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Cloning has become a very contentious subject. The issue of cloning has moved from the scientific arena into the cultural, religious and ethical centers of debate, for good reasons. The scientific implications of cloning affects a wide range of social and ethical concerns. The theory of cloning questions many essential areas of ethical and philosophical concern about what human life is and raises the question whether we have the right or even the qualifications to alter life and living beings. It is no wonder that in the light of the extremely contentious way that cloning impacts on important issues that there should be strong and forthright opinions on the subject. earing this in mind it becomes all the more important to keep an open mind and to also hear the other side of the argument,
There are many reason why cloning should be condoned. On the one hand it is…
"Anti-Cloning Effort Seeks Complete Ban." The Washington Times 28 Feb. 2002:
Barglow, Raymond. "A Reply to Rifkin." Tikkun 17.4 (2002): 26-30.
Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+.
Brannigan, Michael C., ed. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. New York: Seven Bridges Press, 2000.
Experiments in the late nineteenth century on frogs provided the groundwork for cloning (McKinnell 9-10).
The method used a decade ago for the successful nuclear transplantation in amphibians required that the egg be enucleated, which meant removing the maternal hereditary material contained in the egg nucleus. Other hereditary material contained in the nucleus from a body cell would then be placed in the enucleated egg, and the resulting clone would be parentless:
Biologically, a mother is a mother by virtue of the fact that she contributes hereditary material via the chromosomes of an egg. . . A father is a biological father by virtue of the fact that he has contributed hereditary material via his sperm. Since no sperm has participated in the development of the cloned individual, there is no male parent (McKinnell 10-11).
Cloning higher animals has proven to be difficult, but scientists have persevered and have produced…
Adler, Tina. "Bidding Bye-Bye to the Black Sheep?" Science News (March 9, 1996), 148.
"Animal pharmacy" U.S. News & World Report (September 9, 1991), 10.
Brinton, Donna M., Christine Holten, and Jodi L. Nooyen. "Chapter 3: Cloning." Language & Life Sciences (2004). .
Charman, K. "Genetically Engineered Food: Promises & Perils." Mother Earth News 194 (2002, October/November), 74-82.
and, that is, for how much longer should this experimentation be tolerated given the animal suffering involved and the deliberate creation of abominations of nature.
Currently, many countries around the world have banned the use of reproductive, human cloning on ethical grounds, while allowing research to continue in the area of therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning of animals. Of course, there are also countries that are permitting the development of human cloning technologies. Given the ethical and safety issues involved, it appears that the subject of cloning needs to be resolved not on a country-wise basis, but on a global scale. In fact, if there is one issue today that truly calls for global attention and unity, it is that of cloning technologies. for, a failure to determine globally applicable ethical guidelines in cloning may have a severe detrimental impact on the future of human civilization and life on Earth,…
Cloning." Debate - Issue Briefs. Politics.co.uk Web site. Updated May 8, 2005.
Accessed May 8, 2005: http://www.politics.co.uk/issues/cloning-$1,996,375.htm
Coghlan, a. "Old stem cells can turn cancerous." April 21, 2005. NewScientist.com Accessed May 8, 2005: http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/mg18624965.200
Friend, T. "The real face of cloning." January 17, 2003. USA Today. Accessed May 8, 2005: http://www.usatoday.com/educate/college/healthscience/articles/20030126.htm
"Animals that are experiencing dwindling numbers could be cloned to prevent their extinction. Taiwanese scientists claimed to have made five clones of an endangered pig to save this species" (Anonymous). While some say man should not play God there are others like Edmund Erde who disagree and say that "playing God" is a phrase that is "muddle-headed" and "nonsensical" and should be deserted (Edmund Erde, p.594). For those who voice their concerns that cloning should be allowed as every infertile couple too has a right to have a child, they should know that that "cloning is not inherently about infertile couples or twins, but about rights as persons that we grant any other human being; and that personal identity, human dignity, and parental responsibility are at the core of the debate about human cloning" (Howard B. adest p.188). People often say that a government should not and cannot ban a…
1) BBC - Human Cloning: Is Making People Wrong? [Online website] Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ethics/cloning/clones.shtml [Accessed on: 07/09/2005]
2) Cat Lazaroff - Transgenic Animals Could Pose Environmental Threat. [Online website] Available at http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2002/2002-08-21-06.asp [Accessed on: 07/09/2005]
3) Staff Working Paper 3b - Arguments against "Reproductive Cloning" [online website] Available at http://www.bioethics.gov/background/workpaper3b.html[Accessed on: 07/09/2005]
4) James F. Childress: Human Cloning and Human Dignity: The Report of the President's Council on Bioethics. The Hastings Center Report. Volume: 33. Issue: 3. 2003.
Cloning is among the feats in science that many of us, as part of our childish character, ideas, and imaginations, have only visualized before. We used to say in our mind, "what would happen if we create someone who is an exact duplicate of ourselves?" Again we say, "how convenient it would be to have that someone do the things we don't want to do."
Or, "have that someone face the problems we have." Leon Kass (2002), in his article about cloning, has the following definition for the term.
Cloning, or asexual reproduction, is the production of individuals who are genetically identical to an already existing individual.
In addition to reproduction of genetically identical copy of an individual, cloning is also scientifically done on animals and biological living things.
The coming true and emergence of cloning in the study of science, however, resulted to both positive and negative reactions from…
Bailey, Ronald. Cloning is Ethical. Ethics.
Brenda Stalcup, Ed Current Controversies Series.
Edwords, Fred. Genetic Engineering Can Be Ethical. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering.
The answer to why humans have not been cloned is complex. Many have reservations to the practice for scientific and moral reasons. First, some believe that scientists do not know enough about cloning to attempt the process with correct safety precautions. Second, some have moral concerns about the welfare of the cloned child, replacing the dead, genetic diseases, and social impacts, in addition to religious arguments and other concerns (Devolder). For these reasons, a debate has ensued over whether or not cloning will happen in our lifetime. Personally, I believe cloning will happen in my lifetime. According to Time Magazine, some scientists have already claimed that they have created clones. Many other scientists not only believe human cloning can happen, but they also support it (Gibbs et al.). This being said, many of the scientists who fully support cloning in this way are not in the United States. Thus, while…
Cloning: Saving Endangered Species." The Hindu 27 November 2008. 30 November 2008. http://www.hindu.com/seta/2008/11/27/stories/2008112750021400.htm
Devolder, Katrien. "Cloning." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008. 30 November 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cloning/
Frozen mice cloned -- are wooly mammoths next?" Reuters. 3 November 2008. 30
November 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/wtMostRead/idUSTRE4A26NV20081103?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0
Cloning is no longer the stuff of science fiction, but is a reality that has become a serious subject of hot debate around the globe. At issue are the ethical, scientific, moral and economic implications of cloning.
In October 2004, David Stevens, Executive Director of the Christian Medical Association confronted scientific duplicity and specifically challenged the International Society for Stem Cell Research asking to stop misleading the public and the media by changing human cloning nomenclature (Christian Pp). Stevens was referring to a September 2004 statement by ISSCR president Leonard Zon encouraging researchers and the media to stop using the term, "cloning" because of its negative connotations (Christian Pp). Zon said, that "nuclear transfer" be used instead of "therapeutic cloning" because the term "cloning" does not accurately describe this biological process, whereby "cells generated by nuclear transfer are by no definition a clone of the donor of the transferred nucleus"…
Christian Medical Association Doctors Assail Plan to Lead Public and Media
Away from Truth on Human Cloning." Business Wire. 10/1/2004; Pp.
Wadhams, Nick. "Italy offers possible way out of divisive U.N. cloning dispute."
AP Worldstream. 11/18/2004; Pp.
Scientific research and specifically cloning is protected as a first amendment right, coupled with the benefits available with this technology, and the unimaginable benefits that can be reaped in the future, cloning is the hope of the future, despite the worries of critics.
After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning." The Futurist 40(4) Jul-Aug 2006: p. 62. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com.
Cantrell MK. "International esponse to Dolly: Will Scientific Freedom Get Sheared?" Journal Law Health (13) 1998-99: p. 69-102.
Clones Cloning Around." World Watch 18(6) Nov-Dec 2005: p. 9. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com.
Cloning." Science Scope Mar 2006: p. 70-74. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com.
Hopkins, S. "A Step in the ight Direction?" Nursing Standard 19(2) 22 Sept 2004: p. 22-23. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale.…
After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning." The Futurist 40(4) Jul-Aug 2006: p. 62. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Cantrell MK. "International Response to Dolly: Will Scientific Freedom Get Sheared?" Journal Law Health (13) 1998-99: p. 69-102.
Clones Cloning Around." World Watch 18(6) Nov-Dec 2005: p. 9. InfoTrac database. Thomson-Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. July 5, 2006
In 1997, when the world first heard about Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult, the possibility of cloning a human moved from science fiction into the realm of reality. Now Congress is taking up the question of whether human cloning should be allowed. There are many pros and cons to this issue, but the benefits certainly outweigh the concerns regarding people's feelings against cloning.
It is now believed that it might be easier to clone humans than was previously believed. According to research at Duke University (Gorman, 2001), people have a genetic quirk that might prevent some of the developmental deformities associated with animal cloning. The mechanics in making a clone involve scientists to first take an egg and remove all of its genetic material. Then the nucleus of a cell is taken from the individual to be cloned and inserted into the…
Biotechnology Industry Organization. "Cloning Technology, not Human Cloning."
Pharmaceutical Technology. 2001.
Gorman, C. "Cloning: Humans May Have It Easier." Time, August 27, 2001. v158 i8 p56+
Wilmut, Ian. "Cloning for Medicine." Scientific American. 1998.
Dolly, the world's first cloned sheep, took the world by storm. Since her birth in 1997, the potential benefits and potential pitfalls have been debated by scientists, doctors, and bioethicists, with few clear breakthroughs. Most governments in Europe, Asia and North America have banned or significantly restricted research into human cloning. Animal cloning is also falling out of favor, as the exercise is expensive and as of yet, relatively unsuccessful. Cloning has put the religious communities into a tizzy as well, for cloning raises some complicated and troubling questions about the nature of life and the powers inherent in creating it. However, the science of cloning is still in its infancy. Plants have been cloned for thousands of years, but human and animal cloning could yield to great medical advancements and breakthroughs. Human cloning could serve as a healthy alternative to fertility drugs, and could lead to the development…
Dixon, Patrick. "Human Cloning Headlines." Online at .
'Dolly." HowStuffWorks.com. Online at .
Smith, Simon. "All the Reasons to Clone Human Beings." HumanCloning.org. Online at .
People have come on different sides of the philosophical divide when the topic of human cloning is brought up. Dolly the sheep was the first mammal cloned -- Dolly is now dead. Also the Raelians (known to believe that we are descended from aliens) have talked about the first (allegedly) human baby already having been cloned. In his essay: "Genetic Encores: The Ethics of Human Cloning," Robert Wachbroit, is supportive of Human Cloning. He attempts to debunk various points of objections from those against cloning. Robert Wachbroit avers that cloning must be considered in its own right. He believes that most people confuse it with a technology of genetic manipulation -- playing with the laws of nature.
Wachbroit disagrees with those who claim that clones are carbon copies of a person. He declares that clones are separate living beings with independent existence. Clones don't think alike and their experiences…
Thinkers and writers like Jeremy ifkin, author of the Biotech Century: Harnessing the Gene and emaking the World, voice their opposition to cloning. He and others are concerned that cloning with provide unethical incentives. "...we believe that the market for women's eggs that would be created by this research will provide unethical incentives for women to undergo health-threatening hormone treatment and surgery." (Statement in Support of Legislation to Prohibit Cloning) Furthermore, as ifkin states:
We are also concerned about the increasing bio-industrialization of life by the scientific community and life science companies and shocked and dismayed that clonal human embryos have been patented and declared to be human "inventions." We oppose efforts to reduce human life and its various parts and processes to the status of mere research tools, manufactured products, commodities and utilities. We are also deeply troubled that at present there is no legal or ethical framework in…
Critique of Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Retrieved April 27, 2007, at http://www.law.nyu.edu/JOURNALS/ENVTLLAW/issues/vol6/3/6nyuelj674.html
Barrera N. (2000) Tissue Engineering. Retrieved April 27, 2007, at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f00/web3/barrera3.html
Bedford-Strohm H. (2002) Sacred body? Stem cell research and human cloning. Ecumenical Review. Retrieved April 27, 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2065/is_3_54/ai_92136470/pg_4
Biology. (2005) Retrieved April 27, 2007, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/biology/variationandinheritance/4cloningandgenengrev2.shtml
cloning creating controversy among scientists, politicians, and intellectuals: reproductive (cloning to produce live humans) and theraputic (cloning to treat illness) (Kass). Reproductive cloning invloves creating an embryo and transferring it into a woman's womb, where it goes through normal pregnancy and is birthed (Kass). Theraputic cloning invloves growing an embryo until stem cells can be extracted (about a week), extracting the cells, and destroying the embryo afterward (Kass). I believe that both types of cloning should be banned for one main reason: it is ethically problematic to allow both types of cloning, while it is ethically unproblematic to ban both types of cloning.
It should first be explained why theraputic cloning should be banned. The primary reason is that the allowance of theraputic cloning will lead to a situation where cloning techniques are perfected and thus safer (Kass). This will make it more likely that people interested in cloning babies…
Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.
Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource
Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .
Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The
Therapeutic Cloning for Leukimia and Cancer
The Origin of Obstacles to Progress in Medical Science:
When Flemish Scholar Andreas Vesalius published the first medical textbook on anatomy in 1543, he did so at great personal risk, owing to the strict prohibitions of the medieval Catholic Church against any posthumous dissection of the human body.
Partly for this reason, it would be almost another full century before William Harvey correctly outlined the human circulatory system (Hellemans & Bunch, 1988).
Throughout the twentieth century, the Church has continued to voice its strong opposition to some of the most beneficial developments of modern medical progress, such as organ donation, artificial insemination and, of course, contraception, even in the most impoverished regions of the world where thousands of infants die every single day from starvation caused by overpopulation. The most recent area of conflict between medical research and the Church concerns the countless beneficial…
Fox, M. Health and Medical News: Cloning May Cure Skin Cancer; Reuters News Service (August 2, 2004) Accessed, August 8, 2004, at http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/health/HealthRepublish_1166937.htm
Hellemans, A., Bunch, B. (1988) The Timetables of Science.
Simon & Schuster: New York
Kaku, M. (1997) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century.
For example, the most common instrument used in cloning today is known as a "micromanipulator," described by Baird as being an expensive machine that requires the use of a skilled technician to capture an egg cell under the microscope, insert a very fine needle to suck out its nucleus, and then use another needle to transfer a nucleus from the animal to be cloned. "This process is tricky and time consuming, and results are somewhere in the 25% range. In the new technique, egg cells are split in half under a microscope using a very thin blade. The halves are allowed to heal and then a dye is introduced to identify the halves containing the nucleus" (Baird, 2002, p. 20). The two halves of embryo that contain the original nucleus are then discarded, a processs that leaves the empty cytoplasts alone (these are the cells that do not contain the…
Baird, S.L. (2002). Technological literacy and human cloning. The Technology Teacher, 62(3), 19.
The author provides a useful history of cloning as well-rounded analysis of both the potential benefits to be derived from cloning research; in addition, the author addresses the justified and unfounded criticisms being directed at cloning technology today.
Bedford-Strohm, H. (2002). Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning. The Ecumenical Review, 54(3), 240.
The author cites the fundamental human drive to reproduce "by any means necessary," and suggests that the potential benefits of cloning for humanity in the future must take into account their religious implications as well.
Cloning? Cloning is the exact replication of a single individual gene or a part of a single individual gene achieved with the use of specialized DNA technology. The result may be used for further scientific research or for nay other purposes that it was cloned for. The Human Genome Project that conducts cloning experiment on a regular basis refers to the entire process as the method of 'cloning DNA', and the cloned or the copied DNA molecules are called 'clone libraries'. Another type of cloning method is that whereby the entirely 'natural process of cell division' is utilized to make numerous copies of one single cell. In this particular process, the genetic makeup of the particular cell that has been cloned will be the exact same replica of the original cell from which the copies were made, and this is referred to as the 'cell line'. The third type of…
'Cloning Fact Sheet" (July 09, 2004) Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved From http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml Accessed on 21 February, 2005
"Deontology" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved From
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deontology Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Fernando, Antonio. "Human Cloning and the Hazards of Biowonder" Retrieved From
cloning and its details. Cloning is an ethical and moral issue that is supercharged for debate. There are many issues surrounding cloning, and it can be misunderstood. Cloning is not an issue that is just about humans and the reproduction of other humans. Cloning first began as a scientific experiment to clone animals, and the first clone, Dolly the sheep, showed that the process worked. Cloning is actually a natural phenomenon, but it has become so controversial that it is often viewed as an unnatural way to create new life.
First, it is important to define cloning and how cloning occurs. A cloning expert notes, "Cloning refers to asexual reproduction, reproduction without 'fertilization'. A cloned individual […] may result from two different processes: (1) Embryo splitting: this sometimes gives rise to monozygotic twins but can also result in identical triplets or even quadruplets. (2) Cell Nuclear eplacement (CN) or Cell…
Animal Cloning No Barnyard Bijou." The Washington Times 14 Dec. 2006: A21.
Fiester, Autumn. "Creating Fido's Twin: Can Pet Cloning Be Ethically Justified?." The Hastings Center Report 35.4 (2005): 34+.
Harris, John. On Cloning. New York: Routledge, 2004.
"House Defeats Democrats' Cloning Bill; Critics Warn of Loophole on Embryos." The Washington Times 7 June 2007: A06.
Negative Effects of Animal Cloning
A method used to produce multiple copies of a certain animal is referred to as animal cloning. The most frequently and latest method of cloning is called Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. In this method, the nucleus is removed from one animal and replaced with a nucleus from the animal to be cloned Panno, 2009.
In most cases, the donor has to be an animal which has desirable traits. The cell will develop into an embryo that will be implanted into the surrogate mother. The born animal will have the same DNA as that of the donor animal, which will ensure that it will also have the same desirable traits.
Due to cloning and using of animals with the desirable traits, there is a likelihood that the animals cloned will all have the same DNA which will result in no biodiversity. This will mean…
Gregory, N.G., & Grandin, T. (2007). Animal Welfare and Meat Production. Oxfordshire OX10 8DE: CABI.
Panno, J. (2009). Animal Cloning: The Science of Nuclear Transfer. New York, NY 10001: Facts On File, Incorporated.
Rollin, B.E. (2006). Science and Ethics. Cambridge CB2 8BS: Cambridge University Press.
Brent aters, in discussing the ethical debate of stem cells and how scientists retrieve them, considers the most important aspect of the argument is not doing the research but how cells are obtained. He draws a distinct line between sacrificing human tissue to save human being but that an embryo is more than human tissue. If the embryo is a fellow human being, "we should not kill one person to save another" (aters 78). He claims that human beings are "simply not available to cut into parts, no matter how useful" (78). Arguments stem from what people consider an embryo. Many admits that the embryo is more than tissue but not yet a person. If there is no distinction between the tissue commonly referred to as an embryo, then retrieving the human tissue should be able to be retrieved from another source. In other words, if the fetus tissue is…
Bush, George. "Both Human Reproductive Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning Should Be Banned." Contemporary Issues Companion: Cloning. 2006. GALE Resource Database.
Information Retrieved April 26, 2009.
Human Genome Project. National Institute of Health Online. Information Retrieved April 26,
Recent years have seen intense debate on the ethicality of human cloning and therapeutic cloning. hile the former involves reproduction of a new human (clone to the adult from whom the DNA was taken), therapeutic cloning has a very different goal. Having said that, therapeutic cloning, too, has been under the spotlight. This paper's purpose is to focus on therapeutic cloning alone and explore the possible pros and cons of the procedure. But, first, it would be important to define therapeutic cloning in order that the discussion that follows is viewed in the correct contextual framework.
Therapeutic Cloning or Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is a procedure, which involves removing the DNA from a cell taken from a human, inserting it into the DNA taken from a woman's ovum and giving the resultant ovum an electrical shock to begin the formation of an embryo. The procedure results in a…
Ames, David A. "Eugenic Danger or Genetic Promise: A Revolution for the Millennium." Cross Currents. Vol. 51, Fall 2001. Questia. 4 Oct. 2003. http://www.questia.com/ .
Barglow, Raymond. "A Reply to Rifkin." Tikkun. Vol. 17, July-August 2002:
Questia. 4 Oct. 2003
Congressional an on 'cloning'.
The reality of cloning entered the world arena with a sheep named Dolly. Despite Dolly's fame, cloning techniques have existed since the 1970s, with a process called 'artificial twinning' which involved splitting a single ovum into what are considered new embryos and implanting them each into a female to be carried to term. The controversy of cloning has reached new heights as advances in medical technology are bringing the prospects of human cloning closer and closer.
Currently the cloning of stem cells is the Millennium's 'Fountain of Youth' where cloned stem cells could be "much better at replacing tissue damaged by disease or age (New Scientist)." The prospects of cloning being able to cure such diseases as Parkinson's Disease and Cerebral Palsy make it important not to place a Congressional an on cloning.
In a recent New Scientist, these cloned stem cells "may be more vigorous…
Boston Globe Editorial A Cloud Over Cloning. Boston Globe (A12), 25 November 2002.
The Human Cloning Foundation http://www.humancloning.orgOnline. 8 December, 2002.
Westphal, Sylvia Pagan. Cloned Stem Cells May Give New Lease on Life.
New Scientist Online. 8 November, 2002.
), Severino Antinori (a fertility expert from Italy enabled a 62-year-old woman have a baby) and Lee Silver (molecular biologist and professor of genetics at Princeton University) are some experts that are cloning's main proponents. With the debate on cloning, there is an air of inevitability: no matter what the debate, cloning will proceed. Also, the convictions of the people on different sides of the issues are so firmly rooted, that it would be extremely difficult to convince them otherwise. (McGee, 1998)
enagiano, G., & Primiero, F.M. (2002). Human reproductive cloning. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 79(3), 265-268.
Goodnough, D. (2003). The debate over human cloning, erkeley Heights, NJ, Enslow Pub.
McGee, G. (1998). The human cloning debate, erkeley, Calif., erkeley Hills ooks.
Tomasch, P. (2002, December 28, 2002). The sportswriter, the aliens, and a cult with 55,000 believers. The Guardian.
Wilmut, I., Schnieke, a.E., McWhir, J., Kind, a.J., &…
Benagiano, G., & Primiero, F.M. (2002). Human reproductive cloning. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 79(3), 265-268.
Goodnough, D. (2003). The debate over human cloning, Berkeley Heights, NJ, Enslow Pub.
McGee, G. (1998). The human cloning debate, Berkeley, Calif., Berkeley Hills Books.
Tomasch, P. (2002, December 28, 2002). The sportswriter, the aliens, and a cult with 55,000 believers. The Guardian.
science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?
As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…
Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.
Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.
Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.
MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
against human cloning. The writer explores both sides of the issue and comes down against its use or possibility of its use. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Over the past few decades, medical advances have made life better than ever before. People are living longer, their health is better and their quality of life is above any previous standard. Today, people can be cured of illnesses that used to mean death while at the same time practicing preventative medicine that will provide them with a longer life. Advances in the medical field have provided many benefits to human life but the question becomes, how much is too much? The ability to clone humans and human parts is just on the horizon. Steps have been taken to push it through the FDA regulations and the public is being told the ability is just around the corner. Cloning,…
Bono steps into stem cell debate with anti-cloning bill
Gannett News Service; 4/28/2005; DOUG ABRAHMS
Gannett News Service
Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.
It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…
America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.
Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."
Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
Heather D's decision not to be tested for the Huntington's gene a wise one?
Heather D's decision not to be tested for Huntington's is unwise given that Heather is about to become a mother. If she develops the disease, this could significantly impair her ability to parent a child. She should make provisions for the child if she has the mutation and should discuss the situation with her husband. The genetic test for Huntington's is not a test that merely indicates a tendency or a likelihood of developing the debilitating condition -- because of the fairly narrow chromosomal area affected by the mutation, scientists can predict with a great degree of certainty who will or who will not develop the disorder (579).
Q2. Does the genetic counselor's suggestion provide a satisfactory solution to the problem?
No. Most individuals who are opposed to abortion also view the termination of fertilized embryos…
If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.
atson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... e're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:
Many of these…
Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Lyon, Jeff. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Pethokoukis, James. "Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves."
TSC: What Is eality?
We pursue virtual reality not because we seek to embrace reality, but because we seek to escape it. The availability of virtual reality technology enables us to create a controllable world which 'feels' real, but without any of the actual consequences of inhabiting reality. In virtually real games, we can act violently; become sports stars; take on entirely different personas in a consequence-free universe. One of the definitions of technology is that it technology involves the use of various created implements to make our lives seem 'easier.' To some extent, this is true of virtual reality technology, given that virtually real universes do not hold within them the risks of actually fighting, pursuing death-defying sports, or confronting supernatural beings in strange realms. However, the risks of virtual reality are great, namely that we will enter into the 'real' world after 'playtime' with a less secure grasp…
Kass, L (2001). TNR Online (The New Republic Online). Retrieved:
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
genetics research and ethics related to the topic of human cloning. Specifically, we review a publication co-authored by Kuppuswamy, Macer, Serbulea & Tobin (2007) entitled " Is Human eproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance." The central theme of this article is to distinguish two major types of cloning that are possible with contemporary genetic technology. The article outlines the issues and controversies surrounding each cloning type, and asserts a moral and ethical position which the authors consider to be a viable and necessary middle ground. The report was targeted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) as an assessment of the UN's response to the need for international governance of human cloning, particularly in the context of the UN's non-binding A/ES/59/280 Declaration on Cloning. The article is secondarily targeted for consumption by the general public as an informational resource.
The selected article by Kuppuswamy et. al.…
Kuppuswamy, C., Macer, D., Serbulea, M., & Tobin, B. (2007). Is Human Reproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance. UNU-IAS. Retrieved from http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/Cloning_9.20B.pdf
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)
Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005
Fear is an emotion that often paralyzes people and fear of the unknown often precipitates irrational thoughts and behavior. One hot topic that illustrates this point is cloning. Many opponents to the subject of cloning are basing their arguments on fear. This fear is irrational and totally unfounded and extremely damaging to the cause of science. As a society, we are on a path that is leading us to embark on nothing short of fantastic discoveries and allowing fear to hinder this growth would be a dreadful mistake. Cloning is not bad or wrong -- the fear that accompanies it is.
Alun Anderson brings to mind several reasons why human cloning could be beneficial. One example can be seen in the couple who carries a recessive gene for disease. In this scenario, one of the parents cloning him or herself would remove the risk of their child being born diseased.…
Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,
Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.
Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:
Greenhaven Press. 1998.
agree with President Bush's ethical opposition to all human cloning? Should cloning only be used for therapeutic purposes or not at all? Does every person have the right to reproduction, even lesbians or gay men through the use of cloning? The paper will be in the first person narrative.
The successful cloning of Dolly, an adult sheep in the recent past, can be seen as one of the biggest advancements in science today. And even more dramatic is the news of the world's first cloned baby Eve, as announced by Brigitte Boisselier (of Clonaid) led by a bunch of UFO worshippers who call themselves the Raelians. However, the dramatic achievement of human cloning has simultaneously raised many issues. Is it ethical to clone a human being? Is it religiously correct? Is it morally viable? Is it legally acceptable? Somehow, human cloning has become a major public issue with…
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm
Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.
CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
Genetics & the Media
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Human genetics is a modern issue that moves from the forefront to the background of our global culture. It is not only a scientific endeavor, but it is also an activity laden with political implications, as well as a business opportunity for the media. Human genetics and human cloning become more accessible issues because the practice influences the average citizen more so than before, with or without the average citizen's knowledge. What the average person knows about human genetics and human cloning has been increased and influenced by media representations. The paper will focus on an article that questions the interest of genetic research in the mind of the general public as well as considers why human genetics and human cloning are media-worthy at all.
Article eview: Genetics & the Media
Bubela, T.M. & Caufield, T.A. (2004) Do the print media "hype" genetic research? A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(9), 1399 -- 1407.
Life Science Current Event eport
Current Events on Cloning and Evolution
Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009
The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?
Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…
Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Technology & CSR
Technological growth is fueled by a number of factors. The most important is changing conditions in the external environment. As new challenges arise, new technologies must be developed to meet those challenges. Another factor is competition. In many industries, business is so competitive that new technology is required to give companies competitive advantage, so they develop it. Another factor is increasing wealth in the world. Nations are contributing to the growth of technology that have not been able to make contributions in the past. All of this has an impact on corporate social responsibility. However you define CSR and whatever types of new technologies are created, companies must always keep in mind that they need to be ethical and remember their responsibilities to society.
Any number of corporate social responsibility issues can arise out of the use of technology and scientific research, since all three terms are…
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
Volden, C. & Wiseman, A. (2009). A theory of government regulation and self-regulation with the specter of nonmarket threats. Ohio State University. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://polisci.osu.edu/faculty/cvolden/VW_nonmarkets.pdf
The famous 1991 novel, Jurassic Park, is based on the subject of a wildlife preserve for dinosaurs. The renowned writer of this novel, Michael Crichton, hoisted the conventional phantom of the revivification of species that have been wiped out from the face of the earth by using conserving DNA samples ("Jurassic Park' 20 Years" C10). The uncontrolled genetic engineering produced outcomes that were not the concern of just the scientists in the novel but are the concern of the whole human civilization (Sharp 507).
Crichton was able to craft a vibrantly dramatic action-adventure story with the Jurassic Park that revolved around the ideas of gluttony and crookedness of science. In this vivid tale of Crichton, an affluent investor builds a theme park that was located on an island off the coast of Costa ica. The peculiar part of the tale is that the investor hires a scientist to…
Fisher, B. & Magid, R. "Jurassic Park: When Dinosaurs Rule the Box Office." American Cinematographer June 1993: 37+. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
"Jurassic Park' 20 Years Later: How Close? Film Trilogy about Resurrected Dinosaurs Debuts on Blu-Ray." The Washington Times (Washington, DC) 25 Oct. 2011: C10. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
Sharp, Michael D., ed. Popular Contemporary Writers. Vol. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference, 2006. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
Trembley, Elizabeth A. Michael Crichton: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. .
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).
Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…
Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty
of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.
Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
Accusations of Ignorance
When a new version of an old evil appears on the event horizon of mankinds slow march toward evolutionary progress, those who preach cultural diversity and tolerance are the first to stake out a position of acceptance. Modern man must be tolerant of new ideas, because through the new ideas, man evolves into a more progressive, and advances creature. This approach seems to be the popular mantra regardless of what lessons have been learned through similar events in the past. Regardless of the lessons mankind has learned about the evil which man can perpetrate against himself, there are those who believe that with enough time, and modern advancements in knowledge, technology, and understanding, man can overcome our propensity toward depraved behavior, which we have shown over and over again that we are willing to perpetrate on others. The surprising aspect of this cultural phenomenon is that those…
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.
Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" (Pollack). Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on 'anything under the sun made by man'" (Bagley). Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves." This is a moral and…
Bagley, Margo a. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Editors. "Can Living Things be Patented?" Bio.org. 2008. 15 Feb. 2008. http://www.bio.org/ip/primer/livingthings.asp
Kevles, Daniel J. "Of Mice & Money: The Story of the World's First Animal Patent." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 78+.
Pollack, Andrew. "Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents." New York Times. 2002. 15 Feb. 2008.
In his aticle, Deek Buke posits that "consumes' biggest concen is about isk, especially in light of the bovine spongifom encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the egulatoy pocesses, ae no longe tusted" (1998). This distust in the system, both on a scientific and govenmental level, is deep-ooted, in that food is pat of the human expeience which is pesonal and even intimate. People want to be able to tust thei food povides. Theefoe thee is fea that just because cloned beef appeas as edible as non-cloned beef does not guaantee that an animal with defects hamful fo human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing geate ham ove a wide aay of people than even the BSE o Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.
The aguments against cloning have a lot to do with ou collective fea not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
Ethics and Morality: The ight to Live and Die
The Ethics of Human Cloning
The topic of human cloning came into the limelight in 1996, when Dolly the lamb was cloned by embryologist Ian Wilmut of oslin Institute, Scotland. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" (Fornsworth, 2001). Essentially, it is the production of a baby with the same genes as its monozygotic parent, and which basically involves inserting the parent's DNA into a nucleated egg and then chemically stimulating the egg to undergo cell division and become an embryo that is a complete genetic copy of its parent / DNA donor (Fornsworth, 2001).
Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…
Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Farnsworth.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm
Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from http://planetparadigm.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/ethical-issues-surrounding-human-cloning/
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…
Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.
Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/
Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html