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Earthquakes Occur apidly Warning
Describe impediments to disaster prevention in major cities.
The 2nd half within the Twentieth century observed the fast development of extremely big cities. There happen to be primate urban centers along with metropolises for hundreds of years. Nevertheless, these kinds of brand-new city regions-"mega cities" having greater than ten million occupants-have been fairly current. This mega city presents unique problems for catastrophe risk decrease for numerous factors. Initially, there is certainly their pure size as well as geographic intricacy. They crowd over and above huge areas, which alone tend to make the day-to-day overseeing of hazards as well as vulnerability tough and sufficient stipulation and safety of lifeline infrastructure challenging. These urban areas have increased excessively and integrated a number of pre-existing villages and also towns. Consequently, street designs are complex, and also interconnectivity inside the entire area is really a physical problem for the transportation…
Fernandes, E. And A. Varley, eds. 1998. Illegal Cities: Law and Urban Changes in Developing Countries. London: Zed Press.
Girardet, H. 1992. The Gaia Atlas of Cities: New Directions for Sustainable Urban Living. New York: Anchor Books.
Girardet, H. 2000. "Cities and the Culture of Sustainability." In F. Dodds, ed., Earth Summit 2002. London: Earthscan: 202 -- 211.
Kleinenberg, E. 2002. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Preparedness Planning and Training
The budget is a critical component of an earthquake preparedness plan. Unlike hurricanes and some other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning (FEMA, 2013). There are two main consequences of an earthquake and that deal with both people and property. People are always a higher priority than property; however the property is often an interrelated concern. For example, the property should be well stocked with supplies that are needed in the event of an earthquake which can help saves lives and provide needed medical treatment should people be injured. Furthermore if the property has a structure or place to go in the event of an earthquake then this can mitigate any injures to the inhabitants of the building. This proposal will outline a sample plan for a large office building.
Having adequate supplies are…
FEMA. (2013, January 18). Earthquake Safety at Work. Retrieved from FEMA: http://www.fema.gov /earthquake/earthquake-safety-work
Mudarri, D.F. (2007). Public health and economic impact of dampness in mold. Indoor Air, 226-235.
Muto, M., & Krishnan, S. (2011). Hope for the Best, Prepare for the Worst: Response of Tall Steel Buildings to the ShakeOut Scenario Earthquake. Earthquake Spectra, 375-398.
Red Cross. (N.d.). Get a Survival Kit. Retrieved from Red Cross: http://www.redcross.org/prepare/location/home-family/get-kit
The major earthquake that struck offshore from Japan in March, 2011, was one of the largest earthquakes experienced in that region of the world in many years. It caused massive damage and it spawned a powerful tsunami that literally wiped many Japanese towns off the map. The causes of earthquakes are known to scientists, although science has not yet become sophisticated enough to predict when and where an earthquake will occur. This paper reviews the many aspects of earthquakes and the ramifications of those disruptions of the earth's crust.
Causes of earthquakes: The United States Geological Survey (USGS) explains that an earthquake happens "when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another." The surface of the ground where the slippage took place is called the "fault" or the "fault plane." The earth actually has "four major layers, the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust," the USGS…
Brumfiel, Geoff. "Fukushima Nuclear Plant Released Far More Radiation Than Government
Said." Scientific American. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from http://www.scientificamerican.com . 2011.
College of Charleston. "How Do Earthquakes Cause Damage?" South Carolina Earthquakes
Education & Preparedness Program. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from http://scearthquakes.cofc.edu/educators/factsheets/SCEEPFactSheets_4.pdf .
Earthquake Mitigation in Emergency Management
Earthquake isks and Hazards
Earthquake isk Mitigation
This paper aims at analyzing the risk and hazards associated with earthquakes. In addition to that, it will also put light on the earthquake risk mitigation strategies that are used by various organizations. Apart from that, the paper will also propose strategies that would further enhance the earthquake mitigation practices of public and private institutions.
Earthquake mitigation in Emergency Management
An earthquake can be defined as the sudden slip on the fault and the resulting shaking of ground seismic energy radiations that are caused by the slip. This shaking and energy radiations can be caused by some magmatic or volcanic activities and other stress changes in the infrastructure of earth as well. (U.S. Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, 2014) The table below provides information about some of the largest earthquakes in…
Col, J., & Jay, J. (2007). Successful Earthquake Mitigation in Qinglong County during the Great Tangshan Earthquake: Lessons for Hurricane Katrina in the United States. Chinese Public Administration Review, 7(1/2), 9-19.
Faculty Members of University of South Florida Honors College, (2011). A global assessment of large scale earthquakes: The impact of mitigation and preparation policies on the loss of human life, pp. 1-37. Tampa: University of South Florida Honors College.
Folger, P. (2013). Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research, pp. 2-15. Washington, D.C: Congressional Research Service.
Ganderton, P. (2005). Benefit-Cost Analysis of Disaster Mitigation: A Review, pp. 1-26. Paris: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Retrieved from http://www.unisdr.org/files/1076_BCAMitFIN.pdf
Over the past 25 years, powerful earthquakes have struck different parts of the planet with alarming regularity. In this relatively short time span, there have been more than 30 earthquakes that have resulted in death tolls of more than 1000 people, with several of this disaster measuring over 7.0 on the ichter scale (U.S. Geological Survey, 2010). One of the biggest earthquakes in the last 25 years is the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. It killed more than 200,000 people and displaced over a million people (U.S. Geological Survey, 2010). The magnitude of this earthquake was 7.0 on the ichter scale. No other earthquake in recent years caused as many casualties as this catastrophe (U.S. Geological Survey, 2010).
The number of other hazards that caused by a quake can lead to higher death tolls. Earthquakes that occur at sea are well-known for causing tsunamis, which can have devastating consequences on…
Diep, Francie. (2011 March 14). Fast Facts about the Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com /article.cfm?id=fast-facts-japan
Nelson, S.A. (2011 February 13). Earthquake Hazards and Risks. Retrieved from http://www.Nelson, 2011.edu/~sanelson/geol204/eqhazards&risks.htm
U.S. Geological Survey. (2010 March 29). Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900. Retrieved from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/world_deaths.php
The quake intensity as per the Mercalli scale that was used at that time was between 8 and 9, which seismologists today equate to a value of 7.9 on the Richter scale. [Dr. Frank J. Collazo] the quake created a rupture of 296 miles, which rates it as one of the biggest quakes ever. Geologist John M. Clarke said, " the heavy waves travelled at the rate of about 11,000 ft a second and the lighter preliminary and subsequent waves much more rapidly, at about 40,000 feet a second." [New York Times]
With San Francisco as its epicentre, the quake took a toll of 3000 human lives and absolutely wrecked the city destroying most structures while what was left was consumed by the conflagration that ensued. The predominantly wooden structures of San Francisco was the reason for such a rapid spread of fire. [New York Times] in an attempt to…
SANDRA BLAKESLEE, 'Mercilessly Unpredictable, Quakes Defy Seismologists',
Accessed April 23rd 2007, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/28/science/28pred.html?ex=1261890000&en=3a888aa1e18b1a35&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland
New York Times, "Tangshan Quake Area in China is Toured by Premier," Aug 5, 1976
Andrew H. Malcolm, "Chinese Disclose that 1976 Earthquake was Deadliest in Four Centuries," New York Times Jan 2, 1977
Heavy objects need to be placed in locations from where they are unlikely to fall, emergency numbers need to be on speed-dial, and building structures need to be carefully inspected by engineers in order for them to determine whether or not they are probable to collapse in the event of a seismic wave. Emergency services also need to be alert in the event of an earthquake, given that deaths often occur consequent to seismic waves as a result of the fact that emergency services are unable to mobilize in time.
4. Seismic waves travel throughout our planet and this makes it easy for seismometers to record them. Earthquakes can have more or less damaging effects, depending on the depth where they occur and on their magnitude. In particular situations, earthquakes can cause a lot of damage through the processes that they trigger. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan is one…
Conahan, Gilian, "Not Your Average Earthquake Zones," EBSCO, Discover Magazine, 2010. Web. 16 Jan. 2011
Sliverstein, Alvin, "Earthquakes: The Science Behind Seismic Shocks and Tsunamis," Enslow Publishers, 2009.
Stock, Joann, "Earthquake," World Book Student, World Book, Web, 16 Jan. 2011
Earthquake and Tsunami
Tsunamis and earthquakes are both natural disasters arising out of the movement of the earth's tectonic plates. There are a number of risk-management plans in place that can help mitigate each disaster, but some, frankly, are more effective than others. The risk management of both earthquakes and tsunamis are entirely dependent upon the location and severity of the issue. For instance, Japan, which is prone to both, has built a number of tsunami walls designed to protect the shore from waves. They have also built floodgates and channels to redirect the water should it rise above the protection. Some countries plant vegetation like coconut palms or casurina to create a natural barrier, and studies have shown that mangrove forests and enhanced coral reefs can, if worked properly, reduce tsunami wave heights by about 80% (Tsunami Barriers). Both earthquakes and tsunamis can be mitigated by reforestation projects (tsunamis),…
Abe, T. "The Lessons of the Great Tohoku Earthquake." 17 November 2011. Fujitsu Research Insitute. Web. October 2012. .
Buerk, R. "Japan Earthquake." 11 March 2011. BBC News Asia Pacific. Web. October 2012. .
Copolla, D. Introduction to International Disaster Management. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 2011. Print.
Keils-Borok, V., et.al. "Geo-Complexity and Earthquake Prediction." March 2011. Extreme Environmental Events. Web. October 2012. .
1906: It is unknown how much damage was done to the environment because of landslides.
Tsunami: a very large ocean wave caused by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption
1868: No tsunami reported
1906: No tsunami reported
Potential hazards of San Jose, CA:
The greatest potential hazard to the area of San Jose, California in the present moment is the possibility of shaking damage, rupture damage, and landslide. Earthquake proofing has done some to protect larger buildings from damage such as liquefaction, but there is still severe potential harm if an earthquake hit which was a 7.0 on the Richter scale or above (California's 2007). Shaking and rupture damage are the most dangerous. However, in locations which are close to large water sources, such as those on the ocean shore are more likely to have sever damage due to liquefaction. Locations with geographic features with steep inclines are in worse…
"Berkeley Seismological Laboratory: 1869 Earthquake." (2005). UC Berkeley.
"California's Hayward Fault Revealed: Most Dangerous Urban Fault in America?" (2007).
Earthquake Mitigation Planning
Earthquakes are low probability, high consequence events with devastating irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes and cause serious damages to buildings, non-structural building systems, serious injuries to human beings and disruption of operations, however major earthquakes can cause catastrophic damages which include among others structural collapse and an extensive massive destruction and loss of life (Philip Berke, et.al., 1989).
It is important therefore that everyone responsible for the safety of people and property should understand and evaluate the management of the risks particularly those that threaten the lives of civilians, government and other social institutions have a responsibility to the public to ensure that their safety is guaranteed. Natural hazard mitigation strategies can reduce the impact of hazard events in schools. The mitigation measures should be put in place and implemented by all stakeholders, which includes developing elationships with emergency management services and the community members before Disasters come…
Atsuhiro Dodo, Ningxiong Xu, Rachel A. Davidson & Linda K. Nozick, (2006). 13th World Conference On Earthquake Engineering. Optimizing the Selection of Regional Earthquake
Mitigation Strategies; Retrieved August 23, 2012 from Http://Www.Iitk.Ac.In/Nicee/Wcee/Article/13_269.Pdf
Philipberke, Timothy Beatleey & Suzanne Wilhite, ( 1989). International Journal Of Mass Emergemcieies And Disasters: Influence On Local Adoption Of Planning Measures For Earthquake Hazard Mitigation. Retrieved August 23, 2012 from http://Training.Fema.Gov/Emiweb/Downloads/Ijems/Articles/Influences%20on%20local%20adoption%20of%20planning%20measures%20for%20earthq.Pdf
earthquake Haiti 2010. hat kind plate action caused, kind seismic wave, property damage, Haiti hit hard Dominican republic small island?.
The 2010 Haiti Earthquake is certainly one of the most dramatic events happening during recent years. The whole world was took by surprise as the phenomenon occurred and people across the globe were filled with horror as it was watching Haitians struggling to provide an effective response to the disaster. The earthquake occurred on the twelfth of January 2012, at 16:53 local time and its epicenter was approximately 15 miles from the country's capital, Port-au-Prince. A series of aftershocks followed and instilled even more terror in people across the island. hile the death toll is somewhere around 316.000 people, the earthquake affected more than three million people and the world in general when considering that international players acknowledged the phenomenon's terrible consequences.
Although it is virtually impossible for someone to…
Lies, Anne, "The Earthquake in Haiti," (ABDO, 01.09.2010)
Schuller, Mark, and Morales, Pablo, "Tectonic Shifts: Haiti Since the Earthquake," (Kumarian Press, 31.01.2012)
Taft-Morales, Maureen, "Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response," (DIANE Publishing, 2011)
earthquakes, fires, and mudslides. The community selected for this activity is San Diego, California, and area regularly experiencing natural disasters of often high magnitude. This module will be a Hazard analysis of each disaster.
Fires: Brush fires are by far the greatest threat to San Diego and its surrounding communities. San Diego's brush fires have a consistently catastrophic magnitude, burning everything in their paths. This disaster has a frequency of highly likely, as there have been fires every year in San Diego county for the past ten years (Preventing and Preparing for Brush Fires). San Diego brush fires do have a seasonal pattern and occur consistently in the months of August through October during the dry season. Additionally, these months are the months of the Santa Ana winds that spread the fires quickly causing even more damage to forests and homes in the area. The duration of brush fires has…
Azpiri, Jon. California Earthquake April 4, 2010: 6.9 Quake in LA, San Diego. Now Public. Online http://www.nowpublic.com/environment/california-earthquake-april-4-2010-6-9-quake-la-san-diego-2600877.html
NEIC Earthquake Statistics. Earthquake Myths. 2012. Online http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/faq/?categoryID=6&faqID=110
Prevening and Preparing for a Disaster Wildfire Brush Clearning Distances and Guidelines. Los Angeles County Dept. Online http://fire.lacounty.gov/preparedness/Topanga/Chapter15.pdf
San Diego News. Study Predicts Massive Mudslides in Burned Areas. 2004. Online http://www.10news.com/news/2817916/detail.html .
It is, however, true that the total nuclear power process creates much less carbon dioxide than fossil fuel plants. Once in existence, it is estimated that the total fuel cycle emissions of nuclear power plants will be 8.6 tons per gigawatt hour, whereas the figure is a massive 1.058 tons for coal plants.
Be that as it may, the total nuclear power process does create a great deal less carbon dioxide than fossil plants: one approximation estimates the total fuel cycle emissions for nuclear power plants at 8.6 tons per gigawatt hour, as compared with 1,058 tons for coal plants. Hence, it is not a wonder that environmental advocates have fixed their attention upon nuclear fusion as a potential source of not only abundant, but also an environmentally sound energy source. Indeed, it has been estimated by these same advocates that, by increasing the total nuclear input of global nuclear…
Situations where authorities must prepare earthquake procedures are complex and require the advice of specialists in different fields. The fact that little advance has been made by science in order to forecast earthquakes determines authorities to constantly be prepared for such situations. Being prepared means having the financial resources to address the situation, having the supplies within reach, and training people on what to do in earthquake situations. In this case, the analysis addresses a small company with 50 employees.
The budget established by the organization must focus on investing in supplies and staff training, but also on ensuring the damages that are likely to be produced by earthquakes. It is important that the company is insured for natural hazards situations. However, there is certain duration between when the hazardous event produces, a team from the insurance comes to verify damages, the amount owed by the insurance…
1. Emergency Procedures Earthquake (2014). USC CAPS. Retrieved May 11, 2014 from http://capsnet.usc.edu/department/fire-safety-and-emergency-planning/emergency-procedures-earthquake .
2. Preparedness for Emergency Response (2010). FEMA. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from https://www.google.ro/search?q=what+challenges+might+the+organization+face+in+implementing+and+maintaining+the+operations+of+the+emergency+earthquake+preparedness&hl=ro&gbv=2&oq=what+challenges+might+the+organization+face+in+implementing+and+maintaining+the+operations+of+the+emergency+earthquake+preparedness&gs_l=heirloom-serp.12...0.0.0.195184.108.40.206.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1ac..34.heirloom-serp..0.0.0.qKZrAJbgFbE .
3. Additional Ways to Reduce Earthquake Damage and Casualties (2010). CDEMA. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http://www.weready.org/earthquake/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11&Itemid=61 .
4. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach (2011). National Research Council. Retrieved May 12, 2014 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=1kJoZWw4HqUC&pg=PA17&dq=earthquake+training+education&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=Pp9wU7KbGceEyAPf64CgBA&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=earthquake%20training%20education&f=false .
Earthquake Press elease
This announcement serves as a general information bulletin for those that are curious or need to learn about earthquakes and the associated hazards whilst living in the Los Angeles area. Indeed, the city of Los Angeles as well as much of the rest of the state of California sits along what is known as the San Andreas Fault. The fault is a point in which two major tectonic plates of the Earth's crust are moving in opposite directions from each other and the friction and pressure caused by these movements sometimes causes earthquakes throughout California. Effects and results from earthquakes would include ground displacement, flooding, and fires. The floods are caused by damages to water infrastructure and dams, just to name a few things. Fires can be caused by ruptured gas lines and such being ignited by an ignition source (MTU, 2015).
The ferocity and "magnitude" of…
Exploratorium. (2015). Faultline: Earthquake Engineering | Exploratorium. Exploratorium.edu. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/faultline/damage/building.html
Foreshock. (2008). Significant L.A. Area Earthquakes: 1769-Present. Quake City. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from https://foreshock.wordpress.com/significant-la-area-earthquakes-1769-present/
Lin, R., & Xia, R. (2015). Risk of 8.0 earthquake in California rises, USGS says. latimes.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-chance-of-80-earthquake-in-california-rises-usgs-says-20150310-story.html
MTU. (2015). How Are Earthquake Magnitudes Measured?. Geo.mtu.edu. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/intensity.html
ISLAND EATHQUAKE PONE?
Exactly two years ago, a 3.9 magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Long Island and New Jersey and caused no significant damage (Perez-Pena, 2010). In contrast, the largest quake on record (5.5) for the New York City area occurred in 1884, could be felt as far away as Ohio, Virginia, and Maine, and damage was limited to chimneys and cracked walls (USGS, 2009a). Strong earthquakes rarely happen to this area and those over magnitude 5 only occur about once every hundred years, but in terms of quake activity the area ranks fourth behind Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle (Groves, 2001). To understand the seismic hazards of living on Long Island, where I live, the relevant information provided by the U.S. Geological Survey website will be used assess the relative risk for this area.
Major Fault Lines Near Long Island
The primary fault line in…
Groves, Bob. (2001). N.J. is not immune to quakes. Woodland Park, NJ: North Jersey Media Group, Inc. Retrieved 14 May 2012 from http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/news/2001/03-02-01_nj_quakes.html .
Kious, W. Jacquelyne and Tilling, Robert I. (2008). This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics. Denver, CO: USGS Information Services. Retrieved 14 May 2012 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html .
Perez-Pena, Richard. (2010 May 14). Earthquake off Long Island. I felt it. Did you? New York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2012 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/30/earthquake-off-long-island-i-felt-it-did-you/ .
USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). (2012a). Latest earthquakes in the U.S.A. -- Last 7 days. Earthquake.USGS.gov. Retrieved 14 May, 2012 from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/ .
Tsunamis and Earthquakes in Japan
This article looks at the Geographical effects of the tsunami and earthquake. It is a research that analysis the disastrous implications of tsunamis and earthquakes to the human and physical environment of the Japanese people. It considers a geographical analysis as a type of analysis that stipulates the area covered by a study. The paper outlines the causes of tsunamis and earth quakes, areas where it were affected in Northern Japan, the aftermath effect of the tsunami and earth quakes in Northern Japan finally a conclusion of what is expected of the entire world in relation to the calamities in Northern Japan.
A tsunami is a consequential oceanic shake stimulated up by tectonic, conventional processes or volcanic action on ocean floors. An earthquake is a vibration at the epicenter of the earth resultant from subversive movements along fault planes or from volcanic activity or from…
Walter, C.L.M.D. (1998). Tsunami. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press
Petersen, J.F., Sack, D.I. And Gabler, R.E. (2012). Physical Geography. New York: Belmont
Spall, H. (1977). Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. Earthquake Information Bulletin. Vol 9, Issue 6.
Fackler, M. (2011, March 11). Powerful Quake and Tsunami Devastate Northern Japan. New York Times.
On Tuesday, January 12, 2010, an earthquake of 7.0 on the ichter scale struck Haiti. The Haitian government estimates that over 316,000 people died as a result of the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, marking this earthquake as one of the most destructive and fatal in history. The earthquake occurred at approximately 5pm local time and the epicenter of the quake was approximately twenty-five kilometers from the country's capital, Port au Prince. The country (and the Dominican epublic) continued to experience several dozen aftershocks during the remainder of January 2010 that registered as high as 4.5 on the ichter scale. The number of people injured by the quake is the approximate number of people who died from it. More than three times as many people who were injured or killed were left homeless as a result of the quake.
The damage was severe and catastrophic. Thousands of buildings collapsed,…
Bedford, Dr. D., & Faust, L. (2010) Role of Online Communities in Recent Responses to Disasters: Tsunami, China, Katrina, and Haiti. ASIST 2010, Information and Knowledge Management: Pittsburgh, PA.
Billam, R. (2010) Lessons from the Haiti earthquake. Nature, 463, 878 -- 879.
Cavallo, E., Powell, A., & Becerra, O. (2010) Estimating the Direct Economic Damages of the Earthquake in Haiti. The Economical Journal, 120, F298 -- F312.
Margesson, R., & Taft-Morales, M. (2010) Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response. Congressional Research Service, Available from www.crs.gov. 2012 June 10.
Impact and Lessons Learned from the 2011 Japanese Earthquake
On March 11, a ichter scale 9.0 earthquake devastated the chief island of Honshu Japan. The earthquake, tsunami and its consequences made devastating personal, social and economic harm. People worldwide were astonished by videos of blowing up nuclear power plant buildings, knocked down cities and personal stories of the disaster. The earthquake also seriously interrupted global manufacturing supply chains. In this paper, we shall expound, through modelling, comparison and analysis - issues that caused business interruptions, impacted businesses, operations management issues, and effectiveness of business decision-making relating to the 2011 Japanese Earthquake.
Earthquake isk Modelling
To manage earthquake risk, it is essential to know the size of the risk and the amount by which the risk is reduced by taking some particular action or set of actions. We thus need to be able to quantify one or more of…
Buerk, Roland. (2011) Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east. BBC. 11 March.
Brennan, Patrick. (2011) Lessons Learned from the Japan Earthquake. Disaster Recovery Journal. Summer - Volume 24, Issue 3. Retrieved on November 27th, 2011 http://www.drj.com/2011-articles/summer-2011-volume-24-issue-3/lessons-learned-from-the-japan-earthquake.html
Fluchter, Winfried. (2003) Tokyo before the Next Earthquake: Agglomeration-related Risks, Town Planning and Disaster Prevention. The Town Planning Review, Vol. 74.
Milliken, Alan L. (2011) Using Exception Management to Improve the Demand Forecast. The Journal of Business Forecasting, Vol. 30.
San Francisco Earthquake
Massive Earthquake Results in Human Tragedy and Economic Loss"
Exploring the Impact of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
San Francisco CA was hit by one of the most devastating earthquakes recognized by man on April 18, 1906. The earthquake affected 430 kilometers of the famous San Andreas fault ranging from northwest of San Juan autista to Cape Mendocino (Ellsworth, 1990). The city that was once San Francisco was reduced by and large to a pile of rubble. The once proud citizens of San Francisco were reduced to wandering and sorrowful masses, trying to rebuild the once great city and recover from the loss and devastation experienced by the unexpected natural disaster.
Geology of the Earthquake
From a geological perspective, the earthquake was characterized by large horizontal displacements that caused much speculation from geologists (USGS, 2000). From these displacements the "elastic-rebound theory" of earthquakes which today is the…
America Hurrah. "Municipal Reports The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of April 1906." September 23, 2004, http://americahurrah.com/SanFrancisco/MunicipalReports/1906/History.htm
Bartnett, W.J. "Rebuilding San Francisco." April 29, 1906. The Virtual Museum of The City Of San Francisco. September 23, 2004, http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/rebuild.html
Ellsworth, W.L., 1990, Earthquake history, 1769-1989, Chapter 6 of Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas Fault System, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 152-187. An account of historic earthquakes in California.
Greely, A.W., 1906, "Special Report of Maj. Gen. Adolphus W. Greely, U.S.A., Commanding the Pacific Division, on the Relief Operations Conducted by the Military Authorities of the United States at San Francisco and other Points"
The tremendous difference in the rate of tectonic movement is likely attributable to the corresponding difference in the mass of large central-mass tectonic disturbances and the smaller masses involved in peripheral tectonic motion. More precisely, the length of the aftershock pattern that follows major earthquakes is proportional to the relative size and mass of the tectonic plates involved.
For example, the small-magnitude modern earthquakes in the Canadian Saint Lawrence Valley are now believed to be continuing aftershocks from a large-magnitude earthquake involving the same fault in the middle of the 17th century. Similarly, the researchers have specifically linked the current series of small-magnitude recent earthquakes in the Midwest to two major earthquakes that occurred in the same region in 1811 and 1812. Their calculations were based on the perfect match between the results of laboratory experiments designed to project aftershock patterns in rock and the recorded patterns of recent small-magnitude…
NewsRx Science. "Earthquakes actually aftershocks of 19th century quakes."
November 22, 2009.
Full Text of Article:
The epicenter was over 80 miles away from any kind of population centers. The total number of casualties was 700 deaths and more than 2 million people were made homeless. The economic impact would be far less, as the damage was isolated mainly to collapsed buildings in various cities around the country. The recovery from these events was less severe. Part of the reason for this, is because Chile had learned from previous earthquakes in the past (which had devastating consequences for the country). At the same time, they were wealthier and these kinds of events were a main focus of the government (due to the frequency of them). (ajak) ("Quake Comparison")
When you compare the two earthquakes with one another, it is clear that the reason why the Haiti was more devastating is country did not experience these events on a regular basis (in comparison with Chile). At the…
"Quake Comparison." The Week, 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2011
"Types of Fault Lines." Earthquake Fact, 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2011
Bajak, Frank. "Chile Earthquake 2010." Huffington Post, 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2011
Consequences of a Major Earthquake in California
On March 11, 2011 a powerful, magnitude 8.9 earthquake hit northeastern Japan, triggering a tsunami with 10-meter-high waves that reached the U.S. west coast. The earthquake was one of the five most powerful events since modern record keeping began in 1900, triggering tsunami waves of 40.5 meters (133 ft.) on Japan's coast.
One year after the event Japanese authorities reported 15,831 deaths, 6,107 injured, 3,018 missing. In all 129,225 buildings totally collapsed, 254,204 half collapsed and another 691,766 buildings partially collapsed. The earthquake and tsunami resulted in extensive damage to roads and railways; caused many fires and a dam collapse (National Police Agency of Japan, 2012). The tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents including the ongoing level 7 meltdown at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex. esidents within a 20 km (12-mile) radius of the complex…
Chang, A. (2008, April 14). Big quake "guarnteed" to hit California by 2037. National geographic news. Retrieved June 18, 2012, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/04/080414-AP-earthquake.html
Henderson, P. (2011, March 15). Special report: Big California quake likey to devaste state. Reuters. Retrieved June 18, 2012, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/15/us-quake-california-idUSTRE72E06220110315
Koprowski, G.J. (2010, January 10). Is California due for a big earthquake? Fox news. Retrieved June 18, 2012, from http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/01/15/america-big-earthquake/
National Police Agency of Japan. (2012, June 13)"Damage situation and police countermeasures associated with 2011 Tohohu district -- off Pacific ocean earthquake." National Police Agency of Japan. Retrieved June18, 2012, from http://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf
Haitian government intended to restore this system of law and order by reconstructing all of these legal institutions and to protect their vulnerable population whilst strengthening their administrative control and public services (FMS4Experts. Inside Disaster. The action plan).
d) a note to the relevant U.N. And local government officials, offering them advice on how to proceed to resolve the problems in Items (b) and (c) above, and how to alleviate the current misery of the suffering people of Haiti.
The government has wisely resolved to move from crisis to recovery, but the challenges here seem substantial. In fact, they seem so incorrigible and overwhelming that the government may well be stopped in its tracks from the mere enormity of their poverty and destruction, on the one hand, and their goals on the other.
The government has drafted an ambitious Activity Plan, but many times the situation may seem so overwhelming…
Beckett, G. Moving Beyond Disaster to Build a Durable Future in Haiti. SSRC. http://www.ssrc.org/features/pages/haiti-now-and-next/1338/1341/
FAD Haiti. History of Haiti. http://insidedisaster.com/haiti/the-quake/haitis-history
Government of Haiti. (18 March, 2010) Action Plan for national recovery and development of Haiti. Relief Web. www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/SNAA-83U9KC-Open
Haiti: one year on. http://www.cafod.org.uk/news/emergencies-updates/haiti-earthquake-one-year-on-2011-01-07/haiti-challenges-one-year-on
Three major nuclear power plants suffered explosions, with the resulting radioactive emissions forcing evacuations of the surrounding communities.
The total cost of the earthquake is still being determined, but most estimates place it as the most costly natural disaster ever. The World Bank recently estimated the total costs as high as U.S.$235 billion (USGS, 2011). The Japanese government has said that the total cost could ultimately be as high as U.S.$300 billion. As mentioned, this is largely due to the dense population centers affected by the quake and the low-lying urban areas that were devastated by the resulting tsunami waves. In addition, costly damages were suffered throughout the Pacific im, as the tsunami quickly roared across the ocean. Ultimately, 20 countries were affected by the tsunami, a number similar to that of the Chilean quake five decades previous.
However, in this case, the tsunami activity in Japan was more devastating…
Atwater, Brian, et. al. Surviving a Tsunami -- Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan.
U.S. Geological Survey. (Online) Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/
Greatest Earthquake Ever Recorded. Extreme Science. (Online) Available at http://www.extremescience.com/zoom/index.php/earth-records/61-greatest-
Magnitude 9.0, Near the Coast of Japan. U.S. Geological Survey. (Online) Available at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/ Quakes/usc0001xgp.php' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
I tried to get someone to help her as the flames rose higher in the building and it looked like she would be killed. I looked around the city and saw that smoke and flames were everywhere.
My father yelled at us to follow him down the street with a huge crowd of people all moving in the direction of Golden Gate Park. (Within two days, my father had secured a tent for us in Golden Gate Park with thousands of other survivors / refugees.) the smoke, the cinders, the people crying as we all watched out city go up in flames -- it was terrifying. I will never forget the fear and agony on the faces of the people as we walked together to get away from the fires that were blazing all around us.
We realized we were all going to be refugees, but my mother kept saying,…
Mitigation of Earthquakes
Disasters are bound to strike at a given time and they more often find us unaware, this is the sole reason why the majority of the disasters that happen are usually fatal and destructive. This then calls for the need to try as much as possible to prevent these disasters and in particular in our cities. This is due to the fact that in the cities there are large populations that live close to each other or work in offices crammed together hence the likelihood of a disaster turning absolutely fatal if and when it strikes.
There are various aspects that act to exaggerate the magnitude of a disaster in many cities that turns these disasters into deadly tragedies. One of the most predominant reasons is the poor planning that is found in many cities today. There is a common trend of massive building built on the…
Caroline Onyancha et.al. (2011). A Study on the Engineering Behavior of Nairobi Subsoil.
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. VOL. 6, NO. 7, JULY 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.arpnjournals.com/jeas/research_papers/rp_2011/jeas_0711_527.pdf
Ginger Voight, (2011). The Risks of Living Too Close to a River. Retrieved February 14, 2012
Continental Plates and Earthquakes
Natural events or disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes are dangerous incidents given their significant impact on life and property. Given their devastating impacts, the causes of natural disasters have attracted considerable concern among the public and scientists. One of the most important ways to understand the causes of these events is by examining the science behind them. Even though these events differ in the manner in which they occur, they are largely attributable to tectonic plate movement. Since tectonic plate movement plays a major role in the occurrence of natural disasters, these incidents have relatively similar geological beginnings. An example of a natural disaster whose occurrence is brought by tectonic or continental plate movement is earthquake.
Overview of an Earthquake
An earthquake is basically regarded as a natural event that takes place when two blocks of the Earth slip past each other abruptly (ald par,…
"Oceanic/Continental: The Andes." Plate Tectonics. The Geological Society, n.d. Web. 4 June
"The Theory of Plate Tectonics." Department of Geoscience - University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, n.d. Web. 4 June 2016. .
Emergency Management: Earthquake and School Safety
The preparatory tasks regarding facilities that need to be conducted in order to safely prepare for an earthquake at the school are the following: 1) the school’s structure should be checked by engineers to ensure that it can safely withstand an earthquake, and if the structure fails inspection, it should be fixed so that vulnerable weaknesses are mitigated; 2) students and staff should be educated on what to do in the case of an earthquake: this means that the school in its entirety has to be familiar with earthquake drills (which should be routinely practiced just like fire drills) and that the “drop, cover and hold on” policy is understood by all; 3) preparations should be made regarding having a cache of supplies on hand to last 2 weeks in the case of an earthquake that devastates the community. In such cases, the school…
FEMA. (2010). Design Guide for Improving School Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/5264#
Tsunamis Are Formed
Earthquakes are often linked to ground shaking that is a ramification of elastic waves traveling through the solid earth. However, close to the heart and origin of submarine earthquakes, the seafloor is "permanently" uplifted and down-dropped, pushing the entire water column up and down.
The potential energy (as opposed to kinetic energy) that is the consequence of pushing water above mean sea level is then transferred to horizontal propagation of the tsunami wave (kinetic energy as opposed to potential energy). In most cases, the earthquake rupture occurs at the base of the continental slope in relatively deep water. Situations can also arise where the earthquake rupture occurs beneath the continental shelf in much shallower water.
Within just moments of the original submarine earthquake, the initial tsunami is divided into a tsunami that travels out to the deep ocean (distant tsunami) and yet one more tsunami that travels…
University of Washington. The physics of tsunamis. http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/physics.html .
Wikepedia. Tsunami. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami .
National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. Tsunamis. http://www.noaa.gov/tsunamis.html .
Geologists describe the San Andreas fault as right-lateral strike-slip, which means that the Pacific side of the fault is slowly moving horizontally northward, usually by an inch or two per year. At times, however, the fault may suddenly lurch as much as several feet. Such movements deep in the earth produce earthquakes -- and such movements along the San Andreas fault and its branches have produced most of the largest earthquakes in American history." (Cherny, 2007)
It is reported that new buildings with steel frames during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake "held up quite well. uildings of brick or other masonry construction, without steel or iron reinforcement, were most likely to be damaged. Some lost entire walls. rick chimneys collapsed all over the city. The fire chief was killed when a chimney fell into his bedroom. The most dangerous parts of the city were areas that had once been lakes,…
Fradkin, Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906, 246
Hull, Elizabeth (2006) Redwood in the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fires. FOREST HISTORY TODAY | SPRING/FALL 2006
Cherny, Robert (2007) San Francisco and the Great Earthquake of 1906. History Now Journal. Issue 11, March 2007. Online available at http://www.historynow.org/03_2007/historian5.html
Preventative Nursing During the Haitian Earthquake Disaster
When natural disasters strike affluent nations, such as the recent round of hurricanes to batter America's Eastern seaboard or the tsunami that inundated Japan in 2011, there are typically established healthcare delivery and preventative care systems in place to prevent the spread of disease among those who have been victimized. While property may be razed to rubble, and casualties will inevitably occur during the disaster's impact, the nursing infrastructure within industrialized nations is enough to prevent the pervasive, epidemic-like conditions capable of claiming untold thousands of additional lives. For so-called "third-world" nations, however, the arrival of nature's fury is often only just the beginning of a prolonged period of misery and suffering. In Haiti for example, where a massive earthquake leveled entire communities in 2010, masses of displaced victims have been forced to seek shelter in squalid refugee camps that, without the presence…
Davidson, J.R. (2002). Surviving disaster: What comes after the trauma?. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 366-368. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/181/5/366.full
Emerson, J. (2011). One year after the earthquake, response and priorities for the future. Plan Haiti, 1-24. Retrieved from http://www.planusa.org/docs/PlanHaitiReport12monthson.pdf
Romero, S. (2010, February 19). Poor sanitation in haiti's camps adds disease risk. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/20/world/americas/20haiti.html?_r=0
In the United States, California receives the most attention for earthquakes, but Alaska actually has had eight of the largest ten earthquakes in this country. The largest was a magnitude of 9.2 at Prince William Sound Alaska on March 27, 1964 (The largest earthquakes in the United States). This earthquake triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami. The earthquake and resulting tsunami took the lives of 115 people (Earthquake facts and follies). It raised or lowered the ground surface as much fifty-six feet in some areas. The length of the ruptured fault was between 310.5 and 621 miles. To put the magnitude of this earthquake in perspective, the amount of energy released was equal to 12,000 Hiroshima-type blasts, or 240 million tons of TNT. The 9.1 magnitude was more than 10,000 times greater than a moderate 5.0 earthquake.
Earthquake facts and follies. Retrieved May 21, 2006 from Web site: http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/public/follies.shtml
Earthquake facts and follies. Retrieved May 21, 2006 from Web site: http://www.ceri.memphis.edu/public/follies.shtml
Earthquakes. Retrieved May 21, 2006 from Web site: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/natural-disasters/earth-sciences/6125.html
The largest earthquakes in the United States. Retrieved May 21, 2006 from Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193595.html
A) Write a summary of an article on the environment that was published in The New York Times between 1/22 and 1/28. This assignment is for 150 words.
ANCHORAGE — The people of Alaska, spurred by the threat of a massive underwater earthquake which could result in a tsunami, evacuated the safety of their homes at midnight. Authorities had transformed schools into temporary evacuation units and citizens flocked there, parking their automobiles at Walmart and Safeway parking lots. Several rushed to the safe higher ground provided by Pillar Mountain. However, fortunately, the tsunami didn’t occur and in 4 hours’ time, the tsunami warning issued between Alaska and the Mexican-American border was lifted (Burke, Blinder and Fountain 17). This sudden panic across the Pacific coast commenced following US Geological Survey reports of an earthquake of magnitude 7.9, half an hour after midnight (Alaskan Gulf time). While authorities claimed nobody reported any…
However, it is not feasible to remove human populations from the most earthquake-prone areas, some of which are incredibly densely populated. Furthermore, the reality of modern life is that there are some activities, such as driving under freeway overpasses, which greatly increase the risk of death during significant seismic activity. However, what if there was a way to increase warning time, and give people sufficient notice of a coming earthquake, so that people could end high-risk activities and get to safer locations? It would not end the death and destruction of earthquakes; the force of the earth is simply too powerful, but it might go far to mitigate such suffering. I am interested in studying earthquakes, because I believe there must be a way to develop…
U.S. based company concerned earthquake, tsunami nuclear power plant accident occurs Japan? 2. With rapid technology, boundaries industries redefined. What industry company Google ? Who Google's main competitors today competition ? 1 page 1 Reference Case 9: Panera read Company 2012 - Pursuing Growth a Weak Economy, Arthur A. Sources
First of all, all companies today operate in a global business environment, where local influences are often felt and have repercussions worldwide. In this specific case, there are several reasons why the American company should be concerned with such an event. It has a significant impact on the Japanese market, lowering the purchasing power of existing and potential customers.
At the same time, there are potential negative effects on the political and economic system in Japan. The government will need to invest in the saving operations, which will likely impact the budget and lower the chances that Japan can offer…
1. Efrati, Amir (2013). In Online Ads, There's Google -- and Then Everybody Else. Wall Street Journal.
2. Porter, M.E. (2008) The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January 2008.
3. Graham, Jefferson, (2012). Talking Tech: Customers clog Panera's free Wi-Fi. USA Today
4. Dampier, Phillip, (2012). Panera Bread Stores Overloaded With Wi-Fi Users Who Won't Leave. On the Internet at http://stopthecap.com/2012/05/17/panera-bread-stores-overloaded-with-wi-fi-users-who-wont-leave/ . Last retrieved on April 9, 2014
Local, state, and federal organizations and agencies offer resources for responding to natural disasters like earthquakes. In the event of an earthquake, as many first responder resources as are necessary can be mobilized to provide effective and cost-effective interventions. Depending on the severity of the quake, the extent of the damage to both property and human casualty, and the location of the event(s), various first responders may be called in for assistance. Most first responders will be from local organizations like law enforcement and fire departments as well as emergency medical technicians who will arrive on the scene for triage and medical intervention for saving lives and reducing the extent and severity of injuries. Local branches of the Red Cross may also be involved as first responders.
Then, each state will have its own list of governmental and non-governmental first responder agencies that can deploy more resource-intensive needs requiring specialized…
Geological vs. Biological Energy
Geological Energy vs. Biological Energy
There are various differences as well as possible similarities between the geological and the biological energy. It is worth noting that energy is the ability to do work, and in many aspects causes movement.
The differences in the two types of energy have to do with the sources. The geological energy is noted to be predominantly from surface process like weather patterns, Hydrologic cycle, erosion and even the sun. The other significant process is the tectonic process that produces geological energy like earthquake and volcanoes that originate from the interior of the earth. The geological surface process that produces the geological energy is gravitational causing acts like evaporation and erosion. The interior process also has tectonic stress or pressure. The surface process is characterized by motion for instance the flowing of water, chipping of rocks and movement of air. The interior…
Ostatic, (2011). Seismic Tool-Kit Helps Scientists Research Earthquakes. Retrieved January 29,
USGA, (2012). Latest Earthquakes in the World - Past 7 days. Retrieved January 29,
Dangerous and Natural Energy
Patterns in the distribution of earthquakes in the U.S.
The earthquake patterns in the U.S. are fairly distinct. The most high-risk areas are the west coast, especially along the Pacific Coast, the Big Island of Hawaii and pockets in Alaska, Tennessee and South Carolina. A good part of the western part of America from ocky mountain region has a moderate chance of earthquake while the remaining parts of the country are under a slight risk of earthquake. The areas that have the lowest chance of earthquakes are southern Texas, Florida and the northern-most states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Hawaii and Alaska also have a moderate risk of earthquake according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Seismic Hazard Maps (USGS, 2008).
I live in New York and this means I live in a region that has a slight risk of earthquakes, typically 4-8g. Most earthquakes are measures…
Wielandt, Erhard. (2002). Seismic Sensors and their Calibration. Institute of Geophysics, University of Stuttgart.
USGS. (2012). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved from: http://www.usgs.gov/
This happens as the magma chamber empties and a ring fracture occurs. This collapse often blocks the flow of magma but the heated interior still produces gasses and steam. Often, that steam and other gasses create a lake in the middle of the caldera similar to Crater Lake in Oregon or Glen Coe in Scotland.
8. WHY DO SOME VOLCANOES EXPLODE, WHILE OTHERS EMIT ONLY GASEOUS CLOUDS?
Some volcanoes explode because the magma that is beneath them is physically forced out of the volcano and into the air. Also, some volcanoes have a core or cap that was formed long ago that holds magma back until it can reach a pressure high enough for it to explode outward. Other volcanoes release only gas because there are pockets of gas and ash trapped above the magma chamber, but below the surface of the volcano. This is released instead of magma and…
Session Long Project involve developing a disaster management program a specific country include hazard analysis, prevention, preparedness, response, recovery plans. Epidemiology Disasters espond: 1.
In 2011, Japan was shook by a devastating earthquake which claimed thousands of deaths and led to serious economic casualties. Since then, a number of concerns have been raised in regards to expectations of an even vengeful one in the near future. In fact, Japan has had a history of damaging quakes throughout the years. In 2004, the Ch-etsu Earthquakes, although less serious as to the number of human lives, forced many people to leave homes and injured thousands. It was considered the most vengeful quake since 1995 when thousands were killed in the Great Hanshin Earthquake, hundreds of thousands more were affected one way or another and substantial economical damage was registered. As such, Japanese have become more vigilant in regards to their safety and…
Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (2013, January 2013). Disaster Data: A Balanced Perspective. Issue No. 30. Retrieved from http://cred01.epid.ucl.ac.be/f/CredCrunch30.pdf
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2012). World Disasters Report. Retrieved from http://www.ifrcmedia.org/assets/pages/wdr2012/resources/1216800-WDR-2012-EN-FULL.pdf
Jamil, S., & Kuntjoro I.A. (2009). Managing Double Trouble: Indonesia's earthquakes and the Philippines' typhoons. paper presented at the Third Annual Convention of the Consortium of Non-Traditional Security Studies in Asia, November 3-4, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.rsis-ntsasia.org/activities/conventions/2009-singapore/Sofiah%20Jamil.pdf
Leonard, H.B. (2011). Preliminary observations on the Japanese 3/11 earthquake and tsunami. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (HKS). Retrieved from http://www.ash.harvard.edu/extension/ash/docs/earthquake.pdf
New Madrid Fault
In the wake of recent seismic activity and devastating earthquakes many people tend to speculate as to where the next big earthquake will occur. Most people point to the west coast of the United States as the obvious choice for an earthquake setting. In doing so we ignore a potentially catastrophic area of seismic activity known as the New Madrid Fault, which is Located in New Madrid, Missouri. Despite its potentially dangerous characteristics this area is often overlooked or dismissed due to its mid-western location. It is however, important to note that big earthquakes have occurred in this area and that as time passes the likelihood of a large earthquake occurring in the New Madrid Fault increases. The New Madrid Fault has caused several large earthquakes, the most significant quakes occurred during the years 1811-1812. According to historical accounts which are based on topographic results and effects…
"Global Volcanism Program | Volcanic Activity Reports | Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report | ." Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program: Worldwide Holocene Volcano and Eruption Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .
"The Virtual Times: The New Madrid Earthquake." THE VIRTUAL TIMES . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .
riverbed., seismically-induced ground motions deforming the. "Historic Earthquakes." U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .
s a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.
s terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. s scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to…
As a resident of Taiwan, I know all too well how devastating an earthquake can be. Japan and Taiwan both experienced earthquakes in March, 2011. The lives lost and physical damage sustained remind us of nature's power. Japan's earthquake continues to be major news because of the nuclear accident that resulted, the worst since Chernobyl. Taiwan's recent earthquake was, fortunately, far less dramatic, with damage to buildings and roads but no loss of life. Taiwan is frequently rattled by earthquakes, although they are usually minor. More than a decade ago, however, our island was rocked by a strong earthquake that killed more than 2,000 people. We wait and wonder if it will happen again.
As terrible as Japan's recent earthquake was, the outcome could have been even more disastrous. As scientists have increasingly come to understand when, where and how earthquakes occur, governments have been better able to help their countries prepare. In the Far East, where the risk of earthquakes is high, there is a high level of preparedness, with infrastructure in place to help minimize the physical damage and assist people with basic needs in the aftermath of disaster. There is still much more to be done, however. I would very much like to attend the summer program "Earthquakes in Action" at the University of California at San Diego's Jacobs School of Engineering. I hope to learn more about earthquakes and explore various academic and career options in which they are a focus.
I have a strong background in mathematics and I believe that prepares me for the rigors of the summer course. I am particularly interested in the ways that bridges and buildings respond to earthquakes and I look forward to the opportunity to use computer-generated models to study the methods of design and construction that are meant to address these problems. I would appreciate the opportunity to study with experts in seismology and structural engineering and learn as much as I can. The summer program sounds like a great cooperative learning experience. I am really looking forward to the possibility of working with professionals and other students in this endeavor.
ole of Technology in educing and Exacerbating Disaster isk: A Case Study of -- Haiti
Examine how technology(s) exacerbates.
Examine how technology(s) reduces the vulnerability of different people facing the same risk.
Make policy recommendations that would reduce the risk for the most vulnerable.
How to involve communities in technology development.
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The technological inventions and life often go hand in hand and the disasters have often been…
Cashmore P. (2010) Haiti Quake Relief: Hoe Technology helps. Cable News Network [online]. Available from [13Nov 2014]
Choney S.(2010) Mobile Giving to help Haiti Exceeds $30 Million[online].Available from [11November 2014]
Encyclopedia of the Nations (2014)Haiti- Agriculture. Available from
Rocks That Exhibit Ductile Strain Were Probably Deformed
Choose one answer.
at the surface of the earth.
when they were cold.
when the stress was applied very rapidly.
at a depth within Earth at elevated temperatures.
If rocks exhibit ductile behavior when exposed to compressive stress, they generally will form
Choose one answer.
Which of the following types of strain does not result in permanent deformation?
Choose one answer.
Faults are geologic structures that result from which type of strain?
Choose one answer.
a. brittle strain
b. ductile strain
c. elastic strain
In the Lesson 4 Topic 2 video, "Measuring Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude," you were able to see that the rupture from the 1906 earthquake traveled from mile marker 80 to mile marker 100 in 10 seconds. At…
pictures can speak louder than words, and this is clear in the photo entitled "U.S. Navy: An aerial view of damage to akuya, Japan after a 9 magnitude tsunami." The photo initially looks like picture of a tiny child's toy boat, which is floating in a muddy sea of debris. The boat looks brave and cheery, as it floats amidst the muck, garbage, and flotsam and jetsam of people's belongings. However, the first, deceptive glance of the photograph quickly ebbs away as the viewer becomes aware that he or she is bearing of witness to one of the greatest human tragedies to strike a nation, as a result of a natural disaster, in the 21st century. The photograph highlights the smallness and vulnerability of the human condition in the face of epic destruction beyond human control.
Japan's long national nightmare began when an 8.9-magnitude earthquake, the "fifth-largest recorded since 1900"…
Harlan, Chico. "One year later, Japan still in crisis." The Washington Post. 12 Mar 2012.
McGroarty, Patrick & Vanessa Fuhrmans. "Germany to Forsake Its Nuclear Reactors."
Wall Street Journal. 31 May 31, 2011.
But restoration efforts are hampered by the political and religious struggles that still define the area. The building is deeply symbolic for Christians, Muslims, secular Turks, and historical conservationists. Architectural historian obert Ousterhout points out that "each group looks at Hagia Sophia and sees a totally different building" (qtd. In Bordewich 5-6).
In his article, Bordewich examines the multiple agendas and suspicions of the groups seeking to control the restoration of the building, bemoaning the fact that the building is currently stuck in an "ideological no-man's land" (6). In the meantime, one of the premier examples of extreme architecture, Eastern oman power, Christian iconography, and Muslim decorative arts falls prey daily to the natural forces of decay, and runs the risk of being destroyed utterly by an earthquake or even by religious extremists. Even the grand ambitions of Justinian and the architectural genius of Anthemios cannot stem those forces. Instead,…
Bordewich, Fergus M. "Fading Glory." Smithsonian 39.9 (2008): 54-64. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 10 Nov. 2010.
Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Nelson, Robert S. Hagia Sophia 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom, Modern Monument. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Salvadori, Mario, Saralinda Hooker, and Christopher Ragus. Why Buildings Stand Up: The Strength of Architecture. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1990.
The contribution of these discoveries to the field is significant. It could for example contribute to a greater understanding of the origin of life on earth. Scientists for example can further study the creatures discovered around the vents for the purpose of such an understanding. Further implications relate to the cycle of heat and chemicals to the seafloor and the waters overlying it. In related disciplines, it is possible that many of the large ore bodies on land are believed to have been formed as a result of these vent systems.
This relates to a long-term interdisciplinary study funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. In addition to studying the vent system, ecosystem, and waters around the chimney, scientists are now also able to gain information relating to how earthquakes work.
iscoveries and studies such as the one described in the article prove that, vast though the body of human…
Discoveries and studies such as the one described in the article prove that, vast though the body of human knowledge is, it still only scratches the surface of what is available to still discover. This serves both a humbling and encouraging function. Scientists can be humbled by the extent of what they do not yet know, as well as by the vast area of knowledge opened up by the new discovery. They are now able to study millions of years of evolution on the basis of the ocean floor structure and its vent systems. On the other hand, scientists can be encouraged for the same reasons: many new fields of discovery have been made possible both by the fact that new studies can be based upon the results, and also by the understanding that many other misconceptions may exist in other scientific fields. Furthermore, scientists can also be encouraged by the fact that many different disciplines are now involved in making the discoveries described in the article. Scientists who have never before had reasons to work together can now become teams of investigators to further knowledge and an understanding of how the world around us works.
Earthquakes Under Pacific Floor Reveal Unexpected Circulatory System. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 26, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com - / releases/2008/01/080109173830.htm
ecovery: Disaster and Crisis
Disaster recovery has become an important aspect of a company's strategic plan. The main reason for an increased concern can be attributed to the fact that integration and alliances at an international level have increased so that there are more linkages and higher interdependencies that have increased the exposure of people to international risk. This also means that companies are more prone to be affected by a force majeure impacting a vendor located in another part of the world. Some cases that have recently come to light in the spate of the Japanese Earthquake are the impact on General Motors leave alone Nissan. Moreover, giants such as Sony have been impacted in the wake of natural disasters in Thailand where a Tsunami impacted the Integrated Chip provider, making it difficult for Sony to continue to manufacture its products.
In light of these vulnerabilities it…
Jones, V.A. (2011). How to Avoid Disaster:RIM's Crucial Role in Business Continuity Planning. Information Management Journal .
Keenan, G. (2011). After a year of disasters, Japan's auto sector fights back. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from CTV News: http://www.ctv.ca/generic/generated/static/business/article2284601.html#ixzz1k0x14zsf
Momani, N.M. (2010). Business Continuity Planning: Are We Prepared for Future Disasters . American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 272-279.
Omar, A., Alijani, D., & Mason, R. (2011). Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plan: Case Study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal .
Death of oman ang
Earthquakes, droughts, famine, cannibalism, bandits, a huge tax burden, and a social system which was strictly hierarchical and repressive; T'an Ch'eng was a Chinese county that suffered great hardships during the 17th century. Jonathon Spence, in his "The Death of oman ang" creates a snapshot of the difficulties and hardships endured by the Chinese peasants at that time. By using both historical and non-historical sources, Spence is able to allow the reader a glimpse into the lives of people long since dead, and a way of life that no longer exists. The author captures the extremely difficult life these people had to endure, their problems, threats, hardships, and social conventions which all led to a miserable existence. hile the book is titled after the oman ang, a character that does not play a role of importance until well into the book, it really describes the everyday…
Spence, Jonathon. The Death of Woman Wang. New York: Penguin, 1979. Print.
If a butterfly's wings beating in Tibet can cause el Nino, then a gigawatt of electromagnetic radiation ought to be good for something.
* HAARP is an earthquake machine. Also based on a bunch of weird stuff Tesla discovered. Somewhat offset by the fact the HAARP array is clearly pointed at the sky.
* HAARP is a doomsday machine ripping a hole in the earth's atmosphere. Colorful, but scienfitically questionable. How do you rip a hole in air?
* HAARP has something to do with UFOs. Either signalling them, blasting them from the skies, or feeding babies to them.
* HAARP is a giant Mind Control broadcasting machine. Appealing, but if it works, why are people still such assholes? (clarky003)
Though an anonymous blogger is hardly likely to be considered a credible source the reality is that the full implications of this research device are unknown and real scientists who…
Bellis, Mary "History of Dynamite" 2009 at: .
clarky003 [Blogger] "H.A.R.R.P a weapon to end all wars?" at: .
Digg [Earhtfirst Comentator] "The 5 People Responsible for Mankind's Most Toxic Inventions" at: < http://earthfirst.com/the-5-people-responsible-for-mankinds-most-toxic-inventions/ >.
HARRP Website FAQ at: .
With a positive mental attitude, horrible physical problems are much more possible to overcome.
In this way, their heart is in the work and they are motivated to do the right things, to be responsible and accountable for their actions as they relates to their patients. This author puts themselves in their patients' positions and wishes to give them the kind of care that elicits their trust, shows compassion and caring as well as competence as a nursing. Just as patients would not want to be treated badly, they revile incompetent, uncaring and untrustworthy nurses that soil the reputation of the profession. This repugnance must be reflected by the nursing professional.
The focus on patient care needs to be reflected in the pharmaceutical profession as well as in nursing. Indeed, patient focus is an important part of the focus of the medical team overall. In my opinion, pharmacists should provide…
Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…
Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.
Raphael, Beverly. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1986.
Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L., Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd. 1990.
"Community Emergency Response Team." Online Posting. 25 January 2002. http://www.fema.gov .
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
For many people, the field of insurance can be very confusing. This is because these organizations will often engage in activities that are designed to reduce risks. ecently, there have been a number of incidents that have led to an increase in liabilities for these firms. The thesis statement will focus on the four different types and the impact of a large natural disaster (i.e. The Japanese tsunami of 2011).
The purpose of this assignment is to understand the strategies that reduce risks and the way they are utilized. This will be accomplished by focusing on: reinsurance methods for sharing in the losses, the excess of loss treaty, the quote share treaty, facultative reinsurance, the surplus -- share treaty and the methods used after the Japanese tsunami. Together, these factors will explain the different tactics utilized in reducing risks and dividing the liabilities among various firms. ("Definition einsurance," 2013)…
Reinsurance Market Outlook. (2011). Aon Benefield. Retrieved from: http://thoughtleadership.aonbenfield.com/Documents/201109_ab_reinsurance_market_outlook.pdf
Definition Reinsurance. (2013). Investopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/reinsurance.asp#axzz2MReJhZKj
Wollan, E. (2002). Handbook of Reinsurance. New York, NY: Aspen.
Beauty & Sadness in Japanese Literature
A modernization of the story "An Account of a Ten Foot Square Hut"
Many, many years ago, it is said that the Buddha went out into the world, seeking to free himself from his cloistered palace -- and saw sickness, old age, and death. Upon seeing this inevitable suffering, he resolved to free the world with his philosophy, and lead us all to Enlightenment. Although our land is filled with fine Buddhist shrines and many people pay for fine Buddhist funerals, we have forgotten the central truths of Buddhism, which stress the impermanence of all material things. The only thing which is permanent is the persistence of suffering and the truth of the Buddha's philosophy of non-attachment.
Because we can create great structures out of metal and wood; because we can prolong life slightly longer than before; because we can disguise the effects of…
Korteman, Jessica. "Fukushima Evacuees: 2 years on." 12 Dec 2013.
Wishing to Pursue Graduate Study
Dr. Paul Farmer of Partners in Health was asked in an interview if he knew at a young age what he wanted to do or if it was an idea that evolved over time. He replied: "You can…grow into what you want to do…grow into your aspirations." I took that to mean that personal experiences can open our eyes to possibilities and that small successes can focus our attention on goals that once seemed too lofty. I have learned the importance of taking one step at a time and striving to excel in every stage before reaching for the next level. Like a rock climber, I have also learned to visualize my next handhold -- and picture myself achieving that goal even as I reach for it.
Despite some difficult life circumstances, I have been graced by my origins and my experiences as an immigrant.…
Long-Term Effects of Adverse Nature
Long-term Implications of 2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Long-term effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster
2004 Indian Ocean Disasters
Indian Ocean is the third vastest water body in the world wide, casing an average of 68.556 million km2. It is the mass of water body around Africa, Asia, the Southern Ocean and Australia. It has four main accessible waterways, the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (along Djibouti and Yemen), the Strait of Hormuz (along Iran and Oman), and the Strait of Malacca (Indonesia and Malaysia) among other minor ones. The ocean has been attributed to many economical advantages ranging from providing a means of transportation, food, recreation and for the extraction of valuable mineral resources. However, the ocean has major confluences with terrific and adverse water disasters such as disasters, tsunamis, aftershocks, earthquakes among others.
In 2004, the Indian registered the worst…
Ramalanjaona, G. 2011. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned. Emergency Medicine International. Vol 1, Issue 1. Pg 1-3.
Daly, P., Feener, M. R and Reid, A.J.S. From the Ground up: Perspectives on Post-Tsunami and Post -- Conflict Aceh. Chicago: Institute of Southeast Asian.
In managing a multinational company in the food products industry, it is essential to implement a solid knowledge management system to ensure that as much relevant information as possible is handled in the most effective manner. Issues that must be addressed to ensure the safety of the product and that optimum delivery to consumers is possible include: sanitation, where workers may eat and drink, conflict resolution, how in-house teams will conduct business, how online teams will facilitate the organization, security, and emergency evacuation procedures. This paper will discuss the key benefits of creating a best practice policy on each of these described issues and will speculate on the major ramifications if such policies are not created. This paper will also predict the significant ways in which the best practices policy created here will contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company. Finally this paper will determine whether or not the…
mass shooting could have been prevented. The key to knowing what to do in the future is to understand how to recognize signs of mental illness and stability. In this case, the gunman "had been expelled, possibly for behavioral problems." It is clear the school understood that this student had problems. Yet even after the expulsion, the school did not do enough to ensure Goh's mental stability. The issue was not necessarily bullying, as the headline suggests. Students might have been teasing Goh in a good-natured way. After all, a large number of Americans speak English as a second language and it would be odd for someone to get maliciously teased for it. Goh reacted in an extreme way because he was mentally unstable. He had suffered trauma (after the unresolved death of his brother) and had a history of behavioral problems. Students like him need monitoring, counseling and intervention…
"Japan tsunami reconstruction money 'misspent'," (2012). BBC. Oct 31, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-20150364
"Oikos University Shooting: Suspect In Deadly Attack Was Upset About Being Teased Over Poor English Skills, Police Say." Huffington Post. April 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/03/oikos-university-shooting-teased-english-skills_n_1399680.html