Expository Essays

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expository essays

Of all of the different essay types you can encounter, the expository essay is the one you are most likely to find on exams and for classroom assignments in lower-level coursework.  The expository essay is the generic, fallback non-fiction writing assignment.  It requires you to investigate an idea, use evidence to expound on the idea, and to set forth an argument about the idea in a clear manner.  While you are expanding on an argument, you are not necessarily taking a position on the idea in comparison to other ideas, though you can use techniques like compare and contrast to strengthen your expository essay.  At the end of the essay, the reader should have a good understanding of your topic.  

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Battlefields and Big Macs Documentaries a Comparative Essay

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44002434

Battlefields and Big Macs


A Comparative Analysis of Documentary Styles

The role of documentary film in helping to shape and inform American culture has become increasingly apparent, especially in the last decade. The ability of nearly anyone to create and distribute documentaries cheaply and effectively using home computer software and video sharing sites like YouTube has created a diverse body of documentaries available with the click of a button. They are not all good, not all accurate, and some may not even be ethically or legally sound, but if they are powerful enough and relevant enough, they can move people and even governments to act. We have seen this recently with the independently produced documentary "Kony 2012," a 29-minute film that portrays the atrocities committed by Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony. Posted on YouTube in early March, the film got over 100 million hits in one week, and prompted renewed focus by the U.S. Congress to find and capture Kony.

Part of what makes documentaries so powerful is their unique mix of cold fact and human drama. A filmmaker's talent at balancing these two forces is often the secret behind a successful documentary. This balance can be difficult to achieve, however, in expository documentaries, where the focus is on offering accurate and thorough information in a way that still resonates emotionally with the viewer. One beautiful example of a successful expository documentary is Ken Burn's series The Civil War, which first aired on PBS in the fall of 1990. There is no question that the film is expository in nature -- Burn was aiming to present as much detail about the war as accurately as possible, with no apparent agenda but to enlighten the viewer. However, it was important to Burns that he also present what he called the "emotional archaeology" of the war as well as the…… [Read More]

Bernard, S.C. (2011) Documentary Storytelling: Creative Non-Fiction Onscreen. Oxford: Elsevier, Inc.

Burns, K. (2002) The film, past and present: why I decided to make The Civil War. PBS Web site. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/
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Art of Having a Guest Essay

Words: 470 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69111059

The author of "The Art of Cookery" made a similarly wise decision by using a time order as this reflects the style of the piece. The piece is meant to present a very formal topic, and using time order reinforces the point that the formality of this process is contained in its timeliness. Furthermore, the author's secondary development method of informative process was necessary in order to make the essay what it is -- a how to piece.

4. Both of these essays are alike in many ways. The fact that they are both expository essays makes them very similar, as both have the purpose of explaining. Since both essays used, at some point, the informative process, they can both be described as how to essays. Furthermore, both essayists took into account their audiences when penning this work, deciding on the style that would best suit the audience. These essays are also different, however, in their presentation. "The Art of Cookery," is very time-oriented, a series of numbered maxims that drips with authority. Poyssick's essay, however, is organized around the love of a topic, and suggests that the reader has can do what he or she feels most comfortable doing. In addition, Poyssick's essay is much more detailed than "The Art of Cookery,"…… [Read More]

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Teaching Methods Cooperative Learning Cooperative Essay

Words: 3099 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95891934

Feedback should also inform the planning of subsequent lessons and activities and come from a variety of perspectives including the student, classmates, and the teacher (Kirkwood, 2000).

Problems with this method of instruction occur when expectations are unclear or feedback is ambiguous, sporadic, or overly negative. Classroom behavioral norms must be established and respected. Care must also be taken to protect and support students from undue ridicule and criticism in order to achieve and maintain a classroom culture that nurtures an open learning environment.

Project Learning

According to Bell (2010) project-based learning (PBL) is a novel means to learning that teaches a plethora of strategies critical to success in the new millennium. Through inquiry students drive their own learning working independently and collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. PBL facilitates student mastery of essential skills in areas from technology to oral communication and advanced problem solving.

In this methodology learners pursue knowledge by asking questions that have piqued their natural curiosity. Students originate projects by exploring a question and are guided through research under the teacher's supervision. Student choice is a key element of this approach. Teachers oversee each step of the process and approve each choice before the student embarks in a direction. Students with similar inquiries may elect to work cooperatively. PBL is the basis of the curriculum. Most projects include reading, writing, and mathematics by nature and many inquiries are science-based or originate from current social problems. PBL provides a vehicle for greater understanding of a topic, deeper learning, higher-level thinking, and increased motivation to learn. This strategy is conducive to creating independent thinkers and learners, and real-world problem solvers (Bell, 2010).

Like inquiry/problem-solving this methodology may not be appropriate for instructing large groups of dependent learners. A majority of the students must possess…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bell, S. (2010, January). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. Clearing house. Vol. 83 Issue 2, 39-43. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=15&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13

Clair, L., & Gallimore, R. (1996, September). Using moral dilemmas in children's literature as a vehicle for moral education and teaching. Journal of moral education, Vol. 25 Issue 3, 17. Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=104&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=9611104206
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Bentham Principal of Utility Is Essay

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75674368

Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore" (Sweet 2008).

Critical section: Raise two or three objections to Bentham's principle of utility. What reasons do you think we have to doubt that it is the fundamental principle of morality? It is often helpful to give concrete examples to illustrate your objections.

One obvious argument against Bentham's philosophy is that it is unrealistic to think that a decision-maker can easily determine the best, utilitarian interests of the majority in a disinterested fashion. Bentham's utilitarian decision-maker is presumed to be completely objective, but it is hard to imagine such an individual existing in the real world. Using moral laws, rather than a situational utilitarian calculus might seem to be superior to Bentham's hedonic calculus.

Another objection to utilitarian philosophy is the need to preserve minority rights. In the era of segregation in the American South, the majority of whites wanted the oppression of African-Americans to continue indefinitely. According to the hedonic calculus the 'pleasure' of whites in total population numbers would outweigh the 'pain' inflicted upon African-Americans. Of course, Bentham might argue that the pain for whites of ending segregation was less than the pain for African-Americans of continuing segregation -- in other words, utilitarian principles could support justice. The immediate nature of African-American's pain would also be taken into consideration by Bentham. "Given that pleasure and pain are fundamental to -- indeed, provide -- the standard of value for Bentham, liberty is a good (because it is 'pleasant') and the restriction of liberty is an evil (because it is 'painful')" (Sweet 2008).

A final objection to Bentham's philosophy is the question of predicting consequences. One cannot always predict the consequences of one's actions and determine if the maximization of happiness is possible. Given the inability to see into the…… [Read More]

Sweet, William. "Bentham, Jeremy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. December 23, 2008.

[September 11, 2010].  http://www.iep.utm.edu/bentham/#H4 
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Imaginative Landscape 1 One Night Moon - Director Essay

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16585364

imaginative landscape 1.One night moon - Director: Rachel perkins 2.peripheral light, selected poems - John Kinsella Prompt ' place real space .' task complete an extended written response expository style.

One Night the Moon - 'the place within us is just as real as the space around us.'

Individuals in the contemporary society are obsessed with the idea of materialism and this sometimes makes it difficult for them to acknowledge the presence of concepts like spiritualism. People practically come to guide themselves in accordance with generally accepted legislations and lose they personal identity as they do so. Jim Ryan, one of the protagonists in Rachel Perkins' 2001 film One Night the Moon is inclined to put across great prejudice when he comes across the opportunity of using an Aboriginal tracker, Albert Yang. The man is blinded by his preconceived thoughts and is unable to realize that it would be more important to focus on the search itself rather than on the persons in charge of it.

Society has long been obsessed with differences and people have used these respective differences with the purpose of discriminating others. Much of the suffering seen during recent centuries is the result of racism, as individuals have been unable to leave their preconceptions aside with the purpose of actually appreciating other people for their actions. The masses seem to find it difficult to accept everyone as equals, this being largely owed to how stereotypes are promoted and accepted as cultural values belonging to society as a whole.

When Jim comes across the idea of using Albert as a main operative in the search for his daughter, he cannot help but to consider stereotypes and to believe that accepting something like this would be against all of his principles. It is likely that he considers the fact that Albert's presumed characteristics are only going to slow down the search instead of improving it. Jim is practically unable to see beyond Albert's appearance and is…… [Read More]

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Kingdom Metaphors for the Kingdom the Bible Essay

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27888247

Kingdom Metaphors

Metaphors for the Kingdom

The Bible itself contains many metaphors of how the Kingdom of God will look, or of the characteristics of God in His Kingdom. The paper "And Finally…the Kingdom of God is Like…" gives several contemporary examples of what people have seen of the Kingdom and the characters who inhabit it. Such as the Holy Spirit being a guiding star. This paper takes a look at one of the example metaphors from the essay by Tame and also provides a personal metaphor of the kingdom.

Metaphors are meant to be a common picture that can be related something that people want to understand better. Tame (2005) talks about a college as a metaphor of the kingdom of God, or at least entry into the Kingdom of God. In the United States, anyone can go to college, and anyone can enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but there is a difference. To enter the Kingdom of God one has to accept the offer to enter and freely accept it. It is difficult to get a full-ride scholarship to college, it takes exceptional academic or athletic skill, the same cannot be said of the Kingdom of God. The college metaphor speaks to the fact that qualified students, those that have accepted the admittance and the accepted the conditions of admittance, are freely admitted to the college and they are accepted by faith through grace (Tame, 2005). The college is filled with people who are able to teach the new students and help them grow. The metaphor works well to an extent, but it does talk about those who fail the curriculum and are dropped from the college. As a metaphor for the Kingdom, no one would ever be dropped, but people may people make different grades as, in life, they try to grow thorough the mistakes people make. Once a person enters the college, no one will fail because they are already…… [Read More]

Tame, K. (2005). And finally…The Kingdom of God is like this…. Expository Times, 116(7).
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Academia and Life Through Literacy and Reading Essay

Words: 4232 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17250690

Academia and Life Through Literacy and Reading Comprehension

Literacy and reading comprehension are subjects that have been explored for decades. Through these explorations we have discovered that comprehension is an essential component in the ability of a person to succeed in academia and in life.

Comprehension is defined as "the act or action of grasping with the intellect...the capacity for understanding fully."(The Dictionary) Comprehension is important because it allows us to gain knowledge of new concepts; without comprehension it would be impossible to learn anything.

This discourse will present a literary review of the aforementioned topic so that we can understand comprehension and the effect of comprehension on academic success. The literature presented will seek to display this information in a manner that will inform and enlighten.

Reading comprehension covers a broad range of topics. For the purposes of this literary review we will seek to explain what comprehension is and the effect that fiction and nonfiction works have on comprehension. This review will use a wide range of sources including journals, digests and academic studies.

First we will explore the rudimentary factors involved in reading comprehension such as, phonological memory and word recognition. This will be investigated through the review of a longitudinal study conducted in Finland with school children as participants. We will then survey other factors that effect reading comprehension such as time limitations and silent reading. These reviews will also be investigated through studies conducted at two different Universities with children and adults as participants.

We will then focus on the main topic of the paper, which will focus on comprehending fiction vs. non-fiction works. There will be a review of different literature related to this topic. There will be some background information provided concerning narratology and an international study on the comprehension of fiction and non-fiction works. Then we will explore the strategies used to aid students in comprehending fiction and non-fiction works. This exploration will detail a summary published by ERIC digest in 2000.

The next review of this topic will focus on using narrative works to explain expository subjects. This review will also focus on an article in ERIC digest that discusses the use of fiction text to teach geography. There will be an additional review of literature that discusses the use of narrative text to teach expository subjects. We will then focus on improving comprehension of non-fiction…… [Read More]

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Application of Genesis 12 10-20 in the Contemporary World Essay

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36035912

Genesis 12:10-20 and the Modern World:

Genesis 12:10-20 is a text about Abram and Sarai in Egypt that is considered as one of the great epos narrated in the Book of Genesis. Before the narration of this story, Abram is portrayed as an individual with several positive attributes including righteousness and humility. However, the story highlights several troubling concerns and questions regarding Abram's character, beliefs, and behaviors in relation to God and Sarai. These troubling questions and concerns have become the subject of interest and study throughout the ages. Actually, the concerns have been examined in various commentaries, adaptations and interpretations, and plot extensions. The story has mainly been examined from two schools of thought starting with a description of Sarai's beauty, attractiveness, and sexuality from the male perspective

. The second school of thought is typical expressions of male sexual discourse in light of Abram's disturbing behavior. Therefore, Genesis 12:10-20 is a good story that applies to the contemporary world and can be taught in different ways to different age/interest groups.

Overview of the Text:

The beginning of the text shows that Abram's decision to go down to Egypt and live there for a while was influenced by the severe famine in the land. However, while on the border of Egypt, Abram started to contemplate the dangers that lay ahead. Actually, it seems Abram made the decision to go down to Egypt without consideration of the consequences of that decision. One of Abram's greatest fears was the beauty of his wife Sarai in light of the probable fate of a foreigner with an attractive wife. As a result, Abram pleaded with his wife to pose as his sister so that he would not be murdered. This plea can be regarded as Abram's solution to the problem of his safety while in Egypt.

While Abram's fears looked hypothetical initially, they came to reality though he was not the victim of his fears and concerns. He was the cause of what happened because of his fear for the future and faithless plan of action. Sarai was seen as a beautiful and an attractive woman, an account…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
"Enhancements to Inductive Bible Study," InterVarsity/USA Bible Study Task Force, last modified April 1999, http://www.intervarsity.org/sites/default/files/uploaded/bible-studies/communal/enhancements_to_ibs.doc

Brian T. Cochran, "Genesis 12:10-20: 'The Struggle to Walk by Faith'," Redeemer Reformation Church, accessed April 22, 2014,  http://storage.cloversites.com/reginapresybeterianchurch/documents/Gen.%2012.10-20.pdf " rel="follow" target="_blank">
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Mapping and Writing Skills Remedial Essay

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85062568

There may also be expectations as to how the map is drawn such as a fill in the black approach (Miller et al., 2009). Whereas the open ended process does not place any limitations on the shape of the map or the terms that may be used, however, a small selection of trigger terms may be provided to assist the student (Miller et al., 2009). This approach allows the student to create the map in a manner that is conducive to their understanding of the knowledge of a concept (Miller et al., 2009).

Traditionally, concept maps have been paper and pencil tools, however, increasingly computer software has become available as an alternative to concept mapping. This approach allows for more creativity on the part of the student to design their map in a manner that is conducive to their learning style and compartmentalization of information (Miller et al., 2009).

Concept mapping has been shown to improve the academic writing of students in a variety of ways including allowing for greater recall or ideas, higher levels of organization and consistency of thoughts, increased length of writing assignments, and improved holistic composition (Ruddell & Boyle, 1989). Sturm (2002) found positive effects of concept mapping as a prewriting strategy for students with LD. Any remedial technique will be best introduced in conjunction with teaching strategies that support and assist students in all areas of the writing process.… [Read More]

Miller, K.J., Koury, K.A., Fitzgerald, G.E., Hollingsead, C., Mitchem, K.J., Hui-Hsien T. & Park, M.K. (2009). Concept mapping as a research tool to evaluate conceptual change related to instructional methods. Teacher Education & Special Education, 32(4), 365-378.

Ruddell, R.B., & Boyle, O.F. (1989). A study of cognitive mapping as a means to improve comprehension of expository text. Reading Research and Instruction, 29(1), 12 -- 22.
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Best Practices for Students Diagnosed Essay

Words: 4937 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57499707

(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)

The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and EBD" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and limited time allocated to actual reading of text; and (4) independent seatwork and worksheets consumed large amounts of time allocated for reading." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos, 2002, p. 1)

The work of Stanberry and Swanson (2008) entitled: "What the Science Says: Effective Reading Interventions for Kids with Learning Disabilities" relates the most important outcome in reading instruction in word recognition is that "students learn to recognize real words, not simply sound out 'nonsense' words using phonics skills." (p. l) the most effective instruction for improvement of word recognition skills in students is stated by Stanberry and Swanson (2008) to be that of "direct instruction...[which]...refers to teaching skills in an explicit, direct fashion. It involves drill/repetition/practice and can be delivered to one child or to a small group of students at the same time." (p.1) Stated as the three instruction components "most effective in increasing word recognition skills in students with learning disabilities" are those as follows: (1) sequencing; (2) segmentation; and (3) advanced organizers. (Stanberry and Swanson, 2008, p.1) in sequencing, the teacher: (1) Breaks down the task, (2) gradually recodes prompts or cues; (3) sequences short activities; and (4) uses step-by-step prompts. (p. 1) in segmentation, the teacher: (1) breaks down the targeted skills; (2) segments or synthesizes component parts. (Stanberry and Swanson, 2008, p.1) in advanced organizers the teacher: (1) directs children to look over material prior to instruction; (2) directs children…… [Read More]

Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children

Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639
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Positive Effect of Taking Vitamins Essay

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67952730

I noted also how hard work pays off: which is the central idea or thesis of the narrative essay. Because a narrative essay is by definition less formal than an expository one, the baseball scholarship piece is not as structured or divided into sub-sections. However, I do use transitions between paragraphs in the form of clauses like "Before I stepped up my training..." Those clauses helped enhance the flow of the narrative in the same way transitional words and phrases helped the flow of writing in the vitamin essay.

In the sports narrative, I also employed stylistic techniques that would have not worked in an academic essay like the one on vitamins and health. For example, in one paragraph I used a series of parallelisms that serve as a literary device such as those used by poets: "I started to lift weights and train rigorously. I watched what I ate. I also watched my favorite pitchers for inspiration, tips, and ideas. I read about baseball. I threw and threw until my arm hurt. I caught and caught. I worked out daily and practiced incessantly. I was obsessed and to a great degree, I still am." The repetition of the word "I" at the start of each sentence in that paragraph emphasizes the subject matter in that passage and changes the rhythm of the writing. To include such stylistic elements into an academic essay like the one on vitamins would have been inappropriate. Instead, the vitamin essay must be purely factual, slightly dry but still interesting and informative for the reader.

Writing is no easy task, and adapting writing style to suit the needs of a particular audience is even harder. The writing process is, however, similar for any piece of material. All writing starts with a basic idea, a foundation on which all the information contained in the piece is built. A central idea or thesis statement aids writers in organizing stray ideas and thoughts. Moreover, I learned how to use outlines to my advantage. Even a rough outline with a…… [Read More]

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Play and Literacy Play and Essay

Words: 4372 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52915636

However, according to Johnson, Christie, and Yawkey, (1999), "play is an extremely difficult concept to define -- there are 116 distinct definitions listed in the Oxford English Dictionary!"

Some adults think play is trivial while others believe play makes vital contributions to all aspects of child development. While we cannot define play, there are telltale signs of play that are recognizable. Some examples of play involved students freely choosing to play in the kitchen rather than with blocks demonstrated intrinsic motivation because it was their choice. When children moved from writing activities to reading indicated flexibility because students had the ability to move quickly from one activity to another. The writers emphasized that students talking and laughing was a positive affect signifying positive emotions.

The authors described two different groups of theories of play. One of the theoretical groups, classical theories, which originated before World War I, focused on explaining why play existed and what purpose it served. Johnson et al. (1999) situated the four classical theories into two pairs because the affects were opposites

: Surplus energy v. its elimination; recreation v. regeneration of energy expended in work; recapitulation v. The elimination of ancient instincts; and practice v. perfect instincts needed for adult life

The second group was modern theories, which tried to ascertain play's role in child development and the circumstances that lead to play behavior. Johnson et al. (1999), and others (such as theories based on arousal).

Modern theories have increased educators' understanding of play. Piaget's theory not only reflected a child's level of cognition, but also contributed to the development. When I looked at Kindergarten students play, I have noticed they conform to objects observed in reality, not in the abstract. This aligns with Piaget's theory, "children engage in the type of play that matches their level of cognitive development (Piaget, 1962).

4. Nancy R. King. (1979). Play: The Kindergartners' Perspective

My own experience with students verifies much of what King writes: "The children described most of their classroom experiences as work. Work, for the children, included such seemingly different activities as painting papier-mache sculptures, listening to a story, lining up to leave the room, completing math work-sheets, baking banana bread, and resting at their desks. Each of these activities appeared on the lists of many children, and not one child defined them as play."

She explores how the role of play in education…… [Read More]

Anderson, a., & Stolks, S. (1984). Social and institutional influences on the development and practice of literacy. In H. Goelman, a. Oberg, & F. Smith (Eds). Awakening to Literacy. 24-37.

Brunner, J.S., Jolly, a., & Sylva, K. (1976). Play -- Its role in development and evolution. New York: Basic Books.
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Psalm 1 Essay

Words: 5329 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11791265

Psalm 1 read in different translations.

The New International Version (NIV), The American Standard Version (ASV), The New Living Translation (NLT), The King James Version (KJV), The Contemporary English Version (CEV), The Message (MSG), and The Harper Collins Study Bible, New Revised Standard Version (NRSV).

I read the NIV the most often because I grew up reading the NIV and am comfortable with its language and cadence. I find that, of the Bibles I read, it is the one that feels the most familiar. I actually found reading MSG a little disconcerting; I do not know that it conveyed the feelings that the other translations conveyed. It actually made me think about the number of times the Bible has been interpreted and how connotation and denotation both impact the meaning of different passages.

To me, Psalm 1 is a reminder that sinners have no place in Lord's kingdom. It was also a reminder that the Lord will watch over those who are righteous. Furthermore, it serves as a caution to righteous people that they need to make efforts to remain righteous.

In the NIV, the author speaks in the third person, talking about "the one,"

(Psalm 1:1) "that person," and "the wicked,"

rather than cautioning a specific individual. The NIV also refers to God as "the Lord."

The ASV also approaches Psalm 1 in the third person. It talks about "the man," and "the wicked."

The ASV refers to God as "Jehovah."

The NLT takes the third person approach as well, but uses language that is more gender-inclusive and also less judgmental. The NLT speaks of "those," and "they," but it also specifically speaks of "the wicked."

It refers to God as "the LORD."

The KJV takes a similar approach, referring to "the man" and "sinners" and referring to God as the "LORD."

The KJV is also explicit that the wicked will "be condemned at the time of judgment."

The CEV translates Psalm 1 in a more active way. Instead of talking about how a person will be blessed, it opens with God in an active voice, "God blesses those people who refuse evil advice and won't follow sinners or join in sneering at God."

It also makes a claim…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Addis, W.E. "The Psalms." Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Ed. Arthur Peake. New York:

Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1920. 366-. Print.
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Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Essay

Words: 3701 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93159084

Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:

Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).

In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term "top-down" (Adamson, 1993, p. 45). Another early researcher in this area, Steffenson, Joag-dev, and Anderson (1979), focused on the cultural barriers to reading comprehension. Later work solidified this type of approach into the Schema Theory Model, where understanding involves an interaction between background knowledge of the reader, described as the reader's "schema," and the text. This model has been applied to second language reading comprehension by Carrell (1983a) and Johnson (1982), among many others.

More recently, it has become obvious that the division between these two approaches is somewhat artificial and true comprehension involves a combination of both types of these skills. Thus, more current research, such as the work of Bernhardt (2001), attempts to provide models that take into account the contribution of both approaches. However, investigating of true role of background knowledge, specifically determining the correct amount of emphasis that should be placed on these types of variables, remains a central area of study in the acquisition of comprehension within a second language.

What is Background Knowledge?

Investigators in this area…… [Read More]

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American Lit Definition of Modernism and Three Essay

Words: 3585 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58544512

American Lit

Definition of Modernism and Three Examples

Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:

First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop collage techniques for intensifying the sense of productive immediacy.

Preminger and Brogan 793)

Thus, the two substantively important aspects of modernism are an attempt to deal with psychological realization over mimetic representation and a general interest in the use of collage as a technique.

Indeed, under this definition, although it is often not thought of in exactly these terms, Willa Cather's novel My Antonia is indubitably a modern novel in the sense of the above ideas about modernism, in that it not only tends to employ the use of image and representation in favor of mimetic description and also for the fact that it presents a collagistic order of things rather than a purely chronological. In terms of shying away from mimetic representation, this is implicitly held in Cather's books from the first pages when Jim Burden states early on that no one could really understand life on the plains without having actually lived there. This sense of the ineffable permeates the entire books, culminating in poetic descriptions and images rather than mimetic representation. Secondly, although there is an overarching narrative to the novel of sorts, it is largely composed of vignettes, which…… [Read More]

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Orchid Thief An Exercise in Narrative and Essay

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 835482

Orchid Thief: An Exercise in Narrative and Non-Narrative Subversion

According conventional genre expectations of fiction and non-fiction, most readers assume that nonfiction provides factual information regarding historical events in a documentary and provable fashion, without recourse to constructed dramas in the form of dialogue or long character descriptions. In contrast, the same reader might turn to a work of fiction, although fiction might not be technically accurate, to learn as well. Through the use of dialogue and flights of fantasy in narration, fiction provides insight into the human character.

The non-fiction work by Susan Orlean, entitled The Orchid Thief, however, provides ample examples of the use of non-narrative and narrative exposition. The work thus has both the expository quality of non-fiction combined with the character-driven psychological drama of fiction. Orlean is writing about an event that actually happened, thus she writes in the tones of non-fiction, in an expository fashion. But this real-life obsession has its roots in the psychologically strange and inexplicable. Unless one understands the real-life protagonists' struggles and problems and internal conflicts, the events and the obsessions seem inexplicable. Thus narrative and non-narrative sequences are combined to provide the maximum amount of illumination upon the event.

The nature of this psychological obsession Orlean chronicles is that of pilfering rare flowers, namely orchids. Orlean begins her work of prose as she heads down to Florida to investigate the story of John Laroche, plant purveyor who is what is politely termed "eccentric" by the author and those around him. He has been arrested along with a crew of Seminole Indians for poaching rare orchids out of a South Florida swamp. Laroche becomes the book's 'hero' or main protagonist to highlight the larger phenomenon of humanity's obsession with this rare plant.

However, without Orlean's larger background narrative regarding the history of orchid obsessions, this would simply be a 'hot house' flower of a tale -- unusual, but with no larger…… [Read More]

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Genesis 28 and 35 Story of Jacob Essay

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24541645

Jacob Gen 28; 10-17 Gen 35; 9-15

Someone could ask if it is possible for man to secure the blessings of God solely through their own efforts; or perhaps, if a believer has to cling to God, and completely lean on Him in order to receive His blessings. More often than not, believers find themselves in situations whereby they are forced to fight the temptation to rely on their own 'guts' regarding temporal things, and to God when their own attempts fail. The scripture brings out plentiful illustrations of this. One of the most significant instances is documented in Genesis 32 where Jacob wrestles with God in an attempt to ensure the security of his blessings.

The Book of Genesis is surrounded by a great deal of conflict, with most people arguing that the text is complicated, and that the book comes out as if it was woven out of different threads obtained from diverse sources. Vawter (2013), however, argues that such thinking only denies a reader the opportunity to draw coherent application principles from the text - if people "take the claim of scripture seriously that Genesis, as all scripture, is part of the revelation of God in Christ," then they will obviously find value in the content (Vawter, 2013, p. 106).

Genesis 28:10-17 and Genesis 35:9-15, the two accounts that form the basis of this text, reverberate with most believers (Vawter, 2013). It is natural for humans to desire God's blessings but it, in most cases, proves difficult to grasp such blessings because of "man's constant struggle to earn the blessings for himself rather than trusting God to provide it" (Vawter, 2013, p. 105). No one illustrates this better than Jacob who, rather than trusting God to fulfill His promises, finds himself helping Him along (Kim, 2012). Even before Jacob was born, God had predicted that he (Jacob), and not his twin brother Esau, would receive their father's promise (DeLashmutt, 2014). Jacob bests Esau twice; first, he "takes advantage of Esau's intense anger and cons him into selling his birthright for a bowl of stew," and secondly, he…… [Read More]

Borgman, P. (2001). Genesis: the Story We Haven't Heard. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Constable (n.d.). Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable. StudyLight. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from http://www.studylight.org/com/dcc/print.cgi?bk=0&ch=48&vs.=1