Human Anatomy Essays (Examples)

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Anatomy Major Cavities of the Body and

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15740631

Anatomy

Major cavities of the body and their organs:

Our body is made up of solid structures and many cavities. The organs are packed in these cavities and they fill these cavities. The major cavities in our body are: the ventral cavity, which is surrounded by the rib cage and the abdominal musculature and dorsal cavity, which is surrounded by the bones of the skull and vertebral column. (Introduction / Terminology)

Significance and Process of Protein synthesis:

The genetic material of life is DNA. It is present in all the organisms on the earth and it has genetic information, which the organism uses for producing the protein essential for life. The DNA, whether it is in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, it is in the iconic form of the double helix, and it uses the same common genetic code that permits it to be converted to proteins. The procedure of forming proteins from DNA, which is known as transcription and translation are the same in all organisms. DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated to amino acid chain of polypeptide. (Lesson 1: From Genes to Proteins)

3. Glycolysis and ATP:

The transformation of food to energy by the energy…… [Read More]

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Human-Equipment Interface Technological Transformations Have Brought Widespread

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8180048

Human-Equipment Interface

Technological transformations have brought widespread use of machines and tools to the work setting. Owing to this, such concepts as human-machine/equipment interfaces have become increasingly prominent. In its simplest form, human-machine interface (HMI) refers to the point or extent of interaction between a machine and its operator; taken literally, it is the area of the machine and that of the human that interact during the execution of a task. As the use of machines at the workplace increases, the HMI concept becomes more relevant. This is particularly because machines and equipment keep getting rather complicated and advanced, and as users make more and more use of them, the risk of error increases. In this regard, manufactures are under pressure to continually develop tools and machines that align with human anatomy, limitations, and skills to make the user-machine interface safer for users (Flasporer, et al., 2002).

Human-Equipment Interfaces in a Hospital Setting

In a hospital setting, medical practitioners interact with a wide array of medical devices -- for instance, i) they have to feed patients' health and medical records as well as prescriptions into a computer, in which case they interact directly with the screen through the eyes, and…… [Read More]

References

FDA. (2015). White Paper: Infusion Pump Improvement Initiative. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 17 February 2015 from  http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/GeneralHospitalDevicesandSupplies/InfusionPumps/ucm205424.htm 

Flaspoler, E., Hauke, A., Pappachan, P., Reinert, D., Bleyer, T., Henke, N.,…Beeck R. (2002). The Human-Machine Interface as an Emerging Risk. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Retrieved 17 February 2015 from https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/literature_reviews/HMI_emerging_risk

Sawyer, D. (2014). Do it by Design: An Introduction to Human Factors in Medical Devices. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 18 February 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm094957.htm
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Human Body Cavity the Internal

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16317327

The large intestine begins near the lower coils of the small intestines but then ascends up the right side and bend back over the top of the highest loop of the small intestine. Several layers of muscle and sinewy tissue wrap around the area housing the internal organs (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).

The other organs located in the major body cavity include the bladder, gall bladder, and pancreas. In addition, the female body cavity also contains a uterus.

Besides the major internal organs, there are major blood vessels that run down the body cavity directly from the heart and branch off to smaller arteries and veins that carry blood throughout the rest of the body (Iazzetti & Rigutti, 2007).… [Read More]

References

Iazzetti, G, Rigutti, E. (2007). Atlas of Anatomy. London: TAJ Books.
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Human Brain Is a Unique

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47377797

Their brains reflect the major centers that control these functions. The human brain is over and above those animals, such as advanced cognitive skills.

What about the mathematical and scientific abilities of the geniuses? Do their unsurpassed talents have something to do with their brain development? Some studies say that the capacity of learning is greatest when we are young, and as we grow older, it diminishes. Various results of studies suggest that the mathematical abilities result from the integration of two non-numerical circuits in the brain. It is said that the left frontal lobe of the brain controls the linguistic representations of exact numerical values. The other involves the parietal lobes, which is responsible in the control of visuospatial representations of approximate quantities. These lobes are part of the neural circuit that also controls hand shapes and finger movements. There is a possibility that these brain regions contribute to finger counting and finger calculation as the universal stage in the learning of exact arithmetic. On the other hand, do the teaching methods in school have in some way affect our mathematical prowess?

In a way, the brain functions while doing mathematics may have implications for how mathematics is taught,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Discovery Channel (September, 2007). "Development >> How Does the brain develop?" http://dsc.discovery.com/video/player.html?bctid=16927418,Retrieved12 Apr 2008.

Enchanted Learning. (2008). "The Brain."  http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/index.shtml . Retrieved10 Apr 2008.

Gloria Lau. "Keep Your Brain Active." Media News and Journal (2007). Investor's Business

Daily, 05 June 2007. http://www.bookrags.com/news/keep-your-brain-active-moc/.Retrieved10 Apr 2008.
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Human Brain One of the Most Complex

Words: 1683 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10528582

Human Brain

One of the most complex organs in the universe, the human brain, continues to be a scientific mystery. In vertebrate and most invertebrate animals, the brain is the central aspect of the nervous system. The brain can be simple, as in some insects, or extremely complex, as in the human brain which can encompass anywhere from 15-33 billion neurons linked with 10,000 or more synaptic connections. The brain is the control and interpretive mechanism for the senses -- vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. The brain also controls other body systems and organs with the release of chemicals allowing a more centralized, and often speedier, coordinated response to environmental stimuli. In vertebrates the spinal cord is the communication track that links the brain with the rest of the body. And, while scientific progress in many other areas of human physiology has been rapid over the past few decades, much is still unknown about the way the brain communicates, stores information, is descriptive with the release of certain chemicals, and certainly the way the brain ages and becomes diseased.

As mentioned, the brain is extremely complex, but many of the basic functions may be explained by definining the various…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Black, J.a., et.al. (1995). In the Axon. Oxford University Press.

Carlson, B. (2008). Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Mosby.

Carter, Rita. (2009). The Human Brain Book. DK Adult Books.

"DNA from the Beginning." (2007). Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cited in:
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Human Health and the Mind-Body

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76628475

When that process is reduced, many physical ailments have the opportunity to develop in organs that are not functioning optimally because of the reduction in the rate and efficiency of cellular repair. Similarly, the bones themselves can become more fragile and easily fractured because natural bone loss continues while cellular repair and new bone-cell formation slows (Sarno, 1998).

Body fat storage typically increases during prolonged periods of exposure to stress because one of the necessary physiological responses during the evolutionary development of the species was the ability to store calories in times of food resource scarcity (Reding & Wijnberg, 2001). In modern times, the body cannot distinguish between general mental stress and mental stress caused by famine; and as a result, hormones and enzymes responsible for breaking down and burning consumed food calories for energy are reduced while those responsible for ensuring long-term survival in terms of food shortages increase. In modern times, that is one reason why mental conditions such as clinical depression often also result in unwanted weight gain. The other reason is that increased appetite is another part of the physiological response to stress, since consuming as many calories as possible is strategically important in times of…… [Read More]

References

Archer, R. (2005). "Hospitals design stress-reduction treatment to speed recovery."

Westchester County Business Journal. Accessed online January 16, 2012 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132120351.html

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Probst, T.M. "Multi-level models of stress and well-being." Stress and Health, Vol. 26
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Human Alienation

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78909607

Human Alienation

All human beings at one time or another feel alienated, isolated from the rest of the world, totally alone and misunderstood. Young children feel that way often, as they realize that their parents, loving as they are, enjoy certain privileges and rights that young people do not. Moreover, no child has been spared completely from peer-induced isolation, for no matter how popular or likable, each child will feel like an outsider when thrust into a new social group. However, nothing could imply total human isolation and separateness than for a man to be miraculously transformed into a giant insect, forever removed from his human brethren through his very DNA. Becoming a non-human creature becomes the ultimate symbol of human alienation in Franz Kafka's novella The Metamorphosis. Kafka's novella deftly describes the nature of human isolation: its causes and its ill effects. Gregor Samsa's physical condition is one of the key causes of his being isolated from his family, even though it becomes clear that Gregor's isolation was in large part self-imposed. Likewise, the Samsa family isolates itself from the world and only after Gregor's death do they break free of their self-imposed alienation. Alienation, however, is mainly a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kafka, Frank. The Metamorphosis. Full text online at http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm.
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How the Study of Anatomy Intersects Art Specifically Sculpting

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21574406

Art

Since the Greek kouros, sculpture has depended on at least a basic understanding of human anatomy. Anatomy was in fact studied by ancient civilizations independently of its relevance to rendering the human body in two dimensions or three for art. The fusion of anatomy and art reached its first peak during the Renaissance, when artists in Europe longed to deepen their technique and enhance the realism of their human forms and figures. Some artists went so far as to paint anatomy lessons in a display of dramatic irony that brings the viewer face-to-face with the reality that art depends on a solid understanding of the human body. In the middle of the seventeenth century, Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn painted "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp," which depicts the titular doctor and his cadre of students with a corpse. Dr. Tulp uses a pair of scissors to slice into the musculature of the dead man's arm, and several students look on intently:

Part of the reason for the increased interest in anatomy was to improve the quality of art, but there was more to it than that. As religious fundamentalism fell out of favor, science rose to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bambach, Carmen. "Anatomy in the Renaissance." Hellbrun Timeline of Art History. Retrieved online:  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anat/hd_anat.htm 

Eknoyan, Garabed. "Michelangelo: Art, Anatomy, and the Kidney." Kidney International 57(2000): 1190-1201.

Frank, Priscilla. "Everything You Wanted to Know about Human Anatomy in One Art Exhibit." The Huffington Post. 2 October, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/02/anatomy-art_n_4023603.html

Gray, Carl. "Anatomy Art: Fascination Beneath the Surface." British Medical Journal. Volume 223. September 2001. Retrieved online: http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1121254/pdf/698a.pdf
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Revolutions the History of Modern Human Civilization

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88844686

Revolutions

The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.

The Scientific Revolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French Revolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial Revolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.

The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was part of a period referred to as the Enlightenment era in Europe. Some of the most important aspects of the Scientific Revolution included the manner in which printing and paper manufacturing lead to the easier spread of intellectual ideas and the education of ordinary people (Bentley, 2005). Without…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
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Human Beings Have Continued to Experience Numerous

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61376882

human beings have continued to experience numerous health problems as they age unlike when they are young. This paper presents a review of an analysis of the design of the human body based on an article known as if humans were built to last. The paper examines some of the claims presented by the three authors on their analysis of the human body. The paper also discusses some of the reasons that the authors used to support their claims that the human body was not designed for an extended period of time.

Review of If Humans Were Built to Last:

The article examining the concern about if human were built to last was developed as a result of an analysis on what the human body would be like if it was designed for a healthy long life. Jay Olshansky, Bruce Carnes, and Robert Butler developed the article following their examinations and used fanciful and incomplete anatomical revisions to present their analysis. Despite of the use of incomplete anatomical revisions, the article draws attention to a serious point regarding the design of the human body. This is largely because the authors explore why the human body tends to fall apart at…… [Read More]

Reference:

Olshansky, S.J., Carnes, B.A. & Butler, R.N. (2001, March). If Humans Were Built to Last.

Scientific American.
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Human Circulatory System and Oyster

Words: 1722 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65511169

"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.

Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.

"The Wonders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2010. .

Weight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic melanoma cells in the human circulatory system." Optics Letters 31.20 (2006): 2998-3000. Optics Info Base. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

a, n. "Phylum Mollusca Second Largest Animal Phylum, Slugs, Snails, Oysters, Clams, Scallops, Octupus, and Squid." Interagency Education Research Initiative n.v..n.i. (2006): n.p.. Phylum Mollusca Second Largest Animal Phylum, Slugs, Snails,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.

Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.

Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
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Human Body Decomposition Over Time

Words: 3187 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76839575



A decomposition does not end after the soft tissue has disappeared. The skeleton also has a decompositional rate that is based on the loss of organic (collagen) and inorganic components. Some of the inorganic compounds we use to determine the length of time since death include calcium, potassium and magnesium. (ibid)

In a temperate climate for example, it normally takes ten to twelve years to decompose fully to a skeleton. Therefore, the high number of variables involved making exact calculations based on a few characteristics of decomposition are extremely difficult and very often all the possible decomposition factors have to be taken into account.

The role played by microbes and bacteria is extremely significant in the decomposition process, but difficult to use as a dependable measurement in forensics as there are a vast amount of different types of bacteria associated with the decomposition of the body. These include Staphylococcus, Candida, Malasseria, Bacillus and Streptococcus spp. As well as putrefactive bacteria anaerobes. (ibid)

As an experienced researcher in this area states, "... every micro-organism known is involved in some aspect of the human decomposition cycle from Acetobacter to Zooglea." (ibid) Bacteria can also increase the body temperature after death." In some…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chemistry. [Internet] Adipocere. Available at  http://adipocere.homestead.com/chemistry.html  [Accessed February 1, 2005.

Decomposition: Free-Template. Available at http://www.free-template.org/de/decomposition.html[Accessed 2 Febraury 2005]

Decomposition. [Internet] Available at http://deathonline.net/decomposition/body_changes/rigor_mortis.htm. Accessed 2 Febraury 2005]

Decomposition: Wikipedia [Internet] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition[Accessed 22 January 2005] (Health. [Internet] BBC. U.K. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/ask_doctor/death_body.shtml [Accessed January 30, 2005) (How fast does a human body begin to decompose, and what are the products? [Internet] BBC. U.K. Available at http://www.shroudstory.com/faq/turin-shroud-faq-11.htm. [Accessed February 3, 2005)
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Human Resource Management Recruitment at USC Identifying

Words: 2092 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29631567

Human Resource Management

Recruitment

Recruitment at USC

Identifying purpose:

Attracting Talent:

Accessing Talent:

Select:

Appoint:

Evaluation of Remuneration Strategy of the USC

Strategic Remuneration

HR is Asset

Remuneration is Tactic and A Plan

Salary vs. World Class Program

Strategic objectives

Strategic Objectives

Performance Goals

Performance Measures

Organization and Talent Strategies in Emerging Markets

Attracting the most talented pool of candidates and satisfying their needs and retaining them might seem a simple mathematical formula but it is a really tough challenge for many. University of Southern California for example knew that luring and having people on the board was not enough. They had to offer a culture and system that they could cherish for long.

Recruitment

The process of recruitment is formally defined as process of finding a person as per specific job role and matching the job role with the searched person is called recruitment. Employment opportunities of a firm are reflected in the recruitment process of an organization. Thorough need analysis of the organization is to be made first before starting the recruitment process. Organizational development strongly depends upon the recruitment process. Key factors of an organization that attract people to work with them are personal / professional development,…… [Read More]

References

[1] "Recruitment & Selection Process." RFU. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2013.

[2]

"Recruitment and Selection Process." Recruitment and Selection Process. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2013.

[3]
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Human Development

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19920041

Exterogestation

The anthropologist, Ashley Montagu, developed quite a diverse and versatile number of theories ranging from views on the concept of race, social factors that contribute to crime, the measurement of internal anatomical markers found of the heads of humans, cooperative behavior as it relates to evolution, and understanding biological and cultural dynamics of sex roles and aggression. Montagu stressed gene-environment interactionism which is the notion that heredity is not merely driven by biological factors in humans but represents a dynamic interactive process between one's experiential history and one's genetic potential (Montagu, 1961). One of Montagu's most interesting ideas is that of the need for contact, especially human infants. Montagu designated the typical nine-month pregnancy as uterogestation: the period when the fetus develops within its mother's uterus so that it will be capable of surviving outside its mother's womb (Montagu, 1986). However, Montagu believed that the human infant emerged only "half-done" (Montagu, 1986, p 55). The newborn is immature at birth which is typically about 266-267 days following conception. Thus, according to Montagu, the newborn baby still required to go through a crucial a period of development outside the womb.

Montagu believed that the newborn would undergo an extended period…… [Read More]

References

Harlow, H. F & Harlow, M. (1962). Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American, 207,

136-146.

Montagu, A. (1961). Man in process. Cleveland: World Publishing.

Montagu, A. 1986. Touching: The human significance of the skin. New York: Harper & Row.
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Dehydration Impacts on Human Metabolism In This

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41795082

dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.

According to Susan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.

Thus, water is unspeakably essential and the most important nutrient in a human body, comprising up to 70% of muscles and 75% of the brain. The only thing that surpasses water in level of necessity is, oxygen, and yet, with each exhalation, humans lose water, adding up to as much as two cups per…… [Read More]

Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
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Overwintering Turtles and the Implications for Humans

Words: 2460 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17550433

Overwintering Turtles and the Implications for Humans Avoiding Anoxia

Oxygen is necessary for animal life, a truism that is so ingrained in experience and knowledge that few people stop to consider that many animals can go for significantly long periods of time without taking in oxygen. The freshwater turtle is a wonderful example of this adaptive physiology; it overwinters at the bottoms of lakes, and, to do so goes into a state of hibernation that allows it to live at the bottom of the lake without taking in additional oxygen for long periods of time. Scientists believe that two main physiological adaptations enable the turtles to engage in this behavior. First, the turtles' bodies depress their metabolic and cellular processes, which reduces their need for oxygen consumption. However, dealing with the need for oxygen only solves half of the hibernation dilemma; animals also build up lactic acid and this build up can be fatal. Therefore, it is important to understand how . Second, both the turtle's shell and its skeleton function as lactic-acid neutralizes. Between these two processes, turtles can overwinter underwater at just over freezing temperatures, with no oxygen, and extremely high circulating lactate levels for periods of up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Costanzo, Jon, Patrick Baker, Stephen Dinkelacker, and Richard Lee. "Endogenous and Exogenous Ice-Nucleating Agents Constrain Super Cooling in the Hatchling Painted Turtle." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 206 (2003), 477-485. Pubmed. Web. 10 Feb. 2012.

Jackson, Donald. "Hibernating without Oxygen: Physiological Adaptations of the Painted

Turtle." Journal of Physiology 15.543 (Part 3) (2002): 731-737. Pubmed. Web. 10 Feb. 2012.

Overgaard, Johannes, Hans Gesser, and Tobias Wang. "Tribute to P.L. Lutz: Cardiac
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Organelle Functioning in the Human Cell

Words: 1568 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89357581

a&P Lab

Design Project -- A&P Lab

Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.

About this Organelle

I came up with the idea for this organelle because many diseases and disorders appear to be associated with high blood ammonia levels, and because hyperammonemia is a life-threatening medical emergency. If the human body contained an organelle with the capacity and function to reduce high levels of ammonia in the blood, it would be a tremendous help to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.

Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved http://www.ojrd.com/content/7/1/32

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved  http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm 

Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.
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Kinesiology Human Kinetics

Words: 2279 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39999107

Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics

Dunking

Dunking, also known as slam dunk, is a basketball trick in which the player jumps in the air and dunks the ball in the basket with one or both the hands over the rim of the basketball hoop. It is a popular shot among the audience and provides an entertaining experience to the viewers. Slam dunk contests are also held separately due to the popularity of this shot.

Phases of the movement

There are four distinct phases involved in dunking. In the first phase, the player or MJ in this case, extends his body by bending his right knee and extending his left leg so that it propels him off the ground. In the second phase, he is jumping in the air and his right knee is more bent than his left knee. He also raises his right elbow and extends his left arm to the side to get into a neutral position while he is airborne. In the third phase, he extends his right arm even higher so that it goes over the rim and flexes his right wrist to throw the ball inside the hoop. His left hand is slightly behind his body…… [Read More]

References

Hoffman, Shirl. (2009). Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity. Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Redmond, Kevin; Foran, Andrew; Dwyer, Sean. (2009). Quality Lesson Plans for Outdoor Education. Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Milner, Clare. (2008). Functional Anatomy for Sport and Exercise. Kentucky: Taylor & Francis.

Pangrazi, Robert; Dauer, Victor. (1979). Lesson Plans for Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.
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Endocrine System in the Human

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57127349

Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)… [Read More]

References

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
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Cardiovascular System Allows Humans to Survive It

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76406900

Cardiovascular system allows humans to survive. It is an essential component to the very complicated machinery that guides the functioning of the human body. It is this reason that has led to numerous research projects in order to discover news ways of making the heart function better. By improving the heart, the remainder of the body will be able to better operate. It was with this exact purpose that research teams were able to come up with a way to regenerate cardiac muscle cells in order to reprogram the heart into making new cells and repairing itself. As explained in Scientific American (2012), the heart already has the capacity of regenerating itself, however, the regeneration process is an extremely low one, and is tremendously limited. The actual study conducted by Eulalio et al. (2012) and published in Nature (2012) provides the proof necessary to support the idea of cardiac cell regeneration and how the exact mechanisms could be sped up in order to have a better success rate.

The regeneration of cardiac cells is essential to the prevention of further heart disease and eventual failure. As explained in both Scientific American (2012) and Eulalio et al. (2012), heart cells are…… [Read More]

References:

Smith, K. (2012) Heart Cells Can Be Coaxed to Regenerate at Low Rates. Scientific American.

Eulalio, A., Mano, M., Dal Ferro, M., Zentilin, L., Sinagra, G.,Zacchigna, S., & Giacca, M. (2012). Functional screening identifies miRNAs inducing cardiac regeneration. Nature. 492(7429), 376-381.
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Psychological Research of the 21st Century Human Memory

Words: 7275 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3668581

Human Memory

Psychology

This literature review upon human memory will cover a fairly wide spectrum of ideas regarding the subject. While there will be a number of connections among the divisions or categories of this literature review, there will certainly be several distinctions or differences among them. The psychological research a part of the review will span, roughly, the duration of the 21st century thus far, with a few sources of research having taken place in 1999, just before the turn of the century. The review will approach the selected body of psychological research on human memory by dividing the research loosely into the following sections: memory distortion, repressed memories, body memory, and the changes in perspective on memory with respect to appropriate psychological/psychotherapeutic treatment.

The section of the review that focuses upon memory distortion will identify that memory distortion does, in fact, occur. The research presented in that section will additionally attempt to describe what the factors of memory distortion are. Research in this section will additionally discuss why because of memory distortion, why memory cannot be the only or primary evidence in a criminal investigation, or in other matters of law. The section of the review regarding repressed…… [Read More]

References:

Conway, M.A. & Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000). The Construction of Autobiographical Memories in the Self-Memory System. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261 -- 288.

Health Services Commissioner. (2005). Inquiry into the Practice of Recovered Memory Therapy. Health Services Commissioner of Australia, Victoria, AU. Print.

Johnson, M.K. (2001). Psychology of False Memories. International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences, 5254 -- 5259.

Leijssen, M. (2006). Validation of the Body in Psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46(2), 126 -- 146.
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Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans the Curiosity

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96879358

Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans

The curiosity to study origin and birth of human beings has shaped a holistic subject, paleoanthropology, which mainly focuses on the origin of modern human beings or Homo sapiens (Matthew and Nitecki, 1994).For about 30,000 years, the Earth has been inhabited by humans that carry anatomical and behavioral uniformity. The situation70,000 years before was clearly different and diverse groups of hominids preceded the modern Homo sapiens; in Asia Homo erectus prospered while in Europe and the East there were Homone, erthalensis and Homo sapiens, respectively. The different populations of humans differed in their bodily phenotypes or anatomy studied through fossil record that was obtained through archaeological mining. Theories to explain this transformation have been proposed: one that suggests a single origin forall modern humansi.e., the Out-of-Africa model, and another proposing Multiregional Continuity.

Genetic studies have indicated that the last ancestor common between chimpanzees and humans lived about 6 to 7 million years ago (mya) and from among these the oldest fossils of hominids from 4.4 mya belonged to Australpithecusramidus, who possessed distinct morphological features attributed to humans (White et al. 89).However, approximately 3.8 mya, Australpithecusramidusevolved into an even better and more human-like species Australpithecusafarensis (Kimbelet…… [Read More]

References

Frayer, David W., et al. "Theories of modern human origins: the paleontological test." American Anthropologist 95.1 (1993): 14-50.

Kimbel, William H., Donald C. Johanson, and YoelRak."The first skull and other new discoveries of Australopithecus afarensis at Hadar, Ethiopia."Nature 368.6470 (1994): 449-451.

Klein, Richard G. "Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins."Journal of World Prehistory 9.2 (1995): 167-198.

Lahr, Marta Mirazon. "The multiregional model of modern human origins: a reassessment of its morphological basis." Journal of Human Evolution 26.1 (1994): 23-56.
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Scientific Effects of Smoking on the Human

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96151006

scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.

Smoking and its effects

Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli. Every alveoli has the covering of very small blood vessels known as capillaries, the capillaries are so small that blood's cells line up in a single file through them.

Whenever we breathe the air passes through the windpipe and goes through bronchus towards the alveoli, here the oxygen from the…… [Read More]

References

Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.

Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.

Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
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Irresistible Impulses Robert Traver's Anatomy

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46460477

Manion himself finds it ironic that if he had caught Quill in the act and killed the rapist, he would have been exculpated from any guilt. The time lag between finding out about the crime and killing Quill seems like a mere technicality to the Lieutenant and morally justifies Manion's actions in his mind, even though he knows he murdered Quill according to the law.

According to the events presented as by Biegler, despite the fact that the Lieutenant was able to search for and find Quill, have enough presence of mind to arm himself, and then turn himself over to the authorities, he had obviously 'blacked out' during the commission of the crime, and had no recollection of the action. Biegler states to the jury that the Lieutenant "while he felt considerable loathing and contempt for the proprietor he had at no point has any intention of killing or harming" Quill even though, when he went looking for Quill, he took his wife's pistol with him (Traver 361). Needless to say, this seems improbable in the extreme. The absurdity of the scenario is conveyed by Biegler's long 'hypothetical question' about a 'hypothetical defendant' submitted to the defense psychologist, testifying…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Phelps, Shirelle. "Insanity Defense." Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. Gale Cengage, 2003.

eNotes.com. 2006. 23 May, 2010

http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia / insanity-defense

Traver, Robert. Anatomy of a Murder. New York: St. Martin's, 2005.
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Hepatitis C Anatomy of the Liver the

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33410947

Hepatitis C

Anatomy of the Liver

The liver is found at the upper right hand portion of the abdominal opening just under the diaphragm, but over the stomach, right kidney and intestines. It is a cone shaped organ that weighs approximately 3 pounds and appears to be dark red in color (USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease, 2012).

(1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder

The liver has two main sources of blood; blood from the hepatic artery, which is oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the hepatic portal vein. The liver contains up to one pint of the host body's blood supply all the time. It has two main lobes comprising of myriad of lobules. These lobules are also linked to tiny ducts that are also linked to larger ones from hepatic duct. The hepatic duct is the bile conduit from the liver to the gallbladder and duodenum.

Hepatitis C and Liver Functions

One unique characteristic of the Hepatitis C virus is that it presents those infected with different experiences. Some patients are able to clear the virus at…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008, June 23). Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from www.cdc.gov.

USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease. (2012). About the Liver. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/abouttheliver.html
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Hodgkin's Disease - Human Lymphatic

Words: 2766 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81244452

Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)

Effects on Bone Marrow

Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer spread, physicians remove the marrow from the back of the patient's hip or other large bone. (Kaeseoglu; Senayli; Bicakci; Onuk-Filiz; Et al, 2007)

Other Extreme Effects Itching related to Hodgkin's disease produces much more severe sensations than those accompanying dry skin. In some reported cases, patients actually scratched through their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518.

Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html.

Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri.

Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
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Tourette Syndrome the Human Condition

Words: 2284 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72324891

Globus pallidusinterna (GPI) of the patient was treated through DBS. The internal pulse generators (IPG) helped stimulate the inner cognition area of patient's brain. Since the study employed Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for assessing the results after intervention, lateral assessment indicated that 84%improvement in YGTSS was observed by the researchers. Thus, DBS as an effective intervention treatment is corroborated by two results of two independent research studies.

Many people report that since Tourette syndrome is a spectrum condition (that is it ranges from mild to severe and that too depends on the age of the sufferer) therefore associated characteristics and symptoms tend to become less severe as the sufferer ages. What a Tourette syndrome patient requires most is no extensive cure in the form of administered medication, but instead an encouraging environment and dedicated support system which makes it possible for him or her to lead a completely normal life. (Leckman & Cohen, 1999)

Attention and Occupational Therapy: Piacentini, et al. (2010) addresses the issue of attention and occupational therapy of people with Tourette syndrome. The treatment of this chronic disease was proposed to be treated behaviorally. Piacentini also conducted a random trial to assess the behavioral interventions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brambilla, a. (n.d.). Comorbid Disorders in Tourette Syndrome. Tourette Centre - IRCCS Galeazzi Milano. Retrieved March 2013

Buckser, a. (2006). The Empty Gesture: Tourette Syndrome and the Semantic Dimension of Illness. Purdue University. University of Pittsburgh- of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. Retrieved March 2013, from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/20456601 

Coffey, B., Berlin, C., & Naarden, a. (n.d.). Medications and Tourette's Disorder: Combined Pharmacotherapy and Drug Interactions. Retrieved March 2013, from http://www.tsa-usa.org/aMedical/images/medications_and_tourettes_berlin.pdf

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (n.d.). 4th Edition, 103. American Psychiatric Association.
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Neanderthal and Modern Human Differences

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85517753

Bone is very fragile and rock slides, cave-ins etc. could cause damage to the bones after the demise of the skeleton's owner. Trinkaus maintains that among the examples of supposed violence, only a few exceptional cases stand up to scrutiny. This would include the Shanidar 3 Iraq rib bone that undoubtedly betrays injury from a thrown spear. Trnkaus further maintains that this is the only absolutely conclusive evidence found of a violent encounter between modern man and his Neanderthal cousins (ibid. 143).

Although less definitive, Shanidar 1 shows injuries that might have been due to a violent encounter, although and accident can not be ruled out, although it is not clear whether the atrophied right arm was amputated or was due to a blow to the left side of the skull that caused paralysis to that right arm. Other Shanidar cave skeletons had only minor injuries, none of which proves conclusively whether violence was involved.

What is certain is that the Shanidar skeletons are old. Many show signs of arthritic degeneration and probably died at advanced ages between 40 to 60 years of age.

Most of the other Neanderthal remains from Europe show the same issues. On the positive side,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Trinkaus, Erik. "Hard Times Among the Neanderthals." Ghosttn.com. 15 Apr 2010.

.
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Neuroscience and Adult Development

Words: 5856 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32161450

Neuroscience and Human Development

One of the most noticeable aspects of human beings involves the changes in shape, size, form, and function of the individual from a newly formed fetus to a fully grown adult. As the single most successful organism on Earth, human beings have developed, through millions of years of evolutionary adaptations, integrated yet malleable systems involving biological, physiological, emotional and intellectual components. This paper will review some of the most prominent theories of human development, discuss the nexus of human development and the neurological processes involved in the human body, and analyze the development and life progression processes human beings experience from birth through death.

Much of the success of human beings is attributable to the very design of the human body; including a large bi-pedal body, a brain that is disproportionately large relative to that of body size, as well as an extended period of childhood, during which significant formative transitions occur (Ulijaszek et al., 2000). With an unusually large brain than other organisms on Earth, humans have certain, distinct advantages in the struggle for survival and dominance over other animals. For example, our ability to reason, to analyze, and interpret information quickly has provided a…… [Read More]

References

Bear, Mark F., Connors, Barry W., & Paradiso, Michael A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain (3rd ed.). USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bhise, S.B., & Yadav, A.V. (2008). Human Anatomy and Physiology. India: Nirali Prakashan. Human Anatomy and Physiology

Cavanaugh, John C., & Fields, Fredda Blanchard. (2006). Adult Development and Aging (5th ed.). USA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Clark, Robert K. (2005). Anatomy and Physiology: Understanding the Human Body. USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
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Shoulder Biomechanics

Words: 1841 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85603707

Biomechanics of the Shoulder

Since the time of Leonardo di Vinci's pioneering exploration of the human anatomy, man has recognized the perfect union of form and function found in the shoulder joint. Providing a fortuitous combination of mobility and stability, the shoulder joint complex permits a wide range of motion that differentiates human arm movement from that of lower animals. Examined from the unique perspective offered by modern biomechanical research, the shoulder joint is considered to have played a pivotal role in the human evolutionary process, enabling man to better utilize projectile weapons by developing accurate throwing techniques, among other advantageous adaptive qualities. Today, the study of shoulder biomechanics is an essential component of clinical orthopedic care, sports medicine, mechanical injury rehabilitation and a wide array of other fields. By conducting a thorough review of the prevailing research on shoulder biomechanics, the splendidly simple yet efficiently effective structural composition of this foundational joint can be more fully revealed. The following literature review is intended to demonstrate the biomechanical perfection of the human shoulder, synthesizing clinical research published during the last two decades in an attempt to assess the important part played by this joint in facilitating efficient, painless and powerful…… [Read More]

References

Ludewig, P.M., & Braman, J.P. (2011). Shoulder impingement: biomechanical considerations in rehabilitation. Manual therapy, 16(1), 33-39. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010321/ 

Lugo, R., Kung, P., & Ma, C.B. (2008). Shoulder biomechanics. European journal of radiology, 68(1), 16-24. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0720048X08001277

Nordin, M., & Frankel, V.H. (Eds.). (2001). Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system.

Wolters Kluwer Health.
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Hematology and Its Practice

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58136264

Hematology is the branch of medicine that deals with blood. This includes functions of blood, organs and organisms in the body that create blood, and diseases that are concerned with the blood. Each component of the blood has an equally important role and the body cannot function properly if one of these abilities is in some way hindered. Blood itself is composed of plasma, platelets, and red and white blood cells. Each of these parts work together inside the human body in order to make a fully-functioning human; if any of the components of the blood fail, the rest of the body will not be able to function properly.

Adult humans have approximately five liters of blood in their bodies at one time. The most abundant cells in human blood are red blood cells. These cells are proteins which create iron and function to allow oxygen to travel throughout the body (Franklin 2011). Although most people believe that blood is always red, that is actually only the color once the blood has been oxygenated outside the body. Internally, blood is blue or purplish in color. Like skin cells and other body parts which degenerate, die, and then grow anew, red…… [Read More]

References:

"Blood Basics" (2010). American Society of Hematology.

Brass, Lawrence (2010). "Understanding and Evaluating Platelet Function." Blood. (1): 387-96.

"The Human Heart" (2011). The Franklin Institute.
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Renaissance the Trend in Medicine

Words: 2914 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48408487



It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.

The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and, in places, through its whole tract, the inner surface was unequal and ossified... The delay of blood in the aorta, in the heart, in the pulmonary vessels, and in the vena cave, would occasion the symptoms of which the woman complained during life; namely, the violent uneasiness, the difficulty of…… [Read More]

References

1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.

History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007

Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet,  http://www.lsumc.edu.com , Accessed May 12, 2007

Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
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Vitruvian Man the Concept of

Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71789780

However, starting from this, Leonardo was able to use this conclusion in his mathematics work and "rationalize irrational geometry of square root of 2."

The rationalization mentioned in the previous paragraph is not only related to the proportions that exist between the different body parts, but also to the easiness with which the square and circle can be constructed and how these two perfect geometric shapes are correlated. As such, the drawing initially starts with the square. If rotated by 45 degrees, the square will result in a vertical geometric projection of itself. The difference between the extremity of the projected square and the side of the initial square will form the diameter of the circle. Calculated in palms, the area of the circle is 660 palms, while the area of the square is 576 palms. This makes for the differences between the two areas 84 palms, important because of the relevance of the figure 4 as a mystic number.

Much of the manuscript containing the drawing of the Vitruvian Man suggests the mystical importance that Leonardo attributed to the existent proportions in the human body. The text itself was written in mirror writing and Leonardo's idea with the Vitruvian…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Vitruvius. Ten Books on Architecture. Translated by a committee, edited by Ingrid D. Rowland and Thomas Noble Howe; Cambridge University Press, 1999

2. Place, Robert. Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. 2000. On the Internet at http://thealchemicalegg.com/VitruviusN.html.Last retrieved on December 7, 2008

3. Turbeville, Joseph. An Angular Perspective of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man. From "A Glimmer of Light from the Eye of a Giant: Tabular Evidence of a Monument in Harmony with the Universe.

4. Bowman, David. Vitruvian Man. 2008. On the Internet at http://www.aiwaz.net/a6.Last retrieved on December 7, 2008
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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928160

Androstenedione

In the Major League Baseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the Baseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can consider both these compounds the same. The chemical formula for androstenedione (correctly, 4 www.bdchem.com/prod-e.htm" -androstene-3,17-dione) is C19H30O2. Its molecular weight is 290.45 (times the weight of a hydrogen atom or 1/12th of a Carbon atom). Its structural formula is presented in the following figure:

In the -diol version the double…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
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Functions of the Skeletal System

Words: 1025 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70872691



Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.

The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and had she been made to rest until help arrived.

Scenario 2

You are at a friend's outdoor barbecue on a hot summer day. One friend, who is drinking beer and sweating profusely, begins to complain of a headache and indigestion; suddenly faints. What has happened? How could you determine if…… [Read More]

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Shin Splints From Ecs Conditions

Words: 4210 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40062881



Practical Research Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I

The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.

Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts to reduce vertical clearance to a minimum; and (3) increased surface contact of the sole and the running surface in a manner designed to decrease the magnitude of the highest spike in compressive load transmitted from the foot to the tibia on each foot-fall.

To reduce the risk of other…… [Read More]

References

AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from:  http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .

Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS

Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved

October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
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Social Context of Hysteria in Freud's Time

Words: 1947 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69384582

Psychology of Hysteria During Sigmund Freud's Era

For a man who dedicated his life's work to furthering humanity's understanding of its own psychological processes, the revolutionary pioneer of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud remained woefully misunderstood during his own era, and has so ever since. Although Freud published a voluminous body of innovative research during his professional career as a neuropathic researcher, studying a wide array of cognitive disorders from addiction to aphasia, it is the Austrian's radical reimagining of the human mind's very structure that has made Freud a household name for multiple generations. By conceiving of the mind as being similar to an iceberg floating in the sea -- with only a small portion of the entire entity ever visible -- Freud's conceptualization of the human psyche as a behavioral balancing act between the id, the superego, and the ego, with thought occurring at both the conscious and subconscious levels, proved to be a truly groundbreaking theory that still generates intense scholarly debate to this day. Coming of age during an era of unprecedented empirical investigation, Freud's groundbreaking theory of personality -- and the accompanying theory of psychoanalysis used to decipher the mysteries of the conscious, unconscious and subconscious --…… [Read More]

References

Bornstein, R.F. (2003). Psychodynamic models of personality. Handbook of psychology.

Freud, S. (1896). "The Aetiology of Hysteria." The Standard Edition of the Complete

Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Trans. James Strachey, 24, 1953-1974.

Freud, S., & Breuer, J. (1895). "Studies in Hysteria." The Standard Edition of the Complete
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Ancient Cultures the Purpose of

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55561573

Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.

Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world, this making them feel less vulnerable against the real world.

Perhaps this is one of the reasons their gods were represented as humans and performing human roles, in an attempt to endow humans with the capacity of immortality which was one of the greatest preoccupation in their culture. Many artists…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.

Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge

Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
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History of Surgery

Words: 6608 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18946792

History of Surgery had been started from the prehistoric time with its appropriate technique and tools applicable during the age. There was no sophisticated care of hygiene and anatomic knowledge in the early days; the basic research was started using trial and error on every case and it had set a very strong basic which still makes sense and counts into modern practice.

The following summary of history of surgery is compiled from various sources based on the timeline set in dr. Schell's lecture: The History of Surgery.

The Ancient Medicine (Prehistoric Time)

People had strong magic beliefs and connection to multiple gods during the prehistoric time, so that any cases of illness were also believed as the punishments from angry gods for community's or one's moral failure. Some common cases recorded were respiratory and digestive problems, infections, and gynecologic disorders. Life expectancy low, then 28-35 years was a successful range of survival. Cancer and degenerative diseases were not relevant at that time.

The early surgery practice in Europe was trepanation, drilling a hole in the head. Evidences found skulls with holes from the Neolithic European ages, about 7000 years ago. Since supernatural beliefs was very strong, the cranial drilling…… [Read More]

Bibliography

13.3 Trephination, An Ancient Surgery. http://www.uic.edu/classes/osci/osci590/13_3%20Trephination%20An%20Ancient%20Surgery.htm. March24, 2002.

Anaesthesia History. The Surgery Door Pain Centre by Neurofen. http://www.surgerydoor.co.uk/coe/paincentre/anaesthesia.shtml. March26, 2002.

Anesthesia: A Brief History. Feb 13, 2001. Simon Fraser Health Region. http://www.sfhr.com/anesthesia/abrief.htm. March26, 2002.

Bune, Matt and Gregor, Pam. Ancient Egyptian Surgery ed. Majno, Guido. The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1982. pp. 86-121. http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/prehistory/ancienttech/ancient_egyptian_surgery.html. March26, 2002.
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Metatarsal Stress Fracture and Complications

Words: 2769 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92504585



Footwear

Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.

Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when the foot rapidly decelerates against the walls of the shoe

(Logan, 2009).

Injury Treatment in the Acute Phase:

R.I.C.E

As always, the primary treatment for athletic injuries involving inflammation or trauma begins with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), all designed to minimize the accumulation of blood and synovial fluid…… [Read More]

References

Barsom, R. (2005) Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture

Mechanics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Cullen, N. & Hadded, F. (2004). How would you manage the painful midfoot? Pulse,

64(24), p.50 -- 52. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from EBSCO online database.
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Anterior Cruciate Ligament or ACL

Words: 2193 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30046943

Researchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).

The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).

A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered from an ACL injury show signs of osteoarthritis, and studies show that almost all of these ACL injury sufferers will have osteoarthritis after 15-20 years irrespective of treatment choice (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In preventing osteoarthritis, having good muscle function is key, but it isn't understood very well if reconstructive…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.

Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.

Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.

Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from  http://ehealthmd.com
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Technological Fix and Anatomical Body

Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 466693

Technological Fix and Anatomical Body

19th and 20th Century Surgical Fixes

During the 1800s, surgery had become a common medical procedure due to the discovery of anesthesia which was used in reducing pain during surgery.[footnoteRef:1] In addition, technological fixes were in place for correcting medical conditions such as the removal of tumors. During this period, medical practitioners were able to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures in the body which ensured they knew the organ's positions and could conduct surgery of various body parts easily. [1: Porter, R. (1999). The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. Fontana Press.]

Following the in-depth understanding of human anatomy and use of antiseptics as well as anesthesia, towards the end of the 19th century, surgeons started performing new types of surgery including dissection of the abdomen, brain, and spinal cord.[footnoteRef:2] In line with this, by the start of the 20th century, improved diagnostic and treatment methods ensured surgery became more effective. It was during this period that Conrad Roentgen, a German physicist unveiled X-rays in 1895 to 'photograph' the inside of the body; this invention greatly changed the way surgery was performed.…… [Read More]

Additionally, the patient's illness was an exaggeration by the doctor according to critics. The statements by the doctors were inaccurate since the patient was constantly agitated, cried a lot, and never cooperated in anything her sister did for her. Besides, the patient had had three-week admission in a private sanitarium and medication from other medics which never helped her. Besides, she protested medical exams always refusing to undergo intelligence tests.

"Examination disclosed a well-nourished woman, about 60 years old, with the classical mien of agitated depression. The tissues were flabby, and there were enormous circles below the eyes. 'There was no significant alteration in the neurologic examination; the retinal arteries showed a mild degree of sclerosis; the blood pressure was 222/128 and the heart was somewhat enlarged. Quite frequently she snorted and cleared her throat with a loud noise (a phenomenon observed in at least three other patients of this series). The hands were warm and dry, and the agitation seemed to be rather superficial"[footnoteRef:6]. [6: Ogren, K, and M. Sandlund. "Psychosurgery in Sweden 1944-1964." Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 14 (4), 2005: 353-367.]

Dr. Freeman's invasive surgery method made the procedure risky, bringing about several side effects. This surgical intervention was ultimately banned since it never treated the condition and with the discovery of better medications led to its decline[footnoteRef:7] while new methods of treating mental illness are present at present, frontal lobotomy should not be disregarded since during this time, it was the only treatment methods available. [7: ibid]
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Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel

Words: 1409 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 876756

Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel

This work has been and truly is a beacon of our art, and it has brought such benefit and enlightenment to the art of painting that it was sufficient to illuminate a world which for so many hundreds of years had remained in the state of darkness. And, to tell the truth, anyone who is a painter no longer needs to concern himself about seeing innovations and inventions, new ways of painting poses, clothing on figures, and various awe-inspiring details, for Michelangelo gave to this work all the perfection that can be given to such details. (Web Gallery of Art, 2012)

The Sistine Chapel is one of the most well-known works of art in the world. It was painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti. In Italian, its name is Cappella Sistina and in Latin its name is Sacellum Sixtinum. The paper will focus upon the chapel, but more specifically to the ceiling of the chapel, which is considered a masterful work in of itself. The paper will contextualize the creation and provide analysis of the content. The Sistine Chapel is a work of art that has great significance in with respect to art history and with respect to Christianity.…… [Read More]

References:

Art and the Bible. The Sistine Chapel. 2012, Web, Available from:  http://www.artbible.info/art/sistine-chapel.html . 2012 October 07.

Katz, Jamie. The Measure of Genius: Michelangelo's Sistene Chapel at 500. 2009, Smithsonian, Web, Available from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/The-Measure-of-Genius-Michelangelos-Sistine-Chapel-at-500.html. 2012 October 07.

Michelangelo.com. The Sistine Chapel Ceiling. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-index2.html. 2012 October 07.

New World Encyclopedia. Sistine Chapel. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Sistine_Chapel. 2012 October 07.
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Dangerous Beauty Michael Paterniti Uses

Words: 5625 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66454747



Based on what is present in the essay, it seems as if you do not really have a problem finding beauty in the work of the Nazis, or benefiting from their atrocities, but rather maintained a false sense of ambivalence throughout the essay in order to make it more compelling. However, it also seems likely that you would attempt to maintain a distinction between finding your essay entertaining and finding beauty in Pernkopf's book, if only because the essay's ambiguity points towards an unwillingness to follow your own positions to their logical, if sometimes uncomfortable, ends. The question your essay poses is a crucial one, and it is regrettable that you were unwilling to answer it sufficiently.

Assignment 4: Making a Scene

Scene:

Reading about the Holocaust is a little bit like reading science fiction, because everything is at once familiar and entirely alien. Movies and television have made almost everything about World War II easy to imagine, from the mud and steel of tanks rumbling across Europe to the finely detailed symbols and insignias of the Nazis' uniforms, but the Holocaust can still only ever be approached from a distance, and you can never get as close to it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angetter, Daniela C. "Anatomical Science at University of Vienna 1938-45." The Lancet

355.9213 (2000): 1454-7.

C, Raina MacIntyre, Catherine L. King, and David Isaacs. "Ethics and Access to Teaching

Materials in the Medical Library: The Case of the Pernkopf Atlas." Medical Journal of Australia 184.5 (2006): 254-5.
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Michelangelo's Zeal for Defying the

Words: 5345 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12110367

His loyal servant, Urbino, died too in 1556. Though he was known for his temperamental temper, tagged as the terrible Michelangelo, no friends or companions, had complexity in dealing with others and only used boys as his assistants, his desire to glorify and serve God through his works was insurmountable.

His solitude reflects his attitude to be wholly absorbed and engrossed with his craft, sacrificing even his personal happiness for the divine gift of his art. Indeed, he was quoted as saying, "I am here in great distress and with great physical strain, and have no friends of any kind, nor do I want them; and I do not have enough time to eat as much as I need; my joy and my sorrow / my repose are these discomforts." (Morgan Library 2010).

B. Success of visual effects

The success of visual effects used by Michelangelo was boundless. His works of art were recognized as works of a genius and was considered the greatest influence on western art in the last five centuries. He was unparalleled at his time and flourished in rendering his divine gift of art in the service of the Catholic Church. His works such as The…… [Read More]

Works Cited: Annotated Bibliography

Afshar-Nader, Kamran. "Iranian architecture today: A bridge between east and west.

1996.

Abaadi, Summer. "Roman influence on later works." 1996. No. 21. Pg 18-23.

This article describes the importance of Iranian architecture, and discusses
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High Renaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

Words: 2264 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47664445

High Renaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists

The Renaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The Renaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and Roman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and Rome are often called classical antiquity. The Renaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.

The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated a religious aspect that included God, salvation, while also concentrating on the possibility of saving their souls. Paintings included images that were often filled with religious overtures and evil temptations. Dark colors were incorporated and area also characteristic of the Renaissance period. Artists included human figures within their paintings that…… [Read More]

References

Leonardo da Vinci." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 40. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC

Michelangelo Buonarroti." Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 43. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC

Molho, A. "Renaissance." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2004 at http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar464720.

Summers, D. "Michelangelo." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. Retrieved April 24, 2004, at http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar359360.
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Misconceptions of Science Sex and Gender

Words: 1363 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52965332

Science of Sex and Gender

Midterm Exam About Two Articles

Science is defined as the attainment of knowledge through practice or study. The concerted human effort in understanding better how the natural works using observable physical evidence is science (Chalmers p.4). There are many definitions of science and all point to one thing. Science involves making observations and studying in order to explain natural phenomena's. Without observation and study, it would not be possible to explain in a logical manner the various happenings that take place naturally. The interesting thing about science is the fact different theories can be formulated to explain the same phenomena. The hypothesis a scientist uses will determine the conclusions they make. Science is interesting because it offers people different explanations to why something happens and all the reasons could be logical or truthful. Having different meaning or theories explaining the same phenomena makes science a complicated notion. This is because people might get confused and uncertain of what is correct. When you analyze sex and gender from a scientific point-of-view, there are different reasons why there is a huge difference between males and females. In human anatomy, the differences are clear, but in other animals…… [Read More]

References

Chalmers, Alan F. What Is This Thing Called Science? Indianapolis, in: Hackett Publishing, 2013. Print.

Oudshoorn, Nelly. "Endocrinologists and the Conceptualization of Sex, 1920 -- 1940." Journal of the History of Biology 23.2 (1990): 163-86. Print.

Shields, Stephanie a. "Passionate Men, Emotional Women: Psychology Constructs Gender Difference in the Late 19th Century." History of Psychology 10.2 (2007): 92. Print.
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Greek Project 1272 ART204 Formal Research Project

Words: 2160 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52279146

Greek Project 1272

ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012

Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.

Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques

There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and the last and fourth period being the Hellenistic period. The developments of the Greek sculpture will be discussed from the archaic period till the Hellenistic period in this section.

a. The Archaic Period

The inspiration of archaic period came from the stone sculptures that were used to make monuments in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.
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Health System in Kuwait

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44394796

Health System of Kuwait

The Managerial Functioning of Kuwait's Health Care System

General Description of the Kuwait Health System

Kuwait claims to have one of "the most comprehensive health care systems, and one of the most all-encompassing social service systems in the world" (KIO, 2003). This health care system has offered free - or nearly free - services to the entire population of Kuwait for about fifty years.

If a Kuwaiti citizen is sick, that person is cared for at no charge; if a person is in an auto accident, or needs an examination for an emerging skin irritation, health service is provided. Free health service is also extended to veterinary medical care for livestock and animals. If a sheep herder finds one of more of his animals is diseased, veterinarians will provide care for that disease. If a family dog is hit in the road and suffers broken legs, a Kuwaiti government veterinarian will provide medical service for that family's dog.

A brief history of the origins of the Kuwait health care system is germane to a thorough understanding of the issues. The very first medical clinic for men in Kuwait was built in 1911, and the first hospital…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser, & Moussa, Mohamed A.A. "Nutritional status of Kuwaiti elementary school children aged 6-10 years: comparison with the NCHS/CDC reference population." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 51 (2000).

Al-Jaralla, Khaled (1996). "History of Medicine in Kuwait." Center of Research

Study of Kuwait. http://hsccwww.kuniv.edu.kw/RESOURCES/history.asp.

American Red Cross (2001). "American Red Cross Responds Quickly to Kuwait
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Greek and Indian Art From Ancient Times

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82703933

Ancient Art from Greece and India: A Comparison

Art is a cultural phenomenon that perpetuates consistently throughout the world. Each time period and culture has its own artistic sensibility, often connected to the cultural, political and religious values of the time. The art of ancient Greece and India is no exception to this. While significant changes occurred throughout the centuries that could be consider "ancient," a comparison of certain works shows the similarities and differences between what could be essentially regarded as the Western and Eastern cultures of ancient times.

In ancient India, for example, art tended towards being largely introspective. Hence, environmental and political elements did not play as important a role as the internal elements of mind and introspection. In terms of iconography, therefore, religious and metaphysical concerns take precedence over influences of culture and environment. In terms of this, the Indian idea of Pramana, or "creation of truth," was the ultimate concern. Art was concerned about creating the ideal proportion in terms of physical representation. This was the ultimate concern, as opposed to any distracting influences such as emotion. Environment remains secondary.

In this sense, symbols play an essential part in depicting the mentality and devotion of…… [Read More]

References

Ancient-Greece.org. (2015). Athena Nike Parapet Frieze. Retrieved from: http://ancient-greece.org/art/athena-nike-parapet.html

Caroun.com (2015). Ancient Indian Art. Retrieved from: http://www.caroun.com/art/pakistan/ancientindianart.html

Pisani, L. (2013, Aug. 6). The Ajanta Cave Paintings. The Global Dispatches. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobaldispatches.com/articles/the-ajanta-cave-paintings