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Competing Visions of the Caribbean
When we look at art, it is looking back at us. More than this, it is reflecting who we are and who we would like to be -- and who we think that other people are. The current exhibition Caribbean: Crossroads of the World provides a complex view of the people of the Caribbean and, just as importantly, a view of these peoples as they have spread across the world in their own historic and cultural diaspora, taking with them their unique experiences and outlooks even as they became the subject of fascination to other people. The people of the Caribbean, whether looked at from the outside when they remained at home in the islands or looked at by new neighbors when they had relocated abroad, have served as a mechanism for people to understand their place in the world.
I have selected…
Smith, F. (Ed.) (2011). Sex and the Citizen. Charlottesville. University of Virginia Press.
Caribbean and Filipino Culture
Culture is in the Details
An old expression is that the "devil is in the details," and this is as true in the field of human behavior as it is in any other arena. If one examines any arena of human behavior as it presents itself in different groups then there will always be substantial similarities between the members of the groups. All humans are more alike each other than they are different, and this fact means that the two groups being compared here -- Caribbean and Filipino Latinos -- will share many traits.
Indeed, from the outside (and perhaps even from the inside) these two groups of people may appear very similar to each other. Certainly they share a number of traits in terms of their history and the values that govern their everyday lives as well as influence the deepest values of who they…
Davila, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Philadelphia: Temple University.
Hess-Fischl, A. (2006). Beyond Rice and Beans: The Caribbean Latino Guide to Eating Healthy With Diabetes. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.
Kugel, A. (2002). The Latino Culture Wars. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/24/nyregion/the-latino-culture-wars.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Quatromoni, P.A. et al. (1994). Use of focus groups to explore nutrition practices and health beliefs of urban Caribbean Latinos with diabetes. Diabetes Care 17(8), 869-73.
According to Orlando Patterson it "is astonishing how the Washington and New York elites, the people who benefit most from the improvement of the United Sates, are so out of sync with it, endlessly talking about how things are getting worse when the country is clearly improving." (Patterson). He feels that in order for Caribbean culture to prosper and grow they must be "cautious." Patterson feels the Caribbean culture should be cautious not fall into the same patterns and repeat past mistakes of history. He furthers that to the extent favorable trends are remarked upon, they are often treated as ephemera of a strong economy.
A large majority of the Caribbean islands are very much well developed and the others that have not attained that status are very close in making strides towards reaching it. Every island does celebrate its cultural heritage in similar ways. According to V.S.…
This system of government, with the many separate offices or audiencias each wielding authority largely in their own way in their own district, yet with each audiencia coordinated in its larger efforts and guiding principles by the Council of the Indies, appears to have been a highly successful government. For better or for worse, the Spanish government managed to maintain dominion over much of the Caribbean and in Central and South America for many centuries, and this system of government administration was in place for much of that time (Stearns & Langer 2001). The degree of autonomy that each audiencia enjoyed made it easy for them to govern both effectively and flexibility, responding to issues and opportunities within their district without the need to check with higher authorities in most regards. This greatly increased the efficacy of the overall governmental structure.
This does not mean that there isn't room for…
Stearns, P. & Langer, W. (2001). The encyclopedia of world history. New York:
Caribbean cuisine is a rich stew of geographic, political and cultural influence. The different colonial cultures all make a contribution to the cuisines, and local ingredients play a significant role. In addition, the African and Indian workers brought to the region have also made significant contributions to the food of the region. This paper will discuss Caribbean food today and the different influences that have gone into this unique and varied set of cuisines.
Once colonial powers left the Caribbean, nations developed cuisines that were based in large part on the ingredients available. The basic Caribbean meal features a protein, a starch and a legume or vegetable (Houston, 2005). For the most part, this basic meal structure reflects African heritage, in particular in the combination of stews and starches. The African heritage can be seen in the similarity with soul food in the Southern U.S. -- oxtail stew is common…
Food Cuisines.com (no date). Culinary traditions of the Caribbean islands. FoodCuisines.com. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.foodcuisines.com/articles/Culinary-Traditions-of-the-Caribbean-Islands.html
Global Gourmet. (2007). The Caribbean background and influences. Global Gourmet. Retrieved April 15, 2011 from http://www.globalgourmet.com/destinations/caribbean/cariback.html
Houston, L. (2005) Food culture in the Caribbean. Greenwood Publishing Group: Westport, CT.
Caribbean use ICT
How can SMEs in (Caribbean) use ICT to achieve competitive advantage?
Literature Review and Conceptual Framework
Research Philosophy and Paradigm
Sampling Techniques and Procedures
Data Analysis and Techniques
Research Ethics Codes and Policies of Research Ethics
Limitations to Methodology
Time Plan and Resources
The emergence of information and communications technologies or ICTs has a significant influence on different industries and organizations all across the globe. ICT refers to technologies, which provide access to information through the use of telecommunications (Maguire, et al., 2007; Chong, et al., 2012). Grandon and Pearson (2004) provide that ICTs are considered as such type of technology that offers organizations a huge range of hardware, telecommunications, and technology applications. This wide range of technologies and products are utilized to establish, analyze, develop, package, distribute, receive, and forward information electronically…
Wolcott, P., Kamal, M. & Qureshi, S., 2008. Meeting the challenges of ICT adoption by micro-enterprises. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 21(6), pp. 616-632.
Yunis, M.M. et al., 2012. ICT maturity as a driver to global competitiveness: a national level analysis. International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, 20(3), pp. 255-281.
Zarei, B., Nasseri, H. & Tajeddin, M., 2011. Best practice network business model for internationalization of small and medium enterprises. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9(4), pp. 299-315.
Drug trade in the Caribbean Islands
Scenario 1: The political scene
Unfortunately for those aiming to stop the drug exodus from the Caribbean islands into the United States and the drug trade in the region, it has often been the case that many of these governments were corrupt, encouraging thus money laundering and drugs for their own high profits, to the degree that they were themselves part of the chain. Additionally, in many countries, the democracy is unstable and unable to cope with its own, day-to-day problems, let alone fight drug trade. I am thinking here for example of the situation in Haiti, where a bloody civil war has been going on for several years, but the case is not singular.
What if governmental corruption and encouragement of the drug trade had not taken place in ahamas much throughout the 70s and 80s?
In an investigation by the…
Caribbean literature has been considered to reflect its political, cultural and linguistic fragmented region; this is due to its uniquely diverse and varied background (Jonnasaint, 2007). The Caribbean nations have undergone periods of long colonization, there is still a debate over which countries comprise of the Caribbean. The Caribbean culture has been influenced by its colonizers; these include the Dutch, Spain, England, and France. All of these bring the struggle for the need of a solid cultural identity; this can be seen in Caribbean literature. These influences have also been brought about by a culture of slavery and political tyranny which continued even after the countries have gained their independence; this gave a rise to their literature which is concerned with nation-building, ethnic-cultural identity and politics (Jonnasaint, 2007). Caribbean authors write in English, yet the islands are also home to Spanish- and Dutch-speaking authors, many of whose writings also speak…
Cabrera, E. (1992). Derek Walcott. Americas. 35-44.
Jonnasaint, J. (2007). Transnationalism, Multilingualism, and Literature: the Challenge of Caribbean Studies. Literature and Arts of the Americas, 74(40); 21-34.
Odhiambo, C.J. (1994). Outside the eyes of the other: George Lamming. Research in African Literatures. 25(2); 121.
Irele, F.A. (2008). Homage to Aime Cesaire. Caribbean Journal of Criticism. 27(1); 124-127.
Caribbean Express Shipping
The forthcoming study will present a training program, designed to specifically address and help foster changes that need to be made in three Palm Beach, Florida CES stores which currently experience a reported increase in damages. egardless of the instructional methods the instructional designers decide to employ, the ADDIE model or a derivative of it gives designers the foundation to construct any curriculum. Classroom lectures, as well as an organization's training sessions begin and end with the same basics in the ADDIE model. Using components from the ADDIE and a number of other models, the proposed study will develop a training program that will address current performance problems relating to damages and secure solutions to those challenges; while also equipping and empowering CES employees to package items in a proficient manner that helps ensure help ensure the safety and security of items during handling and shipment
Goodman, T. ed. (2007). Forbes book of business quotations: 10,000 thoughts on the business of life. New York, NY: Black Dog Publishing.
Henry, R. (2004). How to write winning training proposals. Alice Springs NT, Australia: Desert Wave Enterprises. Hodell, C. (2006). ISD from the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Instructional Design (2001). HRD 647 Intro to Instructional Design. Barry University, Adrian Dominican School of Education
March, J.K. & Peters, K.H. (2007). Designing instruction: Making best practices work in standards-based classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. O'Connor, B.N, Bronner, M., & Delaney, C. (2007). Learning at work: How to support individual and organizational learning. Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development.
Sarwar, S. & Azhar, M.S. (2011). Impact of training patterns upon the social relations of employees (A meta analysis). Journal of Management Research, Vol. 3, No. 2: E4
(4) Latin Music (15,16,17,18)- Write a short research essay on the Latin American composer of your choice. Be sure to include the following;
* Basic biographical data
* a work representative of that composer's style, with specific reference to what can be heard in the score
* That composer's significance both in Latin America and internationally.
One of the most compelling figures in Latin American music is the irrepressible Carlos Santana. From his roots as a psychedelic scenemaker in the 1960s to his rebirth as a pop music crossover in the late 1990s, Carlos Santana has long been central to the infusion of Latin sounds into mainstream music. The Mexican-born Santana began his career in Southern California, assembling percussively-based groups from his neighborhood and working his way up to the massing scene in Northern California. By the time he was leading a band playing under the name Santana, he was…
Only Michener could so exquisitely bring the violent, exciting history of the attractive Caribbean to life. Swaying away from the European Courts of the 15th century that first claimed the area, to the Islands themselves, we lookout at the outburst of the magnificent sugar farm constructed on the backs of slaves, the bloodstained and triumphant revolt in Haiti in 1800.
And in recent times, the diffusion of the Rastafarian belief, the mass migration from Cuba ensuing the revolt and the general discontent of Caribbean people.
Strewn from beginning to end are engaging representation of historical heroes as they battle over against governmental, financial and ethnic persecution and cruelty.
In Caribbean, James A. Michener's engaging and interesting combination of truth and fantasy brings to life the imperious, unforgettable story of a land in search of its future.
Caribbean is a typical Michener book. He is the finest when it comes…
Describe the personality of a famous Caribbean person from the perspective of two of the theories discussed in this course (not trait theory) and then conclude with your own impression of the adequacy of those two theories' explanation of the individual's personality.
When most people hear the name ob Marley, they will often associate it with a singer who is: pointing out the social ills of the 1970's or the genre of music that he helped to make famous (Reggae). However, underneath it all he was more than just a great entertainer and song writer. As there were numerous aspects of his personality, that helped to define the music and his legacy.
Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that ob Marley and the Wailers have sold 21 million albums since 1991. At the same time, Marley has received a number of favorable distinctions including: a…
Bob Marley Bio. (2011). Niceup. Retrieved from: http://www.niceup.com/bmbio.html
Life and Legacy. (2011). Bob Marley. Retrieved from: http://www.bobmarley.com/life_and_legacy_early_life.php
One Love Lyrics. (2011). Lyrics. Retrieved from: http://www.lyrics007.com/Bob%20Marley%20Lyrics/One%20Love%20Lyrics.html
Cherry, K. (2011). The Conscious and Unconscious Mind. About. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/consciousuncon.htm
Therefore, when the opportunity presents itself, as happened when coffee arrived, the group in question takes it upon itself to take control of the country. Of special interest is the note at the end of the article, when in 1944 a new wave of optimism broke forth. Guatemala, though, remains poor today, and it will be interesting to see if the reason is that the political structure has remained unchanged, despite this new optimism that was emerging at the time.
Puerto Rico - March 3
It is interesting to note the difference between the way that Puerto Rico has developed in relation to the other former Spanish colonies in Central America and the Caribbean. The United States had begun in the late 19th century to assert itself politically and economically in the region, but it was not until the Spanish-American war that Puerto Rico became part of the equation. Unlike…
Haiti Jamaica Comparison
Jamaica and Haiti share a common history of British and American influence. hile both countries have been subject to a degree of political and economic instability, Haiti has a lengthy history of political oppression and economic chaos that continues today. Similarly, while both countries have ongoing relationships with the United States, Jamaica's relationship is much more stable. Today, Haiti's economic and political future seems uncertain, while Jamaica is a relatively stable and prosperous nation.
Jamaica - History
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Jamaica's history was dominated by the English, the slave trade and democratic socialism. At the beginning of the 1800s, Jamaican slaves were subject to terrible treatment, and a slave revolts were common. During the largest of these revolts, the 1831 Christmas Rebellion, over 20,000 slaves murdered planters and destroyed plantations. As retribution, over 400 slaves were hanged, and the resulting outcry in England forced…
CNN. Haiti's interim leader visits cradle of rebellion. Saturday, March 20, 2004 Posted: 8:23 PM EST (0123 GMT). 24 March 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/03/20/haiti.leaders.ap/index.html
Lonely Planet. 23 March 2004. Jamaica History. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/caribbean/jamaica/history.htm
Lonely Planet. Haiti History. 23 March 2004. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/caribbean/haiti/history.htm
Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Jamaica's Relations with the United States, Britain, and Canada. Source: U.S. Library of Congress. 23 March 2004. http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/36.htm
Black slavery in the Antilles helped define Caribbean culture. Most people living in Haiti, amaica, and the smaller islands of the Caribbean are descended from these slaves, something that can't be said for most of the American south. To understand this culture requires a careful analysis of the sugar trade, colonial powers, and the nature of society in these colonies.
Sugar cane became a profitable commodity in the Caribbean in the 1640's, when French and English exporters switched to cane production from indigo, tobacco and other goods. At the time, prohibitions on trade with other European powers were loosely enforced. According to economic historian Robert Batie, French and English colonies "experienced the same economic trends...since their settlers lived under similar free market institutions, raised nearly identical commodities, and bought their slaves from and sold their products to the same Dutch merchants." (Batie 38) Colonies switched to sugar production…
James Stephan. The Slavery of the British West India Colonies. Butterworth and Son; 1824.
B.W. Higman. Slave Populations and Economy in Jamaica, 1807-1834. Cambridge University Press 1976.
Erick Williams "Capitalism & Slavery" #2 Carrington "Sugar Industry" #3 Colin Palmer " The first Passage" In To Make Our World Anew: A History of African-American. New Yourk; Oxford University Prss, 2000:3-52. Edited by Robin D.G. Kellyey and Earl Lewis
CIBC - Barclays
The Caribbean operations of CIBC and Barclay's were merged in 2002, but in 2006 Barclay's exercised an option to exit the union, resulting in CIBC's takeover of the operation, which is known as FirstCaribbean International Bank (No author, 2002). At the time of the merger, the two companies believed that there was an opportunity in the market to build a Caribbean bank -- in this case with operations in 15 countries and aggregated assets of $9.9 USD (Ibid).
Most Caribbean economies are small, with limited natural resources. Such economies are frequently dependant on tourism and the agriculture sectors. Economic growth in the Caribbean is tied to the state of the economy in United States (Singh, 2004) as well as countries with strong ties to the region, like Canada and the UK. In 2002, the American economy was sluggish and by 2006 it was robust. This indicates that…
No author. (2002). Barclays-CIBC merger completed. Bahamas B2B.com. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from http://www.bahamasb2b.com/news/wmview.php?ArtID=255
Singh, A. (2004). The Caribbean economies: Adjusting to the global economy. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2004/061104a.htm
Canadian NewsWire. (2006). CIBC announces definitive agreement to acquire majority stake in FirstCaribbean International Bank. SKNVibes. Retrieved November 16, 2011 from http://www.sknvibes.com/news/newsdetails.cfm/1559
steel drum, or steel pan, is a unique instrument commonly heard in Caribbean music today, and is one of the most recently "invented" instruments in the world, when taken in its current form. However, the roots of the instrument date as far back as the 18th century. This paper will examine the roots of the steel drum, as well as the evolution of the instrument its self. Additionally, this paper will examine the steel drum's impact on the Trinidad society.
The steel drum claims origin on the island of Trinidad, located in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela. This island and the smaller island of Tobago, located 19 miles northeast of Trinidad, make up the single nation state of Trinidad and Tobago. To understand the evolution of the steel drum in this area, it is important to evaluate the political history of the islands, since it was that…
Averill, G. (1998). Carnival in Trinidad: Steel Drum, Program #1561. Retrieved March 7, 2005 from Pulse of the Planet. Web site: http://www.pulseplanet.com/archive/Feb98/1561.html .
Blake, F.I. (1995). The Trinidad and Tobago steel pan -- history and evolution. Spain: Grafiques Publishing.
Goddard, G.S. (1991). Forty years in the steelbands: 1919-1979. London: Karia Press.
Maxime, G. (1997). Pan through the years (1952 -- 1996). Port of Spain, Trinidad: Metropolitan Book Supplies Ltd.
There is an open drug culture on the island that celebrates the use of marijuana, and no one knows how much of the plant is grown on this island, alone. As one drug enforcement manual notes, "Tiny Jamaica has been known to produce upwards of 300 metric tons in a year."
The author also notes that the country is the major source of marijuana in the United States, as well, along with supplying several other countries, as well.
The problem is so bad in the country that it is the top priority of its citizens, who do not trust the government and have not trusted it in a long time. The two authors state, "In 1991, Jamaican pollster and university professor Carl Stone carried out a major survey of public attitudes towards the police and the court system. The results were extremely discouraging: the public trusted neither the police, the…
Bethel, T.A. (2003). Caribbean narcotics trafficking: What is to be cone? Retrieved 21 March 2009 from the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management Web site: http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/v.25_1&2/Bethel,%20Tellis%20A.pdf.80-90.
Hubbell, L. (2008). Rethinking dependency theory: The case of Dominica, the rascal state. Journal of Third World Studies, 25(1), 95.
Lee, G.D. (2004). Global drug enforcement: Practical investigative techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Maingot, a.P., & Lozano, W. (2004). The United States and the Caribbean: Transforming hegemony and sovereignty. Boca Raton, FL: Routledge.
Royal Caribbean operates cruise ships. This is a perishable good, so that unsold capacity cannot be recovered at a later date, once the ship departs. The revenue mix includes the fare paid for passage, and the onboard purchases while include alcohol, shore excursions and other incidentals. Royal Caribbean is one of the world's largest cruise companies, and operates a number of different brands, serving different target markets -- Royal Caribbean is the mainstream brand and Celebrity is the upscale brand. Premium ships are nicer vessels, with more experienced staff, and greater attention paid to the menu and the entertainment options.
Reducing costs is another means by which companies in the industry earn profit. Cruise companies have high fixed costs associated with their vessels. Thus, controlling variable costs becomes an important profit driver in the industry. Most of the revenues are sold as a package, so once…
The Caribbean nations of Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico share in common a history of tumultuous colonial rule. Yet different Old World colonial governments had presided over each of these countries, leading to completely different languages, cultures, customs, and institutions. The French left the most lingering legacy on Haiti, and Haitian slaves ended up leading the world’s first successful large-scale slave rebellion. British rule in Jamaica would also eventually dissolve, as slavery became an untenable model for the global labor market. Spanish-ruled Puerto Rico likewise capitalized on the slave trade and the free labor extracted from it, but slavery in Puerto Rico was less linked to race as it was in either Haiti or Jamaica. This is not to say that Puerto Rico is not as marred by slavery as were Jamaica or Haiti, but the colonial system did ensure a lingering social stratification based on class status. This…
WHAT WORKS EST
Adherence Intervention for Afro-Caribbeans
Recent improvements on prescription medications are beneficial only if patients adhere to them faithfully. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions (Ho et al., 2009). This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence (Ho et al.). The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy.
Many health providers contend that more effective interventions in reducing risks for diseases, especially HIV / AIDS, through greater adherence need to culturally conform to the specific culture of the subject population (Archibald, 2011). This study used a…
Adams, O.P. And Carter, A.O. (2010). Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioners in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers -- a focus group study. Vol 11 # 96, BMC Family Practice: BioMed Central.
Retrieved on February 1, 2013 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/11/96
Archibald, C. (2011). Cultural tailoring for an Afro-Caribbean community: a naturalistic approach. Vol 18 # 4, Journal of Cultural Divers: Pubmed. Retrieved on January 27,
2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408883
While not every frican immigrant has such impressive credentials, the presumption of the superiority of certain cultural markers, such as a European accent, cannot be entirely dismissed.
However, the racism against 'blackness' affects all Black mericans, regardless of whether they are the children of slaves or wealthy, nglicized fricans. s discussed by Obama in his autobiography Dreams From My Father, as an individual of Kenyan ancestry, he was still treated as an frican-merican by the individuals whom he encountered in his daily life. Race may be a scientific fiction, but in merican culture it is treated as a reality. This can cause a complication for fro-Caribbean immigrants: they may feel frustrated that it is assumed that they are frican-mericans with no ties to their frican homeland. Growing up in a different educational system, living in a world filled with local tribal languages and rituals; observing religious practices that are often…
Afro-Caribbean values, beliefs, and experiences will inevitably be different from Black Americans by virtue of their distinct backgrounds. Similarly, recent immigrant from Ireland will have a profoundly different view of the world than an Irish-American whose parents immigrated in the 19th century. The fact that American's obsession with physical 'racial' trappings elides the difference between native-born African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans can cause great frictions within the Black community, as well as surprise such recent immigrants.
Afro-Caribbeans are a diverse people, as diverse as the many nations and tribes of Africa. One cannot proclaim if the have more in common with their Black or White American counterparts: even the transition of different African groups into American society is easier for some Africans, and more difficult for others. Class often has a greater influence upon the ability of various Afro-Caribbean groups to make an easy transition than nation of origin -- a poor Haitian may have more in common with both Black Americans and Whites of his class; an educated Kenyan may have more in common with Ivy League educated Black Americans. Regardless, the main difference between Afro-Caribbean immigrants and Black Americans is that the former have an 'immigrant' experience. They must make linguistic and cultural adjustments. They often enjoy group solidarity and tight-knit community support, than Black Americans may lack in many sections of the nation. However, both groups still face discrimination because they are characterized, in the racialized eyes of America as 'Black' and to address the social needs of these different groups, difference rather than racialized sameness is a more effective paradigm to apply when analyzing these both social categories.
Douglas A. McVay, "Race and prison," Drug War Facts, 2006, December 29, 2009, http://www.drugwarfacts.org/cms/node/64
This third priority will eventually require the development of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that includes an enterprise content management (ECM) system that tracks internal documents, standard operating procedures and makes training more effective. As part of the SOA there also will need to be a unified Web-based portal that provides a glimpse of each customers' record and gives insights into how the onboard experience can be customized for them.
Todd Datz. "All Hands on Tech; Designing an it system from scratch can be both daunting and thrilling. Now imagine building it remotely for the world's newest, biggest ship. The story of how it supports the Queen Mary 2, a veritable floating city. "CIO 15 Jun 2004: 72-78. AI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jun. 2008
Marshall Lager. "Pointing to Profits. " Customer Relationship Management 1 May 2006: 24-28,30. AI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.. 16 Jun. 2008
Tom Murphy. "IT matters. " International Cruise…
Todd Datz. "All Hands on Tech; Designing an it system from scratch can be both daunting and thrilling. Now imagine building it remotely for the world's newest, biggest ship. The story of how it supports the Queen Mary 2, a veritable floating city. "CIO 15 Jun 2004: 72-78. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jun. 2008
Marshall Lager. "Pointing to Profits. " Customer Relationship Management 1 May 2006: 24-28,30. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.. 16 Jun. 2008
Tom Murphy. "IT matters. " International Cruise & Ferry Review 1 Oct. 2003: 153. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. ProQuest
13 Jun. 2008. www.ebscohost.com
Should Barclay's Caribbean Operations Merge?
The strategy for Barclay in the Caribbean is to consider the market as a small share of the global commercial and investment banking market. Business units that operate in the Caribbean or West Indies are seen as offshore business operations with emerging onshore business. (Wood, Beamish, 2004) The units have also focused on reducing operational risk exposure as ameans to drive revenue growth. Such a strategy is rather conservative and represents a risk-free growth rate for Barclay's Caribbean operations.
Barclay's operations are extensive and span the globe with offices and accounts on six of seven continents. "Corporate and business services are offered in all 14 countries, and offshore banking services are offered in the Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman, the British Virgin Islands (BVI), and Turks & Caicos. Corporate banking accounts for 45% of corporate income, personal banking 27 per cent and offshore banking 28…
Platt, G., Hawser, A., Neville, L., Green, P., & Fittipaldi, S. (2005). 2005 world's best banks. Global Finance, 19(9), 18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198833010?accountid=13044
Wood D., Beamish P. (2004) CIBC -- Barclays: Should Their Caribbean Operations Be Merged? The University of Western Ontario, IVEY School of Business.
China's Relations With Latin America And Caribbean Countries
China's presence in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has increased in the past decade following the country's improved diplomatic initiatives. China has essentially increased its presence in this region through establishing cultural, military, trade, and financial relations. o enhance its diplomatic ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries, China has used several foreign policy initiatives that have contributed to deeper relations. Actually, the strategies used by China to develop ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries have not only deepened relations but pose an imminent threat to the United States.
One of the ways through which China has achieved its deeper relations with Latin America and the Caribbean countries is through emphasizing on developing South-South cooperation. his emphasis has granted governments and business in the region an alternative to the U.S., which has in turn created stronger political, military,…
The relations between the United States and Cuba have been characterized by a policy of economic sanctions and diplomatic isolations. This policy has been adopted by successive administrations in the United States since the 1960s. One of the major factors that have fueled such relations with Cuba is the communist political ideology by Castro's regime. However, in the past few years, the U.S. and Cuba have resumed diplomatic and other relations after many decades. President Obama and Raul Castro have played a crucial role in the re-establishment of relations between the two countries.
President Obama was elected into office seeking improved engagement with Cuba, which has played a vital role in re-establishment of the countries' diplomatic and other relations. The first initiative that has contributed to resumption of these relations is President Obama's reversal of some restrictions that had been established by his predecessor, President George Bush. In 2009, President Obama reversed sanctions on remittances and travel that were established by the Bush administration. This was followed by granting American telecommunication firms liberty to offer cellular and satellite service in Cuba.
The other way through which U.S. and Cuba resumed diplomatic and other relations was the reopening of embassies in the U.S. and Cuban capitals. Cuban foreign minister traveled to the country's embassy in Washington to raise his country's flag in an event that was televised in Cuba. President Raul Castro also helped improve relations with the United States through retracting some of the tight security measures that characterized the American diplomatic mission in Havana. President Obama and President Castro also committed themselves to a long process towards normalizing the countries' relations through finding solutions to problems that have lasted for decades and hurt their ties.
They were zigzagging through the sugar cane field, a truly bizarre scene.
Also in Mendoza, it is a dark and evil scene as Mendoza's body is tied to the back of a donkey but the body kept sliding down under the donkey ("ass"). There is no respect for the dead here in this scene, and to take his bloody, muddy, and wet body to his wife's house, and throw it down in the threshold -- that is profoundly evil. He never had a chance, and now his family has to pay the price. The evil and "horrible grimace" that was on the face of the dead Mendoza must have been a terrible shock to his family and his children. His son (who had found what he thought was a corpse) now saw a real corpse, ironically the person he had seen earlier and mistaken for a corpse -- his own…
Bosch, Juan. (2001). Encarnacion Mendoza's Christmas Eve. In the Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories. Eds. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford
University Press, pp. 70-79.
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. (2001). The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship. In the Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories. Eds. Stewart Brown and John Wickham. New York: Oxford
University Press, pp. 148-152.
Chaos in the Caribbean
In the 1990s, Jamaica was dealing with a major crisis in the financial sector. This is because of a series of events came together simultaneously, to create a situation where the economy would face tremendous challenges. At the heart of these issues were: rising inflation, skyrocketing interest rates, a devaluation of the Jamaican dollar, the lack of fiscal restraint on the government level and limited regulations of the financial industry. The combination of these factors created a situation where the economy went into an economic collapse. ("FINSAC Commission of Inquiry," 2010) ("Zooming in on the 90s Meltdown," 2011)
In the case of the financial sector, an outside consultant (Ted Avey) was brought in, to investigate the collapse associated with Blaise Financial. This was a large financial holding company that was considered to be: a traditional bank, a building society and an intermediary for currency transactions. In…
FINSAC Commission of Inquiry. (2010). Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved from: http://mobile.jamaicagleaner.com/gleaner/20100312/business/business6.php
Zooming in on the 90s Meltdown. (2011). Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved from: http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20110612/focus/focus5.html
Orienstein, P. (2006). Chaos in the Caribbean. CA Magazine, 54 -- 62.
Swaby, N. (2011). The Effects of Jamaica's Macroeconomic Policies. Jamaica Gleaner. Retrieved from: http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20110626/focus/focus9.html
US Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean
Pastor, .A. & Long, T. (2010). The Cold War and its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search
for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy. Latin American esearch eview, 45(3), 261-273.
Pastor and Long conducted a search of synthetic interpretation of the United States foreign policy in Latin America and the Caribbean in the aftermath of the Cold War through examining existing literature of U.S. foreign policy in the Americas. This search was carried out on the premise that some scholars have focused on understanding U.S. foreign policy and inter-American relations in the aftermath of the Cold War. This analysis is carried out on the premise that numerous books and review essays have been developed to examine the Americas in the post-Cold War era and current or future issues in the inter-American agenda. The focus of this article is to examine how…
Pastor, R.A. & Long, T. (2010). The Cold War and its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search
for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy. Latin American Research Review, 45(3), 261-273.
Sea Grant Community Programs
Sea Grant is a program within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and is concerned mainly with the enhancement of the practical use and conservation of the coastal, marine and Great Lakes resources in order to create an environment that is sustainable to the economy of the regions. The long-term economic development, environmental stewardship and the responsible use of the coastal line is the ultimate goal of the Sea Grant and NOAA strive to achieve this through offering research assistance, education facilities, scholarships and community sensitization programs (NOAA, 2016). However, these efforts face a wide range of challenges among them being as follows;
There is often a clash between the traditional land and sea use that the local communities are used to and have knowledge of over the decades and the new well researched alternatives that the NOAA have invested in and would like the local…
NOAA, (2016). The National Sea Grant College Program. Retrieved January 6, 2016 from http://seagrant.noaa.gov/WhoWeAre.aspx
University of Puerto Rico, (2010). University of Puerto Rico Sea Grant College Program: Strategic Plan 2000-2010. Retrieved January 6, 2016 from http://seagrantpr.org/v2/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Strategic_Plan_2000.pdf
Angels Wear Brassieres? By Olive Senior, and "ADJ, Inc.," by Ana Lydia Vega. Specifically, it will discuss the use of language in the two works, and comment on the authors' use or rejection or variation of what for recognition's sake we will call standard English, or comment on features of local literary traditions that are preserved in translation. Language is a powerful tool in storytelling, and these two short stories are excellent examples of the disparity of language, and what an important part it can play in the telling of a tale, especially a regional one. Language is so important; it can almost be considered another character in these two stories.
LANGUAGE IN TWO STOIES
In "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" The language for the children is the dialect of Jamaica, imitating the rhythmic and singsong way Jamaicans have of speaking, and the author uses this dialect almost from the first…
Senior, Olive. "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" Modern Literature of the Non-Western World: Where the Waters are Born. Jayana Clerk and Ruth Siegel eds. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1995, pp. 1115-1124.
Vega, Ana Lydia. "ADJ, Inc." Modern Literature of the Non-Western World: Where the Waters are Born. Jayana Clerk and Ruth Siegel eds. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1995, pp. 1147-1155.
Nobel Prize laureate Derek Walcott begins his oration with an anecdote about the village of Felicity in Trinidad, which is predominantly East Indian. The story begins as the local towns prepare for a Saturday performance of the amleela, which is a stage version of the Hindu epic amayana. Walcott describes vividly with rich detail the cane fields, reminding listeners that the Indians are here because they were brought here during colonial times to be indentured laborers. Now a vibrant Indian community is entrenched, adding richness and color to the tropical landscapes of Trinidad and Tobago. As Walcott and his American friends arrive, the amleela cast and crew are setting up their multiplicity of deities, one of which is a huge effigy constructed of local materials like bamboo.
Briefly Walcott draws a parallel between the amleela and his own stage production, or reinvention and reconstruction, of Homer's Odyssey, the screenplay…
British and Commonwealth History Collections. Retrieved online: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/abhist/brithist/caribbean.html
"Caribbean Histories Revealed." The National Archives. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/caribbeanhistory/
Higman, B.W. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Palmie, Stephan. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and its Peoples. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Puerto ico is a Caribbean Island which was formerly settled by two Native American tribes, Caribe and Arawak. In 1493, this Island was captured by Spain and up until about 400 years it was ruled by the Spanish. The native settlers during this time period had become slaves to the Spanish and with time as their population began to lessen, outsiders including black slaves were imported and the Indian race became less prominent. (Whalen)
The association between the United States and Puerto ico goes back to the times of the Spanish-American war which took place in 1898. As a result of this war and due to the terms which were presented under the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain had to let go of Puerto ico. Since then it has been an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. (Duany)
For Puerto ico, the 20th century started under the…
Aranda, Elizabeth. Emotional Bridges to Puerto Rico: Migration, Return Migration, and the Struggles of Incorporation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print.
Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Print.
Flores, Juan. Divided Arrival: Narratives of the Puerto Rican Migration, 1920-1950. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2003. Print.
Whalen, Carmen. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Temple University Press, 2005. Print.
5% unemployment figure, 7.6% inflation ratio, and $4.5 trillion in debt, Guatemala is forced to rely on external factors to survive.
National exports are coffee, sugar, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom, meat, apparel, petroleum, electricity and the 9/11 events in the United States have severely impacted tourist trade.
Venezuela is a federal republic with over 24 million citizens, 67% of which live in poverty and 14% are unemployed.
The GDP is made up primarily of services with petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, and agricultural products composing the primary exports. Tourism is impacted negatively by the events of terrorism and the typical 587,000 visitors each year has dwindled considerably.
ECLAC's annual calendar reflects multiple meetings, lectures, educational workshops, conferences, seminars, and training sessions. Nowhere is there found a work initiative, a concerted on-site initiative or focused fund raiser, or any effort of measurable practicality.
According to the…
Altimir, Oscar & Sourrouille, Juan. Measuring Levels of Living in Latin America -- an Overview of Main Problems. The World Bank -- Working Paper no. 3. World Bank. Washington, D.C. 1980. Benson Collection. HC 59.7 a 47, 1980 LAC. (6)
Altimir, Oscar. The Extent of Poverty in Latin America. World Bank Staff Working Papers - Number 522. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. March 1982. (4-6)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique & Faletto, Enzo. Depend ncia e Desenvolvimento na America Latina. Zahar Editores. Sao Paulo, 1970-73. Benson Collection HC 125 C3413 LAC. (1-3)
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. Dependency Revisited. Institute of Latin American Studies - the University of Texas at Austin. Austin, 1973. Benson Collection HC 125 C34162 LAC. (1)
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…
1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.
2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.
3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…
Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.
Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.
Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
The one-time immigration lawyer moonlighted as an editor at the Latin American Review Press and was impressed with her boss, a 90-year-old woman. This experience has inspired Mahler, who eventually wants to have her own journal or press.
This independent streak dates to her upbringing. "I was a very latchkey kid," she explains, and was raised by her siblings. As a result, she was a bit of a neighborhood terror as well. "I even had my own army of 1st graders that I made do push-ups and if they didn't, I sent them to jail, which was the jungle gym."
For now, however, her focus is on Emory and her family. She married her high school sweetheart, Andrew Mahler, and the couple now reside in Stockbridge. Anna wants to focus on building bonds with her students as well. "I hope to make lasting personal and professional relationships and contribute to…
oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…
1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.
2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print
3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.
4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010
" However, osch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, osch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.
The fact that Juan osch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, osch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the eautiful Soul of Don Damian), osch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with…
Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:
Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural
Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
One reporter for the New York Daily News rants, "Come on, let's be serious…if anything is clear, it is that the trip of the famous couple to Havana has exposed the travel ban as what it is: a senseless, anachronistic and anti-democratic policy, contrary to U.S. interests and values," (uiz, 2013).
What was done to resolve the controversy?
There has yet to be a clear resolution to the controversy, but the expression of symbolic free speech on the part of Beyonce and Jay-Z has deepened the discourse about the purpose and effectiveness of the Cuba embargo. The celebrity visit has caused new dialogue about Cuban-American relations and the meaning behind the ongoing travel ban Many Americans do not give much thought to the travel ban; but Cuban-Americans take the ban personally. Now that the Cold War is over, it does not seem to make much sense to have an embargo.…
Boesveld, S. (2013). Beyonce and Jay-Z's Cuba jaunt sparks uproar as U.S. politicians accuse Obama of breaking tourism embargo. National Post. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/04/09/beyonce-and-jay-zs-cuba-jaunt-sparks-uproar-as-u-s-politicians-accuse-obama-of-breaking-tourism-embargo/
Brown, H. (2013). How the GOP response to Beyonce's Cuba trip highlights broken policy. Think Progress. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://thinkprogress.org/security/2013/04/09/1838661/rubio-beyonce-cuba/?mobile=nc
Hudson, D.L. (n.d.). Posts tagged 'nonverbal expression.' Inside the First Amendment. Retrieved online: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/tag/nonverbal-expression
Peralta, E. (2013). Treasury: Jay-Z and Beyonce Traveled to Cuba on U.S.-Approved Trip. NPR: The Two-Way. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/04/09/176732458/treasury-jay-z-and-beyonce-travelled-to-cuba-on-u-s-approved-trip
Wars of Principle in the Falklands and Malvinas
Although the age of imperialism has slowly, but inexorably, been consigned to history books, with the great ritish, Spanish and Portuguese empires that once dominated the globe now largely defunct after the revolutionary spirit swept through colonies from America to Argentina, vestiges of this age-old system still remain to this day. Despite withdrawing from the vast majority of its former colonies after successful campaigns for independence were waged, the United Kingdom has strived to maintain a semblance of its former power by maintaining control over small areas of land within the nations it previously ruled over. Hong Kong in China, Gibraltar in the Iberian Peninsula, and a half dozen Caribbean islands from ermuda to Turks and Caicos, the custom of leaving behind ritish territories in the wake of widespread independence movements was instituted to ensure that the United Kingdom's dogged pursuit of…
Coll, Alberto R., and Anthony C. Arend, eds. The Falklands war: lessons for strategy, diplomacy, and international law. Allen & Unwin, 1985.
Freedman, Lawrence, and Virginia Gamba-Stonehouse. Signals of war: the Falklands conflict of
1982. Faber & Faber, 1990.
Gustafson, Lowell S. The sovereignty dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Oxford University Press, 1988.
Puerto ico became a possession of the United States after the Spanish-American War in 1898, but has never been fully incorporated into the Union (Pantojas-Garcia, 2013). It later became a Commonwealth in 1952, a status it maintains to this day. The subject of the status of Puerto ico has, since that time, been controversial. There have been multiple referendums on the subject, the latest in 2012, but as yet there has not been a change in the status of Puerto ico. The 2012 referendum indicated a majority of Puerto icans want the status of their territory changed, with most preferring full statehood. Yet this number is not sufficient to break what is essentially a stalemate, and there are other options as yet on the table. This paper will look at the issue of the stalemate, its causes, and will explore the ideas of solutions.
Analysis of History
Puerto icans are…
Davilla, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Temple University Press: Philadelphia.
Garrett, R. (2011). Political status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32933.pdf
Pantojas-Garcia, E. (2013). The Puerto Rico status question: Can the stalemate be broken? Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. Vol. 1 (2) 41-52.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
About the Author
The historian writer Matthew Restall is an associate lecturer of Colonial Latin American History as well as in the omen's Studies. Furthermore, at the Pennsylvania State University, he is also the director of Latin American Studies (Project Muse).The Maya orld: Yucatec Culture and Society 1550-1850, published in 1997 whereas Maya Conquistador was followed in 1998. His latest publications include a book on Blacks in colonial Yucatan along with editing a volume on black-native relations in colonial Latin America (Project Muse).
Introduction of the Book
The book, Maya Conquistador published in 1998 fits in to the historiography conflict or argument for better and bigger use of national or resident language, instead of Spanish (Caribbean and Latin America, April 2000). The author Matthew Restall has made an important role in the learning about the Maya where this book comprises of initial colonial primary sources that have been…
Caribbean and Latin America. The American Historical Review. Vol; 105, No: 2. April 2000. www.historycooperative.org
Reviews. Seminary Co-Op. Bookstore..
The African Experience in Early Spanish America. Matthew Restall and Jane Landers. Project Muse. Scholarly Journals Online. www.muse.jhu.edu
There are sources claiming that the population of natives had fallen from several million to several tens of thousands. The sources cannot be verified in the present, since there are no notable documents to confirm either assumption. hat is certain is that the Taino population from Hispaniola had been severely diminished as a result on their interaction with the Europeans.
hile Columbus continued to visit the Caribbean in hope that he would find the famous kingdoms that he have heard about, his brother Bartolome became governor of the island. Still, similar to his brother, Bartolome did not seem to control the situation, as no major advancements have been performed during his governing. One of the biggest mistakes that the Europeans had done during their first years on Hispaniola had been that they did not want their community to have anything to do to the native one. The locals had not…
1. Atkins, Pope G. Wilson, Larman Curtis. The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism. University of Georgia Press, 1998.
2. Bakewell, Peter John. "A history of Latin America: c. 1450 to the present."
3. Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski. Culture and customs of the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
4. Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic." Retrieved June 12, 2009, from Hispaniola Web site: http://www.hispaniola.com/dominican_republic/info/history.php
Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries
The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)
Statistics from the World ank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports…
Barro, R. "Democracy and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, 1, 1-27. 1996
CONSTANCE P. A yardstick for misfortune. November 6, 2005.
Economics A-Z. November 6, 2005. November 6, 2005. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=GNP
All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. hile the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, ashington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support…
Atkins, Pope and Larm Wilson. 1998. "The Dominican Republic and the United States from Imperialism to Transnationalism." The U.S. And the Americas. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Chester, Eric Thomas. 2001. "Rag-Tags, Scum, Riff-Raff, and Commies: The Intervention in the Dominican Republic 1965-1966. NY Monthly Review Press.
Desmarais P., Norman and James McGovern. "Essential Documents in American History, President Ulysses S. Grant's appeal for the Annexation of Santo Domingo, 1492-Present." Providential College.
Farmer, Richard S. 1985. "Economic Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: The Balance Sheet." The Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 27, No.1.
Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a racial caste system from its three hundred years of slavery, and until very recent times, the white minority had almost all the political and economic power. Today, only about 5% of the population is white, 20% of mixed race background and the remaining 75% descended from African slaves. As with most of the Caribbean islands, the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations were devastated by disease in the fifty years after first contact with Europeans in 1492. Although there were…
Beckles, Hilary McD.. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Beckles, Hilary McD. "The Slave-Drivers' War: Bussa and the 1816 Barbados Slave Rebellion" in Howe, Glenford H. And Don D. Marshall (Eds) The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Kingston, Jamaica: canoe Press, 2001: 1-33.
Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York University Press, 1996.
Browne, David V.C. "The 1937 Disturbances and Barbadian Nationalism" in Howe and Marshall: 149-63.
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy
An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present
In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…
Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,
Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).
International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.
Based Brand "Sandals esort" develop Product Price Using references found learn chosen brand (Sandals. ), write a page APA style essay Final Project Template, providing information: Product: Discuss classification product, stage product life cycle, product positioning, features benefits product.
Sandals esort: Product and Price
Sandals esort is a popular chain of resorts in the Caribbean. Because of the nature of the travel industry, Sandals tries to project an image of luxury and romance, even though it is not a 'high end' product, in terms of its cost. In contrast to some of its competitors, like Club Med, Sandals stresses its more 'adult' nature, including the option of wedding and honeymoon packages. On its website, Sandals advertises: "Come experience the very pinnacle of luxury all-inclusive Caribbean excellence. Sandals delights couples in love with supreme luxury resorts in St. Lucia, Jamaica, Antigua and the Bahamas, featuring gourmet candlelit dining…
Canyon Ranch. (2012). Retrieved:
Club Med. (2012). Retrieved: http://www.clubmed.us/cm/home.do?PAYS=115&LANG=U.S .
Sandals. (2012). Retrieved: http://www.sandals.com/extras/
NYC African Restaurants
African Restaurants in NYC
The restaurant's soft industrial lighting makes the chrome gleam. A soft and expansive backdrop of blue gives the space a cool and slightly futuristic industrial like a hip loft in the future. Exposed brick walls are tinged in a blue sheen and the distressed wood chairs and tables have been stained steel gray and have marble table tops. In three weeks, Cisse Elhadji, the owner of Ponty Bistro in Midtown, will open his new restaurant La Terengea. Located at 144 West 139th St., the restaurant us nestled in between the Hudson and Harlem rivers a few blocks west of the City College of New York. The location of the restaurant is quite lucrative given its relative proximity to both Central Park as well as Yankee Stadium.
Though Elhadji has succeeded once with an African restaurant, La Teregenga is still a gamble.…
It deals with the recent problems created by colonialism and slavery, as a result of hite domination in the 20th and now the 21st century. Rastafarianism is located in the 'here and now' in terms of its millennial ideology. Ethiopia and the idea of Ethiopianism underline the messianic "cult" of the Rastafarians who view Haile Selassie, former Emperor of Ethiopia, as a kind of Black Messiah. (Barrett 2) In this worldview, Ethiopia functions as a kind of Israel, as it was one of the few African nations not to be subject to extended periods of colonial control. The Rastafarian cult's ideology is thus a kind of idealized return to origins, but not of the far past, like many native, older Caribbean religions, but the recent past history of the island. It also attempts to connect all Black persons in one common quest to escape the colonial past, rather than focuses…
Barrett, Leonard. E. (Sr.) The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press, 20th Anniversary edition, 1997.
Over the course of time, this helps to fuel anger and a sense of helplessness, that no can be able to take charge of their own future. A good example of this can be found with the passage that says, "For years, hate had become with them a habit. It had given an object and a target to their impotent anger. Only there was one condition: that was reconciliation. And what did it cost them? A mere gesture, a few steps like walking over a bridge, and they would leave behind bad days of poverty, they would enter the land of abundance." (Roumain, 1944, pr. 131) This is significant, because this passage is highlighting the underlying challenges facing Haiti on a daily basis. Where, everyone becomes focused on themselves and angry about the entire situation (i.e. The poverty and harsh economic conditions). At which point, they will begin to take…
Literature About Haiti. (1998). Language Works. Retrieved from: http://www.language-works.com/Haiti/lit.htm
Arnold, J. (1994). Exile and Recent Literature. A History of Literature in the Caribbean. (pp. 451 -- 464). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Carby, H. (1999). Proletarian of Literary Revolution. Cultures in Babylon. (pp. 135 -- 144). London, Verso.
Roumain, J. (1944). Masters of the Dew. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
..the astas have now penetrated the middle class. At present, the overwhelming majority of members are African, but there are also Chinese, East Indians, Afro-Chinese, Afro-Jews, mulattoes, and a few whites. astafarians are predominantly ex-Christians. "(Barrett, 1997, p. 2-3)
One of the early innovators and leaders of the movement,
Leonard Howell, stated a number of principles that have been the hallmark of astafarianism and still apply to a large extent today. These include the following:
1)hatred for the White race; (2) the complete superiority of the Black race; (3) revenge on Whites for their wickedness; (4) the negation, persecution, and humiliation of the government and legal bodies of Jamaica; (5) preparation to go back to Africa; and (6) acknowledging Emperor Haile Selassie as the Supreme Being and only ruler of Black people. (Barrett, 1997, p. 85)
Another essential aspect which is of cardinal importance in astafarianism is the concept of…
RASTAFARI: ACCORDING TO THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN
RELIGIONS. Retrieved 4 November, 2006, at http://www.inithebabeandsuckling.com/EAR.html
Rastafarianism. Retrieved 5 November 2006, at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/rast.htm . Royackers, M. (1999). Jamaica Genesis: Religion and the Politics of Moral Orders. Theological Studies, 60(2), 387. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001267576Vertovec , S. (2001). Transnationalism and Identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4), 573+. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000908861Wardle , H. (2003). Anthropology and History. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(4), 794+. Retrieved November 7, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002070480
Positions such as Administrative Assistant and Front Office Manager for Celebrity Cruises and Royal Caribbean International consequently strengthened my job qualifications and established me as an effective communicator.
My main goal as a Front Office Manager and Customer Representative was to establish credibility. Due to my people-orientation skills I was able to effectively measure - with maturity - those circumstances surrounding my communications, including situational and cultural context. Through hard effort, patience, and serious consideration of the multi-national environment in which I was required to operate and engage, I consequently adopted an individual style of communicating.
My daily tasks included messages conveyed through channels; verbal face-to-face meetings, telephone, written letters, e-mails, memos, and reports were but a few of the communication opportunities encountered.
Clearly recognizing the actions or reactions influenced by my message, I worked to ensure that my communication was always unambiguous and clear. Keeping in mind that people…
In opening sentence, briefly introduce Sandals esorts intended analysis. This purpose statement. One sentences sufficient. For, a sentence "The purpose report analyze components marketing mix Gatorade brand.
Marketing Mix: Sandals esort
Overview of company
Sandals esorts is a brand-name series of chain resorts, most of which are located in the Caribbean. The target demographic for the resort is primarily established couples. Sandals seeks to showcase romantic yet affordable destinations for vacationers on honeymoons, weddings, and 'second' weddings. Segmentation variables include that of price and also purpose of the trip -- some individuals may want a quiet getaway, while others use Sandals to engage in major event planning, such as those orchestrating 'destination' weddings. The purpose of this report is to show how Sandals uses product, price, placement, and positioning to effectively segment the market of its target demographic of couples and sustain brand interest in the competitive resort…
FAQs. (2012). Sandals. Retrieved: http://www.sandals.com/contact/faq.cfm
Luxury Suites. (2012). Sandals. Retrieved: http://www.sandals.com/weddingmoons/lovenest.cfm
Sandals Resorts International. (2012). Funding Universe. Retrieved:
Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola
The American writer and free lance journalist Michele Wucker in her first book has written about both Haiti and the Dominican epublic complex relations in terms of their cultures and on the sources of their great effort both in their island home as well as in the United States.
According to the book, the Caribbean island of Hispaniola is home to historic, where this continuing conflict between two countries has been intensely separated by language, race and history. However, at the same time it has been forced continuously into argument by their shared geography. The book is emotional from the beginning with the fighting and posturing of blood sport, as observed by the writer in her first Haitian cockfight (1):
The air cracks with the impact of stiffened feathers as each bird tries to push the other to the ground. Around…
1. Bob Corbett. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians And The Struggle For Hispaniola
By Michele Wucker. New York: Hill & Wang. May 1999
2. Rob Ruck. Why The Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, And The Struggle For Hispaniola by Michele Wucker. "A history of Hispaniola." August, 1999.
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
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Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
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