Human Anatomy Essays

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Anatomy Major Cavities of the Body and Essay

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15740631


Major cavities of the body and their organs:

Our body is made up of solid structures and many cavities. The organs are packed in these cavities and they fill these cavities. The major cavities in our body are: the ventral cavity, which is surrounded by the rib cage and the abdominal musculature and dorsal cavity, which is surrounded by the bones of the skull and vertebral column. (Introduction / Terminology)

Significance and Process of Protein synthesis:

The genetic material of life is DNA. It is present in all the organisms on the earth and it has genetic information, which the organism uses for producing the protein essential for life. The DNA, whether it is in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, it is in the iconic form of the double helix, and it uses the same common genetic code that permits it to be converted to proteins. The procedure of forming proteins from DNA, which is known as transcription and translation are the same in all organisms. DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated to amino acid chain of polypeptide. (Lesson 1: From Genes to Proteins)

3. Glycolysis and ATP:

The transformation of food to energy by the energy molecule of the cell called Adenosine Tri Phosphate - ATP is called Glycolysis. ATP is a nucleotide. Glycolysis makes use of the energy from two ATP to carry out a series of enzymatic reactions ending up in the production of four ATP. Glycolysis also forms two three-carbon compounds called pyruvate that still has energy. Glycolysis ends in the addition of two hydrogens onto the energy carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide - NAD to form NADH. Though glycolysis permits the formation of four ATP, two ATP are used in the process. This results in a net profit of two ATP from the process of Glycolysis. Glycolysis does not need molecular oxygen, as it…… [Read More]

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Human-Equipment Interface Technological Transformations Have Brought Widespread Essay

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8180048

Human-Equipment Interface

Technological transformations have brought widespread use of machines and tools to the work setting. Owing to this, such concepts as human-machine/equipment interfaces have become increasingly prominent. In its simplest form, human-machine interface (HMI) refers to the point or extent of interaction between a machine and its operator; taken literally, it is the area of the machine and that of the human that interact during the execution of a task. As the use of machines at the workplace increases, the HMI concept becomes more relevant. This is particularly because machines and equipment keep getting rather complicated and advanced, and as users make more and more use of them, the risk of error increases. In this regard, manufactures are under pressure to continually develop tools and machines that align with human anatomy, limitations, and skills to make the user-machine interface safer for users (Flasporer, et al., 2002).

Human-Equipment Interfaces in a Hospital Setting

In a hospital setting, medical practitioners interact with a wide array of medical devices -- for instance, i) they have to feed patients' health and medical records as well as prescriptions into a computer, in which case they interact directly with the screen through the eyes, and the keyboard or mouse through the hand; ii) they have to infuse patients using the infusion pump, where they use both their eyes and their hands to set the desired flow rate on the display surface; iii) they have to use oxygen machines to treat patients, and similarly have to set the flow control knob at the desired levels, and so on (Sawyer, 2014). All these represent examples of user-machine interfaces in a hospital environment that though important to a patient's healing environment; need to be controlled in order to realize the desired outcomes. It is for this reason that manufacturers are required to design their equipment in line with humans' basic sensory and physical capabilities, which include reach, strength, manual dexterity, hearing and vision (Sawyer, 2014). Effective equipment-designing is one of the key ways of controlling user interfaces and making them safer for both practitioners and patients.

The Need to Control Human-Equipment User Interfaces

Failure to control user interfaces in hospital settings could result in serious consequences (FDA, 2015). There have been numerous cases where user interfaces (both hardware and software interfaces)…… [Read More]

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Human Body Cavity the Internal Essay

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16317327

The large intestine begins near the lower coils of the small intestines but then ascends up the right side and bend back over the top of the highest loop of the small intestine. Several layers of muscle and sinewy tissue wrap around the area housing the internal organs (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).

The other organs located in the major body cavity include the bladder, gall bladder, and pancreas. In addition, the female body cavity also contains a uterus.

Besides the major internal organs, there are major blood vessels that run down the body cavity directly from the heart and branch off to smaller arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the rest of the body (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).… [Read More]

Iazzetti, G, Rigutti, E. (2007). Atlas of Anatomy. London: TAJ Books.
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Human Brain Is a Unique Essay

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47377797

Their brains reflect the major centers that control these functions. The human brain is over and above those animals, such as advanced cognitive skills.

What about the mathematical and scientific abilities of the geniuses? Do their unsurpassed talents have something to do with their brain development? Some studies say that the capacity of learning is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. Various results of studies suggest that the mathematical abilities result from the integration of two non-numerical circuits in the brain. It is said that the left frontal lobe of the brain controls the linguistic representations of exact numerical values. The other involves the parietal lobes, which is responsible in the control of visuospatial representations of approximate quantities. These lobes are part of the neural circuit that also controls hand shapes and finger movements. There is a possibility that these brain regions contribute to finger counting and finger calculation as the universal stage in the learning of exact arithmetic. On the other hand, do the teaching methods in school have in some way affect our mathematical prowess?

In a way, the brain functions while doing mathematics may have implications for how mathematics is taught, leading to a new and improved ways of teaching arithmetic to those who struggle with numbers. Most mathematicians say that they rely more on mental images than words to arrive at new insights. Research findings suggest that understanding relationships among numbers involves some sort of spatial tool such as visualizing a number line, which are important sources of mathematical intuition.

Another main function of the human brain is its ability to store, retain, and subsequently retrieve information. In other words, it has a capacity to store up memory. but, have you ever imagined yourself when you were a student? The more you studied your lessons, the more you retained nothing new? Our brains have the capability to detect our interest on the subject matter. There are also other factors that might affect the human memory such as insufficient sleep, excessive consumption of alcohol and tobacco. When we feel tensed, the capacity used by the memory manager is limited, either when we are awake…… [Read More]

Discovery Channel (September, 2007). "Development >> How Does the brain develop?",Retrieved12 Apr 2008.

Enchanted Learning. (2008). "The Brain." . Retrieved10 Apr 2008.
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Human Brain One of the Most Complex Essay

Words: 1683 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10528582

Human Brain

One of the most complex organs in the universe, the human brain, continues to be a scientific mystery. In vertebrate and most invertebrate animals, the brain is the central aspect of the nervous system. The brain can be simple, as in some insects, or extremely complex, as in the human brain which can encompass anywhere from 15-33 billion neurons linked with 10,000 or more synaptic connections. The brain is the control and interpretive mechanism for the senses -- vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain also controls other body systems and organs with the release of chemicals allowing a more centralized, and often speedier, coordinated response to environmental stimuli. In vertebrates the spinal cord is the communication track that links the brain with the rest of the body. And, while scientific progress in many other areas of human physiology has been rapid over the past few decades, much is still unknown about the way the brain communicates, stores information, is descriptive with the release of certain chemicals, and certainly the way the brain ages and becomes diseased.

As mentioned, the brain is extremely complex, but many of the basic functions may be explained by definining the various regions of the brain, in this case the human brain. Basically, the brain consists of six major regions, with certain parts of the brain being subcategories of five macro areas. Depending on whether one is being structural or functional, descriptions of the brain may vary somewhat. The five macrocategories of the brain are:

The Myelencephalon -- the hindbrain or the secondary vesicle in the central nervous cyctem; the medulla oblaongata, the crainial nerves, and the most primitive (ancestral) part of the brain.

The Metencephalon -- also portions of the central nervous system; the pons and cerebellum; regulates the breathing center of the medulla oblongata, coordinates muscle movements, posture and integrates inner ear sensory information.

The Mesencephalon -- another ancient part of…… [Read More]

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Human Health and the Mind-Body Essay

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76628475

When that process is reduced, many physical ailments have the opportunity to develop in organs that are not functioning optimally because of the reduction in the rate and efficiency of cellular repair. Similarly, the bones themselves can become more fragile and easily fractured because natural bone loss continues while cellular repair and new bone-cell formation slows (Sarno, 1998).

Body fat storage typically increases during prolonged periods of exposure to stress because one of the necessary physiological responses during the evolutionary development of the species was the ability to store calories in times of food resource scarcity (Reding & Wijnberg, 2001). In modern times, the body cannot distinguish between general mental stress and mental stress caused by famine; and as a result, hormones and enzymes responsible for breaking down and burning consumed food calories for energy are reduced while those responsible for ensuring long-term survival in terms of food shortages increase. In modern times, that is one reason why mental conditions such as clinical depression often also result in unwanted weight gain. The other reason is that increased appetite is another part of the physiological response to stress, since consuming as many calories as possible is strategically important in times of famine (Reding & Wijnberg, 2001).

Finally, there are also psychosomatically caused physical ailments associated with mental stress. Some of the most common include lumbar back strains and other skeletal tissue problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome and temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) because those disorders are largely caused by reduced blood flow to the large muscles of the lower back, the tendons of the arms, and other connective tissues, such as those of the jaw muscle attachments (Sarno, 1998). That is why anxiety and stress often cause muscle spasms and discomfort related to skeletal structures. Likewise, chronic anxiety can be the cause of digestive disorders resulting from inefficient…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Archer, R. (2005). "Hospitals design stress-reduction treatment to speed recovery."

Westchester County Business Journal. Accessed online January 16, 2012 from HighBeam Research:
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Human Biology Human Evolution in Africa the Essay

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58388585

Human Biology

Human Evolution in Africa

The human evolution in Africa is a drawn out process of transformation by which natives' originated from the apelike ancestors. Scientific study shows that behavioral traits and physical traits shared by the people came from the apelike ancestors over approximation of six million years ago. The earliest traits were the bipedalism is walking using the two rear limbs. Other human trait was the ability to make and use tools by using their own intelligence, and capacity for the language developed recently (Philip 2005). Human evolution has been used to show how humans originated and how they adapted to situations many years ago. It was argued that the human evolution stopped due to humans implications towards the environment. The adaptive responses were serious implications of infectious diseases.

The African continent is termed as the Cradle of human kind by many explorers, among the archeologists and historians (Wade 2007). Several evolution theories have been accredited to the evidence proof extracted from the African land. Following these historic discoveries, the species of human were facing major adaption issues to the environment. The climatic characteristics of the land had immense implications biologically and culturally (William 2011).

Evolutionary Process

Evolution in Africa occurred during the last ancestor of all the life, the lineage of modern apes and man is not yet known evidence. Emergence of the Homo sapiens was a distinct species of the great apes that led to the further study of the human evolution that involve scientific discipline including genetics, linguistics, primatologist, archaeology and embryology (Gould 2002). The Homo sapiens arose from African and evolved from different geographical areas. Plantaris muscle is evidence that shows human evolution, it was used by the animals to gripe and manipulate objects, for example, the apes could use their feet and hands to gripe. The primate evolutionary began the evolutionary study as the Paleocene, which came from the family of Hominidae (McHenry 2009). Later the chimpanzees and gorilla evolved and diverge to a genus homo, hence the evolution of the modern human from the common ancestor of species and the Hominini years ago in the Africa. During the evolution of the modern humans, humans adapts to a different situation like the illness where they were to think intelligently on ways to cure and prevent diseases.

It has been argued that the human evolution…… [Read More]

William, A. 2011. Cultural Anthropology. 162

Wilson, D.E. Mammals Species of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins university press.

Wood, B. 2000. Human evolution; "taxonomy and paleobiology" Journal of anatomy.
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Human Alienation Essay

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78909607

Human Alienation

All human beings at one time or another feel alienated, isolated from the rest of the world, totally alone and misunderstood. Young children feel that way often, as they realize that their parents, loving as they are, enjoy certain privileges and rights that young people do not. Moreover, no child has been spared completely from peer-induced isolation, for no matter how popular or likable, each child will feel like an outsider when thrust into a new social group. However, nothing could imply total human isolation and separateness than for a man to be miraculously transformed into a giant insect, forever removed from his human brethren through his very DNA. Becoming a non-human creature becomes the ultimate symbol of human alienation in Franz Kafka's novella The Metamorphosis. Kafka's novella deftly describes the nature of human isolation: its causes and its ill effects. Gregor Samsa's physical condition is one of the key causes of his being isolated from his family, even though it becomes clear that Gregor's isolation was in large part self-imposed. Likewise, the Samsa family isolates itself from the world and only after Gregor's death do they break free of their self-imposed alienation. Alienation, however, is mainly a product of human cruelty, imposed on individuals who do not conform to societal norms and standards. Human alienation is often self-imposed, usually imposed on the self by others, and is largely a result of a noticeable deviation from a cultural norm.

One morning, as Gregor Samsa was waking up from anxious dreams, he discovered that in bed he had been changed into a monstrous verminous bug," (Part 1). The first line of The Metamorphosis introduces the theme of human isolation as a direct product of physical deformity or difference. Gregor did not simply lose a limb or acquire disfiguring scars from an accident. Rather, he has changed into a member of an entirely different species. Kafka underscores the nature of human alienation through symbolism and hyperbole, but the message can easily be applied to everyday life. Any person whose appearance differs from the norm will experience isolation and separation. Visible minorities, the physically disabled, and even those who choose to dress or look different will experience social symptoms similar to that which Gregor Samsa did. Gregor's father's reaction to seeing his transformed son is indicative of any human reaction to physical…… [Read More]

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How the Study of Anatomy Intersects Art Specifically Sculpting Essay

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21574406


Since the Greek kouros, sculpture has depended on at least a basic understanding of human anatomy. Anatomy was in fact studied by ancient civilizations independently of its relevance to rendering the human body in two dimensions or three for art. The fusion of anatomy and art reached its first peak during the Renaissance, when artists in Europe longed to deepen their technique and enhance the realism of their human forms and figures. Some artists went so far as to paint anatomy lessons in a display of dramatic irony that brings the viewer face-to-face with the reality that art depends on a solid understanding of the human body. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn painted "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp," which depicts the titular doctor and his cadre of students with a corpse. Dr. Tulp uses a pair of scissors to slice into the musculature of the dead man's arm, and several students look on intently:

Part of the reason for the increased interest in anatomy was to improve the quality of art, but there was more to it than that. As religious fundamentalism fell out of favor, science rose to the fore as the prime means of gaining truth and understanding reality. With the shift toward science, the human body was wrested from the province of religion and placed firmly into the hands of the people. Artists and scientists both cultivated deep respect and admiration for the human body, as can be witnessed on the faces of the men in Rembrandt's painting. "As technology advanced, both scientists and artists explored the body as a site of knowledge and beauty, turning the most familiar of territories into a strange and complex enigma," (Frank 1). Aesthetics and "theological understanding" were fused with common…… [Read More]

Bambach, Carmen. "Anatomy in the Renaissance." Hellbrun Timeline of Art History. Retrieved online: 

Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michelangelo: Art, Anatomy, and the Kidney." Kidney International 57(2000): 1190-1201.
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Revolutions the History of Modern Human Civilization Essay

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88844686


The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.

The Scientific Revolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French Revolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial Revolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.

The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was part of a period referred to as the Enlightenment era in Europe. Some of the most important aspects of the Scientific Revolution included the manner in which printing and paper manufacturing lead to the easier spread of intellectual ideas and the education of ordinary people (Bentley, 2005). Without these advances, the intellectual ideas that emerged from the period would have not spread very widely or inspired the types of demand for social change reflected in subsequent revolutions, such as in France.

In principle, the Scientific Revolution helped open minds toward new ideas that had never previously been questioned on such fundamental issues as the relative place of the earth in the universe elsewhere than at its center (Riley, Gerome, Myers, et al., 2005). More generally, this new awareness of the acceptability of questioning ideas led directly to the introduction of other novel concepts in philosophy, religion, artistic expression, and in the natural rights of the individual in society (Kishlansky, Geary, & O' Brien, 2009). In that respect, the Scientific Revolution also inspired the beliefs and values that led to the French Revolution.

The French Revolution

Toward the end of the 18th century, the French population had grown tired of their oppression under the French Monarchy. Practically all of the French population were members of the lowest peasant class…… [Read More]

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.
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Human Beings Have Continued to Experience Numerous Essay

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61376882

human beings have continued to experience numerous health problems as they age unlike when they are young. This paper presents a review of an analysis of the design of the human body based on an article known as if humans were built to last. The paper examines some of the claims presented by the three authors on their analysis of the human body. The paper also discusses some of the reasons that the authors used to support their claims that the human body was not designed for an extended period of time.

Review of If Humans Were Built to Last:

The article examining the concern about if human were built to last was developed as a result of an analysis on what the human body would be like if it was designed for a healthy long life. Jay Olshansky, Bruce Carnes, and Robert Butler developed the article following their examinations and used fanciful and incomplete anatomical revisions to present their analysis. Despite of the use of incomplete anatomical revisions, the article draws attention to a serious point regarding the design of the human body. This is largely because the authors explore why the human body tends to fall apart at a time when an individual reaches what is considered as the prime of his/her life.

In order to present their case effectively, the authors begin with an outlook of the design of the human body. In this case, they state that though human body is regarded as a living machine, it deteriorates because it was not built to function for an extended period of time. Actually, the human body deteriorates because it's pushed to operate beyond its warranty period, especially when a person reaches the prime of his/her life. This is despite of the fact that the human body is artistically beautiful and precious of the wonder it generates.

Through examination from an engineer's viewpoint, the human body consists of multifaceted network of several components like muscles, bones, valves,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Olshansky, S.J., Carnes, B.A. & Butler, R.N. (2001, March). If Humans Were Built to Last.

Scientific American.
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Human Circulatory System and Oyster Essay

Words: 1722 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65511169

"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.

Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.

"The Wonders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. .

Weight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic melanoma cells in the human circulatory system." Optics Letters 31.20 (2006): 2998-3000. Optics Info Base. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

a, n. "Phylum Mollusca Second Largest Animal Phylum, Slugs, Snails, Oysters, Clams, Scallops, Octupus, and Squid." Interagency Education Research Initiative n.v..n.i. (2006): n.p.. Phylum Mollusca Second Largest Animal Phylum, Slugs, Snails, Oysters, Clams, Scallops, Octupus, and Squid. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

"difference between open and closed circulatory…… [Read More]

Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
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Human Body Decomposition Over Time Essay

Words: 3187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76839575

A decomposition does not end after the soft tissue has disappeared. The skeleton also has a decompositional rate that is based on the loss of organic (collagen) and inorganic components. Some of the inorganic compounds we use to determine the length of time since death include calcium, potassium and magnesium. (ibid)

In a temperate climate for example, it normally takes ten to twelve years to decompose fully to a skeleton. Therefore, the high number of variables involved making exact calculations based on a few characteristics of decomposition are extremely difficult and very often all the possible decomposition factors have to be taken into account.

The role played by microbes and bacteria is extremely significant in the decomposition process, but difficult to use as a dependable measurement in forensics as there are a vast amount of different types of bacteria associated with the decomposition of the body. These include Staphylococcus, Candida, Malasseria, Bacillus and Streptococcus spp. As well as putrefactive bacteria anaerobes. (ibid)

As an experienced researcher in this area states, "... every micro-organism known is involved in some aspect of the human decomposition cycle from Acetobacter to Zooglea." (ibid) Bacteria can also increase the body temperature after death." In some rare cases, the body temperature has actually increased after death before it cools down. Pathologists accredit this phenomenon partly to bacterial growth that goes unchecked after death." (McLemore, J. 1993)

Both bacteria and insects play an important role in the initial stages of decomposition. A good example of this was the exhumation of a soldier buried during the Civil War in the United States. When the coffin was opened it was found that the corpse was relatively fresh. This was due to the fact that, "at the time prominent solders were buried in solid lead coffins - the lead had 'sterilized' the body by poisoning the microflora and decomposition had not progressed past initial autolysis. (ibid)

Another factor that can radically affect decomposition and decomposition rates of the human body is moisture and water which will usually increase the rate of decomposition by as much as four times that of decomposition of a body on dry ground. "Immerse the body in water and skeletonization occurs approximately four times faster; expose it…… [Read More]

Chemistry. [Internet] Adipocere. Available at  [Accessed February 1, 2005.

Decomposition: Free-Template. Available at[Accessed 2 Febraury 2005]
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Human Resource Management Recruitment at USC Identifying Essay

Words: 2092 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29631567

Human Resource Management


Recruitment at USC

Identifying purpose:

Attracting Talent:

Accessing Talent:



Evaluation of Remuneration Strategy of the USC

Strategic Remuneration

HR is Asset

Remuneration is Tactic and A Plan

Salary vs. World Class Program

Strategic objectives

Strategic Objectives

Performance Goals

Performance Measures

Organization and Talent Strategies in Emerging Markets

Attracting the most talented pool of candidates and satisfying their needs and retaining them might seem a simple mathematical formula but it is a really tough challenge for many. University of Southern California for example knew that luring and having people on the board was not enough. They had to offer a culture and system that they could cherish for long.


The process of recruitment is formally defined as process of finding a person as per specific job role and matching the job role with the searched person is called recruitment. Employment opportunities of a firm are reflected in the recruitment process of an organization. Thorough need analysis of the organization is to be made first before starting the recruitment process. Organizational development strongly depends upon the recruitment process. Key factors of an organization that attract people to work with them are personal / professional development, career guidance and training (Recruitment & Selection Process, 2013).

2.1. Recruitment at USC

USC evaluated the university structure and global needs to be successful and then attracted and hired the best possible talent around. The university needs to make decision in terms of evaluating the structure globally and making use of opportunities (Recruitment and Selection Process, 2013). The university understood its needs and fulfilled them strategically in following steps:

2.1.1. Identifying purpose:

The USC evaluated job roles and person perspective to understand what it actually needs. The company wanted to have a quality culture where it has best personnel that could serve the faculty.

2.1.2. Attracting Talent:

This step is about knowing where best people can be found and then…… [Read More]

[1] "Recruitment & Selection Process." RFU. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2013.

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Human Development Essay

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19920041


The anthropologist, Ashley Montagu, developed quite a diverse and versatile number of theories ranging from views on the concept of race, social factors that contribute to crime, the measurement of internal anatomical markers found of the heads of humans, cooperative behavior as it relates to evolution, and understanding biological and cultural dynamics of sex roles and aggression. Montagu stressed gene-environment interactionism which is the notion that heredity is not merely driven by biological factors in humans but represents a dynamic interactive process between one's experiential history and one's genetic potential (Montagu, 1961). One of Montagu's most interesting ideas is that of the need for contact, especially human infants. Montagu designated the typical nine-month pregnancy as uterogestation: the period when the fetus develops within its mother's uterus so that it will be capable of surviving outside its mother's womb (Montagu, 1986). However, Montagu believed that the human infant emerged only "half-done" (Montagu, 1986, p 55). The newborn is immature at birth which is typically about 266-267 days following conception. Thus, according to Montagu, the newborn baby still required to go through a crucial a period of development outside the womb.

Montagu believed that the newborn would undergo an extended period of gradual maturation outside the womb that was crucial to its development. This period would involve the newborn learning about the environment, but also the newborn's body would undergo a complete physiological maturation of its organ systems. Montagu termed this period of maturation exterogestation (Montagu, 1986). During exterogestation the organ of importance was the skin and touch was crucial to the maturation of the newborn. "It is through body contact with the mother that the child makes its first contact with the world, through which he is infolded in a new dimension of experience, the experience of the world of the other. It is this bodily contact with the other that provides the essential source of comfort, security, warmth, and increasing aptitude for new experiences" (your first source). Thus, touch is the primary stimulus for the newborn's full maturation and development. Montagu, who had taught anatomy and physiology to medical students for years, realized the importance of the organ of the skin in the development and maturation of the newborn. "At birth the…… [Read More]

Harlow, H. F & Harlow, M. (1962). Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American, 207,

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Dehydration Impacts on Human Metabolism In This Essay

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41795082

dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.

According to Susan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.

Thus, water is unspeakably essential and the most important nutrient in a human body, comprising up to 70% of muscles and 75% of the brain. The only thing that surpasses water in level of necessity is, oxygen, and yet, with each exhalation, humans lose water, adding up to as much as two cups per day. Moreover, water evaporates unknowingly through the skin surface, making for the loss of an additional two cups per day. In addition, people lose through urination as much as 2 and half pints over the course of 24 hours. During an average day, one healthy adult can basically lose 8 to 10 cups of water (Reilly, 1998).

More than one-third of all Americans are chronically dehydrated. This condition is reached as the body loses 1 to 2% of its weight in fluid, and it can have serious effects on every aspect of bodily function, from memory, to kidney function, to heart rate. In fact, even a mild case of dehydration is a cause for concern, because it leads to fatigue, lethargy, anxiety, and affects muscle and brain function. In serious cases, the body's blood flow decreases, and dehydration pressures the heart into pumping harder in order to keep the blood flowing, which increases the risk for the occurrence of a heart attack.

Main body

Metabolism is the physiological process comprised from a sum of chemical reactions which occur within every…… [Read More]

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Overwintering Turtles and the Implications for Humans Essay

Words: 2460 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17550433

Overwintering Turtles and the Implications for Humans Avoiding Anoxia

Oxygen is necessary for animal life, a truism that is so ingrained in experience and knowledge that few people stop to consider that many animals can go for significantly long periods of time without taking in oxygen. The freshwater turtle is a wonderful example of this adaptive physiology; it overwinters at the bottoms of lakes, and, to do so goes into a state of hibernation that allows it to live at the bottom of the lake without taking in additional oxygen for long periods of time. Scientists believe that two main physiological adaptations enable the turtles to engage in this behavior. First, the turtles' bodies depress their metabolic and cellular processes, which reduces their need for oxygen consumption. However, dealing with the need for oxygen only solves half of the hibernation dilemma; animals also build up lactic acid and this build up can be fatal. Therefore, it is important to understand how . Second, both the turtle's shell and its skeleton function as lactic-acid neutralizes. Between these two processes, turtles can overwinter underwater at just over freezing temperatures, with no oxygen, and extremely high circulating lactate levels for periods of up to four months (Jackson).


It was once common for scientists to believe that turtles, particularly hatchling turtles, were somehow freeze-proof and that their resistance to freezing had something to do with their ability to overwinter underwater. However, more recent evidence suggests that turtles are no more freeze-tolerant than other vertebrates. "Indeed, the weight of current evidence indicates that hatchlings overwintering in the field typically withstand exposure to ice and cold by avoiding freezing altogether and that they do so without benefit of an antifreeze to depress the equilibrium freezing point for bodily fluids" (Packard and Packard). They do not have antifreeze in their systems, but they do engage in a process whereby they remove more freeze-prone elements from their body prior to hibernation. "As autumn turns to winter, turtles remove active nucleating agents from bodily fluids (including bladder and gut), and their integument becomes a highly efficient barrier to the penetration of ice into body compartments from frozen soil. In the absence of a nucleating agent or a crystal of ice to 'catalyze' the transformation of water from liquid to solid, the bodily fluids remain in a supercooled, liquid state" (Packard and Packard). This speculation is backed up…… [Read More]

Costanzo, Jon, Patrick Baker, Stephen Dinkelacker, and Richard Lee. "Endogenous and Exogenous Ice-Nucleating Agents Constrain Super Cooling in the Hatchling Painted Turtle." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 206 (2003), 477-485. Pubmed. Web. 10 Feb. 2012.

Jackson, Donald. "Hibernating without Oxygen: Physiological Adaptations of the Painted
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Zoology Relics of Human Evolution Vemeonasal Organ Essay

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10881646


Relics of Human Evolution

Vemeonasal organ. The vemeonasal organ is a little pit on each side of the septum that is lined with nonfunctioning chemoreceptors. It may have been used for pheromone-detecting ability.

Extrinsic ear muscles. These three muscles most likely made it possible for prehominids to move their ears independently, in the manner of many mammals, such as rabbits and dogs. Many people can learn to wiggle their ears because of these muscles.

Wisdom teeth. Early humans had to chew a lot of plants to get enough calories to survive, so another row of molars helpful. Today, only about five percent of the population has a functioning set of these third molars, which are often removed to avoid problems when they don't fully emerge or emerge sideways.

Neck rib. A set of cervical ribs appear in less than one percent of the population. They often contribute to nerve and artery problems, and these leftover ribs don't seem to be of much help with regard to movement and flexibility.

Third eyelid. Some common ancestor of birds and mammals may have had a membrane for protecting the eye and that could also have functioned to help sweep out debris. It is believed that humans retain only a tiny portion of this membrane in the inner corner of the eye.

Subclavius muscle. This small muscle stretching from under the shoulder from the first rib to the collarbone has no purpose since humans don't walk on all fours. Some people have one, some have none, and a few have two.

Palmaris muscle. This long, narrow muscle runs from the elbow to the wrist. Only about 11% of modern humans have this muscle. It may once have been important for hanging and climbing. Surgeons harvest it for reconstructive surgery.

Male nipples. This lactiferous ducts form well before testosterone causes sex differentiation in a fetus, causing some scientists to believe that the female version of the body is the basic template. In fact, men…… [Read More]

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Organelle Functioning in the Human Cell Essay

Words: 1568 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89357581

a&P Lab

Design Project -- A&P Lab

Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.

About this Organelle

I came up with the idea for this organelle because many diseases and disorders appear to be associated with high blood ammonia levels, and because hyperammonemia is a life-threatening medical emergency. If the human body contained an organelle with the capacity and function to reduce high levels of ammonia in the blood, it would be a tremendous help to people who have damaged livers or have contracted a disease that results in symptomatic high blood ammonia (Prasad, et al., 2007). Several drugs are useful in the treatment of hyperammonemia, including benzoate and phenylacetate (Prasad, et al., 2007). Both of these medications work by converting ammonia into water-soluble forms that the kidneys eliminate effectively (Prasad, et al., 2007).

The imagined organelle is referred to a hydrosome, as it functions similarly to a lysosome, and also contains a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases, just as the lysosome does ("Interactive Concepts"). However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste ("Interactive Concepts"). The hydrosome specializes in the breakdown of protein, which in turn triggers conversion of the ammonia by product ("Interactive Concepts"). In other words, the hydrosome enables the body to utilize proteins by breaking them down through the action of a specialized enzyme complex, but…… [Read More]

Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.

Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved
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Kinesiology Human Kinetics Essay

Words: 2279 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39999107

Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics


Dunking, also known as slam dunk, is a basketball trick in which the player jumps in the air and dunks the ball in the basket with one or both the hands over the rim of the basketball hoop. It is a popular shot among the audience and provides an entertaining experience to the viewers. Slam dunk contests are also held separately due to the popularity of this shot.

Phases of the movement

There are four distinct phases involved in dunking. In the first phase, the player or MJ in this case, extends his body by bending his right knee and extending his left leg so that it propels him off the ground. In the second phase, he is jumping in the air and his right knee is more bent than his left knee. He also raises his right elbow and extends his left arm to the side to get into a neutral position while he is airborne. In the third phase, he extends his right arm even higher so that it goes over the rim and flexes his right wrist to throw the ball inside the hoop. His left hand is slightly behind his body to propel him to push higher towards the rim and both his legs are in the air and this position makes him airborne. In the fourth and last phase, he makes a downward rotation of the wrist and gains his balance while coming back to the ground. These are the four distinct phases involved in the dunking movement.

Major Joints Involved

There are numerous joints involved in this action and kinesiology studies the actions of each and every muscle that is a part of this action. The discussion of joints and muscles used in dunking is divided into the four phases as mentioned above.

First Phase

The first joint is the left and right scapula joint that connects the upper body to the collar bone. These joints are activated when the player throws the ball over the rim. The muscles involved during this action are the middle and lower trapezius that support the arm and make the upward rotation possible and the serratus anterior that is present in the…… [Read More]

Hoffman, Shirl. (2009). Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity. Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Redmond, Kevin; Foran, Andrew; Dwyer, Sean. (2009). Quality Lesson Plans for Outdoor Education. Illinois: Human Kinetics.