Leadership Theory Essays

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Leadership Theories the Objective of Essay

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18598898

The four Blanchard leadership styles include:

1) directive;

2) managing;

3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)

2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)

V. CHARISMATIC THEORY

Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's mission. (Clawson,

Charismatic leaders have the following: (1) high self-confidence; (2) strong conviction in their own beliefs; (3) creation of the impression that they are competent; (3) are able to articulate ideological goals well for subordinates; (4) appeal to the hope and ideals of followers; (5) use role-modeling; (6) communicate high expectations; and (7) arouse the motives tied to the mission of the group. (Clawson, 1989) Conger and Kanungo's "Attribution Theory of Charisma" Leadership outlines two process that these types of leaders use to influence their subordinates: (1) Personal identification - the leader is admired by followers and want to become more like the leader; and (2) Internalization of values and beliefs - this process is one that goes deeper than personal identification. (Clawson, 1989)

VI. TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY

This approach to leadership theory is viewed as a "process in which leaders and followers both inspire one another to elevated moral conduct. The 'Warren Bennis' Theory of Leadership holds that leadership occurs "in a content defined by three elements: (1) Commitment of the culture to excellence and improvement; (2) complexity of the culture/society; and (3) Credibility. Transforming leadership is distinguished from transactional leadership as follows:

Transforming leadership Transactional leadership

Intellectual Legislative

Heroic Group

Executive Bureaucratic

Ideological Reforming

Revolutionary

Source: Clawson (1989)

Transformational behaviors include:

1) idealized influence;

2) individualized consideration;

3) intellectual stimulation; and 4)…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).

Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
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Leadership Theories and Practical Application Essay

Words: 5554 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 940525



The benefits of high-quality relationships come from relational resources (Wright, et al. 2005) they create. Such resources include durable obligations (e.g., arising from feelings of gratitude, respect, and friendship), network contacts and connections (including privileged access to information and opportunities, social status, and reputation of influential others), and the ability to have open information exchanges with those around them (Valle & Halling, 1989).

Relationships that do not develop so well are considered lower quality. These relationships are not as beneficial for the individuals involved or for the organization as a whole (Gerstner & Day, 1997; Liden et al., 1997). Lower quality relationships are described as contractually defined, formal exchanges based on limited trust and in-role interactions (Luthans, 1998). These types of relationships generate management rather than leadership. They are characterized by lack of mutual respect, formal downward communications, little mutual understanding, limited support and commitment for one another, and no mutual obligation (i.e., a "stranger" relationship) (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1991a). Findings have shown that lower quality relationships are negatively related to satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors, and commitment, and are positively related to turnover (Gerstner & Day, 1997). Uhl-Bien and Maslyn (2003) recently found evidence of an even more extreme case of low-quality relationship, which is characterized by negative reciprocity, or an exchange of injuries (e.g., negative social exchange, Ruehlman & Karoly, 1991).

Thus, based on relational leadership theory, effective relationships may generate mutual influence and understanding that allow leaders to more effectively perform their roles.

Assumption 3. Leadership influence to make alteration is enabled by effectual relationships.

Yet, despite the value of high-quality relationships for organizations, not all relationships are high quality. Given the findings from LMX theory, we know that low-quality relationships are not beneficial in terms of many aspects of organizational functioning, so they are not desirable in organizations, but they still are prevalent (Gerstner & Day, 1997). Moreover, in some cases we may even have negative, or dysfunctional relationships (Uhl-Bien & Maslyn, in press). Why is this,…… [Read More]

References:
Bass, B.M. 2005. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bauer, T.N., & Green, S.G. 2007. Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 1538-1567.