Expository Essays (Examples)

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expository essays

Of all of the different essay types you can encounter, the expository essay is the one you are most likely to find on exams and for classroom assignments in lower-level coursework.  The expository essay is the generic, fallback non-fiction writing assignment.  It requires you to investigate an idea, use evidence to expound on the idea, and to set forth an argument about the idea in a clear manner.  While you are expanding on an argument, you are not necessarily taking a position on the idea in comparison to other ideas, though you can use techniques like compare and contrast to strengthen your expository essay.  At the end of the essay, the reader should have a good understanding of your topic.  

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Battlefields and Big Macs Documentaries a Comparative

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44002434

Battlefields and Big Macs


A Comparative Analysis of Documentary Styles

The role of documentary film in helping to shape and inform American culture has become increasingly apparent, especially in the last decade. The ability of nearly anyone to create and distribute documentaries cheaply and effectively using home computer software and video sharing sites like YouTube has created a diverse body of documentaries available with the click of a button. They are not all good, not all accurate, and some may not even be ethically or legally sound, but if they are powerful enough and relevant enough, they can move people and even governments to act. We have seen this recently with the independently produced documentary "Kony 2012," a 29-minute film that portrays the atrocities committed by Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony. Posted on YouTube in early March, the film got over 100 million hits in one week, and prompted renewed focus by the U.S. Congress to find and capture Kony.

Part of what makes documentaries so powerful is their unique mix of cold fact and human drama. A filmmaker's talent at balancing these two forces is often the secret behind a successful documentary. This balance can be difficult to…… [Read More]


Bernard, S.C. (2011) Documentary Storytelling: Creative Non-Fiction Onscreen. Oxford: Elsevier, Inc.

Burns, K. (2002) The film, past and present: why I decided to make The Civil War. PBS Web site. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/
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Art of Having a Guest

Words: 470 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69111059

The author of "The Art of Cookery" made a similarly wise decision by using a time order as this reflects the style of the piece. The piece is meant to present a very formal topic, and using time order reinforces the point that the formality of this process is contained in its timeliness. Furthermore, the author's secondary development method of informative process was necessary in order to make the essay what it is -- a how to piece.

4. Both of these essays are alike in many ways. The fact that they are both expository essays makes them very similar, as both have the purpose of explaining. Since both essays used, at some point, the informative process, they can both be described as how to essays. Furthermore, both essayists took into account their audiences when penning this work, deciding on the style that would best suit the audience. These essays are also different, however, in their presentation. "The Art of Cookery," is very time-oriented, a series of numbered maxims that drips with authority. Poyssick's essay, however, is organized around the love of a topic, and suggests that the reader has can do what he or she feels most comfortable doing.…… [Read More]

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Teaching Methods Cooperative Learning Cooperative

Words: 3099 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95891934

Feedback should also inform the planning of subsequent lessons and activities and come from a variety of perspectives including the student, classmates, and the teacher (Kirkwood, 2000).

Problems with this method of instruction occur when expectations are unclear or feedback is ambiguous, sporadic, or overly negative. Classroom behavioral norms must be established and respected. Care must also be taken to protect and support students from undue ridicule and criticism in order to achieve and maintain a classroom culture that nurtures an open learning environment.

Project Learning

According to Bell (2010) project-based learning (PBL) is a novel means to learning that teaches a plethora of strategies critical to success in the new millennium. Through inquiry students drive their own learning working independently and collaboratively to research and create projects that reflect their knowledge. PBL facilitates student mastery of essential skills in areas from technology to oral communication and advanced problem solving.

In this methodology learners pursue knowledge by asking questions that have piqued their natural curiosity. Students originate projects by exploring a question and are guided through research under the teacher's supervision. Student choice is a key element of this approach. Teachers oversee each step of the process and approve each…… [Read More]


Bell, S. (2010, January). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. Clearing house. Vol. 83 Issue 2, 39-43. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=15&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13

Clair, L., & Gallimore, R. (1996, September). Using moral dilemmas in children's literature as a vehicle for moral education and teaching. Journal of moral education, Vol. 25 Issue 3, 17. Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=104&sid=ebf395cc-8104-492c-933b-de898987f0d8%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=9611104206

Davis, E.A. (2003). Prompting middle school science students for productive reflectiuon: Generic and directed prompts. Journal of the learning sciences, Vol. 12 Issue 1, 91-142. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=10&sid=a4ef73a1-4242-4854-89b5-ba92d87225e8%40sessionmgr12

Feng, W. & Hannafin, M.J. (2008, March). Intergrating webquests in preservice teacher education. Educational media international, Vol. 45 Issue 1, 59-73. Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=104&sid=cb1d0322-ea66-4df4-9ecb-f838dbf3e7ac%40sessionmgr111
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Bentham Principal of Utility Is

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75674368

Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore" (Sweet 2008).

Critical section: Raise two or three objections to Bentham's principle of utility. What reasons do you think we have to doubt that it is the fundamental principle of morality? It is often helpful to give concrete examples to illustrate your objections.

One obvious argument against Bentham's philosophy is that it is unrealistic to think that a decision-maker can easily determine the best, utilitarian interests of the majority in a disinterested fashion. Bentham's utilitarian decision-maker is presumed to be completely objective, but it is hard to imagine such an individual existing in the real world. Using moral laws, rather than a situational utilitarian calculus might seem to be superior to Bentham's hedonic calculus.

Another objection to utilitarian philosophy is the need to preserve minority rights. In the era of segregation in the American South, the majority of whites wanted the oppression of African-Americans to continue indefinitely. According to the hedonic calculus the 'pleasure' of whites in total population numbers would outweigh…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sweet, William. "Bentham, Jeremy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. December 23, 2008.

[September 11, 2010].  http://www.iep.utm.edu/bentham/#H4
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Imaginative Landscape 1 One Night Moon - Director

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16585364

imaginative landscape 1.One night moon - Director: Rachel perkins 2.peripheral light, selected poems - John Kinsella Prompt ' place real space .' task complete an extended written response expository style.

One Night the Moon - 'the place within us is just as real as the space around us.'

Individuals in the contemporary society are obsessed with the idea of materialism and this sometimes makes it difficult for them to acknowledge the presence of concepts like spiritualism. People practically come to guide themselves in accordance with generally accepted legislations and lose they personal identity as they do so. Jim Ryan, one of the protagonists in Rachel Perkins' 2001 film One Night the Moon is inclined to put across great prejudice when he comes across the opportunity of using an Aboriginal tracker, Albert Yang. The man is blinded by his preconceived thoughts and is unable to realize that it would be more important to focus on the search itself rather than on the persons in charge of it.

Society has long been obsessed with differences and people have used these respective differences with the purpose of discriminating others. Much of the suffering seen during recent centuries is the result of racism, as…… [Read More]

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Kingdom Metaphors for the Kingdom the Bible

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27888247

Kingdom Metaphors

Metaphors for the Kingdom

The Bible itself contains many metaphors of how the Kingdom of God will look, or of the characteristics of God in His Kingdom. The paper "And Finally…the Kingdom of God is Like…" gives several contemporary examples of what people have seen of the Kingdom and the characters who inhabit it. Such as the Holy Spirit being a guiding star. This paper takes a look at one of the example metaphors from the essay by Tame and also provides a personal metaphor of the kingdom.

Metaphors are meant to be a common picture that can be related something that people want to understand better. Tame (2005) talks about a college as a metaphor of the kingdom of God, or at least entry into the Kingdom of God. In the United States, anyone can go to college, and anyone can enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but there is a difference. To enter the Kingdom of God one has to accept the offer to enter and freely accept it. It is difficult to get a full-ride scholarship to college, it takes exceptional academic or athletic skill, the same cannot be said of the Kingdom of God. The…… [Read More]


Tame, K. (2005). And finally…The Kingdom of God is like this…. Expository Times, 116(7).
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Academia and Life Through Literacy and Reading

Words: 4232 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17250690

Academia and Life Through Literacy and Reading Comprehension

Literacy and reading comprehension are subjects that have been explored for decades. Through these explorations we have discovered that comprehension is an essential component in the ability of a person to succeed in academia and in life.

Comprehension is defined as "the act or action of grasping with the intellect...the capacity for understanding fully."(The Dictionary) Comprehension is important because it allows us to gain knowledge of new concepts; without comprehension it would be impossible to learn anything.

This discourse will present a literary review of the aforementioned topic so that we can understand comprehension and the effect of comprehension on academic success. The literature presented will seek to display this information in a manner that will inform and enlighten.

Reading comprehension covers a broad range of topics. For the purposes of this literary review we will seek to explain what comprehension is and the effect that fiction and nonfiction works have on comprehension. This review will use a wide range of sources including journals, digests and academic studies.

First we will explore the rudimentary factors involved in reading comprehension such as, phonological memory and word recognition. This will be investigated through the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braud, Kelly, Meche and Walczyk. "Time Limitations Increase Reading Comprehension." Contemporary Educational Psychology. 1999

Comparing the Achievement of Nations and Students.  http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/96258-2.pdf 

Coiro, Julie. "Using Expository Text Patterns to Enhance Comprehension." Suite 101.May 2001. (Online). http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/reading/68477

Dickson, Shirley V. Kameenui, Edward J., Simmons, Deborah C. "Text Organization and Its Relation to Reading Comprehension: A Synthesis of Research."
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Application of Genesis 12 10-20 in the Contemporary World

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36035912

Genesis 12:10-20 and the Modern World:

Genesis 12:10-20 is a text about Abram and Sarai in Egypt that is considered as one of the great epos narrated in the Book of Genesis. Before the narration of this story, Abram is portrayed as an individual with several positive attributes including righteousness and humility. However, the story highlights several troubling concerns and questions regarding Abram's character, beliefs, and behaviors in relation to God and Sarai. These troubling questions and concerns have become the subject of interest and study throughout the ages. Actually, the concerns have been examined in various commentaries, adaptations and interpretations, and plot extensions. The story has mainly been examined from two schools of thought starting with a description of Sarai's beauty, attractiveness, and sexuality from the male perspective

. The second school of thought is typical expressions of male sexual discourse in light of Abram's disturbing behavior. Therefore, Genesis 12:10-20 is a good story that applies to the contemporary world and can be taught in different ways to different age/interest groups.

Overview of the Text:

The beginning of the text shows that Abram's decision to go down to Egypt and live there for a while was influenced by the…… [Read More]


Cochran, Brian T. "Genesis 12:10-20: "The Struggle to Walk by Faith" Redeemer Reformation

Church, April 22, 2014,  http://storage.cloversites.com/reginapresybeterianchurch/documents/Gen.%2012.10-20.pdf 

Deffinbaugh, Robert L. "When Faith Fails & #8230; (Genesis 12:10-13:41)." Bible.org. Last Modified May 12, 2004. https://bible.org/seriespage/when-faith-fails-8230-genesis-1210-1341

Enhancements to Inductive Bible Study. InterVarsity/USA Bible Study Task Force. Last Modified April 1999. http://www.intervarsity.org/sites/default/files/uploaded/bible-studies/communal/enhancements_to_ibs.doc
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Mapping and Writing Skills Remedial

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85062568

There may also be expectations as to how the map is drawn such as a fill in the black approach (Miller et al., 2009). Whereas the open ended process does not place any limitations on the shape of the map or the terms that may be used, however, a small selection of trigger terms may be provided to assist the student (Miller et al., 2009). This approach allows the student to create the map in a manner that is conducive to their understanding of the knowledge of a concept (Miller et al., 2009).

Traditionally, concept maps have been paper and pencil tools, however, increasingly computer software has become available as an alternative to concept mapping. This approach allows for more creativity on the part of the student to design their map in a manner that is conducive to their learning style and compartmentalization of information (Miller et al., 2009).

Concept mapping has been shown to improve the academic writing of students in a variety of ways including allowing for greater recall or ideas, higher levels of organization and consistency of thoughts, increased length of writing assignments, and improved holistic composition (Ruddell & Boyle, 1989). Sturm (2002) found positive effects of…… [Read More]


Miller, K.J., Koury, K.A., Fitzgerald, G.E., Hollingsead, C., Mitchem, K.J., Hui-Hsien T. & Park, M.K. (2009). Concept mapping as a research tool to evaluate conceptual change related to instructional methods. Teacher Education & Special Education, 32(4), 365-378.

Ruddell, R.B., & Boyle, O.F. (1989). A study of cognitive mapping as a means to improve comprehension of expository text. Reading Research and Instruction, 29(1), 12 -- 22.

Sturm, J.M. (2002). Effects of hand-drawn and computer-generated concept mapping on the expository writing of middle school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17(2), 124-140.

Zipprich, M.A. (1995). Teaching web making as a guided planning tool to improve student narrative writing. Remedial and Special Education, 16(1), 3 -- 15.
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Best Practices for Students Diagnosed

Words: 4937 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57499707

(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)

The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and EBD" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and limited time allocated to actual reading of text; and (4) independent seatwork and worksheets consumed large amounts of time allocated for reading." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and Bos, 2002, p. 1)

The work of Stanberry and Swanson (2008) entitled: "What the Science Says: Effective Reading Interventions for Kids with Learning Disabilities"…… [Read More]


Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children

Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639

Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum

Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at http://www.usm.maine.edu/~amoroso/edu621/4050957.pdf
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Positive Effect of Taking Vitamins

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67952730

I noted also how hard work pays off: which is the central idea or thesis of the narrative essay. Because a narrative essay is by definition less formal than an expository one, the baseball scholarship piece is not as structured or divided into sub-sections. However, I do use transitions between paragraphs in the form of clauses like "Before I stepped up my training..." Those clauses helped enhance the flow of the narrative in the same way transitional words and phrases helped the flow of writing in the vitamin essay.

In the sports narrative, I also employed stylistic techniques that would have not worked in an academic essay like the one on vitamins and health. For example, in one paragraph I used a series of parallelisms that serve as a literary device such as those used by poets: "I started to lift weights and train rigorously. I watched what I ate. I also watched my favorite pitchers for inspiration, tips, and ideas. I read about baseball. I threw and threw until my arm hurt. I caught and caught. I worked out daily and practiced incessantly. I was obsessed and to a great degree, I still am." The repetition of the word…… [Read More]

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Play and Literacy Play and

Words: 4372 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52915636

However, according to Johnson, Christie, and Yawkey, (1999), "play is an extremely difficult concept to define -- there are 116 distinct definitions listed in the Oxford English Dictionary!"

Some adults think play is trivial while others believe play makes vital contributions to all aspects of child development. While we cannot define play, there are telltale signs of play that are recognizable. Some examples of play involved students freely choosing to play in the kitchen rather than with blocks demonstrated intrinsic motivation because it was their choice. When children moved from writing activities to reading indicated flexibility because students had the ability to move quickly from one activity to another. The writers emphasized that students talking and laughing was a positive affect signifying positive emotions.

The authors described two different groups of theories of play. One of the theoretical groups, classical theories, which originated before World War I, focused on explaining why play existed and what purpose it served. Johnson et al. (1999) situated the four classical theories into two pairs because the affects were opposites

: Surplus energy v. its elimination; recreation v. regeneration of energy expended in work; recapitulation v. The elimination of ancient instincts; and practice v. perfect…… [Read More]


Anderson, a., & Stolks, S. (1984). Social and institutional influences on the development and practice of literacy. In H. Goelman, a. Oberg, & F. Smith (Eds). Awakening to Literacy. 24-37.

Brunner, J.S., Jolly, a., & Sylva, K. (1976). Play -- Its role in development and evolution. New York: Basic Books.

Hanline, M.F. (2001). Supporting emergent literacy in play-based activities. Young Exceptional Children. 4, 10. doi: 10.1177/109625060100400402.

Isenberg, J. & Jacob. E. (1983). Playful literacy activities and learning: preliminary observations. Paper presented at the International Conferences on Play and Play
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Psalm 1

Words: 5329 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11791265

Psalm 1 read in different translations.

The New International Version (NIV), The American Standard Version (ASV), The New Living Translation (NLT), The King James Version (KJV), The Contemporary English Version (CEV), The Message (MSG), and The Harper Collins Study Bible, New Revised Standard Version (NRSV).

I read the NIV the most often because I grew up reading the NIV and am comfortable with its language and cadence. I find that, of the Bibles I read, it is the one that feels the most familiar. I actually found reading MSG a little disconcerting; I do not know that it conveyed the feelings that the other translations conveyed. It actually made me think about the number of times the Bible has been interpreted and how connotation and denotation both impact the meaning of different passages.

To me, Psalm 1 is a reminder that sinners have no place in Lord's kingdom. It was also a reminder that the Lord will watch over those who are righteous. Furthermore, it serves as a caution to righteous people that they need to make efforts to remain righteous.

In the NIV, the author speaks in the third person, talking about "the one,"

(Psalm 1:1) "that person," and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Addis, W.E. "The Psalms." Peake's Commentary on the Bible. Ed. Arthur Peake. New York:

Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1920. 366-. Print.

ASV. The American Standard Version Bible. Online at Bible Gateway.com.

Blair, Edward. The Illustrated Bible Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1987.
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Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second

Words: 3701 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93159084

Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:

Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).

In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term "top-down" (Adamson, 1993, p. 45). Another early researcher in this area, Steffenson, Joag-dev, and Anderson (1979), focused on the cultural barriers to reading comprehension. Later work solidified this type of approach into the Schema Theory Model, where understanding involves an interaction between background knowledge of the reader, described as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.

Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at http://language.stanford.edu/conferencepapers/AAALBernhardt01.doc

Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.

Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
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American Lit Definition of Modernism and Three

Words: 3585 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58544512

American Lit

Definition of Modernism and Three Examples

Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:

First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop collage techniques for intensifying the sense of productive immediacy.

Preminger and Brogan 793)

Thus, the two substantively important aspects of modernism are an attempt to deal with psychological realization over mimetic representation and a general interest in the use of collage as a technique.

Indeed, under this definition, although it…… [Read More]


Preminger, Alex and Brogan T.V.F. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.
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Orchid Thief An Exercise in Narrative and

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 835482

Orchid Thief: An Exercise in Narrative and Non-Narrative Subversion

According conventional genre expectations of fiction and non-fiction, most readers assume that nonfiction provides factual information regarding historical events in a documentary and provable fashion, without recourse to constructed dramas in the form of dialogue or long character descriptions. In contrast, the same reader might turn to a work of fiction, although fiction might not be technically accurate, to learn as well. Through the use of dialogue and flights of fantasy in narration, fiction provides insight into the human character.

The non-fiction work by Susan Orlean, entitled The Orchid Thief, however, provides ample examples of the use of non-narrative and narrative exposition. The work thus has both the expository quality of non-fiction combined with the character-driven psychological drama of fiction. Orlean is writing about an event that actually happened, thus she writes in the tones of non-fiction, in an expository fashion. But this real-life obsession has its roots in the psychologically strange and inexplicable. Unless one understands the real-life protagonists' struggles and problems and internal conflicts, the events and the obsessions seem inexplicable. Thus narrative and non-narrative sequences are combined to provide the maximum amount of illumination upon the event.

The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Orlean, Susan. The Orchid Thief. New York: Ballantine, 2000.
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Genesis 28 and 35 Story of Jacob

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24541645

Jacob Gen 28; 10-17 Gen 35; 9-15

Someone could ask if it is possible for man to secure the blessings of God solely through their own efforts; or perhaps, if a believer has to cling to God, and completely lean on Him in order to receive His blessings. More often than not, believers find themselves in situations whereby they are forced to fight the temptation to rely on their own 'guts' regarding temporal things, and to God when their own attempts fail. The scripture brings out plentiful illustrations of this. One of the most significant instances is documented in Genesis 32 where Jacob wrestles with God in an attempt to ensure the security of his blessings.

The Book of Genesis is surrounded by a great deal of conflict, with most people arguing that the text is complicated, and that the book comes out as if it was woven out of different threads obtained from diverse sources. Vawter (2013), however, argues that such thinking only denies a reader the opportunity to draw coherent application principles from the text - if people "take the claim of scripture seriously that Genesis, as all scripture, is part of the revelation of God in Christ,"…… [Read More]


Borgman, P. (2001). Genesis: the Story We Haven't Heard. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Constable (n.d.). Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable. StudyLight. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from http://www.studylight.org/com/dcc/print.cgi?bk=0&ch=48&vs.=1

DeLashmutt, G. (2014). Teaching Series from Genesis: The Story of Jacob -- Genesis 25-33. Xenos Christian Fellowship. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from  http://www.xenos.org/teachings/?teaching=134 

GSLC. (n.d.). Genesis 28:10-17: "God's Promise to Jacob and to Us -- I Will Not Leave You." GLSC Deltona. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from http://www.gslcdeltona.com/home/180004789/180004789/docs/Genesis%2028_10-17.pdf-sec_id=180004789
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Terrorists Use the Qur'an to Promote Hate and Killing

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78486376

Holy Texts

The Bible and the Qur'an are ancient religious texts that many -- if not most -- believers in the Christian faith and the Islamic faith take literally. At least in part, most Christians are likely to accept the teachings in the Bible -- particularly the New Testament because the Jewish faith embraces the Old Testament -- as the Word of God and must be followed in order to arrive in paradise following one's death. And likewise, Muslims believe the Qur'an is Allah's Word sent to humans through the Prophet Mohammed. But because both of those texts are subject to interpretation -- and because people read different things into both books -- wildly divergent attitudes and beliefs are the result. This paper delves into how sacred texts can (and do) provide a springboard to radically different interpretations of the information found in those sacred texts.

How the Qur'an is interpreted to justify jihad

An article by David Bukay in the peer-reviewed Middle East Quarterly presents the argument that the "al-Wala wal-Bara" is central to understanding Islam and the radicalization of believers. Bukay explains that "al-Wala" is an expression of "sincere love for Allah," his prophet Mohammed and all believers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bible Gateway. (2011). Genesis 19: 1-14 / Leviticus 18:22. Retrieved October 25, 2014,

rrom http://www.biblegateway.com.

Bukay, D. (2013). Islam's Hatred of the Non-Muslim. Middle East Quarterly. 20(3), 11-20.

Cassidy, R. (2004). The Clear Teaching of the Bible on Homosexual Practice. The Expository Times. Retrieved October 25, 2014, from  http://ext.sagepub.com .
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How to Evangelize in the Modern World if You Are a Minister

Words: 3207 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27300587

Travis Collins finds in his study of the Declaration of Ibadan that missions and national churches can partner effectively to establish a level of world evangelization that can fulfill the target objectives and aims of successful saturation evangelism. The study examines the relationship between the missions and the unions, which function together to establish the "role of the mission, joint decision making" and personnel deployment.[footnoteRef:1] This source is relevant to the thesis of this study because it highlights some possible strategies that missions and national churches can coordinate between themselves in order to better effect the level of saturation evangelism that they strive to maintain. The idea behind the strategy is that the network of churches can support the needs of the missions and that the missions in turn can reach and attract otherwise hard-to-reach persons and bring them into the fold of the national churches, whereby they can grow the support network, which in turn can facilitate the missions. Thus it is a mutually beneficial system. [1: Collins, T. "Missions and Churches in Partnership for Evangelism: A Study of the Declaration of Ibadan." Missiology. Vo. 23 No. 3 (July 1995), 331.]

Likwise, Jackson Wu's study on evangelism finds that…… [Read More]

Orr's book is relevant to this thesis in that it discusses the historical context of evangelism, from revolutionary times to now, considering such topics as revivalism, post-revivalism, the social impact of evangelism, evangelism in England, Ireland and Scotland, as well as in America and Europe. The book aims to provide a universal context for the evangelist so that various techniques and lessons from history and different places can be applied to the development of a better understanding of how to evangelize. For this reason it is helpful to this study for the light it sheds on the historical contexts of the subject.[footnoteRef:20] [20: Orr, J. Edwin. The Light of the Nations. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965.]

Peters' book Saturation Evangelism is essential reading and thoroughly relevant to this thesis as it pertains to the very subject discussed in this study: his book examines different methods of evangelism all over the globe but bases his perspective on the approach of evangelization in the bible and crafts a precise definition of saturation evangelism that can be understood on both a practical and technical level. The book is helpful in that provides a sense of what it means to saturate and condense so that the message spreads like a roaring river and yet is containable within the individual and personalized so that it can root the hearer in Christ and allow the spirit to grow both within the person and throughout the world.[footnoteRef:21] [21: Peters, George W. Saturation Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970]

Robinson's Synergistic Evangelism is another book that is relevant to this thesis because it is the author's critique of various methods and a provision of the reasons for his combining of various techniques and approaches to develop a comprehensive strategy that incorporates sundry expressions and elements of evangelism so as to meet the needs of different persons in different places, just as the first missionaries did so as to allow the message to be heard by peoples from various backgrounds with unique needs.[footnoteRef:22] The book is relevant to this thesis because it highlights the importance of understanding how various approaches to evangelism can be combined so as to avoid becoming stale and imprecise in execution. It is helpful to this study for the foundation it sets in thinking outside the box and challenging ministers to adopt new strategies for their flocks, finding what it is that works and gets the spirit of God flowing amongst the communities around the world. The most important way in which this book is helpful, however, is in the manner that draws the student of evangelism into the question of how to promote the Word of God in the most effective way possible: that is through contextualization, problem-identifying, problem-solving, and stylistic imagery. [22: Robinson, Darrell W. Synergistic Evangelism. Bloomington, IN: CrossBooks, 2009.]
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An Analysis of the Book of Hebrews Theology

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68877376

Theology: An Analysis of the Book Of Hebrews

An Analysis of the Book of Hebrews: Theology

The book of Hebrews is one of the most controversial books in the New Testament. The controversy derives largely from the fact that the book's author is yet to be identified. This text presents the various arguments that have been put forth about the book's authorship, intended audience, destination, and date.

Analysis of the Epistle to the Hebrews

The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of the most controversial writings in the Bible. It is unique, convincing and elaborate in the way it speaks about priesthood and the superiority of Christ. It presents Christ as the High Priest that God sent to get mankind closer to Him. The controversy surrounding the book, however, stems from the fact that it does not conclusively state who the author is. Most scholars have thus come to accept that only God knows who the true author of the epistle is. This text covers the various arguments that have been put forth about authorship and other historical matters including who the audience was, their ethnic background, what they were going through at the time, and the purpose that the…… [Read More]


Ogden, A. (1998). Studies in Hebrews #1. Expository Files, 1(4), 4.

Philips, J. (2002). Exploring Hebrews: An Expository Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.

XXX (reference for book sent as resource)
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Analyzing and Writing a Research Paper

Words: 2294 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89339596

professional standpoints, and assessment of results.

Several approaches have been identified for carrying out researches

Research findings can be documented in several ways

Researching your Paper

Planning ahead:

Device a step-by-step method

Make use of a calendar or some kind of timeline

Ensure your schedule is a feasible one

Understand the assignment

Choose a topic that most interests you

Do online searches and engage in preliminary reading

Get the instructor's approval

Get your Thoughts to Focus:

Formulate the thesis statement

Pay attention to your audience

Prepare a General Outline

Outlines give you a good structure as you carry out research

The outline should cover

Major points you intend to cover

Paper format

How supporting details and main points relate

Create a Rough Draft

Sort note cards into separate piles

Compose the draft

Compose the list of outside sources (bibliography)

Carry out further research

Proofread and Edit your Paper

Correct confusions and errors

Check the Content

Run a thorough accuracy check

Check the flow in your writing

Read the paper aloud

Do a consistency check

Check the Form

Read the paper several times

Ensure all your instructor's specifications and requirements have been met


Plagiarism means taking (or stealing) someone else's…… [Read More]


Edward, Shewan J. Writing a Research Paper. Illinois: Christian Liberty Press, 1998. .

Mark, Dr. Gipson. "Writing a Research Paper; steps to success." Workshop Report. 2011.

University of Oxford. Plagiarism 2016. .
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Richard Wright's the Outsider an

Words: 6413 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77486783

(It will be recalled that Wright's then unpublished Lawd Today served as a working model for The Outsider.) Cross, in his daily dealings with the three women and his fellow postal workers feel something akin to nausea. His social and legal obligations have enslaved him. He has inherited from his mother a sense of guilt and foreboding regarding his relationship to women and his general awareness of amoral physical and sexual longings. Yet he is aloof and intellectual enough to know that the dread he experiences is psychological (i.e., it stems from his religious upbringing, the demands of his women, and the knowledge that he lives in a world devoid of reason, God, or universal values). Wright stresses here that Cross's views have been arrived at as a result of his reading and his individual relationships; and only secondarily because he is a Negro. Allusion is made early in this first book that because Cross no longer believes in God, he becomes his own god and acts accordingly in somewhat symbolic fashion. One of Cross's friends describing Cross's first years in the post office recalls that Cross, convulsed with laughter, would throw money down on the street from the eleventh…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brignano, Russell C. Richard Wright: An Introduction to the Man and His Works. Pittsburgh: U. Of Pittsburgh P, 2002.

Dickstein, Morris. "Wright, Baldwin, Cleaver." Ray and Farnsworth 183-90. 2004.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. Ed. Ralph Matlaw. Trans. Constance Garnett. New York: Norton, 2002.

Gelfant, Blanche H. Graver, Lawrence. The Columbia Companion to the Twentieth-Century American Short Story. Columbia University Press, 2000.
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Longstanding Tradition of Hindu and

Words: 3703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50414113

Maharshtrian cuisine comprises of hot, aromatic meat and fish curries and subtle flavoring of vegetarian cuisine. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and the main cooking medium is peanut oil. Another feature is the use of a deep purple berry with a sweet and sour taste, otherwise called kokum, in sol kadhi, an appetizer-digestive, which is served chilled. Non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes are served with boiled rice or rotis made from rice flour. Dessert is commonly comprises rotis (a type of bread) stuffed with a sweet mixture of jaggery and gram flour.

Goan cuisine boasts of delicacies like tangy pork 'vindaloo', spicy 'sorpotel' and the popular fish curry with rice. Most of their meals are accompanied with local wine or local liqueur, 'Feni'. Meals are simple but most are also chili hot, spicy and pungent. The basic components include rice, fish and coconut and delicacies made from these three are a must in nearly every meal. Coconut milk, made from grated coconut flesh and soaking it in a cup of warm water is an essential ingredient in Goan cooking and they also make their own vinegar and chutney. Goans, who are Christians, prefer pork, unlike Hindus who…… [Read More]

Works cited

Audretsch, D.B. And Meyer, N.S. " Religion, Culture and Entrepreneurship in India." Indiana

University Public Affairs Conference. 2009. 17 Apr.2010.

http://www.indiana.edu/~iunews/IPAAAudretsch.pdf >

"Cuisine." Cuisine Tours of India, Culinary Tour India, Indian Cuisines information,
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Racism in Movies Popular Culture

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56857044

In her interview, she is obliquely asked to lose weight. Her body, as we will see shortly, is ever the object of external appraisal. To work on-air, she must look a certain way. Her bosses imply that she needs to tighten up. This tightening is contested later by the expansion of pregnancy. When she goes out with her sister to celebrate the new job, they are let into the club before others based on looks. Inside the club, they worry about whether or not men are thinking about "fucking them." They also refer to other women as "skanky bitches." All of this evidences a certain emphasis on looks, an emphasis that transcends civility. A woman's commerce in the move is based on use for others.

It is at the same club that the woman character meets Ben. They meet and eventually return to Alison's sister's place where the have drunken sex. This of course results in a pregnancy. Interestingly, before she finds out she is pregnant, she admits her one-night stand was a mistake. The next morning Ben revolts her. He is a loser to her. They have nothing in common.

We can stop here with the expository elements. For…… [Read More]

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Bon Jour Defending Cartesian Foundationalism

Words: 2527 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55198134

' But I am not simply rejecting this: I am demanding an explanation of how it could be so. How could this intuitive process justify something unless the process is empirical? The a priori is mysterious because we do not have even a hint of a satisfactory answer. It seems like magic that a process in someone-s [SIC] mind can justify her belief in an external worldly fact without that justification arising from some sort of experiential link to that fact."

Although BonJour unarguably demonstrates admirably the inadequacies of empiricism as a means of explaining a priori knowledge, it is not clear, at least not within BonJour's paradigm, that rationalism is more successful. In fact, many would argue that Bonjour's account of rationalism is precisely the one that has led so many to be wary of the a priori in the first place.

Laurence BonJour's Epistemic Justification: Internal-ism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues largely recapitulates the main lines of the debate about epistemic justification. Given the fact that in Epistemic Justification: Internal-ism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues BonJour defends the more traditional viewpoint, it should be noted that BonJour's conversion to his current ideological position was a relatively recent one.…… [Read More]


BonJour, Laurence. "The Dialectic of Foundationalism and Coherentism." A Companion to Epistemology. Eds. E. Sosa and J. Dancy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

BonJour, Laurence. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.

BonJour, Laurence. Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.

BonJour, Laurence. In Defense of Pure Reason. London: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
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Education Effective Ways to Foster

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67958746

The traditional prototype was the employee driving to their place of employ and repeating the same tasks daily for thirty years. Today's workplace is dynamic and ever-changing and therefore requires the same of employees. Professional development, once an unknown and unconsidered concept, is now an integral part of any organization.

Yi has written an insightful piece. With each passing day the demands of the workplace increase. New types of jobs are created while other types of jobs disappear. For today's graduates a four-year degree is only the beginning of a person's educational experience. Training to update knowledge and skills will be continual throughout a career. For all of these reasons this makes Yi's article timely and relevant and adds to the growing body of research on the topic of adult learning. I expect this article will be both a basis for future research as well as a reference piece for those in the field of adult learning.… [Read More]


Driscoll, M.(1994).Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Ertmer, P., & Newby, TJ. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly 6 (4): 50 -- 71.

Schwen, T.M., Kaiman, H.K., Hara, N., & Kisling, E.L. (1998). Potential knowledge management contributions to human performance technology research and practice. Educational Research and Development. 46(4), 73-89.
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Epistle of Paul to Philemon

Words: 20604 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75843868

The divisions were as such:

1. The highest class amongst the slave was of the slave minister; he was responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and was also allowed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.

2. This was followed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves was normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.

3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves who were appointed as land/property etc. managers were included in this class as well as those slaves who were employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.

4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending from those working in dangerous jobs like mining or oil rigging or those slaves working in disrespected occupations like prostitution, etc. (Cole, 1995).

The structure as well as the entire industry of slaves in the Roman Empire was a very extensive and intricate construction. The significance of the Roman Slave…… [Read More]

works cited at the end.

If I were to conclude the significance of Paul's letter to Philemon and his approach to demand Onesimus' hospitality and kinship status, I can say that it was clearly his approach towards his demands that has made the letter such a major topic of discussion with regards to slavery. If Paul had taken an aggressive approach and straight away demanded the release and freedom of Onesimus, the letter would not been preserved in the history books for the generations to follow; that is a surety. I say this because it was Paul's approach and choice of language structure that caused for a large amount of debate to follow. It has been this debate, whether it has been on slavery or the various interpretations of his language structure, that has allows this letter and the relevant history to live on through the centuries. Of course, it is important to understand Philemon's role here as well, because it was his choice to treat the letter with a certain amount of respect and dignity that contributed to the letter's longevity as well. If Philemon had chosen to disregard Paul's requests and thrown away the letter as one that was not worthy of consideration, nobody would've even had the chance to debate the letter's significance in history. This again takes me back to the language structure adopted by Paul as he was able to soften his approach of the numerous demands as well that helped Philemon play his part of respecting what was demanded. Interestingly enough, Onesimus did go on to take on the duties as a bishop! To think that this line of action came about with only a choice of softening one's demands is extra-ordinary and the credit goes solely to Paul!


JM.G. Barclay, Colossians and Philemon, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997

Bartchy, S.S. (1973). First-Century Slavery and the Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 7:21 (SBLDS 11; Atlanta: Scholars Press) 175.
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Creative Writing in English Singapore

Words: 34880 Length: 127 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45040098

Over time British rule affected every aspect of life in Singapore including education. Gupta (1998) explains that

"The educational impact of the political developments was essentially a move from the private to the public. As the British government became increasingly directly involved in Singapore, an education policy began to develop (Bloom 1986, Gupta 1994). In the early years education was largely in the hands of private organisations, churches, and charitable bodies. The Annual Report on the Administration of the Straits Settlements has a brief section on education from the report of 1856-57 onwards, and this report gets more and more substantial as time goes on. Schools, both government and non-government, were increasingly supervised and compliance with policy had financial consequences as the century progressed (Gupta 1998). "

Initially the teaching of the English Language in Singapore was designed for the boys and girls who were European and Eurasian (Gupta 1998). Additionally some Singaporeans who could afford English Language classes took them (Gupta 1998). Furthermore, the Malays were encouraged not to learn English and to be educated in Malay instead (Gupta 1998). The government was so adamant about this that people were given financial assistance to study in Malay but not…… [Read More]


Ashton, J. 2005. Barbie, the Wiggles and Harry Potter. Can popular culture really support youngchildren's literacy development? European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 13, no. 1: 31 -- 40.

Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berlin, J. (1988). Rhetoric and Ideology in the writing class. College English, 50, 477-494.

Bizzell, P. (1986). Composing processes: An overview. In: T. Petrosky & D. Bartholomae (Eds.), The Teaching of writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Innovative Lifting Device for Use

Words: 1677 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22139415

The step-by-step instructions that were used for manufacturing the device are set forth in Table 4 below.

Table 4

Instructions for building the lift device



Step One

Using wood saw, cut all wooden pieces (Part Nos. W1, W2 and WS1-WS4) to desired dimensions (or have this step completed by hardware store/home improvement center where purchased).

Step Two

Fabricate the lifting device framework by connecting Part Nos. WS1 to WS2 as well as WS3 to WS4 at their midpoints.

Step Three

Mount the scissor lift device on the base (Part No. W1) using nails and screws.

Step Four

Install the spring (Part S) between the two spars (Parts Nos. WS1 and WS2).

Step Five

Install the second piece of wood (Part No. W2) on the top of the lifting device to serve as the canister platform.


Testing and Risk Assessment

The testing of the device proceeded in a step-wise fashion, beginning with preliminary tests of the springs and how they interacted with the other apparatus components. After preliminary testing achieved satisfactory results, the remaining tests proceeded as each step of construction was completed to ensure that everything operated together as intended. Unfortunately, a number of constraints were encountered…… [Read More]

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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

Because of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school schedules to provide ample opportunity for formative assessment (used by teachers during instruction) and for faculty meetings where student work can be discussed. To learn well, students need access to high-quality instruction and a well-crafted curriculum. After that, they benefit most of all from the positive effects of strong school…… [Read More]


Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at:  http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Color of Oppression in 'The

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44394249

They tear her nose loose on one side. They blind her in one eye. She swole from head to foot. Her tongue the size of my arm, it stick out tween her teef like a piece of rubber. She can't talk. And she just about the color of an eggplant" (Walker, Part 2, pg. 87).

In this case, the color purple is used as a symbol of the oppression of the black woman. Because a black women hit a white man, Sofia was put in prison. After she got out, she was made to work as a maid for the mayor's wife for another 20 years. Black women were not allowed to defend themselves in any manner and had to take their beatings. Fear was the major tool used for the oppression of black women in the Old South. Their purple bruises were the outward symbol of their oppression.

Dreams Never Mentioned

The black women in the south had to chose between their need for freedom and self-determination and safety. Celie puts it best, "I don't say nothing. I think bout Nettie, dead. She fight, she run away. What good it do? I don't fight, I stay where I'm told.…… [Read More]


Bloom, H. Alice Walker's the Color Purple. Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House. Place of Publication: Philadelphia. 2000. pp. 181.

Byerman, K. Desire and Alice Walker: The Quest for a Womanist Narrative. Johns Hopkins University Press. 1989. p. 321.

Cutter, M. Philomela Speaks: Alice Walker's Revisioning of Rape Archetypes in the Color Purple. MELUS. 2000. pp. 161.

Magill, F., Kohler, D., and Mazzeno, L. Masterplots: 1,801 Plot Stories and Critical Evaluations of the World's Finest Literature. African-American Literature Series. # 47. Salem Press. 1996.
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Designing a Speech Course for

Words: 4307 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68163790

Variations are to ask each student to write their own sheet or to have small groups do so. (22) Value Lines: Students line up according to how strongly they agree or disagree with a proposition or how strongly they value something. This gives a visual reading of the continuum of feelings in the group. Next, sort students into heterogeneous groups for discussion by grouping one from either end with two from the middle. Ask students to listen to differing viewpoints in their groups and to fairly paraphrase opposing positions.

23) Forced Debate: Ask all students who agree with a proposition to sit on one side of the room and all opposed on the other side. Hanging signs describing the propositions helps. It is important that they physically take a position and that the opposing sides face each other. After they have sorted themselves out, switch the signs and force them to argue for the position with which they disagree.

24) Role Playing: Ask several students to take on the roles of participants in the situations being studied, characters from a novel, historical figures, representatives of political or theoretical positions, science foundation grant evaluators, etc. To reduce the students' fear, you…… [Read More]


Andrews, P.H. (1985). Basic Public Speaking. New York: Harper and Row.

Baird, J.E. (1974). The Effects of "Previews" and "Reviews" upon Audience Comprehension of Expository Speeches of Varying Quality and Complexity. Central States Speech Journal. 25, 119127.

Beatty, M.J. (1988). Situational and Predispositional Correlates of Public Speaking Anxiety. Communication Education. 37, 28-39.

Bernhardt, D. Workshop on Public Speaking, University of California at Berkeley, Aug.1989.
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History Repeats Itself Is Perhaps

Words: 1755 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78075744

And the root culture should always be respected. This is perhaps the greatest lesson to be learned from both wars. A lack of cultural respect is at the basis of many atrocities that have been committed in the name of each respective war considered above. It is all too easy to assume guilt rather than innocence, especially if a great upheaval of emotion is at the basis of such an assumption. Rather, critical thinking and proper investigative procedures should be used to prove either guilt or innocence. This is after all the basis of the American justice system - that each citizen, regardless of heritage or religion, should be given the opportunity to be heard by a jury of his or her peers.

Finally, the ultimate impact of the Vietnam war is the most important lesson. As mentioned above - all parties lose: Some American soldiers returned home permanently damaged, while the Vietnam people were simply exhausted, and the American reputation was severely damaged. It is not too late to stop the Iraq war from having the same effect.… [Read More]


Ahrari, Ehsan. Iraq vs. Vietnam: Similarities and differences. Asia Times, Apr. 2, 2003.  http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/ED02Ak05.html 

Geyer, Georgie Anne. Vietnam and Iraq have more similarities than differences. The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Nov. 10, 2003. http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2003/11/10_geyer_iraq-vietnam.htm

Rogers, Ian Pajer. Similarities drawn between Iraq and Vietnam. The New Hampshire, May 4, 2007. http://media.www.tnhonline.com/media/storage/paper674/news/2004/04/16/Opinion/Similarities.Drawn.Between.Iraq.And.Vietnam-662649-page2.shtml
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Citizenship Civics Education for 21st

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4308556

Connected vs. Stand-alone

Communication revolution has moved from a world connected by telephone (a synchronous and asynchronous) including e-mail, bulletin boards, broadcast messages and chat rooms. As a result, new learning tools have developed to access knowledge.

Active vs. Passive

There is much less tolerance for passive situations such as lectures, and digital natives need and want interactive learning opportunities.

Payoff vs. Patience

The same attributes that keep young people engaged for hours to learn and master a computer game can be tapped to improve the quality of civics education as well; the challenge remains for educators to develop similar interactive rewards dynamics for learning content.

Fantasy vs. Reality

Young learners' lives are pervaded by fantasy elements through television programs and video games; therefore, learning experiences should be structured to include such fantasy elements to be more interesting.

Technology as Friend vs. Tech. As Foe

Digital immigrants" perceive technology as something to be feared and merely tolerated; by contrast, digital natives regard technology as their friend. Young learners today actively search out ways to use technology to construct a new cognitive environment.

Source: Prensky 1998:3.

Notwithstanding these challenges and constraints, though, the nation's high schools are in fact the perfect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beckerman, Marvin, Simon Kim and B. Sue Parks. (1996). "Effects of Participatory Learning Programs in Middle And High School Civic Education," Social Studies, 87:171.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Freeman, L.A. (2003). "Simulation and Role Playing with LEGO Blocks. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(2):137-144.

Godwin-Jones, Robert. (2005). "Emerging Technologies: Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Language, Learning & Technology, 9(1):17.
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Difficulties Impact Students Performance in

Words: 2488 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43387738

This work focuses on giving teachers concrete strategies for implementing the benchmarking and assessment techniques. It is important to develop lesson plans that include the major components of this program. Gunning gives a straightforward approach to implementing these concepts.

Without getting into the individual strategies, let us suffice to say that these teaching methods may be the best developed over other similar experiments. Gunning's work was based on solid theory and best practices. The purpose of this research was to examine the connection between math and reading. In the first section of this study, we found that there is a high correlation between math and reading scores. Gunning's work on assessment-based teaching only discussed its use to improve reading skills. However, this same concept could also be applied to math. This is the key to improving both math and reading skills. Benchmarking will be a necessary component in the development of math programs that emphasize reading.

One example of using reading and writing techniques to enhance math is through the use of a journal. Journals are often used to bridge reading and writing skills. Cimochowsky addresses the use of journals as a part of math, social studies, and science as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AutoSkill Academy of MATH. The Reading and Math Connection. AutoSkill International

Inc. (2003). p. 9-18.

Borasi, R. And Siegel, M. Reading Counts: Expanding the Role of Reading in Mathematics

Classrooms. Raffaella Borasi & Marjorie Siegel, New York: Teachers College
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Improving Reading Comprehension Education Is

Words: 4005 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30914450

Recent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). Results of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.

High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction

With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National Reading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from Reading Rockets out of the office of Special Education (2004 n. pg.).

Phonemic awareness is the ability to discern, contemplate, manipulate and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. An example of how beginning readers show they have phonemic awareness is combining or blending the separate sounds of a word to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)

Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research

Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2.

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Natural as Speaking On the

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62653902

The deadliest enemy to writer's block is re-reading what I just wrote and analyzing it.

However, getting past the stream-of-consciousness stage is even harder than getting started. That's when I start realizing that other people are going to read what I write. No matter how I feel about it, a deadline is looming and I have to produce. Being disciplined is essential at this stage because only pressure can keep the pen or keyboard going. Even when I am not interested in writing about myself in a diary I can use stream of consciousness to compose the first draft of an essay. With stream of consciousness I can write without worrying about how it sounds, even to me. I can get into a mind state beyond any self-criticism. I can worry about technicalities later.

The technicalities are easier to deal with when the raw content is there. Writing without stream-of-consciousness is like trying to make gasoline without tapping an oil well. At some point I have to engage in the mundane process of tapping the well. Once I strike oil, then I can worry about refining the product.

With the basic grammar skills I have from grade school, I can…… [Read More]

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Role of the Holy Spirit in Social Preaching

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41679154

Holy Spirit in Social Preaching

David M. Doran, a theologian with the Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary, emphasizes that Biblical preaching is vitally important to the fulfillment of the mission of Christianity. The Scriptures explain to readers that the way to honor God is through what Doran calls "Christ-centered preaching" -- and Paul explains, "We proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, so that we may present every man complete in Christ" (Col 1:28).

Doran makes it clear that God intended his disciples to be given the power to actually go out and do the preaching that was necessary. God gave the Apostle Paul the "ministry of the Spirit" (2 Cor 3:8, 12), which Paul of course needed to carry out the work that he was appointed to do. On page 105, Doran explains that Paul was "so zealous of having this power in him" that he was perfectly willing to put up with the pain from the thorn in his flesh. That having been said, the New Testament, according to Doran, points out that a believer can "actually minister without the power of God" but Paul did have the power, something that C.H. Spurgeon had,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Doran, David M. 1998. The Role of the Holy Spirit in Preaching. Detroit Baptist Seminary

Journal. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from  http://www.dbts.edu/journals/1998/doran.pdf .

pp. 103-121.
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Computer Assisted Learning Cal Once a Novel

Words: 1827 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68935532

Computer assisted learning (CAL), once a novel concept, is a staple in numerous classrooms across the country, from the primary education to the university level. Computer assisted learning offers both students and teachers a daunting and near-limitless education supplement. However, this paper will examine examples where computer assisted learning is more or less effective and why. It will be revealed that computer assisted learning programs that are most effective are the ones which place precedence on interactivity. A particularly successful program, the Interaction Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction Theory, will be examined carefully in regards to the strategy and concepts used in order to make such a learning program as successful as possible.


Educators and pedagogues have known for years the wealth of benefits that computer assisted learning can offer the student. Certain educational software programs equal a dissemination of difficult concepts and/or an illumination of intricate ideas. For example, instead of trying to rely on diagrams to showcase a complex process such as the double blood supply to the liver, a three dimensional digital displays can truly shed light on such matters (Azer, 2008). However, computer assisted learning is not the end all or be-all of education and should…… [Read More]


Azer, S. (2008). Navigating problem-based learning. Marrickville: Elsevier.

Banerjee, A., Duflo, E., & Linden, L. (2004). Computer-assisted learning project with pratham in india.Poverty Action Lab, Retrieved from http://www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/computer-assisted-learning-project-pratham-india

Greenhalgh, T. (2001). Computer assisted learning in undergraduate medical education. British Medical Journal, 322(7277), 40-44.

Iskander, M. (2008). Innovative techniques in instruction technology, e-learning. Brooklyn:
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Sexes Uses Intersexuality as a

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21737658

The topic of intersexuality naturally raises the issue of whether gender should be rigidly defined or whether gender should rather be viewed on a continuum. Thus, Gorman and Cole work to dispel the prevalent social myth that all individuals must be assigned a clear, unequivocal gender status. Examining the collective phenomena of intersexuality can also help people to contemplate gender roles and social norms in society. For example, Gorman and Cole chose to include a telling quote from Kelli. Although she now primarily cultivates a female identity, she claims that she might elect to be a "male carpenter" because she would be "taken more seriously," (58).

The most important information contained in "Between the Sexes" therefore regards the perception of gender, gender identity, and gender flexibility. This information is far more significant and has more of an impact on readers than the scientific and biological reasons for intersexuality that the authors provide. Nevertheless, Gorman and Cole's decision to include some basic genetic information lends credibility to the article and makes the topic of intersexuality more understandable. The inclusion of scientific reasons for intersexuality also helps readers to view intersexuality as a natural, albeit unusual phenomenon.

Gorman and Cole infer and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gorman, Christine and Cole, Wendy. "Between the Sexes." Time.
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Informal and Formal Reading Assessments

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46342870

standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more on performance. These two kinds of assessments will be critiqued in this paper.

Formal Reading Assessments

Parents should know and understand not only why their children are being accessed, but through which process the assessment is being conducted. The more parents are involved in the education of their children, the closer parents will be to opportunities to participate and contribute to those important years of education. Brenda Weaver writes in Scholastic magazine that first of all, whether it is informal or formal, assessments need to match up with the purpose of assessing any particular student. Formal assessments are generally used to assess "overall achievement" and to "compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade."

Parents should be informed as to the purpose of reading assessments, and they should be assured this is not an intelligence test but rather it is used to determine "…the level of text that will challenge students" and will "…motivate them to read rather than causing frustration" (Rubin, 2011, p. 606). Formal Reading assessments…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nilsson, Nina L. (2008). A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories. The Reading Teacher, 61(7), 526-536.

Ogle, Laurence T. (2007). The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): a description. Center for Public Education. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from  http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org .

Rosado, Luis A. (2006). TExES (103) Bilingual Generalist, EC-4 (REA) -- The Best Test Prep /

Best Test Preparation and Review Course Series. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
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Cricket in Times Square Instructional

Words: 1122 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21224100


The Cricket Eats

The Cricket Lives

The Cricket Does

The Cricket Has

Helps: Quote memory, rewrite text, apply information, apply extra materials to book.

Part 7- Writing Activity -- Pick one setting in Cricket in Times Square and write a 1-2 paragraph explanation of why that setting was used and your description of it (e.g. city, etc.). Be sure to develop concepts like: What do you see? What do you smell? Are there lots of people there? Why? Is it calm or busy? Is it dangerous? Imagine that you are in this setting and seeing it from the Cricket's point-of-view.

Part 8 - Fluency Activity

Part 1 -- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (example questions, this from Chapter 13):

1. Chester stayed up most of the night

a) playing for the animals

b) learning new musical pieces

c) talking to Tucker and Harry

d) because he was too excited to sleep

2. How did people in New York learn about Chester?

a) Mr. Smedley had flyers printed up and passed out.

b) Mr. Smedley's letter was published in the New York Times.

c) Mr. Smedley had the radio stations all over New York play the recording he made of Chester's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guided Reading Level. (2007, June). Retrieved from hsnature.org: http://www.hsnature-ar.org/uploads/6/6/2/7/6627983/leveled_book_list.pdf

Glass, K.T. (2009). Lesson Design for Differentiated Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Miller, G. (2007). Reading Activities. Retrieved from:

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Reciprocal Teaching

Words: 3956 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24498527

Reciprocal Teaching

In recent times, researchers and practitioners are focusing more and more in understanding the role of meta-cognition in reading. This is evidenced by the opinions proposed by researchers like Brown and Palinscar and Gracia and Pearson. As there exists dissimilarity between teachings of distinct expertise and making learners conscious of the inner processes that are carried on in the mind through meta-cognition, this field of research is significant on the whole. Individual readers, more frequently, encounter trouble in gathering together the right tactics to acquire holistic comprehension of text even though they may be able to carry out distinct abilities such as skimming and scanning, tolerating ambiguity, finding meanings from context and drawing inferences. Reciprocal Teaching is one technique that has established to counteract this trouble and internalize the process of comprehension. (Ramaiyah, 1992)

What is Reciprocal teaching?

For training students to develop into active readers, reciprocal teaching is an extensively investigated technique. Reciprocal teaching can be explained as an instructional activity that happens in the mode of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding sections of text. Reciprocal Teaching can be viewed as a study skill and also as an approach because it needs unambiguous teaching of…… [Read More]


Davis, Chris. (Fall/winter, 2000) "Literacy in the Social Studies Classroom" Center X Forum. Vol: 1; No: 1. Retrieved from http://www.centerx.gseis.ucla.edu/forum/fall00/socialstudies.htm

Accessed on 18 February, 2005

Edwards, Julie. (Winter, 1995) "Reciprocal Teaching in the Fourth-Grade Science Program" Retrieved from http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/reciprocal.htm Accessed on 18 February, 2005

Hartman, H. (1997) "Reciprocal Teaching: Human Learning & Instruction" Retrieved from http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~hhartman/Reciprocal%20Teaching.doc Accessed on 18 February, 2005
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Matthew 16 13-20 While the Confession

Words: 2529 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69469807

In his exegesis, Cullman associates what he deems an "exact" parallel between Matthew 16:17-19 and Luke 22:31-34.

He finds that this is evidenced by Peter's solemn vow that he will go with Jesus to prison and onto death, the prediction of Peter's betrayal, and Jesus' command to Peter to encourage conversion.

Opposing debate comes from Robert Gundry, who contests that parallel is neither direct nor intended.

Gundry makes this point by saying that while Luke is blessed by God, he is not done so by the divine act of blind devotion that encapsulated the Matthew account of Simon Peter.

Additionally, if not more importantly, Luke warns of the coming three-fold betrayal of Christ by Peter, while Matthew only speaks of his blessing.

"The major objection by Cullman against Matthew's narrative framework fails to recognize that Jesus' congratulatory words refer to the bare confession of Jesus' messiahship -- apart from misconceptions, which were not erased until after the resurrection anyway -- and that Jesus' rebuke refers only to Peter's subsequent protest against Jesus' death. Furthermore, although he doubtlessly intended the apostles to make a connection between suffering and Messiahship, Jesus did not connect the two concepts here. ... The congratulations and…… [Read More]

Gundry, p. 331.

Hagner, p. 467.

France and Wendam, R.T. And David. Gospel Perspectives, Vol. 5. Sheffield, England: JSOT Press, 1981. p. 24
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Learning Process of Elementary School

Words: 4804 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9019674

We will include studies concerning memory recall in elementary students.

Androes et al. (2000) asserts that memory recall is essential to reading comprehension in elementary students. The authors insists that reading comprehension is defined as the capacity to understand and recall the details, sequence, and meaning from written material (Androes et al. 2000; Klein 2000). Reading comprehension is a fundamental skill that is one of the critical elements of any primary-level education (Androes et al. (2000). Many researchers have argued that teaching techniques that include the fine arts should be abandoned. However, other research has suggested that the techniques aid in the improvement of memory recall and reading comprehension. In addition, a great deal of research has found a correlation between arts education and academic achievement on every level including reading comprehension (Androes et al. (2000). To further explore this correlation the authors conducted research to examine the impact of drama on memory recall and reading comprehension (Androes et al. (2000).

In some cases the capacity of elementary students to draw inferences about the beliefs, motivations, and feelings of characters in a play. In her research of fifth graders Smolkin (1997), found that elementary students can make meaningful conclusions from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amrhein P.C., Bond J.K., Hamilton D.A. (1999)

Locus of control and the age difference in free recall from episodic memory Journal of General Psychology, Retrieved July 16 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_2_126/ai_55084248

Anderson, J.R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.

Androes, K., Rose, D.S., Parks, M., & Mcmahon, S.D. (2000). Imagery-Based Learning: Improving Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension with Drama Techniques. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 55..
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Vincent Vinikas' Review of Dominic J Capeci's

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47036174

Vincent Vinikas' review of Dominic J. Capeci's The Lynching of Cleo Wright takes a critical stance toward Capeci's account of the case of Cleo Wright, a black man who was lynched in Missouri in 1942. Rather than examining the underlying causes concerning why lynching took place (particularly as late as 1942), Vinikas restricts his focus to elucidating logical fallacies that hinder Capeci's article. Vinikas argues that it is lamentable that even in books that purportedly reveal information concerning actual lynching cases, the true facts involved in such cases is never truthfully revealed, such that the public is still not privy to crucial information that colors America's history. In contrast, in her article "An Outrageous Proceeding: A Northern Lynching and the Enforcement of Anti-Lynching Legislation in Illinois, 1905-1910" Stacy Pratt McDermott applies a more comprehensive approach, determining the cultural forces that promoted lynching and made it incredibly difficult to abolish. Consequently, McDermott's article provides a more thorough explication of exactly why lynching took place and the forces that made its popularity difficult to overthrow.

Vinikas' article begins with a basic summary of the lynching of Cleo Wright. The author provides particularly graphic details of the incident, including that Wright's leg was…… [Read More]


McDermott, S.P. (1999). An outrageous proceeding: A northern lynching and the enforcement of anti-lynching legislation in Illinois, 1905-1910. The Journal of Negro History, 84(1), 61-78.

Vinikas, V. (1999). The lynching of Cleo Wright by Dominic J. Capeci. Review by Vincent Vinikas. The Journal of Southern History, 65(4), 907-908.
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Emmanuel Levinas Phenomenology Ethical Constructivism

Words: 5109 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30187929

The metaphysical constructivists who are successful hardly take the truth of a substantive normative claim for granted.


In his phenomenological descriptions, Levinas used various accounts of transcendence to refer to the tradition and divergence of phenomenology in relation to Heidegger. His transcendences enacted the irreducible urge by oneself to get past the limitations of their social and physical states or conditions. Transcendence of the Other as described by Levinas is the state beyond materialism and within finite being. Through this, Levinas established the limits of phenomenology from within its boundaries. Totality and Infinity, therefore, transcends to "ethical optics," which seek to fulfill and surpass phenomenology metaphysically, reaching out to the Other. In his explanations, Levinas develops his philosophical beginnings of phenomenology through the inflections of transcendence as the need for escapism, variations on Being, responsibility and beyond and Other-in-the-same. Rational ideologies from these aspects depict human experience conjoined to intentionality.

Need for Escapism

According to his notions related to transcendence, Levinas was keen to address matters that are linked to mortality, infinity and finite beings. Despite having different opinions, Levinas confirmed the truth in Heidegger's arguments, which suggested that humans experience themselves as though they were cast to the…… [Read More]


Bergo Bettina, "Emmanuel Levinas," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011): URL http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/levinas/#InfTraVarBei > Accessed on 24th November, 2012.

Bergo Bettina, "Emmanuel Levinas," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011): URL