Leadership Theory Essays (Examples)

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Leadership Theories the Objective of

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18598898

The four Blanchard leadership styles include:

1) directive;

2) managing;

3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)

2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)

V. CHARISMATIC THEORY

Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's mission. (Clawson,

Charismatic leaders have the following: (1) high self-confidence; (2) strong conviction in their own beliefs; (3) creation of the impression that they are competent; (3) are able to articulate ideological goals well for subordinates; (4) appeal to the hope and ideals of followers; (5) use role-modeling; (6) communicate…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).

Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.

Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.

Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
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Leadership Theories and Practical Application

Words: 5554 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 940525



The benefits of high-quality relationships come from relational resources (Wright, et al. 2005) they create. Such resources include durable obligations (e.g., arising from feelings of gratitude, respect, and friendship), network contacts and connections (including privileged access to information and opportunities, social status, and reputation of influential others), and the ability to have open information exchanges with those around them (Valle & Halling, 1989).

Relationships that do not develop so well are considered lower quality. These relationships are not as beneficial for the individuals involved or for the organization as a whole (Gerstner & Day, 1997; Liden et al., 1997). Lower quality relationships are described as contractually defined, formal exchanges based on limited trust and in-role interactions (Luthans, 1998). These types of relationships generate management rather than leadership. They are characterized by lack of mutual respect, formal downward communications, little mutual understanding, limited support and commitment for one another, and no mutual obligation (i.e., a "stranger" relationship) (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1991a). Findings have shown that lower quality relationships are negatively related to satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors, and commitment, and are positively related to turnover (Gerstner & Day, 1997). Uhl-Bien and Maslyn (2003) recently found evidence of an even more extreme case…… [Read More]

References

Bass, B.M. 2005. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bauer, T.N., & Green, S.G. 2007. Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 1538-1567.

Burns, J.M. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Cox, T., & Beale, R.L. 2008. Developing competency to manage diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
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Leadership Theories Change in Response

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6372423

However, Avery points out an important shift in managerial leadership styles. She sees it as a shift in the balance of power within an organization, rather than a shift in the way managers perform their daily tasks. She states, leadership involves letting go of conventional notions of control, order, and hierarchy, replacing them with trust and an acceptance of continual change, chaos, and respect for diverse members of the organization...the members are expected to be self-managing and self-leading (Avery, 29-30).

This statement summarizes Avery's view of how leadership styles will evolve in the future. The balance of power is shifting from the leader to the employee. In the future, employees will continue to become more independent and to seek their own methods of self-management. Leaders will have to be wiling to let go and become more of a guidance counselor than an authority figure. This trend was perhaps the most significant point made in Avery's book.

Avery supports her theories regarding changing leadership styles with examples and case studies from real companies from around the world. It would be difficult to obtain quantitative information to support the theories presented in this book. Qualitative evidence is not as reliable as quantitative…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Avery, G. Understanding Leadership. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
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Leadership Theories

Words: 3171 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57420548

Sustainability

Phase 3 Discussion Board

The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.

Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these systems are complex, but understand the interdependencies is critical to predicting future outcomes and finding solutions to either mitigate the negative consequences or to avoid them altogether.

The paper builds on the basic vulnerability framework that focuses on hazard-exposure-sensitivity-impacts as a pathway to understanding vulnerability. The authors build complexity into…… [Read More]

References

Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs

Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.

Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/

Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
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Leadership Theories and How They Are Influencing

Words: 3160 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90237048

leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.

When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining the different theories. Together, these elements will provide the greatest insights as to how these forms of leadership can have an effect on host of events that an organization is dealing with.

Define Leadership

Leadership is the process of having one individual influence the actions of others inside a group.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].

Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: < http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html > [9 Nov. 2011].

Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]

Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
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Leadership Theories Select One of the Leadership

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5800868

Leadership Theories

Select one of the leadership theories and then identify how you might apply the principles of this theory to aid in merger and acquisition.

In any organization, the overall leadership style will play a major role in determining the direction of the company. As the actions that are taken by managers, will set the tone for future growth and how the staff will focus on achieving their different objectives. One of the most common leadership principals that are used is: situational leadership. This is when executives are looking at different circumstantial variables, to determine the most appropriate course of action. Where, their underlying amounts of leadership will be adjusted, to reflect the changing conditions. (Cherry, 2010) A good example of this can be seen with the merger that would take place between: Exxon and Mobile in 1999. What happened was oil prices were hitting at all time low, which was squeezing the profit margins of both companies. To reduce costs and increase their overall reach around the world, the two entities would merge together. This would help the new company be able to have a global reach, at all levels of oil and gas production (ranging from: drilling…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Merger. (2010). ICMR. Retrieved from:  http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Business%20Strategy2/Business%20Strategy%20The%20Exxon-Mobil%20Merger%20Controversy.htm#The  Merger Rationale

Cherry, K. (2010). About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm

Lopen, S. (2010). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_6946237_do-evaluate-public-school-environment_.html
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Leadership Theories Comparing and Contrasting

Words: 1470 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89786237

In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).

A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation of "delegating and observing" is when a leader and a follower both have a high level of competence and commitment to the task. The leader is supportive, as in a S2 situation, but does not need to constantly watch and monitor the behavior of the follower (Straker 2004).

Situational leadership…… [Read More]

References

Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.

DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/

Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at  http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm 

Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
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Analyzing the Leadership Theories

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94645693

Leadership Theories

Event in Health Care Organization

In order to run health care organizations such that they are always viable, when it comes to both economic and health results, health care leaders frequently feel attracted to a practical managerial point-of-view with insistence on the daily production pressures together with its need to react to both large and smaller issues. This tendency could restrict their capability of engaging on visionary leadership practices, that assist in changing their organizations for the futures. For instance, the present event in the health care of Kenya is that health care employees' need encounter a rising multitude of job demands: cost efficiency, patient care and administration as well as optimal employment, and might be less efficient in both secondary and primary role liabilities. Thus, leadership skills are required in assisting both providers and managers in making consistent and thoughtful choices amid values in competition. This matter can best be addressed by transformational theory.

Transformational Theory

Transformational leaders concentrate on the big picture and utilize communication in inspiring followers to efficiently and effectively accomplish their vision. This leadership theory needs leaders to be accessible and visible, and to dynamically look for new ideas in order to meet…… [Read More]

References

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row

Guzman, Oscar. (n.d.) Organizational Leadership Theories, retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-leadership-theories-284.html

Leroy H., Anseel F, Gardner W.L. and Sels L., (2012), Authentic Leadership, Authentic

Followership, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Work Role Performance: A Cross-Level Study, Journal of Management published online DOI: 10.1177/0149206312457822 accessed at http://fanseel.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Leroy-Anseel-Gardner-Sels-in-press-JOM.pdf
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Leadership Theories Application

Words: 1248 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53548753

Leadership Application

Effective leadership has a big role to play when it comes to the life and success of any organization. Leadership normally transforms what is potential into a reality. Leadership is therefore the successful act that brings success to all of the potent potential that is in an organization as well as its people. Each day there are new paradigms that are proposed and at the same time the old ones are loosing their effectiveness. Leadership is therefore a major way through which people normally change the minds of other people and steer forward towards the accomplishment of the goals that have been identified within an organization. Organizations need leaders so as to orient and make new employees familiar with how things go about in the organization.in this case George Latour is making attempts of leading and coaching a new employee into the organization, Sherry Stern. However the relationship between this two immediately goes downhill since the leadership style that George employs runs afoul of the sense of professionalism held by Shelly. This implies that the leadership style that George used was not appropriate hence the reason why they were not getting along as well as they ought to…… [Read More]

References

Fryer, B., Goodnight, J., Goulston, M., Lawrie, J.M. & Chappelow, C. (2004). The Micromanager. Harvard Business Review, 82(9), 31-39.

Chambers, H. (2005, Summer). Surviving the Micromanager. How to Succeed with Away Boss. Canadian Manager, 30(2), 24-25.

Simonton B.(2010). Good Leadership vs. Bad Leadership. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.bensimonton.com/good-vs.-bad-leadership.html#.U0evb8uLrFw

Benincasa R.(2007). 6 Leadership Styles, And When You Should Use Them. Retrieved April 10,2014 from  http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
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Leadership Theories and Applications

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32110708

Leadership

Frank's leadership style is ineffective, which is part of the reason why his company may not be doing so well. The leadership style that Frank exhibits in this case study is authoritarian in nature. Frank does not want to listen to his managers, or engage them in the learning process. Frank does not believe that what they have to say is valid, and shuts them out of the decision-making process entirely. His method of communication is completely unilateral. This is the problem in this case as a whole: bad leadership. The root causes of the problem are that Frank does not want to change either his leadership style or his method of managing the company.

The leadership behaviors and attitudes that Frank exhibits include refusing to listen, acting in an authoritarian manner, and blaming others for problems instead of taking personal responsibility. As the business development manager, Frank is not a good leader. The senior management may need to hire a new business development manager who understands the environmental factors employees like Jennifer and Oliver do. Understandably, Frank is worried. However, there was no reason for him to call the meeting if all he wanted to do was berate…… [Read More]

References

"Leadership Case Problem A."

"Recommended Approach to Case Study Analysis."
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Nursing Leadership Theories Nursing Leadership Comparison and

Words: 1627 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51090014

Nursing Leadership Theories

NURSING LEADERSHIP: COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTS & THEORIES

The work of Cherie and Gebrekida (2005) report that there is both formal and informal leadership in that managers are formally "delegated authority, including the power to reward or punish. A manager is expected to perform functions such as planning, organizing, directing (leading) and controlling (evaluating)." On the other hand, informal leaders are "not always managers performing those functions required by the organization. Leaders often are not even part of the organization. Florence Nightingale, after leaving the Crimea, was not connected with an organization but was still a leader." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005)

Trait Theories

Early leadership theories included that of 'trait theories' which held a fundamental belief that "leaders are born, not made." Trait theory makes the assumption that an individual has "certain innate abilities, personality traits or other characteristics in order to be a leader." (Cherie and Gebrekida, 2005) This meant that it was true that some people actually lead better than do others. Another early theory was that of 'great man' theory which posited that some well-known leaders have had a hand in determining or changing the course of history and that some individuals "possessed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Swansburg, C. Russel (2002). Introduction to Management and Leadership for Nurse.

Cherie, A. And Gebrekida. AB (2005) Nursing Leadership and Management. 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/health/ephti/library/lecture_notes/nursing_students/LN_nsg_ldrshp_final.pdf
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Leader Comparing Leadership Theories the

Words: 2035 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77494899



Conclusion

It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that employees are generally trustworthy and desirous of growth will facilitate their achievement."

McGregor, in later studies, recognized that his theories were imperfect. In a separate study, he suggested that managers and management theorists stop and ask about the assumptions they are making about people. They must ask questions such as…… [Read More]

References

Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).

Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.wvup.edu/jcc/mgmt410/TheoryZ.pdf.

Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.
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Leadership Theories

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21621349

Bases of Power

French and Raven described five bases of power within any given organization that can still be used today to define each person's social role. The five bases of power were defined as coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert power (Tauber, 2007, p.40). Each of these powers is visibly on display in the corporation described in the case study and the corresponding definitions can be applied to the employees and managers discussed in the study. Understanding the role of each employee and manager will also help to illuminate the power and dependency relationship that exists between them.

Reward Power

Reward power is the easiest power to define. It involves the dispensing of rewards in return for action that benefits either the entire company or the individual manager doing the rewarding. Because it is so easy to understand, it is also the easiest form of power to recognize and it exists at several places within Corporation A. The marketing department of Corporation A gives a large bonus to any employee who earns a superior rating on the yearly performance evaluation.

Employee 2 and 3 in the scenario also receive rewards from their superiors, though they are earned through other…… [Read More]

References

Tauber, R.T. (2007). Classroom management: Sound theory and effective practice (4th ed.).

Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Bouquet, C. & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Managing power in the multinational corporation: How

low-power actors gain influence. Journal of Management, 34(3), 477-508.
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Organizational Success and Leadership Theories

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59365304

Leadership

For any company or organization to function smoothly, there must be some elaborate management system in place. This is crucial as proper leadership would focus on guiding the company or organization through teamwork projects and is needed to keep everyone in the team motivated and willing to keep working no matter what. Understanding the leadership concepts and the different leadership theories makes those in charge better leaders. Some of these notable theories include:

The Leadership Exchange (LMX) theory

This theory focuses on the building of individual one on one relationship between the leader and every employee in the team rather than leading the team as a whole (Lunenburg, 2010). Since each relationship is bound to vary in quality, the leader will always have a good relationship with majority of the team regardless of the few bad relationships. These relationships (commonly referred to as dyads) give the leader a better control over the organization and could be either in-group or out-group in nature (Luneburg, 2010).

To begin the dyadic relationship, the leader has to initiate an in-group or out-group relationship with one or more members of the organization early. The in-group members will be involved in making decisions and carry…… [Read More]

References

Komives, S., & Dugan, J. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories (pp. 111-119). Sage Publications.

Lunenburg, F. (2010).Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 2-4.

Malloch, K. (2014). Beyond Transformational Leadership to Greater Engagement. Inspiring Innovation in Complex Organizations, 60-62.

Russell, E. (2011). Leadership Theories and Style: A Transitional Approach. Military Leadership Writing Competition.
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Application Social Work Leadership Theories

Words: 2748 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67228914

Social Work Leadership Theories and Areas of Application

Leadership Theories - Servant

The philosophy and collection of practices constituting the 'servant leadership' style enrich people's lives, improve organizations and, eventually, foster a kinder and fairer world. While the concept is ageless, the coining of the term "servant leadership" is attributed to Robert K. Greenleaf, who cites it in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. In his paper, Greenleaf states that servant-leaders are, first, servants. Leadership starts with one's inherent wish to serve. Subsequently, conscious choice generates the aspiration to lead. Such an individual sharply differs from the person who is, first, a leader, probably because of the latter's desire to procure material wealth or satisfy an abnormal power drive. Therefore, servant-first and leader-first types are positioned at two extremities of the continuum of leadership styles. Between the two, an endless assortment exists, forming part of human nature's infinite variety. The difference manifests in the focus of 'servant-first' individuals to ensure that others' highest priority requirements are met. The primary emphasis of servant-leaders is on individuals' and their respective communities' welfare and growth. Traditional leadership typically entails power exertion and accumulation by those situated at the peak of the power…… [Read More]

References

212 books. (2012, December 7). An Introduction to Organizational Communication. Retrieved from 212 Books: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-communication/s09-01-approaches-to-leadership.html

Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (n.d.). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.

Chuang, S.-F. (2013). Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1).

Cowles, T. B. (2015, December 7). Ten Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Competency in Evaluation. Retrieved from Harvard Family Research Project: http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/evaluation-methodology/ten-strategies-for-enhancing-multicultural-competency-in-evaluation
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Leadership in Organizations Organizational Leadership

Words: 12322 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65691491

Leadership, according to La Monica (1938), is when a person has authority that is recognized by others, and the person has followers/subordinates under them, who believe that the person will assist them in attaining certain goals (carrying out specific objectives for the followers). Furthermore, anyone that is willing to assist and help others could be referred to as a leader (p.8)

Leaders see what others do not Most leaders have acuity, where they are able to observe things that others cannot see, hence setting them out from the rest. Leaders see things with greater scrutiny and clarity, and they analyze both possibilities and also the expected outcomes, including problems and risks involved in taking a certain path of work. In simpler terms, leaders are able to tell what the current situation is and future expectations. Leaders also define reality and only work under realistic circumstances. Some theorists such as Max DePree have been of the idea that leadership is an art and that the first responsibility of any prosperous leader is that they just have to be realistic in their endeavors. To some leaders, defining the reality is a skill they inquired. Others, however, have leadership gifts, and they see…… [Read More]

References

Bass, B.M. & Riggio, R.E. (2012). Transformational Leadership. New York: Psychology Press.

Browning, D. (2009). What leaders do: A Leadership Primer? Indiana: iUniverse Publishers.

CPP. Inc. (2013). Using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment with Leadership Practices Inventory. Retrieved February 28, 2013 from  https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/MBTI_Use_With_LPI.pdf 

Davis, M.J. (2003). Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices. New Jersey: Transportation Research Board.
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Leadership Models Literature Review of Situational Leadership

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11741068

Leadership Models

LITERATURE REVIEW OF SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Situational leadership is a leadership paradigm proposed by Hersey and Blanchard as an alternative to the simplistic trait theories of leadership in vogue at the time. The main feature of the situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard is that leaders are able to adapt their leadership styles to the level of readiness of the followers (Bovee et al. 1993). Employee readiness is a function of the ability and willingness of employees to engage in certain behaviours while leadership styles range from telling and selling styles to participating and delegating styles. These styles reflect varying emphasis on task and relationship behaviour by the leader. The telling style involves explicit instructions to the followers when they experience low levels of ability and willingness either due to a lack of information or confidence. The selling style is used when employees are unable to do the task but are motivated to perform it. The participating style is used when employees are able to perform the task but are not sufficiently confident in their abilities. Finally, the delegating style is used when employees are both willing and able to perform the task required. This shows that the…… [Read More]

References

Arvidsson, M., Johansson, C.R., Ek, A., & Akselsson, R. (2007). Situational leadership in air traffic control. Journal of air transportation, 12(1), pp. 67-86. Accessed from EBSCO Business Search.

Bovee, C.L., Thill, J.V., Wood, M.B., & Dovel, G.P. (1993). Management. (International ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Cubero, C.G. (2007). Situational leadership and persons with disabilities. Work, 29, pp. 351-356. Accessed from EBSCO Business Search.

Hersey, P. (2002). Paul Hersey defines situational leadership terms. Telecommuting in the 21st century, 8(4), p. 87. Accessed from EBSCO Business Search.
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership however defined, those traits probably exist in many who never encounter opportunities for leadership deployment, and so environmental factors probably affect how those characteristics or traits are expressed or displayed. In democracies for example, stakeholder and electorate preferences and objectives constrain who occupies public office and thus exercises leadership, in…… [Read More]

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from  http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf 

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
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Leadership Path Goal Theory the Boy Scouts

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16812245

Leadership Path Goal Theory

The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory

Leadership theories

Path Goal Theory

Explain how the theory works and include an example

Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization

Are the followers receptive?

Would you recommend another strategy?

Transformational Leadership

Transactional Leadership

Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization

Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization

Examples

Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization

Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization

If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?

Conclusion… [Read More]

References:

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.

Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
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Leadership on the Surface Military Leadership and

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67584746

Leadership

On the surface, Military Leadership and Virtual Leadership seem like polar opposites. Military leadership is old, entrenched, and traditional with little flexibility in terms of normative behavior. On the other hand, virtual leadership is new, highly flexible, and sometimes signals a flat organizational hierarchy. Military leadership cannot exhibit a flat organizational hierarchy, because effective military leadership depends on the ascription to established structure and chain of command. In spite of these core differences, military leadership and virtual leadership share much in common. Both require trust, morale, and loyalty among team members. The difference is that usually the virtual leader has to work harder to gain trust and keep member morale high. Both military leadership and virtual leadership address immediate and real life situations as well as remote situations distant in both space and time. Various leadership styles can work with a military leader and a virtual leader, including transactional and transformational leadership. Therefore, military leadership and virtual leadership are more similar than different, and are of equal value in most situations.

Military Leadership

Military leadership is not confined to one situation, and there are many situational variables that can impact military leadership. The American military defines leadership in broad…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, K. (n.d.). Virtual leadership: Required competencies for effective leaders. Retrieved online: http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/cahrs/research/whitepapers/upload/Spring10Mtng_VirtualLeadership.pdf

Kostner, J. (1994). Virtual Leadership: Secrets from the Round Table. New York: Warner.

"Leadership Traits and Behaviors." Retrieved online: http://www.uc.edu/armyrotc/ms2text/MSL_201_L10a_Leadership_Traits_&_Behaviors.pdf

Wong, L., Bliese, P. & McGurk, D. (2003). Military Leadership: A Context Specific Review. U.S. Army Research. Retrieved online: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=usarmyresearch&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dmilitary%2520leadership%2520theory%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D3%26cad%3Drja%26ved%3D0CEAQFjAC%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalcommons.unl.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1004%2526context%253Dusarmyresearch%26ei%3DmxS3UOT4DoexhAfdoIGgBQ%26usg%3DAFQjCNEMHvMQZagRHnGvO94tnSMpIWqiDQ#search=%22military%20leadership%20theory%22
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Leadership SME Leadership Strategy From the Top

Words: 2109 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92981450

Leadership SME

Leadership Strategy from the Top Down: Lessons from the Boardroom in Small and Medium Enterprises

Leadership and management theories and strategies have proliferated at a rapid rate in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, as organizations have grown larger and more complex and have faced pressures of a much faster pace of business. The demands made on leaders of business organizations and the need for strong leadership in navigating the ever-more changeable waters of modern business have grown along with businesses themselves, in both the degree to which leadership can affect operations and overall success as well as in the number of tasks and knowledge areas that leaders are supposed to be able to handle. Much of the diversification and increased scrutiny of leadership theories, processes, and practices can be attributed to the increased importance and complexity of leadership positions.

In something of an irony, however, the many different leadership theories and perspectives that have been put forth in the modern era can make the task of leadership more complex and burdensome by offering too much information, some of which is mutually exclusive. Selecting a leadership theory, or a bouquet of leadership theories, with which to helm a company…… [Read More]

References

Demmer, W., Vickery, S., & Calantone, R. (2011). Engendering resilience in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): a case study of Demmer Corporation. International Journal of Production Research 49(18): 5395-413.

Gong, Y., Huang, J. & Farh, J. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity. Academy of Management Journal 52(4): 765-78.

Kotter, J. & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review.

Kunze, F., Boehm, S. & Bruch, H. (2011). Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequences -- a cross organizational stud. Journal of Organizational Behavior 32(2): 264-90.
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Leadership Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98627222

Leadership

Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers

The term leader and manager is often used in an interchangeable manner and it is likely that at some point most leaders have undertaken a management role. However, when looking at leaders and managers there are some distinct differences. These can be considered in terms of their characteristics and the way these characteristics manifest. A common theme in much literature is the way in which leaders may be identified as they have followers and inspire others

This refers to the concept of leaders having charisma. In this context there are many examples of leaders both good and bad. Leaders which fit in with this context include, John F. Kennedy former U.S. President, Nelson Mandela the South African leader, Richard Branson founder of the Virgin empire and Howard Schultz the CEO and inspiration behind Starbucks. These are all examples of charismatic leaders

. They have been able to inspire and gain support, but the subject of leadership is not limited to only those who have used the power they gain for positive ends. Other examples of charismatic leaders include Adolf Hitler whose political regime lead to the deaths of millions in Nazi Germany, David…… [Read More]

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Leadership I Have Grown Fond of Mr

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36357745

Leadership

I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the attainment of the organization common goal. Scott allows for interaction between him and his followers. This kind of interaction has a transformational capability (Mind Tools, 2013). The leader and the follower is transformed by the interaction between them. Scott appreciates that not one leadership theory can be applied under all…… [Read More]

References List

Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm

Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
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Leadership Enhancing Lessons Experience According to Johnson

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69084187

Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience

According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).

Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it is evident that they had specific qualities. Both had charisma and followers (Johnson, & Giorgis, 2002). Other theories have emerged that critically examine qualities of a leader, scholars of the behavioral approach to leadership look into the behavioral aspect of a person. The other theory to consider is situation and…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035

Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386

Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055 

Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
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Leadership Behavioral Approach Leadership Is the Lifting

Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59525585

Leadership Behavioral Approach

"Leadership is the lifting of people's vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, and the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations" (Drucker, 1985). Ability to inspire others in a shared vision is one of the quality features of a leader. Leaders have cleared visions and communicate these visions to their subordinates to enhance corporate values.

The objective of this essay is to review the leadership behaviors and approaches common to the organisation.

The paper compares alternative leadership theories, and assesses the validity and utility of these theories with reference to the behaviors of leaders at Apple Computers.

Finally, the study develops a hypothesis and tests this hypothesis by critically analyzing the critical incident to judge leadership performance.

Leadership behaviours and approaches

Leadership behavior and approach are the combine styles that the leaders use to influence the subordinates to reach organizational objectives. The leadership approach focuses exclusively on the way the leaders act or behave. In a contemporary business environment, leadership style and approach are the essential tools that shape organizational goals. In every organization, different leadership approaches are needed based on different situations and leaders in every organization…… [Read More]

References

Bass, B., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NJ: Free Press.

Clark, N. (2009). Emotional Intelligence & Leadership. University of Southampton

School of Management.

DeRue, D.S., Nahrgang, J.D., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S.E. (in press). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology.
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Leadership Is a Process That Helps in

Words: 3349 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26347063

Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.

Literature review

Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday lives. Leadership is normally used to refer to a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people (Kotter, 1990). For the past 100 years, much attention has been paid to leadership. Some of the current theories of the nature and exercise of leadership are authentic leadership, new-genre leadership, complexity leadership,…… [Read More]

References

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.

Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.

Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:

Collins Business Essentials.
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Leadership for Organizations

Words: 2778 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47166714

Leadership for Organizations

Leadership

The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).

The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (Bass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).

In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).

Leaders need to possess a wide range of skills and capabilities in order to be able to establish themselves as leaders and lead their followers efficiently. Similarly, the role of followers is also very important in this process. Both leaders and followers are part of leadership process hence the needs and expectations of both of them must…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.

Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.

Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
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Leadership the Globalized Economy That

Words: 2962 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30501997

In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.

However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.

The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and emotions and that I pay attention to other' emotions also. In addition to this, it seems I am able to describe and express these feelings and to identify fake emotions in myself and in others.

Regarding management and leadership, this means that I am able to communicate and to network…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.

2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from  http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .

3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm.
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Leadership Has Been Ongoing for

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16696429



I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.

Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has at present and the degree of specificity that we should ideally have. Today's actions are not always guided by any long-term goal, because our goal-setting has lacked sufficient detail to support that.

4. The first part of the action plan is to improve my listening skills. This will require being…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf

Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.

Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf

Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
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Leadership & Organizational Behavior Analysis of Leadership

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45076745

Leadership & Organizational Behavior

Analysis of Leadership Theory and Organizational Behavior Theory

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the servant leadership theory and organizational behavior theory. The first part of the paper is focused on a description of the features of both theories. The second part seeks to point out how both theories are interrelated.

Main discussion of servant leadership theory

a) Definition: Servant leadership is a form of leadership where the leader places followers' interests above his own. The motive of the servant leader's influence is not to direct others but rather motivate and facilitate service and stewardship by the followers themselves. Followers' service to others and stewardship of organizational resources could be construed as organizational citizenship behavior (Vondey (2010), p. 5).

b) Characteristic Features: The servant leader experiences himself as a servant to employees, customers and community as the number one priority. He makes sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served firs. Then conscious choice brings him to aspire to lead (see Spears (2004), p. 2). Defining features of the servant leader are: Listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, building community (Spears (2004),

p. 3f.)…… [Read More]

References

Ang, S. & van Dyne, L. & Begley, T.M. (2003). The employment relationship of foreign workers vs. local employees: a field study of organizational justice, job satisfaction, performance, and OCB. J. Organiz. Behav. 24, 561-583.

Masterson, S.S. & Stamper, C.L. (2003). Perceived organizational membership: an aggregate framework representing the employee-organization relationship.

J. Organiz. Behav. 24, 473-490.

Spears, L. (2004). Practicing servant-leadership. Leader To Leader, No. 34, Fall 2004,
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Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis

Words: 2825 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88730466

Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis

In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.

This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.

The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the way physicians fear malpractice cases.

Furthermore, advances in technology, the crash of the dotcom industries and an increasingly diverse and sophisticated clientele have created a new need for a leader has both the old-fashioned skills of management combined with the vision to identify new needs and innovations before they become…… [Read More]

References

Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.

Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.