Earthquake Essays Examples

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Dangerous and Natural Energy Patterns in the

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11642635

Dangerous and Natural Energy

Patterns in the distribution of earthquakes in the U.S.

The earthquake patterns in the U.S. are fairly distinct. The most high-risk areas are the west coast, especially along the Pacific Coast, the Big Island of Hawaii and pockets in Alaska, Tennessee and South Carolina. A good part of the western part of America from Rocky mountain region has a moderate chance of earthquake while the remaining parts of the country are under a slight risk of earthquake. The areas that have the lowest chance of earthquakes are southern Texas, Florida and the northern-most states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Hawaii and Alaska also have a moderate risk of earthquake according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Seismic Hazard Maps (USGS, 2008).

I live in New York and this means I live in a region that has a slight risk of earthquakes, typically 4-8g. Most earthquakes are measures by the amount of shaking that takes place and this shaking, in turn, is expressed as a percentage of acceleration that occurs due to gravity (g).

Patterns in the distribution of earthquakes around the world

According to the USGS (2012), the earthquake activity is high along the different plates that…… [Read More]

Sources:
Wielandt, Erhard. (2002). Seismic Sensors and their Calibration. Institute of Geophysics, University of Stuttgart.

USGS. (2012). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved from:  http://www.usgs.gov/
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Geological vs Biological Energy Geological Energy vs

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82889285

Geological vs. Biological Energy

Geological Energy vs. Biological Energy

There are various differences as well as possible similarities between the geological and the biological energy. It is worth noting that energy is the ability to do work, and in many aspects causes movement.

The differences in the two types of energy have to do with the sources. The geological energy is noted to be predominantly from surface process like weather patterns, Hydrologic cycle, erosion and even the sun. The other significant process is the tectonic process that produces geological energy like earthquake and volcanoes that originate from the interior of the earth. The geological surface process that produces the geological energy is gravitational causing acts like evaporation and erosion. The interior process also has tectonic stress or pressure. The surface process is characterized by motion for instance the flowing of water, chipping of rocks and movement of air. The interior process is also characterized by the volcanic movement and the earthquake. It produces massive amount of energy. This process helps hydrologic process.

On the other hand, biological energy is the energy that the consumers retrieve it from the storage sources having gotten it from the sun. The consumers like man…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ostatic, (2011). Seismic Tool-Kit Helps Scientists Research Earthquakes. Retrieved January 29,

2012  http://ostatic.com/blog/seismic-tool-kit-helps-scientists-research-earthquakes 
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Psychological Distress in Natural Disaster

Words: 5087 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34015599

Psychological Distress in a Natural Disaster

Among the many problems that humans encounter following a natural disaster is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD can result from natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornados among other frightening natural events that cause damage and result in serious injuries and loss of life. When humans are exposed to horrific natural disasters they may continue to carry the fearful events in their memories; those realistic recollections can haunt the individual to the point of causing serious psychological disorders. Hence, PTSD can become a very serious emotional problem that requires psychological help from professionals. This paper provides instances of PTSD research following natural disasters -- and studies that delve into the dynamics of PTSD that resulted from natural disasters, including the terrible flooding in Thailand in 2000

Literature Review -- Hat Yi Flood

When severe rains caused a dangerous flood that killed about 32 people in Thailand in November, 2000 (the Hat Yai flood), around 1,700 people were injured. There was certainly tremendous damage to property as well, but the focus of an article in the peer-reviewed journal Stress and Health is on the psychological problems that had a serious impact on citizens.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Agustini, E.N., Asniar, I., and Matsuo, H. (2011). The prevalence of long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after the tsunami in Aceh. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 18

Assanangkornchai, Sawitri, Tangboonngam, Sa-nguansri, and Edwards, J. Guy. (2004). Stress
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Disaster Response

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27037809

Haiti Earthquake

After examining the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake of Jan 2010, it is quite obvious that the impact of this natural disaster will be felt for many years to come and much healing and growth will be needed in the near future in order to bring the people of this country to a decent standard of living. This report will document the many public health challenges that were evident after the earthquake and will provide guidance on how future natural disasters' impacts may be mitigated by wise and prudent action. This after action review of the response will highlight the successes and failures of the efforts provided and make suggestions on how those processes may be improved upon.

Initial Observations

Before anyone may help anyone in such a damaging situation as a major earthquake, an acceptable amount of peace and security must be established or nothing may be accomplished. The sense of chaos, death and despair creates a panicked atmosphere where little may be done to affect the necessary medical treatment that is necessary to save lives and bring peace.

Haiti was quite chaotic as I stumbled through the rubble. A deep sense of lawlessness and fear permeated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Dowell, S.F., Tappero, J.W., Frieden, T.R. (2011). Public Health in Haiti -- Challenges and Progress, New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 300-301: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1100118

Cyen. (2010). Definition of disaster: Disaster Management Notes and Questions.pdf
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Plate Movements and Past Climatic

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59505334

This happens as the magma chamber empties and a ring fracture occurs. This collapse often blocks the flow of magma but the heated interior still produces gasses and steam. Often, that steam and other gasses create a lake in the middle of the caldera similar to Crater Lake in Oregon or Glen Coe in Scotland.

8. WHY DO SOME VOLCANOES EXPLODE, WHILE OTHERS EMIT ONLY GASEOUS CLOUDS?

Some volcanoes explode because the magma that is beneath them is physically forced out of the volcano and into the air. Also, some volcanoes have a core or cap that was formed long ago that holds magma back until it can reach a pressure high enough for it to explode outward. Other volcanoes release only gas because there are pockets of gas and ash trapped above the magma chamber, but below the surface of the volcano. This is released instead of magma and the pressure below the volcano is released as well.

9. HOW DO the LAVAS ERUPTED by VOLCANOES in OCEAN BASINS DIFFER FROM THOSE in ISLANDS AROUND the BORDER of the PACIFIC?

The ocean basin volcanoes mostly eject basalt and other iron-based magma due to the fact that they are near…… [Read More]

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Session Long Project Involve Developing a Disaster

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51822712

Session Long Project involve developing a disaster management program a specific country include hazard analysis, prevention, preparedness, response, recovery plans. Epidemiology Disasters Respond: 1.

In 2011, Japan was shook by a devastating earthquake which claimed thousands of deaths and led to serious economic casualties. Since then, a number of concerns have been raised in regards to expectations of an even vengeful one in the near future. In fact, Japan has had a history of damaging quakes throughout the years. In 2004, the Ch-etsu Earthquakes, although less serious as to the number of human lives, forced many people to leave homes and injured thousands. It was considered the most vengeful quake since 1995 when thousands were killed in the Great Hanshin Earthquake, hundreds of thousands more were affected one way or another and substantial economical damage was registered. As such, Japanese have become more vigilant in regards to their safety and are keeping their guard up, aware of an imminent danger.

Perhaps it should come as no surprise that Japan has been subject to some various harmful and other less dangerous earthquakes considering that the Asian continent is one of the regions where seismic activity is not merely regular, but frequent.…… [Read More]

References:
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2012). World Disasters Report. Retrieved from  http://www.ifrcmedia.org/assets/pages/wdr2012/resources/1216800-WDR-2012-EN-FULL.pdf 

Jamil, S., & Kuntjoro I.A. (2009). Managing Double Trouble: Indonesia's earthquakes and the Philippines' typhoons. paper presented at the Third Annual Convention of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia, November 3-4, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.rsis-ntsasia.org/activities/conventions/2009-singapore/Sofiah%20Jamil.pdf

Leonard, H.B. (2011). Preliminary observations on the Japanese 3/11 earthquake and tsunami. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (HKS). Retrieved from http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/earthquake.pdf
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Animals Imagine That You Are in Japan

Words: 834 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60298525

Animals

Imagine that you are in Japan after the recent, tragic earthquake. The rubble surrounds you and you see thousands of homeless people. If you look and listen closely, you also hear the sounds of suffering animals. They also have been impacted by this natural disaster. They also have lost their homes. They also are in danger. In some ways, animals react differently to natural disasters and, in other ways, they have similar trauma after an event like this. I will talk about animals in earthquakes and how we can help them.

The earthquake that struck Japan in March of this year damaged buildings and destroyed many homes. It affected not only the people of Japan, but its animals as well. Although many animals may have died during the natural disaster, a large number of animals may have escaped to safety. This is because many people believe that animals can sense earthquakes before they strike. According to National Geographic, there have been stories of animals acting strangely and fleeing their homes just before an earthquake for hundreds of years. In Japan, scientists are studying different species of animals to discover how they sense earthquakes before they happen.

Most animals that…… [Read More]

Resources:
Animal Shelter:  http://www.animalshelter.org/ 

National Geographic: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/11/1111_031111_earthquakeanimals.html
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New Madrid Fault in the Wake of

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83323151

New Madrid Fault

In the wake of recent seismic activity and devastating earthquakes many people tend to speculate as to where the next big earthquake will occur. Most people point to the west coast of the United States as the obvious choice for an earthquake setting. In doing so we ignore a potentially catastrophic area of seismic activity known as the New Madrid Fault, which is Located in New Madrid, Missouri. Despite its potentially dangerous characteristics this area is often overlooked or dismissed due to its mid-western location. It is however, important to note that big earthquakes have occurred in this area and that as time passes the likelihood of a large earthquake occurring in the New Madrid Fault increases. The New Madrid Fault has caused several large earthquakes, the most significant quakes occurred during the years 1811-1812. According to historical accounts which are based on topographic results and effects the magnitude of the earthquakes measured more than 8.0 on the Richter scale. The results of these earthquakes were very impactful in the topographic sense. According to analysis and reports; small areas of land were swallowed, lakes were formed and these quakes also changed the course of the Mississippi river.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
"Global Volcanism Program | Volcanic Activity Reports | Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report | ." Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program: Worldwide Holocene Volcano and Eruption Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .

"The Virtual Times: The New Madrid Earthquake." THE VIRTUAL TIMES . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. < http://www.hsv.com/genlintr/newmadrd/ >.
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Ucsd Application as a Resident of Taiwan

Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59085798

UCSD Application

As a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.

As terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. As scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to help their countries prepare. In the Far East, where the risk of earthquakes is high, there is a high level of preparedness, with infrastructure in place to…… [Read More]

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How Technology Shapes Disasters

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13283483

Role of Technology in Reducing and Exacerbating Disaster Risk: A Case Study of -- Haiti

Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.

Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.

Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.

How to involve communities in technology development.

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Abstract

The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been exacerbated or controlled by technology. This paper investigates in details the Haitian experience during the 2010 earthquake and looks at how technology contributed to the worsening effects of the disaster and also how the use of technology helped alleviate the suffering of the Haitians.

Natural hazards in themselves do not…… [Read More]

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Haiti Is Not Katrina Custom

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53267720



Tierney draws another comparison between Hurricane Katrina and the earthquake in Haiti by describing the people who were most affected by the disasters. She claims that Katrina affected people who were least able to help themselves, such as the poor and the disabled, but many people were able to escape. Haiti, however, is one of the poorest nations in the world. The majority of the population lives in chronic poverty. Katrina affected the only the most vulnerable segments of the Gulf Coast population, but in Haiti the entire population is vulnerable.

Haiti is different from the Gulf Coast in that the island nation ranks very low in health, levels of education, and household income. Unlike the United States, the nation of Haiti had a great deal of difficulty providing even the most basic services for its people before the disaster. The political system of the United States is relatively stable, but Haiti has suffered from "dictators, political coup and savage violence" for a long time. The disaster in Haiti is different from the catastrophe seen on the Gulf Coast during Hurricane Katrina in that the people are less educated, have few available services, and have a long history of political…… [Read More]

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Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59755116

Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably Deformed

Choose one answer.

at the surface of the earth.

when they were cold.

when the stress was applied very rapidly.

at a depth within Earth at elevated temperatures.

Incorrect

If rocks exhibit ductile behavior when exposed to compressive stress, they generally will form

Choose one answer.

normal faults.

folds.

reverse faults.

joints.

Incorrect

Which of the following types of strain does not result in permanent deformation?

Choose one answer.

tension

elastic strain

plastic strain

brittle strain

Incorrect

Faults are geologic structures that result from which type of strain?

Choose one answer.

a. brittle strain

b. ductile strain

c. elastic strain

plastic strain

Incorrect

Question 5

In the Lesson 4 Topic 2 video, "Measuring Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude," you were able to see that the rupture from the 1906 earthquake traveled from mile marker 80 to mile marker 100 in 10 seconds. At what speed did the 296 miles of San Andreas Fault rupture during the 1906 earthquake?

Choose one answer.

a. 2 miles per second

b. 200 miles per second

c. 2 miles per hour

d. 2,000 miles per secong

Incorrect

Question 6

What happens to existing oceanic crust as magma extrudes…… [Read More]

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Pictures Can Speak Louder Than Words and

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98131649

pictures can speak louder than words, and this is clear in the photo entitled "U.S. Navy: An aerial view of damage to Wakuya, Japan after a 9 magnitude tsunami." The photo initially looks like picture of a tiny child's toy boat, which is floating in a muddy sea of debris. The boat looks brave and cheery, as it floats amidst the muck, garbage, and flotsam and jetsam of people's belongings. However, the first, deceptive glance of the photograph quickly ebbs away as the viewer becomes aware that he or she is bearing of witness to one of the greatest human tragedies to strike a nation, as a result of a natural disaster, in the 21st century. The photograph highlights the smallness and vulnerability of the human condition in the face of epic destruction beyond human control.

Japan's long national nightmare began when an 8.9-magnitude earthquake, the "fifth-largest recorded since 1900" hit the nation in 2011 (Naik 2011). It was the largest quake to strike Japan in over three centuries. An earthquake alone can be devastating, as was seen in the Haitian quake which was 1,000 smaller times in intensity than the Japanese event. And the Japanese quake generated a tsunami,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Harlan, Chico. "One year later, Japan still in crisis." The Washington Post. 12 Mar 2012.

http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2606900871&Fmt=3&clientId =27889&RQT=309&VName=PQD
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Preventing and Responding to Nuclear Power Plant Disasters

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43784480

Public Health Disaster Response

Public Health Responses to Disasters

Public Health responses to three disasters in Japan; Pandemic and All Hazard Preparedness Act (PAHPA)

What other public health measures were undertaken to mitigate the impact of these disasters?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention engage in public health preparedness programs as regular part of their mission. Public health preparedness programs are designed to enhance the capacity of communities, individual citizens, and public health systems to address emergencies and disasters that have implications for impacting health and well-being. Factors considered by public health preparedness programs include: Activities focused on prevention, quick responses that result in protecting people and the environment, and recovery measures that are required by the "scale, timing, or unpredictability [of a health emergency or disaster] that threatens to overwhelm routine capacities ("CDC," 2014).

The World Health Organization (WHO) is the lead agency for ensuring that the public receives advice on and assistance for the triple catastrophe experienced by Japan ("WHO," 2014). The magnitude of the earthquake caused a tsunami, which undermined the structural integrity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant ("WHO," 2014). WHO has been engaged in monitoring the nuclear accident situation since it first occurred…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Christodouleass, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M., & Glatstein, E. (2011, June). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2334-2341 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1103676

Retrieved http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1103676
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Hagia Sophia the Triumph of

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38082412

But restoration efforts are hampered by the political and religious struggles that still define the area. The building is deeply symbolic for Christians, Muslims, secular Turks, and historical conservationists. Architectural historian Robert Ousterhout points out that "each group looks at Hagia Sophia and sees a totally different building" (qtd. In Bordewich 5-6).

In his article, Bordewich examines the multiple agendas and suspicions of the groups seeking to control the restoration of the building, bemoaning the fact that the building is currently stuck in an "ideological no-man's land" (6). In the meantime, one of the premier examples of extreme architecture, Eastern Roman power, Christian iconography, and Muslim decorative arts falls prey daily to the natural forces of decay, and runs the risk of being destroyed utterly by an earthquake or even by religious extremists. Even the grand ambitions of Justinian and the architectural genius of Anthemios cannot stem those forces. Instead, modern society must marshal the ingenuity of its own visionaries and architects to ensure that this gem of engineering and art remains for future generations.

References

Bordewich, Fergus M. "Fading Glory." Smithsonian 39.9 (2008): 54-64. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2010.

Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bordewich, Fergus M. "Fading Glory." Smithsonian 39.9 (2008): 54-64. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2010.

Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
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Ridges Under the Pacific Floor

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94730940



The contribution of these discoveries to the field is significant. It could for example contribute to a greater understanding of the origin of life on earth. Scientists for example can further study the creatures discovered around the vents for the purpose of such an understanding. Further implications relate to the cycle of heat and chemicals to the seafloor and the waters overlying it. In related disciplines, it is possible that many of the large ore bodies on land are believed to have been formed as a result of these vent systems.

This relates to a long-term interdisciplinary study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. In addition to studying the vent system, ecosystem, and waters around the chimney, scientists are now also able to gain information relating to how earthquakes work.

Discoveries and studies such as the one described in the article prove that, vast though the body of human knowledge is, it still only scratches the surface of what is available to still discover. This serves both a humbling and encouraging function. Scientists can be humbled by the extent of what they do not yet know, as well as by the vast area of knowledge opened up by the…… [Read More]

References:

Earthquakes Under Pacific Floor Reveal Unexpected Circulatory System. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 26, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com- / releases/2008/01/080109173830.htm
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Geology Describe the Paths of Water Through

Words: 2427 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46863081

Geology

Describe the paths of water through the hydrologic cycle. Explain the processes and the energy gains and losses involved in the changes of water between its three states. Operationally, we are often most concerned with what water does when it reaches the solid earth, both on the surface and in the sub-surface. Explain the relationship between the saturated zone, the water table, a groundwater well and the cone of depression, all within the sub-surface.

In the hydrologic cycle, more commonly known as the water cycle, water moves around the world through a series of reservoirs. Water is always moving through the cycle because of evaporation, condensation and precipitation, surface and underground flow and through various other means (Egger 2003).

Water, as with most things, can change states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (steam). In changing states, the amount of energy in the water particles changes as well. When water changes state, the energy that is in the molecules of water is lost. The surroundings heat the ice cube and as the particles are heated, they move more quickly and subsequently give off energy.

At the point where water reaches the earth, in both the surface and…… [Read More]

Sources:
Campbell, N.A. (1996). Biology. Benjamin Cummings: Menlo Park, CA. 4th.

Cartmill, M. & Smith, F. (2009). The Human Lineage. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
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Recovery Disaster and Crisis

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66718399

Disaster Recovery

Recovery: Disaster and Crisis

Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.

In light of these vulnerabilities it becomes increasingly important for companies to properly plan contingencies and arrange for suppliers who are kept as a backup in order that their operations are not impacted. As the world is moving towards ideal inventory conditions such as Just-in-Time inventories and single source suppliers, the occurrence and the frequency of…… [Read More]

References:
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .

Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf