Cloning Essays Examples

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Governments Should Not Allow Human

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889645

If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.

Watson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... We're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:

Many of these academics have become almost apologists for genetic engineering and cloning... You rarely find a bioethicist who thinks there's anything fundamentally wrong with these technologies. In Europe it's very different, because they had the Nazi Holocaust. But here we have consumer-driven markets" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon).

Hayes has a point. As…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
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Tsc What Is Reality We Pursue Virtual

Words: 1319 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76796934

TSC: What Is Reality?

We pursue virtual reality not because we seek to embrace reality, but because we seek to escape it. The availability of virtual reality technology enables us to create a controllable world which 'feels' real, but without any of the actual consequences of inhabiting reality. In virtually real games, we can act violently; become sports stars; take on entirely different personas in a consequence-free universe. One of the definitions of technology is that it technology involves the use of various created implements to make our lives seem 'easier.' To some extent, this is true of virtual reality technology, given that virtually real universes do not hold within them the risks of actually fighting, pursuing death-defying sports, or confronting supernatural beings in strange realms. However, the risks of virtual reality are great, namely that we will enter into the 'real' world after 'playtime' with a less secure grasp on the physical realm and believe, however subconsciously, that the real world resembles virtual reality.

Q2. Technology, Morality, and Ethics

In the article by Leon Kass, "Preventing a Brave New World," Kass expresses his fears that the use of cloning will make the dystopian future of Brave New World a…… [Read More]

Resources:
Kass, L (2001). TNR Online (The New Republic Online). Retrieved:

http://www.stanford.edu/~mvr2j/sfsu09/extra/Kass3.pdf
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Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campbell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated embryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to be cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly by Ian Wilmut, an extensive debate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on December 5, 1997 about his objective of cloning a human being prior to ban of the process by enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lamb from skill cells grown on a lab and with its alteration genetically to incorporate a human gene, in July 1997. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry, and Teruhiko Wakayama of the University of Hawaii claimed in July 1998 that they had cloned fifty mice from adult cells since October 1997. (History of Cloning)

The different types of cloning and how they work - an overview:

Only…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Animal Cloning and Big Business" Retrieved at http://www.uwm.edu/People/dlichuck/Animal_Cloning3.htm. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning" Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sdecatur/chem210/bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
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Fear Is an Emotion That Often Paralyzes

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41768188

Fear is an emotion that often paralyzes people and fear of the unknown often precipitates irrational thoughts and behavior. One hot topic that illustrates this point is cloning. Many opponents to the subject of cloning are basing their arguments on fear. This fear is irrational and totally unfounded and extremely damaging to the cause of science. As a society, we are on a path that is leading us to embark on nothing short of fantastic discoveries and allowing fear to hinder this growth would be a dreadful mistake. Cloning is not bad or wrong -- the fear that accompanies it is.

Alun Anderson brings to mind several reasons why human cloning could be beneficial. One example can be seen in the couple who carries a recessive gene for disease. In this scenario, one of the parents cloning him or herself would remove the risk of their child being born diseased. Anderson notes that these parents "could be sure that the child would be healthy, and avoid prenatal testing and the subsequent agonizing decisions about whether or not to abort a baby afflicted by the genetic disease" (Anderson 59). Anderson points out that while the public might react strongly against a…… [Read More]

Sources:
Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every year who die before a donor organ can be found for them (Soares, 2002).

Cloned organs also means the end of donor organ rejection, because the new organs are actually genetically identical to the recipient who is also the "donor" (Krock, 2001).

Cloned organs means the end of anti-rejection drugs…… [Read More]

References:
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function. Examples of this include blood stem cells that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; and skin stem cells that give rise to the various types of skin cells...While stem cells are extraordinarily important in early human development, multipotent stem cells are also found in children…… [Read More]

Resources:
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813
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Agree With President Bush's Ethical Opposition to

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89006687

agree with President Bush's ethical opposition to all human cloning? Should cloning only be used for therapeutic purposes or not at all? Does every person have the right to reproduction, even lesbians or gay men through the use of cloning? The paper will be in the first person narrative.

Human Cloning

The successful cloning of Dolly, an adult sheep in the recent past, can be seen as one of the biggest advancements in science today. And even more dramatic is the news of the world's first cloned baby Eve, as announced by Brigitte Boisselier (of Clonaid) led by a bunch of UFO worshippers who call themselves the Raelians. However, the dramatic achievement of human cloning has simultaneously raised many issues. Is it ethical to clone a human being? Is it religiously correct? Is it morally viable? Is it legally acceptable? Somehow, human cloning has become a major public issue with politicians, students, scientists, and leaders; more or less everyone having a certain point-of-view different from the other.

The possibility of human cloning brings with it many questions and many apprehensions. Some fear that a clone would not be an individual in himself or herself but instead would merely be a…… [Read More]

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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past years, a number of discoveries have been made in the field of biology including, DNA discoveries, genetic engineering, molecular biology, biotechnology, biodiversity, cloning, etc. All these discoveries have a great potential to enhance different aspects of our lives such as health care, agriculture and economy but they also have a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps
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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity to enhance their understanding of various disorders caused by genetics. However, despite this growing potential there are obstacles associated with the utilization of these cell lines in the pursuit of medical advancement. The use of stem cells comes attached with a variety of legal, ethical, moral and philosophical issues. The…… [Read More]

References:
Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/

MacDonald, Chris. (2004) "Stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm
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1950s to Scientific Technology of

Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96695070



Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (Robertson, 2000). However, authors such as Rosenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:

No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.

Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.

Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.

Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.

The authors did little to address the potential stem cell research has to treat and someday maybe even cure millions of Americans who face death from an unforgiving benefactor - disease.

Scientists believe that stem cell research could prove to be one of the greatest revolutions of modern medicine, surpassing even such great discoveries as penicillin and the Salk vaccine.…… [Read More]

References:
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
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Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support an intermediate approach to stem cell research because it makes the most sense once the subtleties are understood.

Background

Stem Cells can be divided into several categories based on the technology used to generate them and the source from which the stem cells are derived (Ritz 5). Embryonic stem (ES)…… [Read More]

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Genetic Testing Is Concept That

Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18113454



The genetic testing is used to measure the percentage or level of any risk associated to one's life. By studying gene mutation, it is predictable that a certain disease is likely to be occurring in future. However you may not find any symptoms of diseases until you do not suffer from it. (Mayo clinic staff, 2006). So with the help of genetic testing you can find all possible disease a person can suffer from.

It can be used only to find out the possibility of any risk that can be caused to any life but using genetic experimentation or cloning for the development of new species to experiment on human beings should be banned. The therapeutic cloning refers to the usage of human organs and specific parts of human body to be used for the treatment of any other person. (Margaret R. McLean, 1998)

The healthier human being is better than a sick one so we can reduce the chances of diseases in new born by using therapeutic procedures. There are several laws that define limits for the using of genetic testing on human being so use of this methodology should be restricted to bringing some benefit to human life…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Wikipedia, "Genetic Testing." Wikipedia, 2007. 07 October, 07. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_testing

Elmore, Shaun. "DNA Testing & it's Uses in Today's Society." EzineArticles 02 August 2007. 07 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?DNA-Testing-and-Its-Uses-in-Todays-Society&id=671072.
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Life Science Current Event Report Current Events

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69136107

Life Science Current Event Report

Current Events on Cloning and Evolution

Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009

Nature

The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?

Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of experimentation. Two main issues prevent further experiments: (a) the destruction of eggs with bad DNA is against the moral values of many groups and (b) financially supporting embryonic experiments with federal funds is illegal (Anonymous, 2009).

Eventually the eggs will be fertilized in order to see if the transfer of…… [Read More]

Resources:
Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means separating slat form water and thereby increasing the water supply that way, but it is a controversial solution since, although it works, it is also costly.

Australia's Sydney was recently torn over desalination plans. They planned to build a desalination plant that would extract a reasonable amount of seawater from…… [Read More]

References:
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/)
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Ethical Issues in Contemporary Neuroscience

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23311306



Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.

References

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque

Iowa: McGraw Hill.

Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle…… [Read More]

Sources:
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
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Limitations of Stem Cell Research the Primary

Words: 2171 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28518489

Limitations of Stem Cell Research

The primary objection to stem cell research in the United States is based on the belief that commonly held social, moral, and ethical boundaries will be breached in the effort to ensure adequate supplies of embryonic stem cells (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Because of the potential medical and economic implications of stem cell research, executive level governmental decisions have been made regarding acceptable limits for stem cell research (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) These limits have changed as the national executive leadership has changed (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Presidents have issued Executive Orders regarding stem cell research that reflect their personal beliefs and the beliefs expressed by voices dominating the American press at any given time (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Representation of stem cell researchers and those who potentially would benefit from stem cell research have been less well reflected in the national debate about how to provide oversight and how to legislate the issue of stem cell research (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) What is most often disregarded in the debate is that embryonic stem cells can be harvested from embryos produced in assisted reproductive technology…… [Read More]

References:
2006 Ballot Measure: Constitutional Amendment 2: Stem Cell Initiative, submitted October 11, 2005. Retrieved  http://www.sos.mo.gov 

Ertelt, S. (2009, March 2). IPS Cells, An Embryonic Stem Cell Research Alternative, Make Major Advance, LifeNews. Retrieved http://www.lifenews.com/