India's Outsourcing Firms
Select the appropriate answer from the list and briefly discuss your reasons
The strategy behind attempts by Indian software and outsourcing companies to enter the Japanese market could be termed (c) global integration.
The Indian software and outsourcing companies have worked to enter not only the Japanese economic and business market, but to do so with a level of cultural integration in mind. This is a highly important component of global expansion in business (Wager, 2009). Indeed, the business person must be able to communicate at a certain cultural level in order to make a success of the business (Nelson, 2011). This is something that Indian companies have been highly aware of, providing cultural training for their employees. It is only with a high level of cultural sensitivity that foreign companies can successfully enter a new global market. This is particularly true in the case of Japan, which has been notorious for its parochial, traditional outlook. The eventual success of Indian companies in this market has shown the wisdom of the cultural sensitivity approach.
2. One particular trait of Japanese firms that Indian software and outsourcing companies have noticed is (c) a parochial outlook on global competition.
Japanese companies have traditionally been closed to influences from the outside world. Businesses are family oriented and homogeneous. It is…… [Read More]
High tariffs have contributed to the United States $8 billion-plus trade imbalance with India (India, 2004).
There have been numerous diplomatic and business lobbying efforts over the past several years to further open India's markets to American goods. And, to a certain degree, those efforts have achieved success. India has reduced tariffs on a number of product categories and has cut its basic ceiling tariff rate from 25% to 20% (India, 2004). However, there were notable exceptions to that cut and India's average weighted tariff actually increased to 28% in 2004 compared to 21% in 2001 (2006 Index, 2006). In short, tariffs continue to be high in key product categories.
The good news is that India has been receptive to discussions on lowering its tariffs, but India still remains a protectionist economy that is not completely open for business. The government even controls pricing in certain sectors - such as energy and pharmaceuticals - and tries to regulate pricing in others (India, 2004). India's trade practices remain a sticky issue in U.S.-Indian relations and have closed off the Indian market to some American companies. Although dialogue is ongoing, this is an issue that will need to be addressed.
Arguably India's most pressing security issue is its rivalry with northern neighbor Pakistan, and most of the dispute between the two countries centers around who should control Kashmir in northern India. The dispute over Kashmir - which dates back to even before Pakistan's founding in 1947 - has led to wars between the two sides and frequent lower-level military conflict and terrorist attacks. Both India and Pakistan have aggressively courted the United States' support on the Kashmir issue and have been disappointed by America's near neutrality, even though the United States probably has limited ability to mediate the conflict (Kapila, 2002). Both sides are suspicious about any words or activities from American officials that would seem to indicate the U.S. supporting one side or the…… [Read More]
A lack of any national system subjects individual citizens to the costs of the healthcare system on the whole. As Rao (2006) reports, "public expenditure on health care today is a dismal 0.9% of GDP; the overwhelming majority of health costs are paid by patients out of pocket. For many, even minor illnesses can cause big financial setbacks, and hospitalisation is out of the question." (Rao, 1) the poor indicators for health discussed here throughout are particularly implicated here, with the understanding that the Indian government has willfully failed to positively impact the healthcare system and its severe limitations as an agency for the delivery of public health.
That stated, there is today a most concerted effort at bringing India into line with the ambitions of the world community. Its policies see India moving toward the uptake of a universal healthcare system which seems to be emerging from the environment of heavy foreign investment elevating India's broader economic fortunes.
A nation conventionally and correctly regarded as one stricken by poverty and a dysfunctional distribution of wealth, nonetheless, India has "today become the tenth largest economy in the world with a GDP of over $166 billion. " (Dickenson Associates, 3) This rise in status should not be seen as unexpected. Certainly, it has been a long and difficult climb out of the disadvantages foisted upon it by its history as a deeply conflicted British colony. Nonetheless, India is today a veritable bastion for democracy in a part of the world otherwise resistant to many of the strains of modernity. And in accompaniment with its great expansion has been the increased level of interest that it has attracted from foreign investors, who believe that India has shown the potential to be a center for the capitalist development of South Asia. Private equity investment in India has paralleled its rise in world economy ranking. According to the Bain & Company (2006) capital management firm, "the private equity market in India, which attracted $2.2 billion in investment capital in 2005, will reach nearly $7 billion in 2010." (Krauss, 2) This relatively short-term project parallels a belief by many that India is a top destination for investment funds, with its future growth likely meaning widespread spoils.
Among these widespread spoils, India's government has poised it to begin the process of availing healthcare to the whole of its population.…… [Read More]
The United States supported Pakistan by sending a naval force to the Bay of Bengal. This resulted in a straining of relations between the two countries. India was expected to be a responsible nonaligned nation by denouncing the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. It chose to play the role of a silent spectator and did not take any action.
India invited the wrath of the United States as they refused to condemn the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. India did make up for its past mistakes eventually by improving relations with the United States, China, Countries in the South Asian Bloc and other developed nations while maintaining ties with the Soviet Union. There was a big change in India's policy when the 1990s saw the disintegration of the Soviet Union which resulted in the death of the bipolar political system in the world. This forced India, which was already suffering from economic problems to reassess its foreign policy to face its domestic and international problems.
India's foreign policy had its shares of ups and downs. Its policy led it to suffer a military debacle against China and forced it to reevaluate itself. Their policy prevented it from globalizing early and made their economy suffer from poor growth. India has gone a long way past its close ties with the former Soviet Union.… [Read More]
Answering one form of the question, "Is there an Indian way of thinking?" Ramanujan (1989) states, "There is no single Indian way of thinking…Each language, caste, and religion has its special worldview. So, under the apparent diversity, there is really a unity of viewpoint, a single supersystem," (p. 41-42). The pluralism of India is not a colonial construct, and nor is it even a modern one. India's diversity and multiculturalism has been embedded in the fabric of its society for millennia. Most critical analyses that attempt to attach singular monadic identities onto India are not only prejudicial but categorically false. Considering the quantitative dominance of Hinduism throughout the subcontinent, it is miraculous from a sociological standpoint that so many strong minority faiths find expression, support, and celebration. "The diversity, fluidity, and complexity within as well as between cultures precludes a reification of their differences and allows one to avoid the kind of monadic essentialism that renders cross-cultural engagement an a priori impossibility," (King, 1999, p. 3). Hinduism is far from monolithic itself, and never has been. The projection of a singular identity onto India is a faulty premise, for India has never presumed the world to be as simplistic or as boring as that. As Ramanujan (1989) points out, there is a unifying "supersystem" that serves as a cultural web in India. This supersystem functions much like the American identity functions in the United States: it provides the means by which to embrace multiplicity under a shared rubric.
From within this kaleidoscopic lens, it is possible to view all ethnic and religious groups in India as being integral to the whole and yet possessing its unique character, culture, and creed. There is an Indianness about each group, but there is also a non-Indianness to all religions save for Hinduism, its counterparts like Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and indeed all religions actually born and bred in India. Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism are the most notable foreign-born faiths that have flourished on Indian soil…… [Read More]
India's Population Challenges
The United Nations (UN) reports that the world's population stood at about 6.5 billion in 2005, and is growing at about 1.2% each year. The UN projects that by 2050 there will be 9.1 billion people populating the planet, which as a stand-alone statistic is somewhat frightening, given that rapid growth is expected "in a group of 50 countries classified as the lease developed" (UN, 2005, p. 1). Between the years 2000 and 2005, about 76 million persons were added to the world's population each year, and India was responsible for 22% of that population growth (China added 11%). Indeed India is expected to overtake China "as the most populous country in the world by 2030" (UN). India added about 16.5 million people per year in the 2000-2005 period, while China adds only about 8.4 million people per year in that same window of time, the UN reports. What are the problems India faces that are associated with its fast-growing population? This paper reviews those problems and issues through the available literature.
The Literature on India and its Population Explosion
An article in the International Conference on Mathematical Biology (Thukral, et al., 2008) reports that due to India's "…fast depleting resources" it is "mandatory" that India begin to bring its exploding population under control. A better standard of living for the estimated 1,155,347,700 individuals living in India (World Bank, 2009, www.google.com/publicdata).
can only be achieved if population growth is brought under control, Thukral writes (p. 137).
This strategy will require "regulating the instantaneous specific growth rate through rigorous family planning measures," Thukral continues (138). The authors explain that it is "disturbing" to realize that the gender ratio in India has declined from 972 females to 1000 males in 1990 to a ratio of only 933 females to 1000 males in 2001; more males means more babies born. What has been responsible for this decline in females vs. males? "The preference for the male child in India" is the answer, Thukral explains on page 140. The trend now needs to be towards more women…… [Read More]
India is a culturally rich and vibrant land. Its traditions stretch back to one of the oldest civilizations in human history, the Indus Valley civilization, which blossomed during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. ("India") and reached northwestern India. The Indian culture as we know it today emerged when Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded the subcontinent about 1500 B.C. ("India") and mixed with the original Dravidian culture. South Asia was united during the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., peaking during the rule of Ashoka ("India"). India experienced a Golden Age experiencing a blooming of science, art, and culture during the Gupta dynasty. Islam was introduced to India via a series of invasions that spanned 700 years. The Delhi Sultanate was established in the 10th and 11th centuries through the invasions of the Turks and Afghans. Emperor Babur established the Mughal Dynasty in the early 16th century which rules India for another three hundred years ("India").
Europeans began visiting India during the Mughal Dynasty, however, by the 19th century Great Britain was the prevailing political force. The British Indian Army participated in both World Wars. India gained its independence through years of non-violent resistance, led by Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Their year of independence is 1947 ("India"). India was portioned into two separate states, the predominately Hindu India and the majority Muslim state of Pakistan. Three wars have been fought between the neighbors since 1947, the last war fought in 1971 resulting in the creation of Bangladesh ("India").
Modern India has a number of problems including corruption, overpopulation, environmental problems, and widespread poverty ("India"). However, there has been economic growth since economic reforms in 1991 and a significantly large youthful population are propelling India's rise a local and global power.
India lies in South Asia, bordering the Arabian…… [Read More]
India and Commodity Sample
Commodity production, in many countries, provides both economic and financial stability for its constitutions. In many instances, commodity production can determine overall prosperity of a particular nation, heavily dependent on its production. Many emerging countries, for example, depend heavily on exporting commodities to other more developed nations. Examples include oil from South America, oranges from Brazil, sugar from Costa Rica, and manufacturing from China. As the articles indicate, India is dependent on the textile industry with respect to the production of clothing. As such, government policies and societal norms designed to help this industry flourish are very important to the overall prosperity of the nation. In addition, globalization provides added financial incentive in which to specialize in a particular trade. Being a low-cost producer in the textile industry for instance, provides India with a competitive advantage relative to its rival Asian countries. As such, it can better position itself to prosper through commodity production. However, as will soon be illustrated in this document, many factors determine the extents to which commodity production can help the country flourish. Aspects such as communism, inequality, political unrest, and more, can help abate the economic influences of commodity production.
To begin, the article entitled, "Creating Fame and Fortune from the Ruins of Handloom in Korala, Southern India," explains the relationship to governmental policies and overall economic prosperity. As mentioned in the introduction, India is particularly reliant on the textile related manufacturing. This due primarily to its low cost of labor, combined with its burgeoning middle class. As India is the second most populous country in the world, it naturally has the ability to use a large force within its commodity industries. This labor force has the ability and willingness to produce commodity related products at relatively low costs. As the article alludes to, labor, in regards to commodity production is often the highest expense in which a business…… [Read More]
This brought about significant change in India. As a result of the First Opium War, China had ceded Hong Kong and opened five more ports to the British. This allowed the British better access to the Chinese market, and it was opium, at first from India, that they sent to trade, in particular for in-demand products such as Chinese tea. In turn, profits from opium sales in China were funneled back into strengthening the British presence in India (Biswas, 2008).
As this trade with China expanded, India became more strategically important. When India was administered by the British East India Company, the primary objectives of the British on the subcontinent were to send goods from India back to Britain. It was the opening of the Chinese market that demanded change for the British in the way that they administered India. India was no longer a property strictly with economic value, India was now a territory of key strategic interest. The Great Uprising of 1857 only reinforced to the British that company rule would need to be replaced with something stronger (Ahmed, 2007).
The result was that the British were compelled to strengthen their presence, and this resulted in the creation of the British Raj. The Raj was created to take control of the subcontinent away from the company and place is squarely back in the command of the crown. The creation of the Raj formalized British control and ushered in an era of rapid expansion in Asia, including multiple wars and a wide range of infrastructure projects in India.
India had provided the means for the British to trade with China, and this trade in turn had a significant influence on British policy in India. The Konbaung Dynasty in Burma was caught in the middle, and the British ultimately realized…… [Read More]
India, a primarily Hindu country, is emerging as a player in the software industry. With over 1 billion people within her borders, India's culture is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Such a vast pool of talent intertwined with cultural identity makes for an interesting breed of workers, and, at the top of that chain, a fascinating approach to managing these workers.
Sunil Jalihalm, CIO of eVector Mobile, a wireless software provider in Bangalore, India, was born in raised in India and has worked in various executive positions in India and America. Thirty-six years old and he has already worked at several large and start-up companies - several here in America. The toughest part of management has, and always will be, surprisingly enough, the actually managing that must be done. Not the management of decisions and the direction of the company, but leading the people underneath you. Understanding them, relating to them in a manner that they will respect and follow loyally and with one hundred percent. To effectively manage one must understand the people underneath him/her and the appropriate managing style to deal with those people. The physical infrastructure of America's Silicon Valley and India's equivalent in Bangalore "have been very similar for a few years now," states Jalihalm. However, the people behind the machines, the people that need to be managed, have idealistic differences. The general culture of IT companies across the world is similar. Computers will be computers. Indian engineers are rival Silicon Valley workers in creativity, eagerness to do new things, and technical knowledge. However, the basic Indian philosophy of "knowledge for knowledge's sake: don't expect to get any gains from it" holds true for the Indian workers while American workers tend to be more specialized, utilizing the knowledge for specific reasons. Indian workers are more emotional, believes Jalihalm.
Jalihalm, an expert in managing companies in India and the United States, has a bird's eye view on Indian Management. He says that Indian management style is a combination of the American/European and Japanese/Asian styles, because neither approaches can be directly applied to the Indian workforce. "There needs to be a combination of applying structured management techniques, which include driving/guiding people out of their complacency; handling the emotional side of your team;…… [Read More]
Dan Ramirez and Susan Perdorna are interested in starting up a new company in Banglore, India and wish to locate some R&D Staff there and a small sales force to tap into the Indian market. Their families are also interested in the opportunity to invest. The type of corporate governance that they will select to manage the venture is a critical success factor in the new business division's success. The both the managers and investors will undoubtedly have to deal with the principal-agent problem given that the venture is oversees. Since the investors will be foreign based they will want to ensure that they are given rights and treated equitably as shareholders. They will also want to ensure that their agents act with integrity and maintain ethical business behaviors at all times. Furthermore, the investors will want to ensure that there is full disclosure and transparency.
To achieve all of these objectives, Ramirez and Perdona, are their respective families, will want to form a corporate model with a board of directors. The company could choose a local manager to oversee daily operations and have the board present to provide oversight as well as vote on any major decisions. This would ensure that the stakeholders could have a say in major decisions. Foreign members of the board should vote by proxy on major decisions that the company makes. The governance that the board operates by will dictate the decision making process and should be well thought out given the international commerce situation. There…… [Read More]
Today, industries that are dominated by human services including it, consulting and pharmaceuticals have low tariffs. For FDI-based strategies to be successful for consumer products, the multinational corporations (MNC) looking to expand into India will need to be much more culturally aware and sensitive than the it outsourcing companies hiring call center agents, programmers and systems analysts. For a consumer products company to succeed they will need to navigate the many laws and regulations of running a business in India, negotiate for lower tariffs to import products, and build a supply chain in India as well. It is attractive for MNCs looking to expand into India using Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) strategies, yet they must concentrate on the cultural sensitivities of the country first, partner closely with the Indian government, and establish supply chains that immediately infuse local economies in India with capital. The Indian government has become more accepting of FDI by consumer companies expanding there, yet there must be a plan to achieve cultural integration and infuse regions with economic growth quickly if these plans are to succeed (Shroff, 2008).… [Read More]
India is amongst the most populated nations in the world and is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The economy of India has been an important in the study of world economies for many years. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a detailed view of India's economy. We will focus on Current Statistics such as; exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, Gross National Product, and Gross Domestic Product. The discussion will also discuss the currency that the country currently utilizes. In addition, we will examine current trading partners and policies. We will also discuss trade agreements and dominant industries and companies. Finally, our discussion will focus on the black market transactions that take place in the country.
According to the world fact book India's economy consist of agriculture, participation in a large range of industries, village farming, and handicrafts. (India) The factbook explains that India's large population has crippled the economy of the country. (India) Other threats to India's economy include conflict between religious and political groups throughout the country. (India)
Exchange Rates, Inflation and Interest rates
According to the Universal currency converter at the current exchange rate 1.00 USD is equivalent to 44.6884 INR. Like wise 1.00 Euro is equivalent to 54.1701 INR. (Universal Currency Converter) Inflation was at 5.91% for the week ending February 7, 2004. Current interest rates for FNCR deposits in India are between 1.19 and 1.35 for 1-2-year loans. (Banknet India) The rates are 1.00 to 2.14 for 2-3-year loans and they are at 1.40 to 2.76 for 3 yr loans. (Banknet India) Interest rates for other instruments are displayed in the graph below, which was taken from India Profile: Monetary system, currency and exchange rates.
Deposit Rate3 (>one year)
Call Money (Borrowings)
364 days T-Bills
Relates to January 15, 2003
Relates to December 27, 2002…… [Read More]
India has also become a major proponent of technology and labor exchange in order to promote growth and break down societal and economic barriers (Embassy of India, no date).
Lastly, the Indian foreign economic policy with regards to the United States has been a key driver of economic growth. The U.S. is India's largest trade partner, and services export has become a hallmark of that trade. India has a strong comparative advantage in the English language vs. other major developing nations and has leveraged this through the building of increased trade channels with the United States. India began to forge stronger trade ties with the Clinton Administration, in concert with internal economic modernization policies. Since that point, trade has become a critical part of India-U.S. dialogue, complete with the easing of economic sanctions from the U.S. And a series of agreements and joint governmental alliances. India has become much more proactive in its trade-related U.S. foreign policy, including forming an opposition group of developing nations to the Byrd Amendment.
Much of India's economic miracle can be traced to shifts in its economic foreign policy over the past dozen years. Trade has become the most important aspect of Indian foreign policy and now characterizes relations between India and its major trading partners, in particular the United States and the Gulf States. This paper proposes to analyze these policy shifts and the reasons why they were made.
Works… [Read More]
India's sacred cow" by Marvin Harris explicates the religious, social, and even practical uses of the cow, strengthening Indians' belief in the sanctity of the domesticated animal. Harris' thesis argues that "[t]he sacredness of the human cow is not just an ignorant belief that stands in the way of progress. Like all concepts of the sacred and profane, this one affects the physical world; it defines the relationships that are important for the maintenance of Indian society." From this main point, this summary and analysis paper looks into the religious ritual of considering the cow as a sacred symbol of Hinduism.
The article first elucidates on the practical uses of the cow, an imperative step towards developing Harris' arguments later, explaining why the sacredness of the cow became an important religious ritual in India. Drawing from the activities, processes, and nature of agricultural farming history in the country, Harris establishes how ancient methods of farming reflect the importance of cow, whose ability to produce oxen enables farmers to accomplish farm plowing and other strenuous farm activities that human labor alone cannot finish immediately and easily. Apart from its reproductive capabilities to produce oxen, cows are also essential in producing milk and other forms of dairy products. Even cow dung becomes an important energy source. The cow's usability goes beyond its usefulness; maintaining cows require minimum economic expenditure, since they thrive on unconsumed vegetables and foods that humans no longer need.
These practical uses of the cow in India has become an integral part of the society and hence, this is strengthened by imposing in Hinduism that cows are considered sacred symbols of health and life, preventing Hindus from killing…… [Read More]
During the 1980s, to help spotlight international concern regarding the unprecedented nuclear arms race, India joined the Six-Nation Five-Continent joint.
Amidst India's resolve to maintain its commitment to nuclear disarmament, it consistently opposed discriminatory treaties like the Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); holding its nuclear options while other countries hold their nuclear weapons/options (India's Foreign
Another contemporary concern involves the fact that different departments report different figures regarding the exact number of Indians who live abroad. Anirudhan Sampath, CPI-M, has demanded that India give voting rights in the electoral process of India to those Indians who live abroad.
Yadav cautions India that Pakistan has sent weapons to India through Nepal and Uttar Pradesh, and warns that India need to constantly be on our guard; that China and Pakistan have never been friends of India and that they never will be. Vijay Bahadur Singh, claims that India does not actually have a definite or consistent foreign policy (Foreign policy… 2010). He argues that India should implement two kinds of foreign policy for its neighboring countries:
1. One for weaker neighbors and
2. One for stronger neighbors (Singh, quoted in Foreign policy… 2010, ¶ 6).
Singh asserts that China wants to economically destabilize India. He also perceives Pakistan to be one of India's the weak neighbors but claims that in diplomacy, Pakistan beats India (Foreign policy… 2010). Somini Sengupta (2006) recounts a number of historical conflicts between China and India in the article, "China-India relations go beyond borders Hu visits New Delhi to shore up ties, but the true competition is global reach." For India, overtures such as Hu, the Chinese president visiting India, the first Chinese president to do so in 10 years, as did the announcement of the potential deals like the expansion of trade and further nuclear cooperation proved to be substantial irritants. New Delhi, due to some hangovers from the…… [Read More]
India and U.S.: Poverty and Millennium Development Goals in relation to Globalization
India is selected as the welfare state under study in this paper, with a focus on poverty, one of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDG), and highlights the question of how globalization contributes to, or ameliorates poverty in India. The conditions in India are analyzed herein, and compared with those in the United States (U.S.). This paper concentrates on ascertaining the influence of globalization on penury (extreme poverty and/or destitution) in India. For that purpose, it is essential to first define both globalization and poverty, prior to evaluating the extent that globalization has impacted such poverty, if any.
Definitions: Globalization and Poverty
The appropriate beginning here is first to define our terms: specifically, what is globalization? One definition describes it as the interchange of culture, ideas, and products such that the result is international integration. In business terms, globalization is active when an AT&T customer in the United States (U.S.) calls for service and speaks to an AT&T representative whose office is in India or the Philippines. Similarly, when Apple products and/or parts are being made in China and then sold in the U.S., or the salmon you buy in the market has a label 'farmed in Thailand', this is globalization.
2. What then, is 'poverty'?
Poverty is both specific and relative -- it denotes a state wherein the individuals concerned lack basics that are essential requirements for 'normal' life, which would be water, food (adequate nutrition), shelter, an income, access to health care, and even education. There are those whose state of poverty is dire -- they may lack access to clean water on a daily basis and not have sufficient food to fulfill basic nutritional requirements. Yet, poverty can also be relative, as some individuals who would be considered in a 'state of poverty', say in the United States, might be considered as considerably above the poverty line…… [Read More]
This is mainly grounded in government's denial of actual economic and social conditions of the country. It appears that either the government officials are completely unaware of the situation in the country or they are hell-bent on ignoring the truth that's staring them in the face. This is clear from following statement of former Prime Minister Rao when he began one of his speeches by "delineating the social structures into three segments. The crust, according to him, consists of about six crore (1 crore= 10 million) people, who do not need to be canvassed about economic reforms. The next layer contains 25-30 crore people belonging to the middle classes, who are beginning to appreciate the benefits of liberalization. It is the next segment, of 55-60 crore of lower income and poor people who remain unappreciative of the changes in the economy."(5)
The political structure itself is not exactly wrong. The party-system has worked in favor of people by generating more awareness about country's social and economic issues. However this system has been used to brutally maim the entire country, its people, its economy and almost everything else. India's democracy is more or less a sham as Dreze and Sen argued:
It is in terms of these broader egalitarian concerns that India's record has been most disappointing and that the scope for action may be particularly extensive.... The importance of local democracy is not confined, of course, to this issue of public services, or other instrumental roles of intrinsic value for the quality of life. Indeed being able to do something not only for oneself is one of the elementary freedoms which people have reason to value. The popular appeal of many social movements in India confirms that this basic capability is highly valued even among people who had very deprived lives in material terms.…… [Read More]
Emerging Superpowers: India & China
The global integration of China & India reflects their emergence as powerful modern economies.
From a global perspective, China's impact is truly staggering. (Harris, 2005)
Globalization has been a force for good. China and India are its greatest success stories. (Bandow, 2011)
Some avid movie goers or comic book readers are already familiar with the term "superpower." There are also a number of informed economists, political scientists, and trend forecasters that understand the term "superpower" in a different sense. This word gets thrown around in the press and in the media quite often when referring to countries of distinctive power and influence beyond a specific level, which is not often described or qualified. This begs the average person to ask, what is a superpower and what makes a country a superpower? For the purposes of this paper, the focus will be limited with respect to this term. The paper will assess and consider the applicability of the term superpower with regard to two specific countries, recently deemed potential superpowers by various experts & pundits around the world: India & China. The paper endeavors to understand how such a change to these countries came about, what becoming a superpower means for these countries, and what their potential superpower-dom means for the greater world.
Each country is considered a superpower for distinctive reasons indigenous to that specific country, while at the same time there are characteristics that both countries share that qualify them as emerging superpowers. There is no doubt that despite what label India & China have on them, they are two of several countries that have changed the economic, educational, technological, and in some ways, social landscapes of their own countries and the world in general.
The paper contends that if these countries continues on the upward swing of development in key areas that affect the global market economy, they will grow and be regarded as world superpowers within several years to a few decades. Growing into a country that is a superpower is not a spontaneous endeavor; it takes time and a great deal of factors to work in the country's favor and be in sync. A culmination of factors in conjunction with fortuitous circumstances have set the right stages for India & China to emerge as superpowers…… [Read More]
The protests also highlighted the tensions created between by the reservation policies of the government when 4 people were killed in a clash between another Rajasthan community -- the Meenas, who are already included in the lowest category of castes -- and the Gujjars, who were demanding the downgrade (Ibid.)
Another drawback of the reservation system in India is that it has only helped the privileged "creamy layers" of the Scheduled Castes, creating a 'super-caste' within a caste, while a vast majority of the underprivileged dalits, adivasis and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) have not benefited to a significant extent. The policy also severely compromises quality and the notion of meritocracy that is so essential for meaningful competition in an increasingly globalized world community.
Despite serious problems with India's reservation policy, it continues to thrive and even expand in scope. This is mainly because politicians have a vested interest in promoting the politics of reservation: it keeps the lower castes satisfied and the more cynical politicians even use it as a tool for consolidating their vote bank. The alternative to this 'easy way out' is more difficult and takes greater effort on the part of policy-makers: it includes provision of free or affordable, quality education in schools which are accessible to everyone; land reforms that re-distribute to the actual cultivator, strict implementation of minimum wages, and a policy of true meritocracy that does not discriminate on the basis of caste or creed.… [Read More]