Caribbean Essays (Examples)

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Immigration of Puerto Ricans in to America

Words: 2138 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28468934

Puerto Rico is a Caribbean Island which was formerly settled by two Native American tribes, Caribe and Arawak. In 1493, this Island was captured by Spain and up until about 400 years it was ruled by the Spanish. The native settlers during this time period had become slaves to the Spanish and with time as their population began to lessen, outsiders including black slaves were imported and the Indian race became less prominent. (Whalen)

The association between the United States and Puerto Rico goes back to the times of the Spanish-American war which took place in 1898. As a result of this war and due to the terms which were presented under the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain had to let go of Puerto Rico. Since then it has been an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. (Duany)

For Puerto Rico, the 20th century started under the rule of the United States. The president had elected a Governor, but soon afterwards Puerto Rico was given a civilian popular government. In 1906, the U.S. president, Theodore Roosevelt suggested that Puerto Ricans become U.S. citizens and soon afterwards, in 1917 all Puerto Ricans were granted with citizenship. (Whalen)

The…… [Read More]


Aranda, Elizabeth. Emotional Bridges to Puerto Rico: Migration, Return Migration, and the Struggles of Incorporation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print.

Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Print.

Flores, Juan. Divided Arrival: Narratives of the Puerto Rican Migration, 1920-1950. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2003. Print.

Whalen, Carmen. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Temple University Press, 2005. Print.
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Eclac the Economic Commission for

Words: 2786 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95321535

5% unemployment figure, 7.6% inflation ratio, and $4.5 trillion in debt, Guatemala is forced to rely on external factors to survive.

National exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity and the 9/11 events in the United States have severely impacted tourist trade.


Venezuela is a federal republic with over 24 million citizens, 67% of which live in poverty and 14% are unemployed.

The GDP is made up primarily of services with petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, and agricultural products composing the primary exports. Tourism is impacted negatively by the events of terrorism and the typical 587,000 visitors each year has dwindled considerably.

The Argument

ECLAC's annual calendar reflects multiple meetings, lectures, educational workshops, conferences, seminars, and training sessions. Nowhere is there found a work initiative, a concerted on-site initiative or focused fund raiser, or any effort of measurable practicality.

According to the ECLAC mandate,

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC):

a) Provides substantive secretariat services and documentation for the Commission and its subsidiary bodies;

b) Undertakes studies, research and other support activities within the terms of reference of the Commission;

Promotes economic and social development through regional and…… [Read More]


Altimir, Oscar & Sourrouille, Juan. Measuring Levels of Living in Latin America -- an Overview of Main Problems. The World Bank -- Working Paper no. 3. World Bank. Washington, D.C. 1980. Benson Collection. HC 59.7 a 47, 1980 LAC. (6)

Altimir, Oscar. The Extent of Poverty in Latin America. World Bank Staff Working Papers - Number 522. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. March 1982. (4-6)

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique & Faletto, Enzo. Depend ncia e Desenvolvimento na America Latina. Zahar Editores. Sao Paulo, 1970-73. Benson Collection HC 125 C3413 LAC. (1-3)

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. Dependency Revisited. Institute of Latin American Studies - the University of Texas at Austin. Austin, 1973. Benson Collection HC 125 C34162 LAC. (1)
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World Regional Geography

Words: 2680 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29821841

Regional Geography

Why could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.

The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very first prokaryotic life-forms which show up in the Precambrian rocks of South Africa, to the first primates, ancestors of humans and, indeed, the first members of our own genus and species. Africa's most typical landforms are plains or low hills, so lowland forests are widespread in both moist and dry…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.

2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.

3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
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Faculty Profile She May Not

Words: 827 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76756195

The one-time immigration lawyer moonlighted as an editor at the Latin American Review Press and was impressed with her boss, a 90-year-old woman. This experience has inspired Mahler, who eventually wants to have her own journal or press.

This independent streak dates to her upbringing. "I was a very latchkey kid," she explains, and was raised by her siblings. As a result, she was a bit of a neighborhood terror as well. "I even had my own army of 1st graders that I made do push-ups and if they didn't, I sent them to jail, which was the jungle gym."

For now, however, her focus is on Emory and her family. She married her high school sweetheart, Andrew Mahler, and the couple now reside in Stockbridge. Anna wants to focus on building bonds with her students as well. "I hope to make lasting personal and professional relationships and contribute to colleague's work and students. I want to inspire the same interest in my students that has been inspired in me."

Her personal interests beyond Hispanic and Caribbean literature include "some grandma things," as she puts it, like making jams. "I like to garden, too, even though I don't know what…… [Read More]

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Religion Comparing and Contrasting Vodou

Words: 2523 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49455140


Both religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms by which that particular Orisha or Loa is invoked in a ceremony. Other ritual components of Vodou and Santeria rites include ritual baths often prescribed by consulted Loas and Orishas, ritual cleansing of living areas, and the use of amulets and charms -- in one Vodou ceremony a congregant receives…… [Read More]


1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.

2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print

3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.

4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010
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Juan Bosch When Juan Bosch

Words: 3298 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24367632

" However, Bosch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, Bosch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.

The fact that Juan Bosch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, Bosch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the Beautiful Soul of Don Damian), Bosch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with a critical eye while his survivors lament with "troubling predictability the passing of his beautiful soul." Thus, it is evident that Juan Bosch was also a philosopher, who was concerned about the welfare of the human soul.

Bosch's humanism also led him to closely examine and reflect on multiple aspects…… [Read More]


Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:

Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural

Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
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Navies in American Revolution for Hundreds of

Words: 4742 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12678935

Navies in American Revolution

For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, British maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the Bourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like Britain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep harbors and security from aggressive neighbors that Germany, France and Russia lacked. This allowed them to concentrate on trade and commerce, and to develop powerful mercantile classes that won a share of power in government.[footnoteRef:1] Britain and Holland were the "first supreme maritime powers of the modern age," succeeded by…… [Read More]


Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.

Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.

Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.

Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
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Media the Issue Itself and

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71005822

One reporter for the New York Daily News rants, "Come on, let's be serious…if anything is clear, it is that the trip of the famous couple to Havana has exposed the travel ban as what it is: a senseless, anachronistic and anti-democratic policy, contrary to U.S. interests and values," (Ruiz, 2013).

What was done to resolve the controversy?

There has yet to be a clear resolution to the controversy, but the expression of symbolic free speech on the part of Beyonce and Jay-Z has deepened the discourse about the purpose and effectiveness of the Cuba embargo. The celebrity visit has caused new dialogue about Cuban-American relations and the meaning behind the ongoing travel ban Many Americans do not give much thought to the travel ban; but Cuban-Americans take the ban personally. Now that the Cold War is over, it does not seem to make much sense to have an embargo. The United States does business, and allows travel to, many nations with questionable human rights. Even the United States is culpable of human rights abuses; and ironically some of the grossed abuses are perpetrated on Cuban soil in the Guantanamo Bay facility.

Opinion and Conclusion

Beyonce and Jay-Z had every…… [Read More]


Boesveld, S. (2013). Beyonce and Jay-Z's Cuba jaunt sparks uproar as U.S. politicians accuse Obama of breaking tourism embargo. National Post. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online:

Brown, H. (2013). How the GOP response to Beyonce's Cuba trip highlights broken policy. Think Progress. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Hudson, D.L. (n.d.). Posts tagged 'nonverbal expression.' Inside the First Amendment. Retrieved online:

Peralta, E. (2013). Treasury: Jay-Z and Beyonce Traveled to Cuba on U.S.-Approved Trip. NPR: The Two-Way. Retrieved online:
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Wars of Principles the Falklands and Malvinas

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76082748

Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas

Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great British, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from Bermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind British territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of its centuries-old imperialistic ambitions was not undertaken in vain. In the case of British engagement with Argentina, which began, like so many similar conflicts between European nations and the natives of the newly discovered American continent1, with the United Kingdom's claim of sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in 1833, a…… [Read More]


Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of

1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.

Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.
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Political Status of PR

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49840707

Puerto Rico became a possession of the United States after the Spanish-American War in 1898, but has never been fully incorporated into the Union (Pantojas-Garcia, 2013). It later became a Commonwealth in 1952, a status it maintains to this day. The subject of the status of Puerto Rico has, since that time, been controversial. There have been multiple referendums on the subject, the latest in 2012, but as yet there has not been a change in the status of Puerto Rico. The 2012 referendum indicated a majority of Puerto Ricans want the status of their territory changed, with most preferring full statehood. Yet this number is not sufficient to break what is essentially a stalemate, and there are other options as yet on the table. This paper will look at the issue of the stalemate, its causes, and will explore the ideas of solutions.

Analysis of History

Puerto Ricans are essentially faced with several options with respect to their future political status, ranging from the status quo to statehood to full-fledged independence. The four that have appeared on the official plebiscites (not all on the same one) are commonwealth, statehood, independence and a concept known as free association. Commonwealth is…… [Read More]


Davilla, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Temple University Press: Philadelphia.

Garrett, R. (2011). Political status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from

Pantojas-Garcia, E. (2013). The Puerto Rico status question: Can the stalemate be broken? Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. Vol. 1 (2) 41-52.
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European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al., 2011).

Current Relationship between EU and OCTs

Although there exist great differences between today's OCT and ACP states but still the recent Overseas Association Decision issued on 27 November 2001 is basically based on a loom which is related to the mutual relationship between the EU and the African, Caribbean…… [Read More]


Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
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Foundation of Peace

Words: 7104 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18200902


Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.

Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island of Hispaniola has played host to two separate and distinct societies that we now know as the nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. At first encounter, and without the benefit of historical background and context, most observers find it incongruous that two such disparate nations - one speaking French…… [Read More]


"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.

Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office

Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
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Haiti and Dominican Republic Future Political-Economic Integration

Words: 5957 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38573829

Haiti and Dominican Republic: Future Political-Economic Integration

Haiti Dominican Republic, a future political economic integration

Domestic and regional political processes and competition between different interest groups aid in the explanation of change and development processes or lack of the two in Haiti. Political economy and analytical frameworks contribute in making links between the underlying factors and the impact of development in a public manner. Each country has bodies charged with the aim of promoting political and economic integration with an aim of achieving positive results and limiting the negative impact

A combination of political and economic integration promotes sustainability of a country or nation by generation of higher income and facilitation of clean energy. It also promotes peace and harmony in the country and between the country and its neighbours. However, economic integration may cause degradation of natural resources because of exploitation and bring inequity in the region. All that determines the outcome of economic and political integration are the policy enacted to guide and guard the process. Development and enactment of effective environmental policies may bring both negative and positive impact of Haiti Dominican Republic integration. This indicates that economic and regional integration highly promotes sustainable in Haiti and…… [Read More]


Accilien, Ce-cile, Jessica Adams, Elmide Me-le-ance, and Jean-Pierre Ulrick. 2006.

Revolutionary freedoms. Coconut Creek, FL: Caribbean Studies Press.

Clammer, Paul, Michael Grosberg, and Jens Porup. 2008. Dominican Republic & Haiti.

Footscray, Vic: Lonely Planet.
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Abolition of Slavery Abolition of

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72178216

The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. While demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. When Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. While tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.

The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of millions of Africans and indigenous peoples in the Americas coincided with the rise of Capitalism. Capitalism emphasized the importance of not just acquiring wealth but also of maximizing profit. The importance of maximizing profit became a value to be shared by Europeans. It became part of material culture. As this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.

Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
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Cruise Line Industry the Objective

Words: 2119 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8097498

(Ibid; paraphrased) on a more positive note, according to one report: "Cruise ships have become one of the many options for corporate meeting planners when faced with a decision regarding a destination for meetings and incentives (employee rewards). In the past five years, all major cruise lines have unveiled mega cruise ships to attract a piece of the more than $20 billion corporate meeting and incentives market (Buia, 2001; as cited by Phillips, 2005).


To summarize the competitive rivalry in the industry is fierce although the threat of new entrants is highly improbable due to concentration in the industry. The industry as stated by the Abacus system report will need to concentrate on luring female travelers and retirees into booking their cruise lines. Younger travelers will be targeted with budget cruise offers. Fuel costs, passport requirements, and environmental concerns, terrorists concerns, and natural disasters have likelihood to impact the industry's profit margin. Internet booking of cruises also has and will continue to impact the order book for cruise lines. All three cruise lines focused upon in this analysis will remain strong due to their membership in the Cruise Line International Association (CLIA). The Royal…… [Read More]


Which Way is the Travel Industry Headed? (2005) eMarketer. 14 Nov 2005 Online available at

Robertson, Graeme (2006) Cruise Ship Tourism Industry Lighthouse Foundation for the Seas and Oceans. Online available at

New Breed of Travelers (2006) Abacus International 25 Feb 2006 Online available at

The World Cruise Shipping Industry to 2020 (2005) Bharat Book Bureau Online available at
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Maya Conquistador About the Author the Historian

Words: 978 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95956303

Maya Conquistador

About the Author

The historian writer Matthew Restall is an associate lecturer of Colonial Latin American History as well as in the Women's Studies. Furthermore, at the Pennsylvania State University, he is also the director of Latin American Studies (Project Muse).The Maya World: Yucatec Culture and Society 1550-1850, published in 1997 whereas Maya Conquistador was followed in 1998. His latest publications include a book on Blacks in colonial Yucatan along with editing a volume on black-native relations in colonial Latin America (Project Muse).

Introduction of the Book

The book, Maya Conquistador published in 1998 fits in to the historiography conflict or argument for better and bigger use of national or resident language, instead of Spanish (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000). The author Matthew Restall has made an important role in the learning about the Maya where this book comprises of initial colonial primary sources that have been translated from Yucatec Maya to English. However, there is an exception of one document that was written in Spanish by a Maya (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000).

The translation has been done by the author himself; along with which, he also wrote two introductory chapters as well as outstanding…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caribbean and Latin America. The American Historical Review. Vol; 105, No: 2. April 2000.

Reviews. Seminary Co-Op. Bookstore..


The African Experience in Early Spanish America. Matthew Restall and Jane Landers. Project Muse. Scholarly Journals Online.
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Earth as the People of

Words: 3609 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34876836

There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. What is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.

While Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not been accustomed to harvesting large cultures that would last over the year, and, because of lack of supplies, both the natives and the Europeans have come across a period of famine. Because of the fact that his men were virtually starving, Bartolome had started to perceive food as important as…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Atkins, Pope G. Wilson, Larman Curtis. The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism. University of Georgia Press, 1998.

2. Bakewell, Peter John. "A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present."

3. Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski. Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

4. Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic." Retrieved June 12, 2009, from Hispaniola Web site:
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Income Disparity and Development

Words: 2476 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13062707

Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries

The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)

Statistics from the World Bank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports document the extremely high disparity rates in various countries in the region. Ironically Latin America is also rich in natural resources. "One of the traits that make Latin America's poor income distribution especially conspicuous at the international level is the high percentage of resources concentrated in the richest 10% of…… [Read More]


Barro, R. "Democracy and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, 1, 1-27. 1996

CONSTANCE P. A yardstick for misfortune. November 6, 2005.

Economics A-Z. November 6, 2005. November 6, 2005.
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Bilateral Relations For the Better

Words: 3687 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84770068

All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. While the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, Washington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support continued strongly well off into the 1980s, when according to Richard Newfarmer's article published in the Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, U.S. President Ronald Reagan demonstrated significant geopolitical interest in the region, after establishing a friendly relationship with the "Father of Dominican democracy," President Balaguer. Balaguer was an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Pope and Larm Wilson. 1998. "The Dominican Republic and the United States from Imperialism to Transnationalism." The U.S. And the Americas. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Chester, Eric Thomas. 2001. "Rag-Tags, Scum, Riff-Raff, and Commies: The Intervention in the Dominican Republic 1965-1966. NY Monthly Review Press.

Desmarais P., Norman and James McGovern. "Essential Documents in American History, President Ulysses S. Grant's appeal for the Annexation of Santo Domingo, 1492-Present." Providential College.

Farmer, Richard S. 1985. "Economic Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: The Balance Sheet." The Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 27, No.1.