indentured servants. Simsonsen however emphasizes that the relationships informed by skin color should not be seen in simplistic terms. While racism is definitely an aspect of this relationship, there are also various subtle…… [Read More]
CIBC - Barclays
The Caribbean operations of CIBC and Barclay's were merged in 2002, but in 2006 Barclay's exercised an option to exit the union, resulting in CIBC's takeover of the operation, which is known as FirstCaribbean International Bank (No author, 2002). At the time of the merger, the two companies believed that there was an opportunity in the market to build a Caribbean bank -- in this case with operations in 15 countries and aggregated assets of $9.9 USD (Ibid).
Most Caribbean economies are small, with limited natural resources. Such economies are frequently dependant on tourism and the agriculture sectors. Economic growth in the Caribbean is tied to the state of the economy in United States (Singh, 2004) as well as countries with strong ties to the region, like Canada and the UK. In 2002, the American economy was sluggish and by 2006 it was robust. This indicates that Barclays entered the deal in a down market and exited when prospects for the Caribbean economies looked especially strong. Many Caribbean countries were at this point becoming involved in globalization, in particular opening their borders to international capital markets (Singh, 2004).
The banking industry is dominated by Canadian banks -- Scotiabank and the Royal Bank also being major players in the region along with CIBC. These banks have come to dominate the market, with perhaps a handful of regional banks as distant competitors. For CIBC, the merger was a means to strengthen its presence in the region, and this was expected to put it squarely in competition with the other two Canadian banks for the Caribbean market. For Barclay's, the initial merger probably offered an out as much as anything. The company had been active in the region since the early 19th century, but was losing ground competitively. The two companies were around the same size in the Caribbean, and Barclays had a notably strong operation. However, while the Canadian banks view their Caribbean presence as an extension of their domestic business, Barclays viewed the business as relatively minor in the scope of its global operations, and not a key point of focus. This perhaps is what motivated Barclay's to exit the partnership…… [Read More]
steel drum, or steel pan, is a unique instrument commonly heard in Caribbean music today, and is one of the most recently "invented" instruments in the world, when taken in its current form. However, the roots of the instrument date as far back as the 18th century. This paper will examine the roots of the steel drum, as well as the evolution of the instrument its self. Additionally, this paper will examine the steel drum's impact on the Trinidad society.
The steel drum claims origin on the island of Trinidad, located in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela. This island and the smaller island of Tobago, located 19 miles northeast of Trinidad, make up the single nation state of Trinidad and Tobago. To understand the evolution of the steel drum in this area, it is important to evaluate the political history of the islands, since it was that very political situation which helped the area to develop the instrument (Goddard, 1991).
In the late 1400's, Christopher Columbus reached Trinidad, around 1498. At the time, the area was inhabited by Caribs. It was not until 1592 that the first Spanish settlement was developed in the area. For the next several decades, the area was greatly underdeveloped as a nation. In 1783, Spain opened the island to Catholic settlers, many of whom were plantation owners and operators (Rouff, 1972). With them, the Catholic settlers from islands such as Grenada, St. Lucia, and Guadeloupe brought their enslaved African workers. With sugar as its primary product, the island quickly became a full-scale plantation society, which helped the Port of Spain become a prime commercial center for the area (Stuempfle, 1995).
The enslaved workers on the plantations greatly outnumbered the French and Spanish plantation owners, as did the freed Africans of the area, who had quickly grown to be plantation owners themselves. However, by 1979, the British had captured the island, and in the following time period, quickly moved into the area, bringing with them…… [Read More]
There is an open drug culture on the island that celebrates the use of marijuana, and no one knows how much of the plant is grown on this island, alone. As one drug enforcement manual notes, "Tiny Jamaica has been known to produce upwards of 300 metric tons in a year."
The author also notes that the country is the major source of marijuana in the United States, as well, along with supplying several other countries, as well.
The problem is so bad in the country that it is the top priority of its citizens, who do not trust the government and have not trusted it in a long time. The two authors state, "In 1991, Jamaican pollster and university professor Carl Stone carried out a major survey of public attitudes towards the police and the court system. The results were extremely discouraging: the public trusted neither the police, the courts, nor the justice system."
The situation is still the same today. Jamaica has one of the highest rates of murder in the world, the drug lords literally run the island because they have more money and firepower than the police could ever hope of having, and they reign over the people through fear and intimidation.
The Sources - Dominica
During the last decade, Dominica has become another major source of drugs in the Caribbean. Another author notes, "Mervin Paul, the Director of Dominica's National Drug Prevention Unit, stated 'there are clear signs of a worsening drug problem' and that Dominica has become a transshipment point between South and North America."
The Dominican government is woefully underfunded and they did not even adopt a plan for attacking the drug problem until 1999. They have no military, and one coast guard ship that is disabled, so drug traffickers pretty much have the run of the country. It is interesting to note that as the problem of drug trafficking has grown in Dominica, so has crack cocaine addiction, which had not previously been a problem in the country.
Dominica is also a major source of money laundering in the area. It was so bad in the last decade that United States Financial Action Task Force (FATF) placed the country on its blacklist of states prone to money laundering. While the nation has passed stricter money-laundering laws…… [Read More]
Royal Caribbean operates cruise ships. This is a perishable good, so that unsold capacity cannot be recovered at a later date, once the ship departs. The revenue mix includes the fare paid for passage, and the onboard purchases while include alcohol, shore excursions and other incidentals. Royal Caribbean is one of the world's largest cruise companies, and operates a number of different brands, serving different target markets -- Royal Caribbean is the mainstream brand and Celebrity is the upscale brand. Premium ships are nicer vessels, with more experienced staff, and greater attention paid to the menu and the entertainment options.
Reducing costs is another means by which companies in the industry earn profit. Cruise companies have high fixed costs associated with their vessels. Thus, controlling variable costs becomes an important profit driver in the industry. Most of the revenues are sold as a package, so once onboard passengers receive their food and a lot of different entertainment options without additional cost. Thus, the company needs to ensure that the patrons receive what they perceive to be good value for the price they pay. This emphasizes the need for economies of scale, especially in the mainstream market. In the premium market, cost control is less necessary because prices are higher and the customers are somewhat less price sensitive. That said, the vessel still represents a high fixed cost, and unused capacity is a critical issue.
The cruise company therefore looks at a few different variables in their operations. These include fare revenue per cabin, other revenue per passenger and total revenue per passenger, and total cost per passenger. The ships run 365 days a year, so these metrics need to be gathered constantly, and adjustments made while the vessel is still operating. Thus, there is significant incentive to fill the vessel, while at the same time doing so profitably.
Travel agents are critical to the marketing of cruises. There are a few reasons for this. First, the cruise demographic skews older, and that market is comfortable with using travel agents. Where younger generations might go online, the cruise market still relies fairly heavily on travel agents to help search for the best cruise deals. The agent therefore works with the customer to outline a number of different…… [Read More]