"Environmental Health Essays"

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Health Disparities the Growing Inequalities Essay

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1674372

This is important, because utilizing technology to deliver various health care solutions will: increase collaboration, improve the underlying amounts of care and it can help to reduce costs. Once this takes place, it means that implementing various changes can be easier.

When a health care professional encounters an Asian patient in their practice, what are at least three characteristics he/she should consider in order to improve communication and cultural competence in delivering services to this patient and tell why those characteristics are important to consider.

Three characteristics that should be considered would include: family, communication and the concept of time. Family matters to Asian patients, as this is their foundation for strength and support. Communication is important, with these patients more focused on body languages and pauses (to signify substance vs. The actual words). Time will be different between the two cultures, as Asian patients will place less of an emphasis on doing something at the time they are suppose to (instead they are focused on general time frames). ("Cultural Values of Asian Patients," 2009)

Define, differentiate, and demonstrate the interrelationship between values, and culture. Next, provide insight as to how cultural factors in your life may affect your perception(s) regarding the health and well-being of the individuals that you consider part of your "university" culture.

Values are the basic rules that an organization / individual will stand for. Culture is: the traditions, history, experiences and customs of a person or group. The two are different as values will define how everyone will behave, while culture will give them a sense of appreciation. The two are interconnected, as the underlying culture will shape and reflect values in the future. Growing up in rural environment had an effect on cultural factors, as it taught me to always remain physically fit and…… [Read More]

Cultural Values of Asian Patients. (2009). Dimensions of Culture. Retrieved from: http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/home/cultural_values_of_asian_patients_families

Define Culture. (2010). Roshan Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.roshan-institute.org/templates/System/details.asp?id=39783&PID=474552
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Health & Safety Plan for Essay

Words: 1989 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26774808

Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)

Work practice and administrative controls

Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CFR 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education about the hazards of smoking or the chance that having sex causes pregnancy hasn't done much to change behaviors in those realms which make this controls hard to implement as people need to understand them again and again.

As these controls consist of various policies and requirements that are established at an administrative level (e.g., by the principal investigator, site supervisor, department chair, or department safety committee) to promote safety in the site or work place (Wesdock, et al., 2000). There should be a proper system to ensure that all workers or personnel have been provided with adequate training to enable them understand all the policies including the reviewed ones to enable them conduct their duties safely policies should also be reviewed depending on short comings from the previous tragedies to bridge the gaps that may have occurred and also requiring prior approval and additional control measures for certain particularly hazardous operations or activities.


Report control is better served by distribution and sharing facts as they become accessible rather than allowing wrong and misleading reports to fill…… [Read More]

Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf

Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
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Health Care System Evolution Organizational Essay

Words: 3702 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74688479

(Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007)

The continuum of care for the diabetic patient is shown in the following illustration labeled Figure 1.

Diabetes: Continuum of Care

Source: Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event (2007)

The continuum of care for diabetes begins at the moment that the individual is found to have diabetes and continues across the individual's health care providers and across the varying stages of progression of the disease and the age progression of the individual with Diabetes. This continuum of care should be addressed by health care providers, Medicare/Medicaid, as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Changes in the workforce in developing the diabetes continuum of care is stated to have included the following: (1) Increase in number of dieticians; (2) Increase in number of diabetic specialist nurses; (3) Increase in podiatrists; (4) Education for primary care team; (5) Move DSN to primary care to take straight referrals; (6) Insulin for life training with continuous CPD support; (7) Increase capacity in general practice; (8) Psychologist input; (9) DSN provides education/advice for practices; (10) Increase confidence of G.Ps and Practice nurses to deliver care; (11) Out of hours service accessibility to advice post 6 p.m. (for patients and clinicians); and (12) DSN for elderly. (Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007)

Clinical accommodations were stated to include: (1) Care pathways; (2) Identification of patient on admission to acute to pharmacist, DSN; (3) Continuity of care throughout the service where possible patient sees the same clinician; (4) Need shared templates, guidelines, protocols; (5) Retinal screening; and (6) Eye screening for housebound. (Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007)

Communication accommodations supporting diabetes continuum of care included: (1) Countywide register accessible to all clinicians; (2) Increase family/school liaison; (3) Developed links between services; (4) Diabetic link nurses on all wards; (5) Shared templates/paperwork; (6) Use of available technology email referrals/advice etc.; (7) Information that flows freely to all parts of the service; and (8) Good data. (Worcestershire Diabetes: a New model of care Stakeholder event, 2007)

Public health and education accommodations to support diabetes continuum of care included: (1) Better transport; (2) Healthy diet; (3) Playing fields; (4) Educating parents, children on healthy lifestyles; and (5) Tie diabetes to other strategies to tackle obesity. (Worcestershire Diabetes:…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Betancourt, JR, Green, AR, and Carillo, JE (2002) Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches" (New York City: The Commonwealth Fund, 2002).

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Thomson Gale Corporation 2006.
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Health Seeking Behaviors of Appalachian Essay

Words: 2162 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84721921


Furthermore, and despite its popularity as a tourist destination because of its natural beauty, the Appalachians are not a sterile environment by any means and the people who live there have higher risks for certain types of conditions than their counterparts elsewhere. According to Bauer and Growick (2003), "Americans who live in Appalachia experience unique and different ways of life than most Americans. Appalachian culture runs from the bottom half of the State of New York through the mountains of West Virginia and Southeast Ohio to the flatlands of Alabama. This area of the country offers different perspectives and challenges to life. Because of the geographical vastness and uniqueness of the Appalachian culture, many people with disabilities who live in Appalachia are unable to access rehabilitative services and agencies" (emphasis added) (p. 18).

Likewise, many rural residents throughout Appalachia may have septic tanks and will lack access to other city-provided services that their urban and suburban counterparts take for granted. These environmental threats may introduce some types of maladies that will require emergent care. In this regard, Barrett, Hackler, Highfill, Huang, Monti, and Peipins (2002) report that, "Pathogens such as Norwalk-like viruses, Campylobacter jejuni, and Ciardia lamblia have been documented as causes of gastroenteritis among campers and hikers. An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among hikers on the Appalachian Trail in Virginia during May and June 1999" (p. 18). These researchers determined that the proximity of a septic tank to a small retail store's water supply was the source of the outbreak, and recommend educating the local populace and visitors concerning the need to purify water when the source is doubtful (Barrett et al., 2002).

Summary and Conclusion

The research showed that understanding why, when and where people typically seek out healthcare services can help practitioners improve the delivery of these services when and where they are most needed. Although stereotypes are dangers, the research also showed that many of the residents of Appalachia remain at a disadvantage compared to their counterparts in other pats of parts of the country, particularly in economic and health care terms. The research also showed that there remains a paucity of research specifically targeted at identifying…… [Read More]

Anguiano, R.P., & Harrison, S.M. (2002). Teaching cultural diversity to college students majoring in helping professions: The use of an eco-strengths perspective. College Student Journal, 36(1), 152.

Barrett, E., Hackler, R., Highfill, K.A., Huang, P., Jiang, X., Monti, M.M., & Peipins, Lucy. (2002). A Norwalk-like virus outbreak on the Appalachian Trail. Journal of Environmental Health, 64(9), 18.
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Health System in Kuwait Essay

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44394796

Health System of Kuwait

The Managerial Functioning of Kuwait's Health Care System

General Description of the Kuwait Health System

Kuwait claims to have one of "the most comprehensive health care systems, and one of the most all-encompassing social service systems in the world" (KIO, 2003). This health care system has offered free - or nearly free - services to the entire population of Kuwait for about fifty years.

If a Kuwaiti citizen is sick, that person is cared for at no charge; if a person is in an auto accident, or needs an examination for an emerging skin irritation, health service is provided. Free health service is also extended to veterinary medical care for livestock and animals. If a sheep herder finds one of more of his animals is diseased, veterinarians will provide care for that disease. If a family dog is hit in the road and suffers broken legs, a Kuwaiti government veterinarian will provide medical service for that family's dog.

A brief history of the origins of the Kuwait health care system is germane to a thorough understanding of the issues. The very first medical clinic for men in Kuwait was built in 1911, and the first hospital for women was established in 1919. These facilities were developed by the Arabian Mission of the Dutch Reform Church (from the United States), and their development was at the request of Amir Sheik Mubarak Al-Sabah. And in 1934, the Olcott Memorial Hospital opened, followed by the Amiri Hospital in 1949. All medical services were "socialized" by the 1950s, as massive oil revenues began to pour into the government's coffers from the rich oilfields being developed in Kuwait.

As an empirical indication of the progress in preventative health care in Kuwait, the incidence of rheumatic fever - in children from 5 to 14 years of age - declined from 3.7 cases per 100,000 people in 1984, to 2.5 cases per 100,000 in 1988 (Majeed,…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Reform Models Health Care Reform Models Essay

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9160295

Healthcare Reform Models

Health Care Reform Models

Preventive Psychiatry

Shim and colleagues (2012) argue for taking advantage of provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 that emphasizes preventive and integrated care. They propose that the primary care setting is ideal for screening patients for signs of mental illness and associated risk factors. A mental health wellness program could also include coaches and other experts that interface with patients on an individual basis, including at the patient's home.

Long-Term Behavioral Health Care

Bao and colleagues (2012) examined four patient populations defined by disease severity and ability to pay, and then assessed how these four groups will fare under the behavioral health provisions in the ACA. Patients with private insurance and suffering from mild to moderate mental illness will probably receive the best care at a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH). The authors suggest that the presence of comorbid conditions of sufficient severity may not received the best care in this setting because these patients often need specialized care not typically found in a primary care setting.

Health Homes are intended to serve Medicaid patients with mild to moderate mental health problems (Bao, Casalino, and Pincus, 2012). In contrast to behavioral health services provided in a primary care setting, Health Homes will represent government-funded behavioral health clinics serving sometimes large populations. Some of these organizations will have incorporated primary care services into their organization. The foreseen limitation of Health Homes is that the patient population will still be underserved by primary care services.

Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are provider led and offer patient populations comprehensive care services (Bao, Casalino, and Pincus, 2012). The patient populations that will likely receive the best care at ACOs are those with mild to moderate mental health problems and are covered by private insurers or Medicare. Since ACOs are managed and funded by commercial health providers, there is…… [Read More]


Bao, Yuhua, Casalino, Lawrence P., and Pincus, Harold Alan. (2012). Behavioral health and health care reform models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, published online 28 Nov. 2012, 1-11. Doi: 10.1007/s11414-012-9306-y. Retrieved 21 Dec. 2012 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11414-012-9306-y.
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Health and Safety the Main Essay

Words: 3319 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47057109

The respondents also believed that premiums should be adjusted based on an organizations willingness to introduce and enforce health and safety standards.

5. Safety representatives-these representatives serve the purpose of serving notices or organizations when breaches in safety and health standards take place.

6. Occupational Health and Rehabilitation -- a significant percentage or respondents believe that there needs to be greater access to occupational health services for employees. The respondents also believed that there should be a "new focus on the provision of rehabilitation services for injured and sick workers."

7. Financial Incentives-finally the respondents believed that employees needed financial incentives to encourage cooperation as it pertains to health and safety standards.

The HSE used all of the information gathered to create new strategies for dealing with Health and Safety issues in the workplace. One of the primary trends that developed was that of enforcement. In an effort to have the capacity to enforce health and safety standards the HSE has developed a Enforcement Management Model (EMM).

According to the HSE this model serves as the foundation for inspectors as they make decisions about enforcement. These enforcement decisions have to be made in a manner that is compliance with the that HSC and the Enforcement Policy Statement (EPS). The EPS has established the "principles inspectors should apply when determining what enforcement action to take in response to breaches of health and safety legislation. Fundamental to this is the principle that enforcement action should be proportional to the health and safety risks and the seriousness of the breach."

EMM is used for three primary reasons. The first reason is to supply a foundation for the making stable decisions concerning enforcement . The second reason is to assist managers in examining the fairness and consistency of inspectors' enforcement decisions in line with the Commission's policy. The final purpose of to help inspectors that do not have a great deal of experience in making the appropriate decisions.…… [Read More]

"A strategy for workplace health and safety in Great Britain to 2010 and beyond"

"Enforcement Management Model." (2002). Health and Safety Executive
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Environmental Justice & Executive Order Essay

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (Bullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (Bullard, 1998)


The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is a description of various sources and their definitions of regulations relating to cultural resources and the human's interaction with their environment.

NEPA and CEQ regulations: makes a requirement of agencies to consider the effects of their actions on all aspects of the 'human environment'.

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) sets forth Government policy and procedures regarding "historic properties" -- that is, districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects included in or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Section 106 of NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider the effects of their actions on such properties, following regulations issued by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 CFR 800).

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires Federal agencies and federally assisted museums to return "Native American cultural items" to the Federally recognized Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian groups with which they are associated. Regulations, by the National Park Service (NPS) are at 43 CFR 10.

The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) says that the U.S. Government will respect and protect the rights of Indian tribes to the free exercise of their traditional religions; the courts have interpreted this as…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues Essay

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my formulated major-communication, sociology, and political science; in every local/national issue there are social concerns, communication breakthroughs and barriers, and a very political atmosphere when dealing with policies and the environment. Throughout the course of my research I want to draw on my knowledge I have gained during my college career. I hope to obtain awareness of environmental justice issues by utilizing a holistic, integrated perspective; a view that will allow me to not only understand the root of the problem, but foresee some viable political solutions.

Definitions, Beliefs & Concerns

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Justice (or environmental racism, the terms will be used synonymously in this paper) is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. The essential piece of the complex environmental justice movement is the assurance that every group of people, no matter their race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background will bear a proportionate share of negative environmental consequences.

This movement which began as scattered protests against…… [Read More]

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Environmental Management Read Instructions File 1 Files Essay

Words: 2172 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22459058

Environmental Management Read Instructions File #1 Files Attached

Environmental management

The Water Permitting Board

Natural gas represents an important resource within the United States and more efforts are made to create energy sustainability using the resource. Still, the creation of a Schuylkill Energy LLC power plant and gas drilling facility in Mock County is not hereby a recommended course of action.

The arguments in support of this recommendation are drawn from the specialized literature; are all objective and based on scientific facts. The dangers to gas drilling are far too significant for the population and the environment and they are real, even if only visible in the long-term.

Another problem associated with gas processing and drilling is represented by the lack of contingency plans and alternative solutions in case energy situations materialize. In such a setting then, it is recommended to focus on solar and wind energy generation, and to integrate more scientific findings in the processes involving natural gas.

Literature review

The impact of the energy industry upon the health of both humans as well as the surrounding environment has represented a common concern for the members of the academia. And sufficient evidence has been promoted to reveal the negative impacts of gas drilling and production for the health of humans, animals and the environment.

Theo Colborn, Carol Kwiatkowski, Kim Schultz and Mary Bachran (2011) recognize the importance of gas drilling, as well as the difficulty in ensuring health and environmental responsibility and sustainability in gas drilling processes. Nonetheless, they argue that it is necessary for more controls to be conducted and for more disclosure to be created. The rationale for their recommendation is based on the negative impacts which can be caused by the substances used in the drilling for natural gas. According to the four authors then:

- More than 75 per cent of the substances used to drill for gas could cause skin conditions. The same substances could also impact the eyes and the other sensory organs (years, nose and so on), but could also cause damage to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.

- An estimated 40 up to 50 per cent of the substances tested by the authors had the potential of affecting the health of…… [Read More]

Calborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C., Schultz, K., Bachran, M., 2011, Natural gas operations from a public perspective, The International Journal of Human and Risk Assessment

Finkel, M., Law, A., 2011, The rush to drill for natural gas: a public health cautionary tale, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 5
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Environmental Racism the Color of Essay

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (Bullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory activities (Crossman).

Four Major Threats to Health

Four major environmental health hazards were identified as plaguing specifically the children in the United States (Bullard 2003). More specifically, the hazards were affecting people of color. These were lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools, and the asthma epidemic (Bullard).

Reports said that lead poisoning was the top environmental health threat to children in the U.S. with 60% of American homes laced with lead-based paint (Bullard 2003). But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that children from low-income homes were eight times more apt to be afflicted with lead poisoning than children from richer homes. Black children were also five times likelier than White children to be affected. Studies conducted by the National Institute for Environmental Health Services found that lead content in a child or young person was associated with lower IQ, higher drop-out rates and higher delinquency rates (Bullard).

Toxic housing has to do with proximity to hazardous waste facilities. A joint study conducted by the Dallas Morning News and the University of Texas in Dallas in 2000 showed that 870,000 of the 9 million housing units for the poor were located within 1 mile from factories. These factories reported toxic emissions to the EPA. And most of these poor dwellers were minorities (Bullard).

A separate study conducted by the Center for Health, Environment and Justice in 2001 said that more…… [Read More]

Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages
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Environmental Policies and Problems in Essay

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) Studies conducted in the United States have shown that "emission reduction programs provide much greater benefit than their costs." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is interesting to note that emission controls are generally not as expensive as first believed to implement and "appropriate programs can lead to economically efficient approaches for improving the environment, reducing costs further." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is stated that "control costs are not purely costs as they create opportunities..." such as the manufacture and sales of energy efficient pollution control equipment. Air pollution industries in the U.S. is said to have generated an additional $27 billion in revenues employment approximately 178,000 in 2001. (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007; paraphrased) Recommendations which arose from these findings include the recommendation that both the U.S. And China need to improve permitting policies and economic mechanisms that reflect the external costs of pollution that are being paid by others whether it be through adverse health effects and quality of life degradation and might include taxes high enough on emissions to make the adding of controls more attractive economically and rebates or subsidies are suggested…… [Read More]

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html