Cloning Essays (Examples)

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Governments Should Not Allow Human

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889645

If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.

Watson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... We're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:

Many of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Lyon, Jeff. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.

Pethokoukis, James. "Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves."
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Tsc What Is Reality We Pursue Virtual

Words: 1319 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76796934

TSC: What Is Reality?

We pursue virtual reality not because we seek to embrace reality, but because we seek to escape it. The availability of virtual reality technology enables us to create a controllable world which 'feels' real, but without any of the actual consequences of inhabiting reality. In virtually real games, we can act violently; become sports stars; take on entirely different personas in a consequence-free universe. One of the definitions of technology is that it technology involves the use of various created implements to make our lives seem 'easier.' To some extent, this is true of virtual reality technology, given that virtually real universes do not hold within them the risks of actually fighting, pursuing death-defying sports, or confronting supernatural beings in strange realms. However, the risks of virtual reality are great, namely that we will enter into the 'real' world after 'playtime' with a less secure grasp…… [Read More]

References

Kass, L (2001). TNR Online (The New Republic Online). Retrieved:

http://www.stanford.edu/~mvr2j/sfsu09/extra/Kass3.pdf
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Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campbell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated embryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to be cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly by Ian Wilmut, an extensive debate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on December 5, 1997 about his objective of cloning a human being prior to ban of the process by enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lamb from skill cells grown on a lab and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]

bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at  http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
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Genetics Research and Ethics Related to the

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19848354

genetics research and ethics related to the topic of human cloning. Specifically, we review a publication co-authored by Kuppuswamy, Macer, Serbulea & Tobin (2007) entitled " Is Human Reproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance." The central theme of this article is to distinguish two major types of cloning that are possible with contemporary genetic technology. The article outlines the issues and controversies surrounding each cloning type, and asserts a moral and ethical position which the authors consider to be a viable and necessary middle ground. The report was targeted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) as an assessment of the UN's response to the need for international governance of human cloning, particularly in the context of the UN's non-binding A/RES/59/280 Declaration on Cloning. The article is secondarily targeted for consumption by the general public as an informational resource.

The selected article by Kuppuswamy et. al.…… [Read More]

References

Kuppuswamy, C., Macer, D., Serbulea, M., & Tobin, B. (2007). Is Human Reproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance. UNU-IAS. Retrieved from http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/Cloning_9.20B.pdf
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Speech on the Benefits of

Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1325449



Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.

Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.

Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).

Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:

Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.

The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).

This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]

References

Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York

Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
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Fear Is an Emotion That Often Paralyzes

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41768188

Fear is an emotion that often paralyzes people and fear of the unknown often precipitates irrational thoughts and behavior. One hot topic that illustrates this point is cloning. Many opponents to the subject of cloning are basing their arguments on fear. This fear is irrational and totally unfounded and extremely damaging to the cause of science. As a society, we are on a path that is leading us to embark on nothing short of fantastic discoveries and allowing fear to hinder this growth would be a dreadful mistake. Cloning is not bad or wrong -- the fear that accompanies it is.

Alun Anderson brings to mind several reasons why human cloning could be beneficial. One example can be seen in the couple who carries a recessive gene for disease. In this scenario, one of the parents cloning him or herself would remove the risk of their child being born diseased.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,

Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.

Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:

Greenhaven Press. 1998.
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Agree With President Bush's Ethical Opposition to

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89006687

agree with President Bush's ethical opposition to all human cloning? Should cloning only be used for therapeutic purposes or not at all? Does every person have the right to reproduction, even lesbians or gay men through the use of cloning? The paper will be in the first person narrative.

Human Cloning

The successful cloning of Dolly, an adult sheep in the recent past, can be seen as one of the biggest advancements in science today. And even more dramatic is the news of the world's first cloned baby Eve, as announced by Brigitte Boisselier (of Clonaid) led by a bunch of UFO worshippers who call themselves the Raelians. However, the dramatic achievement of human cloning has simultaneously raised many issues. Is it ethical to clone a human being? Is it religiously correct? Is it morally viable? Is it legally acceptable? Somehow, human cloning has become a major public issue with…… [Read More]

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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website: http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59?
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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity…… [Read More]

References

Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.

Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 100 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

DeGette, Diana. Sex, Science, and Stem Cells: Inside the Right Wing Assault on Reason. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2008.
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Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
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Genetics Option 3 Darwin's Perspective According to

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51827752

Genetics

Option 3: Darwin's Perspective

According to Darwin, the survival of a species is determined by the degree of strength of its members. Thus, the "fittest" in terms of physical prowess as well as to a degree mental capacity survives. Human beings have long used their mental capacity to overcome the challenges of the physical environment. The very first discoveries of tools, fire and the wheel have set the species apart from the rest of life on earth. Human beings use their mental capacity to create tools in order to ensure and facilitate their survival in the face of challenges such as weather, predators and illness. From the Darwinian viewpoint, genetic engineering is simply the next step in the evolution of the human capacity to ensure the survival of their species. Some of the unforeseen results of technological advancement have admittedly been devastating, but another uniquely human capacity is accountability.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chartrand, Sabra. "Patents: A Human Gene Is patented as a Potential Tool Against AIDS, But Ethical Questions Remain." Human Genome Sciences Inc. (www.hgsi.com)

Ehrenreich, Barbara. "The Economics of Cloning."

Kolata, Gina. "A Clone is Born." Reprinted from: Clone: The Road to Dolly and the Path Ahead 1998.

Longstaff, Simon. "Genes for Sale."
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1950s to Scientific Technology of

Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96695070



Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (Robertson, 2000). However, authors such as Rosenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:

No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.

Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.

Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.

Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.

The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
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Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.

Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.

Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.

Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
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Genetics & the Media Human Genetics Author's

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30420810

Genetics & the Media

Human Genetics

Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.

Human genetics is a modern issue that moves from the forefront to the background of our global culture. It is not only a scientific endeavor, but it is also an activity laden with political implications, as well as a business opportunity for the media. Human genetics and human cloning become more accessible issues because the practice influences the average citizen more so than before, with or without the average citizen's knowledge. What the average person knows about human genetics and human cloning has been increased and influenced by media representations. The paper will focus on an article that questions the interest of genetic research in the mind of the general public as well as considers why human genetics and human cloning are media-worthy at all.

Article Review: Genetics & the Media

The…… [Read More]

Reference:

Bubela, T.M. & Caufield, T.A. (2004) Do the print media "hype" genetic research? A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(9), 1399 -- 1407.
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Life Science Current Event Report Current Events

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69136107

Life Science Current Event Report

Current Events on Cloning and Evolution

Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009

Nature

The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?

Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]

References

FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/)

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Ethical Issues in Contemporary Neuroscience

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23311306



Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque

Iowa: McGraw Hill.

Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Limitations of Stem Cell Research the Primary

Words: 2171 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28518489

Limitations of Stem Cell Research

The primary objection to stem cell research in the United States is based on the belief that commonly held social, moral, and ethical boundaries will be breached in the effort to ensure adequate supplies of embryonic stem cells (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Because of the potential medical and economic implications of stem cell research, executive level governmental decisions have been made regarding acceptable limits for stem cell research (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) These limits have changed as the national executive leadership has changed (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Presidents have issued Executive Orders regarding stem cell research that reflect their personal beliefs and the beliefs expressed by voices dominating the American press at any given time (Hoffman, et al., 2004; Reeves, 2001) Representation of stem cell researchers and those who potentially would benefit from stem cell research have been less…… [Read More]

References

2006 Ballot Measure: Constitutional Amendment 2: Stem Cell Initiative, submitted October 11, 2005. Retrieved  http://www.sos.mo.gov 

Ertelt, S. (2009, March 2). IPS Cells, An Embryonic Stem Cell Research Alternative, Make Major Advance, LifeNews. Retrieved http://www.lifenews.com/

Gretchen Vogel (2008, September 26). A New, Improved Stem Cell Recipe. ScienceNOW. Retrieved http://sciencenow.sciencemag.org/

Hoffman, D.I., et al. (2003, May). Cryopreserved embryos in the United States and their availability for research. Fertility and Sterility, 79 (5). Accessed at: How many frozen human embryos are available for research? Law & Health Initiative, (2003). Retrieved http://www.rand.org
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William Graham Sumner Was a Sociologist During

Words: 367 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45681627

William Graham Sumner was a sociologist during the 19th century who conducted extensive studies on the sociology of society and human interaction. In his study of the dynamics of society, Sumner focuses on the function of social norms for the society. In his discourse, he posits that social norms and traditions that have influenced societies for a long time are the main reason why there is an impediment in the introduction and implementation of social changes or reforms. Moreover, Sumner explains how social reform is an essential part of society's development, and also because changes are an integral part of humankind's natural right to liberty: "The truth is that the social order is fixed by laws of nature precisely analogous to those of the physical order... The evils of society are to a great extent the result of the dogmatism and self-interest of statesmen... Instead of studying the natural laws…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sumner, W. (1914). The Challenge of Facts. Available at: Internet Modern History Sourcebook Web site: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html.
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Tissue Engineering Is an Interdisciplinary

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76412480

(World Bank, 2007) Modern approaches to plant cloning or tissue culture techniques have been utilized by various nurseries in Thailand and the U.S. To bring rare and new species of plants in the commercial market, sometimes even before the botanists can manage to give the species a name. (Ogden, 2007)

Tissue engineered products have a bright marketing potential since they provide better alternatives to other forms of treatments. Cartilage and skin products have already been clinically approved and are available commercially. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has estimated that the future worldwide market for products of tissue engineering will be around $500 billion by 2010. A report published by the National Security Research Division of RAND corporation in 2006 has emphasized that tissue engineering will have a positive effect on more than one-third of the issues concerning a country's development including social structure, individual health,…… [Read More]

References

Atala, Anthony. (2007) "Principles of Regenerative Medicine"

Academic Press.

Bullis, Kevin. (2008, Jan/Feb) "Tiny Living Machines" Technology Review, Retrieved 1 May, 2008 at http://www.technologyreview.com/Nanotech/19874/

Friedman, Yali. (2007) "The Business of Biotechnology: Profit from the Expanding Influence of..." Logos Press.
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Technology & CSR Technological Growth Is Fueled

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29288883

Technology & CSR

Technological growth is fueled by a number of factors. The most important is changing conditions in the external environment. As new challenges arise, new technologies must be developed to meet those challenges. Another factor is competition. In many industries, business is so competitive that new technology is required to give companies competitive advantage, so they develop it. Another factor is increasing wealth in the world. Nations are contributing to the growth of technology that have not been able to make contributions in the past. All of this has an impact on corporate social responsibility. However you define CSR and whatever types of new technologies are created, companies must always keep in mind that they need to be ethical and remember their responsibilities to society.

Any number of corporate social responsibility issues can arise out of the use of technology and scientific research, since all three terms are…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from  http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html 

Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/

Volden, C. & Wiseman, A. (2009). A theory of government regulation and self-regulation with the specter of nonmarket threats. Ohio State University. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://polisci.osu.edu/faculty/cvolden/VW_nonmarkets.pdf
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Jurassic Park

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82491575

Jurassic Park

The famous 1991 novel, Jurassic Park, is based on the subject of a wildlife preserve for dinosaurs. The renowned writer of this novel, Michael Crichton, hoisted the conventional phantom of the revivification of species that have been wiped out from the face of the earth by using conserving DNA samples ("Jurassic Park' 20 Years" C10). The uncontrolled genetic engineering produced outcomes that were not the concern of just the scientists in the novel but are the concern of the whole human civilization (Sharp 507).

Crichton was able to craft a vibrantly dramatic action-adventure story with the Jurassic Park that revolved around the ideas of gluttony and crookedness of science. In this vivid tale of Crichton, an affluent investor builds a theme park that was located on an island off the coast of Costa Rica. The peculiar part of the tale is that the investor hires a scientist to…… [Read More]

References

Fisher, B. & Magid, R. "Jurassic Park: When Dinosaurs Rule the Box Office." American Cinematographer June 1993: 37+. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

"Jurassic Park' 20 Years Later: How Close? Film Trilogy about Resurrected Dinosaurs Debuts on Blu-Ray." The Washington Times (Washington, DC) 25 Oct. 2011: C10. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .

Trembley, Elizabeth A. Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
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Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
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Super Integrons

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23747363

integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).

Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty

of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.

http://icarus.med.utoronto.ca/patho/faculty.asp?FacultyID=208

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
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Accusations of Ignorance When a New Version

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71460365

Accusations of Ignorance

When a new version of an old evil appears on the event horizon of mankinds slow march toward evolutionary progress, those who preach cultural diversity and tolerance are the first to stake out a position of acceptance. Modern man must be tolerant of new ideas, because through the new ideas, man evolves into a more progressive, and advances creature. This approach seems to be the popular mantra regardless of what lessons have been learned through similar events in the past. Regardless of the lessons mankind has learned about the evil which man can perpetrate against himself, there are those who believe that with enough time, and modern advancements in knowledge, technology, and understanding, man can overcome our propensity toward depraved behavior, which we have shown over and over again that we are willing to perpetrate on others. The surprising aspect of this cultural phenomenon is that those…… [Read More]

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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
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Debating the Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Words: 5533 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40902729

Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research Ethics

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research: A Nursing Perspective

The Ethics of Stem Cell Research: A Nursing Perspective

When the world-famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was euthanized at the relatively young age of 6-1/2 years she was suffering from advanced aging and lung disease (Meek, 2003). In human years, Dolly was only about 40-years old and had been suffering from arthritis for many years. This outcome is consistent with the claims of some scientists that current cloning technology does not accurately replicate natural sexual reproduction and disproportionately generates debilitating and sometimes lethal genetic defects. Dolly was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), which involved removing the DNA from a sheep somatic (adult) cell, inserting it into an egg, and then transferring the egg to a receptive womb. This technology is very similar to what is currently being developed by stem…… [Read More]

References

ANA. (2007). American Nurses Association Position Statement on Stem Cell Research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from http://gm6.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/StemCellResearch.txt.

ANA. (2009). ANA comments on stem cell research. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2014 from  http://nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/MediaResources/PressReleases/2009-PR/ANA-on-Stem-Cell-research.pdf .

Armstrong, A.E. (2006). Towards a strong virtue ethics for nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 7, 110-124.

Arnason, V. (2010). Bioethics in Iceland. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 19(3), 299-309.
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Carer and Donation Mean in

Words: 2965 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56093196

His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.

The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.

Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. Researchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Patenting Living Things and What

Words: 1362 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44511846

A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" (Pollack). Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on 'anything under the sun made by man'" (Bagley). Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves." This is a moral and…… [Read More]

References

Bagley, Margo a. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Editors. "Can Living Things be Patented?" Bio.org. 2008. 15 Feb. 2008. http://www.bio.org/ip/primer/livingthings.asp

Kevles, Daniel J. "Of Mice & Money: The Story of the World's First Animal Patent." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 78+.

Pollack, Andrew. "Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents." New York Times. 2002. 15 Feb. 2008.
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Tiffany Rudolph The Wisdom of

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45927990

For example, is the prospect of human cloning equal in repugnant value to "eating human flesh," as he suggests? (402). Another word he uses often is "horror." To wit, "Can anyone really give an argument fully adequate to the horror which is father-daughter incest (even with consent), or having sex with animals, or mutilating a corpse… or even just (just!) raping or murdering another human being?" (402). The horror of any of those acts can be linked to the horror of human cloning, according to Kass.

After spending the first few pages of his essay pointing to his contempt for the prospect of human cloning, on page 404 Kass flatly states that the process of setting up human cloning is already well underway. Making human children "artifacts" rather than loveable, playful little girls and boys, to serve human purposes, is a "violation of human equality, freedom and dignity" he insists,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kass, Leon R. The Wisdom of Repugnance. The New Republic. (1997): 17-26.
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Cloned Livestock Produce in EU

Words: 1114 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24475039

In his article, Derek Burke posits that "consumers' biggest concern is about risk, especially in light of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the regulatory processes, are no longer trusted" (1998). This distrust in the system, both on a scientific and governmental level, is deep-rooted, in that food is part of the human experience which is personal and even intimate. People want to be able to trust their food providers. Therefore there is fear that just because cloned beef appears as edible as non-cloned beef does not guarantee that an animal with defects harmful for human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing greater harm over a wider array of people than even the BSE or Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.

The arguments against cloning have a lot to do with our collective fear not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…… [Read More]

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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf.

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
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Skill Building the Course Work Has Immensely

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30334374

Skill Building

The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. Racism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.

After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…… [Read More]

References

Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.

Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
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Right to Live and Die Ethics and Morality

Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66196187

Ethics and Morality: The Right to Live and Die

The Ethics of Human Cloning

The topic of human cloning came into the limelight in 1996, when Dolly the lamb was cloned by embryologist Ian Wilmut of Roslin Institute, Scotland. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" (Fornsworth, 2001). Essentially, it is the production of a baby with the same genes as its monozygotic parent, and which basically involves inserting the parent's DNA into a nucleated egg and then chemically stimulating the egg to undergo cell division and become an embryo that is a complete genetic copy of its parent / DNA donor (Fornsworth, 2001).

Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…… [Read More]

References

Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Farnsworth.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from  http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm 

Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from http://planetparadigm.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/ethical-issues-surrounding-human-cloning/
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Cogito Ergo Sum as Stated

Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51847710

As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. But current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Hospital Ethics to Do or

Words: 5897 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97807504



The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.

Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).

From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group

Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.

Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association

Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
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IAS and DF

Words: 9242 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56431796

Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)

In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.

Part 1 Larger Labs:

Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)

Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):

Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…… [Read More]

References"

[1] Lab VI: Timeline Analysis. Available at https://cs.nmt.edu/~df/Labs/Lab06_sol.pdf

[2] LAB IV: File Recovery: Meta Data Layer. Available at

[3] Lab V: File Recovery: Data Layer Revisited. Available at

[4] Windows Client Configuration. Available at
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Stem Cells It Will Consider the Current

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94244861

stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.

The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More]

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Bush Christian the Bush Administration's

Words: 4214 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83900730

With the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Albu, M. (2004). Bush's gay marriage ban is unjust. The Channels Online. Online at http://media.www.thechannelsonline.com/media/storage/paper669/news/2004/03/03/Opinion/Editorial.Bushs.Gay.Marriage.Ban.Is.Unjust-625066.shtml

Bazinet, K.R. (2009). President Obama Reverses Bush's Stem Cell Research Ban; Debate Rages Along Abortion Fault Lines. New York Daily News. Online at http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/03/09/2009-03-09_president_obama_reverses_bushs_stem_cell.html

Campbell, D.E. (2007). A Matter of Faith: Religion in the 2004 Presidential Election. The Brookings Institute.

Chaddock, G.R. (2006). Veto Clash Looms for Stem Cell Bill.
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Human Nature

Words: 1691 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30493344

Human Nature

Book Summary

Jeeves, Malcolm. (Editor) From Cells to Souls -- and Beyond. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2004.

According to Michael Steel in the book edited Malcolm Jeeves entitled From Cells to Souls -- and Beyond, the most critical moral and ethical debate of our time is the relationship of the human being as a 'self' or 'soul' (depending on one's preferred cultural, psychological or religious term for describing one's understanding of one's status as a human person) and the implications of scientific development upon the conception of what is a person. "When an American President and a British prime minister feel moved to issue almost simultaneously statements on the ethics and regulation of human cloning, there can be little doubt as to the breadth and depth of public interest in the topic." (1)

Cloning and other research done into the nature of human genetics challenges…… [Read More]

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Technology and Theology

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55497148

Peter Weyland's 2023 TED talk provides an intriguing perspective on the idea of a god and generates much controversy as a result of trying to change society's understanding of this concept. The power to create is indeed, an impressive feat, and it is only natural for humans to feel privileged because of coming to control this power. Weyland's speech is referring to androids whom people are going to have difficulties differentiating from real humans in a few years time. When regarding matters solely from the perspective provided by Ridley Scott's 2012 motion picture Prometheus, it would only be safe to say that the power to create provides one with the ability to relate to him or herself as being a god.

While Darwinism seems to be a powerful idea, many people prefer to think of their background as having had a creator. One can almost say that people are 'programmed'…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Thomas, Isabel, "Cloning," (Raintree, 2012)

Dir. Scott Ridley. Prometheus. (20th Century Fox, 2012).
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Ethics of Stem Cell Research

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5206357

The ban needs to be used to prevent the sale of embryos, use of cloning and the production of embryos for the sole purpose of research. Cures for debilitating diseases will hopefully result and healing is supposed to be the driving factor in medicine. It is a poor argument to talk of murder, destruction and disrespect of human life when the United States continues to utilize capital punishment, the legal murder of a human being for purposes of criminal punishment. This type of dichotomy results in irrational or illogical positions in contrast to developing a truer position. In addition, legal issues are at stake and the fact that abortion is legal in the United States should be a critical part of the discussion. Since personal choice is the key to legal abortions, it seems that the same person can and should be allowed to consent to medical research following the…… [Read More]

References

Fumento, M. (n.d.). Michael Fumento: Embryonic Research Driven by Greed, not Science. Michael Fumento.com. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from  http://www.fumento.com/biotech/greatstemcell.html 

Guenin, L. (n.d.). ISSCR:: Public: Perspective: Ethics of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research . International Society for Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.isscr.org/public/ethics.htm

Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. (n.d.). The National Academies Press. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11278&page=45

Santa Clara University Web Site. (2001, October 21). The Ethics of Human Cloning and Stem Cell Research. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/cloning.htm
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Political Influence Over Stem Cell

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14376102

Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004: