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Leadership Theory in a Changing and Globalizing Marketplace
Modern business practice is permeated by the complexities of a changing world. The impact of globalization on the cultural makeup of companies, the effects of the global recession on the conventions of daily business and the evolutionary shifts brought on by emergent technology all call for an orientation toward simultaneous stability and adaptability. Only under the stewardship of a qualified, communicative, flexible and respected leader can an organization hope to establish these capabilities. However, exactly what constitutes such a leader is subject to a great deal of variation, elaboration and even some disagreement. ith the interest of ultimately designing a personal plan for leadership development in my own career, there is a need to evaluate existing literature on the subject of modern business leadership with a focus on the theoretical constructs promoting best practices. These best practices will be evaluated relative the…
Astin, A. & Astin, H. (2001). Principles of Transformative Leadership. AAHE Bulletin.
Bass, B.M. & Bass, R.R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership. Simon and Schuster.
Bolden, R. & Gosling, J. (2006). Leadership Competencies: Time To Change the Tune? Leadership, 2(2), 147-163.
Carroll, B.; Levy, L. & Richmond, D. (2008). Leadership as Practice: Challenging the Competency Paradigm. Leadership, 4(4), 363-379.
Organizational transformation, once seldom required, is now required frequently in many organizations. This places increased emphasis on the importance of leaders with transformational skills. The other way in which globalization has impacted leadership is the increased need for "soft" skills. The human element of leadership was virtually irrelevant during the early 20th century, as labor was viewed as little more than a commodity. However -- and in particular in knowledge-based industries -- globalization has increased the relevance of human-centered leadership. orkforces have become multicultural, as have circles of influence. A manager today may need to not only cultivate power and influence with local politicians but with politicians on the other side of the world as well. The likelihood of culture clash increases with globalization, so leaders must become more flexible and adopt increasingly flexible attitudes.
Gender is another dimension where leadership study and practice has been influenced. The incorporation of…
Burke, W. & Litwin, G. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management. Vol. 18 (3) 523-545.
Changing Minds.org (2010). Leadership theories. ChangingMinds.org. Retrieved August 9, 2010 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories.htm
Nadler, D. & Tushman, M. (1990). Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change. California Management Review. Winter 1990.
Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly. Vol. 10 (2) 285-305.
Ethical leadership also entails role modeling through noticeable actions. Trustworthiness is seen as a result of ethical behavior rather than an attribute of ethical leaders themselves. Authentic leaders maintain that people have to act in concert with their deep personal and moral values and beliefs, but instead of centering on intrapersonal courses like self-awareness and self-regulation, the chase of ethical values on a normal basis is professed as morally authentic by followers (Tanner, Brugger, van Schie, & Lebherz, 2010).
Trust is made up of the acceptance of risk and susceptibility deriving from the action of others and anticipation that the other will not take advantage of this vulnerability. Trust can be usefully divided into competence trust and goodwill trust. Competence trust refers to trusting that the other person or organization has the ability to control risk by meeting their promises, whereas goodwill has an emotional recognition of the moral commitment…
Bauer, T. (n.d.). Organizational Behavior. Retrieved from http://www.flatworldknowledge.com/pub/1.0/organizational-behavior/45504#web-45504
Caldwell, C., & Hansen, M.H. (2010). Trustworthiness, governance, and wealth creation.
Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 173-173-188. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0503-4
Caldwell, C., Hayes, L.A., & Long, D.T. (2010). Leadership, trustworthiness, and ethical stewardship. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(4), 497-497-512. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-
Leadership Theory Application
Situational leadership: A case study
One of the principles of situational leadership is that there is no 'ideal' approach to management; rather good management is dependent upon particular situational variables. A good example of this is the case of employment at Google: Google is a company which is famous for its extremely flexible workplace environment for engineers. Engineers are considered the lifeblood of Google. Google even allows engineers to pursue their own projects on company time and allows workers great latitude in directing their daily routines. At Google, it is assumed that engineers 'want' to work: rather than creating a system of carrots and sticks to motivate them in a transactional format, instead the company seeks to hire employees who are extremely gifted and self-motivated.
Although this approach works for Google, situational leadership theory suggests that it would not necessarily work for all companies and…
Edwards, J. (2013). Google employees confess the worst things about working at Google.
Business Insider. Retrieved:
Mediratta, B. (2007) The Google way: Give engineers room. The New York Times.
Leadership Theory in Action
Theory in Action: Transformational Leadership
Among the main principles of transformational leadership is that people who are true leaders work with their followers instead of simply ordering others around and expecting them to do what they are told (Bass & iggio, 2006). Followers work better when they can see a point to the work they are doing, and when they feel as though they are working for the common good of the company. This is what keeps them interested at companies like Google, Facebook, Amazon, and other tech giants. Because these companies are so focused on a flexible and unique approach to the work they do, they are much more likely to have transformational leaders as opposed to leaders who are transactional.
These companies are more open to working with people in interesting and different ways, which helps them see more success. Additionally, it…
Bass, B.M., & Riggio, R.E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd. ed.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Northouse, P.G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. NY: Sage.
Northouse (2013) recognizes that leadership is a broad concept that is difficult to define, and that definitions of leadership vary from situation to situation and culture to culture. There are different ways of conceptualizing leadership, such as the relationship between people in power and their followers; the transformational processes that occur within groups and organizations; and the skills that leaders possess to effect positive change. For the purposes of the text Leadership: Theory and Practice, Northouse (2013) defines leadership as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal," (p. 5). A broad definition like this one is effective for highlighting the various aspects of leadership.
The author evaluates the different types of power inherent in leadership roles. For example, referent power is derived from being able to relate to the leader, whereas legitimate power is derived from a title or position. Expert…
Northouse, P. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
There are various modes of leadership that are applied and can work well within organizations depending on the kind of assignments to be handled as well as the employees and even the management that is in place. These are the major factors that dictate the kind of leadership that can b used from time to time. One of the most fundamental leadership styles that have been proven over time is the situational leadership style. This is a leadership style that calls for application and exemplification of good leadership qualities and capabilities depending on the situation that arises within the organization at a particular time. The situational leadership has been widely preferred by leaders and managers alike since it has a double benefit effect on the employees of any given organization. It leads to the appropriate leadership applied where and when needed, as well as enabling the development of…
Northouse, P.G. (2013).Leadership theory and practice, (6ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4522-0340-9
Safety Xchange, (2013). Training and Leadership: Part I-Scenario 2. http://www.safetyxchange.org/training-and-leadership/an-approach-in-three-scenarios-part-4-of-4
Sociology -- Human Services
Leadership Theory and Process
A good leadership theory that can be applied to the problem of domestic violence is that of transformational leadership. This is a kind of leadership approach that leads to constructive changes in those who utilize it. Transformational leaders are usually lively, passionate and fervent. Not only are these leaders worried about and caught up in the process; they are also centered on assisting every person in the group to succeed (Cherry, 2011).
There are four dissimilar workings of transformational leadership:
Intellectual motivation -- transformational leaders not only confront the status quo; they also persuade ingenuity among those involved. The leader persuades those involved to discover new manners of doing things and new occasions to learn.
Individualized deliberation -- transformational leadership also entails providing support and encouragement to the people involved. In order to promote compassionate associations, transformational leaders keep the lines of…
Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm
Haeseler, L.A. (2007). Contributions of meaning by service professionals to the phenomenon of the experience of coping for women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse: A
leadership perspective. Duquesne University. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304863919?accountid=28180
Leadership Theory Analysis
Leadership is a word that represents a fairly vague and misunderstood concept. Leadership can refer to specific people, the actions or behaviors of a specific person or group of people, or any other conceivable combination. It's difficult for anyone to grasp a specific definition with an appropriate context because it can be applied in a plethora of scenarios. For example, a leader can still be a leader even though they are not currently in the state of leading. Or if that person is actively trying to lead a group and they are not performing well it could also be said that the person is void of leadership skills; thus the dilemma would be if that person was really a leader. However, the word is prevalent in the business community and any aspiring professional should have a deep understanding of the complexities relating to the notions of leadership.…
Acadia International Executive Insight Series (AIEIS), (2009), Management Interview Series
Video Database, http://courseware.acadiau.ca/aieis/keywordindex.jsp?keyword=266
Business Strategy Review, (2005). The real thing. An interview with Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones, http://www.london.edu/assets/documents/publications/The_real_thing__The_art_of_authentic_leadership.pdf
Haverstock Gina. (2009) Interview with Management Interview Series Video Database. Acadia University. http://courseware.acadiau.ca/aieis/interview.jsp?id=213&q=4496
Leadership Theory, Analysis and Applications
Leadership Theory Analysis and Application
A successful leader is an individual who influences his or her followers towards attaining the organization's aspirations. Thus, leadership is that process of influencing or convincing others to attain the organization's goals. There are three noteworthy points in this definition of leadership. The first is that the act of being a leader is a social influence one. One cannot be called a leader if he or she does not have followers. Secondly, a good leader elicits voluntary compliance from the followers. This is the best feature of leadership since voluntary complying followers will do a better job than those complying because of formal authority. Lastly, leadership elicits a purposeful and goal-oriented behavior from the followers (Lussier & Achua, 2013). Leadership is perhaps the most commonly discussed topic in organizational sciences. Thousands of studies and results have been published and many…
Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2006). The high impact leader: Moments matter in accelerating authentic leadership development. New York: McGraw Hill.
Evans, M.G. (1970). The effects of supervisory behavior on the path-goal relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 5: 277-298.
Fielder, F. E. (1986). The contribution of cognitive resources to leadership performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 16. pp. 532-545.
Frankenberg, E., & Kotok, S. (2013). Demography and Educational Politics in the Suburban Marketplace. Peabody Journal of Education, 88(1), 112-126.
Leadership Theory for the apidly Changing World and Diverse Global Culture
With the increased competitiveness in the international business world it has become very important for the businesses to be accommodating enough so that they could operate in a successful manner in places with different norms, ethics, attitudes and culture. Today it is very important for the business managers to have an accommodating attitude towards the various local cultures and try to take part in the events of the local community that their business is working in, in order to increase the successfulness of the business (Gannon, 2004).
An important thing in running and managing business on an international level requires the management of multi-cultural workforce in a successful manner, along with this it also requires for the managers to bring variety to the services being provided by them according to the needs and wants of the people of that…
Gannon, M. (2004). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 28 Nations, Clusters of Nations, and Continents. Thousand Oaks Sage.
House, R.J. And Javidan, M. (2004). Overview of GLOBE. Culture, Leadership, and Organization. The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies.
Javidan, M., P.W. Dorfman, M. Sully de Luque and R.J. House. (2006). In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE', Academy of Management Perspectives 20, 67 -- 90.
Korver, C.D. (2008). Models Ethical Leaders. They model excellence. Harvard Business Press.
Applying Leadeship Theoy to Leadeship Pactice
In this pape the wite eseaches and wites a liteatue eview on a Applying Leadeship Theoy to Leadeship Pactice. The eseach pape is a compehensive thematic eview of the scholaly liteatue elated to the topic. The leadeship theoies to focus on ae: Path-Goal Theoy; Leade-Membe Exchange (LMX) Theoy; Psychodynamic Appoach Theoy; outcome and situational leadeship; Leadeship focused on effectiveness and poductivity; Leadeship and Body language; and lastly, the Synegistic Leadeship Theoy.
The mechanisms though which leadeship and powe may be put into effect and "tavel" within a goup of people: bottom-up; Top-down; lateal (temed as shaed leadeship); and integated (a combination of top-down, bottom-up, and lateal leadeship), can be descibed using the leadeship models explained in this pape. The top-down model; is a seductive sien song associated to the eal-life pefomance of leadeship in oganizations. Thus many eseach and pactitiones believe that leadeship is…
references. The interplay between the two systems of thought determines whether the individual is able to detect and override the illusions of intuition. The significance of both these systems is critical in the leadership theory being discussed in this study.
Payette, D.L. And Libertella, A.F. (2011). Nascent Leadership Behaviors. American Journal of Business Education, 4; 6.
Payette and Libertella's study is critical as the material presented in this paper is oriented towards practical and actionable steps that the aspiring leader can decide to apply.
Dennis Payette, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management, Marketing & Decision Sciences in the School of Business at Adelphi University. His research interests have focused on pedagogical research related to use of modem teaching methods and technologies. In addition to teaching and research, Dr. Payefte's background includes service as a senior administrator at Long Island University and Dowling College. Similarly, Anthony Libertella, Ph.D.J.D. is a Professor of Management and Law in the School of Business at Adelphi University. He has served in a number of senior academic positions at various colleges ranging from Executive Vice President / Provost to Deanships. He was also a practicing attorney specializing in corporate and franchise law. Dr. Libertella's research interests are in strategic management, leadership, and law.
Schyns, B. And Mohr, G. (2004). Nonverbal Elements of Leadership Behaviour. German Journal of Human Resource Research; 18, 3.
Peter Northouse's Leadership: Theory and Practice takes on a number of salient theories regarding the formal academic and professional discipline of leadership. As such, the reader is given a comprehensive overview of some of the most meaningful and widely used approaches to leadership of contemporary and even historical times. On the whole, the book is well written and succinct. It may have benefitted from a greater usage of empirical evidence, although it is beneficial that there are several different authors and points of expertise utilized within this manuscript.
Most people would assume that the traits based approach to leadership is one which is largely immutable. On certain levels it is, as certain characteristic traits are endemic to individuals and are with them from early on in life. The best description of the traits based approach to leadership is that leaders use their natural attributes and aspects of their personality as…
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
A business cannot survive if its operations are dubious and suspect. Ethics of the company can be seen in the everyday business conduct. The ethical behavior and leadership effectiveness go hand in hand and this results in better position of the company. Big businesses that do not have ethical leaders have ultimately been exposed and the public have condemned them like Enron. The company became corrupt because the top executives and even its auditors were corrupt. The result was that some of the executives who followed the unethical practices went to jail and some face a very difficult life ahead in penury. Unethical leaders spread the corruption to the rank and file. Therefore ethical behavior has to come from the leader and the company must have ethical rules of operation that must be made inviolable. Thus any business cannot do without value and ethics and in the long run the…
Lussier, Robert N; Achua, Christopher F. (2003) "Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill
Development" South-Western College.
Leadership theory is important for any discipline and industry, as it provides the framework by which understanding and perspective are obtained. Using these perspectives, theories of leadership serve as guideposts for individuals looking to be effective leaders in their respective workplace environments, fields, families or communities. In the field of criminal justice, leadership theory is essential because it helps the individual to hold himself accountable and helps to empower others to do so as well (Brooks & Grint, 2010). This paper will focus mainly on path-goal theory and functional leadership to show how leadership occurs and how setting goals can be an effective way to organize.
Path-goal theory focuses on organizing by way of identifying goals and the removal of obstacles in order to facilitate the accomplishment of those goals (Northouse, 2016). As the name of the theory implies it is about clearing the path for a…
Abramson, N. R. (2007). The leadership archetype: A Jungian analysis of similarities between modern leadership theory and the Abraham myth in the Judaic–Christian tradition. Journal of Business ethics, 72(2), 115-129.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Brookes, S., & Grint, K. (2010). A new public leadership challenge?. In The new public leadership challenge (pp. 1-15). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Evans, M. G. (1970). The effects of supervisory behavior on the path-goal relationship. Organizational behavior and human performance, 5(3), 277-298.
Hirst, G., & Mann, L. (2004). A model of R&D leadership and team communication: The relationship with project performance. R&D Management, 34(2), 147-160.
House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-352.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in teams: A functional approach to understanding leadership structures and processes. Journal of management, 36(1), 5-39.
Transactional and Transformational Leadership in Healthcare
Assessing Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership
During IT Implementations
Transactional and Transformational Leadership in Healthcare:
Assessing Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership
During IT Implementations
Healthcare organizations often are the most resistant to new technologies and systems that could paradoxically streamline their professions, making them more effective, productive and creating new career opportunities. Yet from personal experience it is clear that healthcare professionals, including physicians, laboratory technicians and nurses at times resist new information systems (IS) and the potential they have to streamline their jobs. Instead the level of resistance can rise from ignoring the new system and reporting requirements to outright rebellion and leaving a medical practice over having to use it. From personal experience its evident that the best leaders have the ability to define a new information system from a longer-term, more career-aligning perspective. These leaders have been able to define IS platforms, applications…
Eastman, D., & McCarthy, C. (2012). Embracing change: Healthcare technology in the 21st century. Nursing Management, 43(6), 52.
Hargis, M.B., Watt, J.D., & Piotrowski, C. (2011). Developing leaders: Examining the role of transactional and transformational leadership across business contexts. Organization Development Journal, 29(3), 51-66.
Johnson, K., Johnson, C., Nicholson, D., Potts, Connie S, MSN, R.N., C.-E.F.M., Raiford, H., & Shelton, A. (2012). Make an impact with transformational leadership and shared governance. Nursing Management, 43(10), 12.
Matey, D.B. (1991). Significance of transactional and transformational leadership theory on the hospital manager. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 36(4), 600-600.
On her own account, Nurse X would suggest that "a solution to that
might be the administration of an effective training regiment for those to
operate under my charge. Particularly if I am to face up to such
challenges as those inherent to larger organizational settings, I must be
prepared to generate meaningful support and to limit resistance within my
core staff group. In the nursing context, it is certain that tasks and
responsibilities are simply to great and too many for the approach to be
otherwise. Therefore, if I am to find improvement in the ability to
delegate comfortably, I could engage a more intensified hiring process and
mandate a permeating training course." Nurse X would here show herself to
be a leader in a constant state of evolution. She recognizes challenges,
shortcomings and resolutions all in her desire to improve both her personal
effectiveness and that of those…
J.P. Morgan Chase and organizational behavior:
Path-goal leadership theory and conflict within the organization
Morgan Chase is the world's largest investment banking firm "with $2.3 trillion in assets, $1.1 trillion in deposits and approximately 260,000 employees" (Heineman 2013). Its wide range of services includes "investment banking, financial services for consumers and small businesses, commercial banking, financial transaction processing, asset management and private equity" ("J.P. Morgan Chase," The New York Times). Investment banking firms which combine their services with standard commercial banking received a great deal of criticism during the credit crisis of 2008 for exploiting deregulation. In the case of J.P. Morgan, "through its subsidiary Chase Bank, the company has traditionally been one of the top consumer credit card issuers in the country. As expected, the firm has lobbied heavily on legislation that would affect the nation's financial industry, including bankruptcy reform and banking deregulation" ("J.P. Morgan Chase," Open Secrets).…
Heineman, B. "Too big to manage." HBR. Oct 2013. 8 Apr 2014.
J.P. Morgan Chase. (2014). The New York Times. 8 Apr 2014.
The official motivation of the ruling which initially determined a two-year suspension for the students in question invoked the common good which is placed above personal interest. The practical evidence for such a concern is the "zero tolerance" policies. In theory, it tries to consider the best interest of the community by applying a predetermined punishment; Angelique Forrester points out "a zero tolerance policy for schools would create the same ground rules and consequences for the whole student body" (cited in Vanderham 2006). Critics argue though that measures are taken without real regard to the culpability of the individual. The rationale behing the entire idea is that a more rigid system of punishments would serve as a deterrent for future criminals or law breaking individuals. This utilitarian approach focuses on the rationale nature of man, which reconsiders his gains and losses before acting in a situation (Keel 1997). Thus, the…
Bigelow, J. (1927). Toleration. Retrieved July 15, 2006 from The Spiritual Frontier web page: http://newearth.org/frontier/gr1.html
Jesse Jackson arrested in Illinois high school protest. (1999). Retrieved July 15, 2006 from CNN web site: http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9911/16/expelled.students.04/index.html
Keel, R.O. (1997). Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory. Retrieved July 15, 2006 at http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html
Sherman, L. et. al. (n.d.) Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. Retrieved July 15, 2006 at http://www.ncjrs.gov/works/chapter5.htm
As CEO, it is important to be aware of all the variables impacting the firm and apply the right foundational theory of leadership so that these variables are considered with effectiveness. In this situation, strategic contingencies theory serves as the best foundational theory from which I would draw to lead this organization. Developed by Hickson (1971), strategic contingencies theory focuses on the job that has to be accomplished and does not consider so much the personalities related to that job. In other words, the most important aspect of leadership according to this theory is the ability to identify the problems that need to be solved and implementing the right tools and/or people to solve those problems. In this case, the best solution to solve the company’s stagnation is to update systems (modernize) and offshore jobs that can be offshored.
Another foundational theory that may be helpful so as…
Burns, J. M. (1998). Transformational leadership theory. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-central.com/burns-transformational-leadership-theory.html
Hickson, D. J., Hinings, C. R., Lee, C. A., Schneck, R. E., & Pennings, J. M. (1971). A strategic contingencies’ theory of intraorganizational power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(2), 216-229.
Hunter, E. M., Neubert, M. J., Perry, S. J., Witt, L. A., Penney, L. M., & Weinberger, E. (2013). Servant leaders inspire servant leaders: Antecedents and outcomes for employees and the organization. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), 316–331.
Moore, J. M., Everly, M., & Bauer, R. (2016). Multigenerational challenges: Team-building for positive clinical workforce outcomes. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(2), 1-12.
Great Man Theory
Great Man Theory of leadership originated in the 19th century. It was made popular by writer 1840s by Thomas Carlyle in the 1840s. Carlyle argued that history is shaped by the actions of great men—leaders in all spheres, such as Shakespeare, Napoleon, or Wagner. His point was that great men are the leaders who inspire and influence all followers and that great leaders had something heroic about them (Carlyle, 1888). It was primarily a Romantic Era theory that lost appeal in the 20th century (Northouse, 2015).
This theory points out that great leaders are unique and that they do appear to be born to lead. They have something about them that rises to the occasion. In any given situation, a leader might emerge, but unless that leader is a truly great man it is unlikely that the leader will succeed in his objective. It highlights the…
Badshah, S. (2012). Historical study of leadership theories. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 1(1), 49.
Cacamis, M. E., & El Asmar, M. (2014). Improving project performance through partnering and emotional intelligence. Practice Periodical on Structural Design & Construction, 19(1), 50-56.
Carlyle, T. (1888). On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, NY: Fredrick A. Stokes & Brother.
Dansereau, F., Graen, G. & Haga, W. (1975). A Vertical Dyad Linkage Approach to Leadership within Formal Organizations: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role Making Process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13: 46–78.
Greenwood, R. G. (1996). Leadership theory: A historical look at its evolution. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(1), 3-16.
Katz, R. L. (1955). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 33 (1), 33-42.
Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. & White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271–301.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
Northouse, P. (2015). Leadership: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Task-oriented leadership can be delineated as a behavioural manner in which the leader lays emphasis on the tasks that require being undertaken so as to meet particular objectives, or to attain a particular performance standard (Forsyth, 2009). The main reason why I would justify using this particular style of leadership is because it focuses on structure, plans, and schedules. In addition, task-oriented leadership encompasses aspects such as prioritizing objectives, forming detailed plans and schedules, reviewing tasks consistently to make certain that the project is on track. It also takes into account setting and adhering to rigid schedules for all elements of the project and assessing all of the elements of the project with the personnel. In this case, this style of leadership make it possible to consider all elements such as safety, innovation design, whether the budget constraints are still in place and whether all other aspects of…
Deutsch, M., Coleman, P. T., & Marcus, E. C. (Eds.). (2011). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Forsyth, D. R. (2009). Group dynamics. New York: Cengage Learning.
Montana, P. J., Charnov, B. H. (2008). Management. New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Spahr, P. (2015). What is Task-Oriented Leadership? Keeping Detailed Projects on Schedule. St. Thomas University Online. Retrieved from: http://online.stu.edu/task-oriented-leadership/
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
However, Avery points out an important shift in managerial leadership styles. She sees it as a shift in the balance of power within an organization, rather than a shift in the way managers perform their daily tasks. She states, leadership involves letting go of conventional notions of control, order, and hierarchy, replacing them with trust and an acceptance of continual change, chaos, and respect for diverse members of the organization...the members are expected to be self-managing and self-leading (Avery, 29-30).
This statement summarizes Avery's view of how leadership styles will evolve in the future. The balance of power is shifting from the leader to the employee. In the future, employees will continue to become more independent and to seek their own methods of self-management. Leaders will have to be wiling to let go and become more of a guidance counselor than an authority figure. This trend was perhaps the most…
Avery, G. Understanding Leadership. London: Sage Publications, 2004.
Phase 3 Discussion Board
The article that I have selected is "A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science," by Turner et al. (2003). The authors advocate for a system that allows scientists to fully understand "the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere." The authors argue that current vulnerability assessments are insufficient, and move the discussion towards an enhanced framework.
Sustainability science is defined as "an emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems" so this paper fits in with key elements of that definition. First, the paper reflects the need to understand the planet's life support systems in a complex way. The interactions between elements of these…
Eagly, A. & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Digital Commons @ UConn. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=chip_docs
Gardiner, M. & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress, mental health in male- and female-dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 72 (3) 301-315.
Kruse, K. (2013). What is authentic leadership? Forbes. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2013/05/12/what-is-authentic-leadership/
Kushell, E. & Newton, R. (1986). Gender, leadership style, and subordinate satisfaction: An experiment. Sex Roles. Vol. 14 (3-4) 203-209.
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Select one of the leadership theories and then identify how you might apply the principles of this theory to aid in merger and acquisition.
In any organization, the overall leadership style will play a major role in determining the direction of the company. As the actions that are taken by managers, will set the tone for future growth and how the staff will focus on achieving their different objectives. One of the most common leadership principals that are used is: situational leadership. This is when executives are looking at different circumstantial variables, to determine the most appropriate course of action. Where, their underlying amounts of leadership will be adjusted, to reflect the changing conditions. (Cherry, 2010) A good example of this can be seen with the merger that would take place between: Exxon and Mobile in 1999. What happened was oil prices were hitting at all time low,…
The Merger. (2010). ICMR. Retrieved from: http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Business%20Strategy2/Business%20Strategy%20The%20Exxon-Mobil%20Merger%20Controversy.htm#The Merger Rationale
Cherry, K. (2010). About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm
Lopen, S. (2010). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_6946237_do-evaluate-public-school-environment_.html
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
Event in Health Care Organization
In order to run health care organizations such that they are always viable, when it comes to both economic and health results, health care leaders frequently feel attracted to a practical managerial point-of-view with insistence on the daily production pressures together with its need to react to both large and smaller issues. This tendency could restrict their capability of engaging on visionary leadership practices, that assist in changing their organizations for the futures. For instance, the present event in the health care of Kenya is that health care employees' need encounter a rising multitude of job demands: cost efficiency, patient care and administration as well as optimal employment, and might be less efficient in both secondary and primary role liabilities. Thus, leadership skills are required in assisting both providers and managers in making consistent and thoughtful choices amid values in competition. This matter…
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row
Guzman, Oscar. (n.d.) Organizational Leadership Theories, retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-leadership-theories-284.html
Leroy H., Anseel F, Gardner W.L. and Sels L., (2012), Authentic Leadership, Authentic
Followership, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Work Role Performance: A Cross-Level Study, Journal of Management published online DOI: 10.1177/0149206312457822 accessed at http://fanseel.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Leroy-Anseel-Gardner-Sels-in-press-JOM.pdf
Effective leadership has a big role to play when it comes to the life and success of any organization. Leadership normally transforms what is potential into a reality. Leadership is therefore the successful act that brings success to all of the potent potential that is in an organization as well as its people. Each day there are new paradigms that are proposed and at the same time the old ones are loosing their effectiveness. Leadership is therefore a major way through which people normally change the minds of other people and steer forward towards the accomplishment of the goals that have been identified within an organization. Organizations need leaders so as to orient and make new employees familiar with how things go about in the organization.in this case George Latour is making attempts of leading and coaching a new employee into the organization, Sherry Stern. However the relationship…
Fryer, B., Goodnight, J., Goulston, M., Lawrie, J.M. & Chappelow, C. (2004). The Micromanager. Harvard Business Review, 82(9), 31-39.
Chambers, H. (2005, Summer). Surviving the Micromanager. How to Succeed with Away Boss. Canadian Manager, 30(2), 24-25.
Simonton B.(2010). Good Leadership vs. Bad Leadership. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.bensimonton.com/good-vs.-bad-leadership.html#.U0evb8uLrFw
Benincasa R.(2007). 6 Leadership Styles, And When You Should Use Them. Retrieved April 10,2014 from http://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them
Frank's leadership style is ineffective, which is part of the reason why his company may not be doing so well. The leadership style that Frank exhibits in this case study is authoritarian in nature. Frank does not want to listen to his managers, or engage them in the learning process. Frank does not believe that what they have to say is valid, and shuts them out of the decision-making process entirely. His method of communication is completely unilateral. This is the problem in this case as a whole: bad leadership. The root causes of the problem are that Frank does not want to change either his leadership style or his method of managing the company.
The leadership behaviors and attitudes that Frank exhibits include refusing to listen, acting in an authoritarian manner, and blaming others for problems instead of taking personal responsibility. As the business development manager, Frank is…
"Leadership Case Problem A."
"Recommended Approach to Case Study Analysis."
It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that…
Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).
Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.wvup.edu/jcc/mgmt410/TheoryZ.pdf .
Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.
Bases of Power
French and aven described five bases of power within any given organization that can still be used today to define each person's social role. The five bases of power were defined as coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert power (Tauber, 2007, p.40). Each of these powers is visibly on display in the corporation described in the case study and the corresponding definitions can be applied to the employees and managers discussed in the study. Understanding the role of each employee and manager will also help to illuminate the power and dependency relationship that exists between them.
eward power is the easiest power to define. It involves the dispensing of rewards in return for action that benefits either the entire company or the individual manager doing the rewarding. Because it is so easy to understand, it is also the easiest form of power to recognize and…
Tauber, R.T. (2007). Classroom management: Sound theory and effective practice (4th ed.).
Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Bouquet, C. & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Managing power in the multinational corporation: How
low-power actors gain influence. Journal of Management, 34(3), 477-508.
Different Ways of Organizing in Supervision and Management
Organizing constitutes a crucial management function. It is essentially concerned with task allocation, division of labor, chain of command, lines of authority and communication, delegation, span of control, as well as supervision and coordination (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016). The manner in which these processes are organized significantly influences organizational effectiveness and efficiency. It determines how quick or slow decisions are made and implemented. This is particularly important in a constantly evolving environment, in which agility is a crucial parameter of competitive advantage (Felin & Powell, 2016). Organizational structure also shapes relationships between superiors and subordinates (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016).
There are different ways through which the organizing function may be executed. For instance, organizational structure may adopt either the centralized or decentralized form. The former entails concentrating decision-making authority in top organizational positions, while that latter involves distributing…
For any company or organization to function smoothly, there must be some elaborate management system in place. This is crucial as proper leadership would focus on guiding the company or organization through teamwork projects and is needed to keep everyone in the team motivated and willing to keep working no matter what. Understanding the leadership concepts and the different leadership theories makes those in charge better leaders. Some of these notable theories include:
The Leadership Exchange (LMX) theory
This theory focuses on the building of individual one on one relationship between the leader and every employee in the team rather than leading the team as a whole (Lunenburg, 2010). Since each relationship is bound to vary in quality, the leader will always have a good relationship with majority of the team regardless of the few bad relationships. These relationships (commonly referred to as dyads) give the leader a better…
Komives, S., & Dugan, J. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories (pp. 111-119). Sage Publications.
Lunenburg, F. (2010).Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 2-4.
Malloch, K. (2014). Beyond Transformational Leadership to Greater Engagement. Inspiring Innovation in Complex Organizations, 60-62.
Russell, E. (2011). Leadership Theories and Style: A Transitional Approach. Military Leadership Writing Competition.
Social Work Leadership Theories and Areas of Application
Leadership Theories - Servant
The philosophy and collection of practices constituting the 'servant leadership' style enrich people's lives, improve organizations and, eventually, foster a kinder and fairer world. While the concept is ageless, the coining of the term "servant leadership" is attributed to obert K. Greenleaf, who cites it in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. In his paper, Greenleaf states that servant-leaders are, first, servants. Leadership starts with one's inherent wish to serve. Subsequently, conscious choice generates the aspiration to lead. Such an individual sharply differs from the person who is, first, a leader, probably because of the latter's desire to procure material wealth or satisfy an abnormal power drive. Therefore, servant-first and leader-first types are positioned at two extremities of the continuum of leadership styles. Between the two, an endless assortment exists, forming part of human nature's infinite variety.…
212 books. (2012, December 7). An Introduction to Organizational Communication. Retrieved from 212 Books: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-communication/s09-01-approaches-to-leadership.html
Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (n.d.). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.
Chuang, S.-F. (2013). Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1).
Cowles, T. B. (2015, December 7). Ten Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Competency in Evaluation. Retrieved from Harvard Family Research Project: http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/evaluation-methodology/ten-strategies-for-enhancing-multicultural-competency-in-evaluation
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Leadership Strategy from the Top Down: Lessons from the Boardroom in Small and Medium Enterprises
Leadership and management theories and strategies have proliferated at a rapid rate in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, as organizations have grown larger and more complex and have faced pressures of a much faster pace of business. The demands made on leaders of business organizations and the need for strong leadership in navigating the ever-more changeable waters of modern business have grown along with businesses themselves, in both the degree to which leadership can affect operations and overall success as well as in the number of tasks and knowledge areas that leaders are supposed to be able to handle. Much of the diversification and increased scrutiny of leadership theories, processes, and practices can be attributed to the increased importance and complexity of leadership positions.
In something of an irony, however, the many different…
Demmer, W., Vickery, S., & Calantone, R. (2011). Engendering resilience in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): a case study of Demmer Corporation. International Journal of Production Research 49(18): 5395-413.
Gong, Y., Huang, J. & Farh, J. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity. Academy of Management Journal 52(4): 765-78.
Kotter, J. & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review.
Kunze, F., Boehm, S. & Bruch, H. (2011). Age diversity, age discrimination climate and performance consequences -- a cross organizational stud. Journal of Organizational Behavior 32(2): 264-90.
Comparing Characteristics of Leaders and Managers
The term leader and manager is often used in an interchangeable manner and it is likely that at some point most leaders have undertaken a management role. However, when looking at leaders and managers there are some distinct differences. These can be considered in terms of their characteristics and the way these characteristics manifest. A common theme in much literature is the way in which leaders may be identified as they have followers and inspire others
This refers to the concept of leaders having charisma. In this context there are many examples of leaders both good and bad. Leaders which fit in with this context include, John F. Kennedy former U.S. President, Nelson Mandela the South African leader, Richard Branson founder of the Virgin empire and Howard Schultz the CEO and inspiration behind Starbucks. These are all examples of charismatic leaders
I have grown fond of Mr. Joe Scott because of his ability to inspire his followers to do more than they would have expected to do. He has the capability of engaging his staff's commitment in a context of shared values and vision. He is capable of aligning the interests of the organization and its members. Those who have worked closely with him attest to his ability to inspire and motivate those who are working directly under him. He is capable is inspiring change because he's idealized influence, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspiration. He can maximize mutual interest and restrain in the process of exercising his power. His leadership style broadens and elevates the interest of the follower (Mind Tools, 2013). This ends up generating awareness and motivation towards the purpose and mission of the organization. His leadership traits bring the group purpose above individual needs for the…
Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm
Murray, A. (2013). Leadership Styles. http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it…
Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035
Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386
Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055
Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
Leadership Behavioral Approach
"Leadership is the lifting of people's vision to a higher sight, the raising of their performance to a higher standard, and the building of their personality beyond its normal limitations" (Drucker, 1985). Ability to inspire others in a shared vision is one of the quality features of a leader. Leaders have cleared visions and communicate these visions to their subordinates to enhance corporate values.
The objective of this essay is to review the leadership behaviors and approaches common to the organisation.
The paper compares alternative leadership theories, and assesses the validity and utility of these theories with reference to the behaviors of leaders at Apple Computers.
Finally, the study develops a hypothesis and tests this hypothesis by critically analyzing the critical incident to judge leadership performance.
Leadership behaviours and approaches
Leadership behavior and approach are the combine styles that the leaders use to influence the subordinates to…
Bass, B., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NJ: Free Press.
Clark, N. (2009). Emotional Intelligence & Leadership. University of Southampton
School of Management.
DeRue, D.S., Nahrgang, J.D., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S.E. (in press). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology.
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Leadership & Team Experience
There are many opportunities for leadership over the course of one's life. Leadership does not simply occur on the battlefield, or in the arena of sports. Leadership happens in the home, in the classroom, in the workplace, and out in the world, in general. While I have yet to hold a job, as a college student and human being, I have still encountered situations where there were opportunities for leadership present. Most of the leadership experiences in my life, for me, have been located in the classroom, or as part of my overall educational experience.
I have one particular experience that comes to mind. I was placed in a group for a humanities course. We were a group of six members. I remember this experience fondly for several reasons. We produced work that we were all satisfied with and proud of. We divided the tasks evenly…
Northouse, P.G. Leadership -- Theory & Practice, Sixth Edition. Sage Publications, Inc., Western Michigan University, 2013. Print.
un Tzu informs that we cannot punish people until they feel loyalty to us: namely, until they consider themselves members of our group.
10. Keep them guessing
This quality may be pertinent only to leaders of a business / corporation. Her un Tzu advises keeping one's strategies and plans concealed from one's competitor so that one retains competitive advantage.
The Art of War, maintains un Tzu, is "a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected." (pt. 2)
The same goes for the Art of Leadership. It is also "a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected" and its qualities need to be known and inculcated in order to have maximum success in the field.
'Leader' as term may be inchoate, but as many entrepreneurs have…
Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World, Eighth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Kotter JP. 1996. Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. School
Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. CA: Jossey-Bass.
Sun Tzu, (2001). The Art of War Wylie, TX: Pickard & Son, Publishers.
The life and success of any organization is hinged on the leadership of that organization. An effective can transform the potential an organization has with regard to human capital and the available resources into a reality. An effective leader has the ability to propose new paradigms when old ones have become ineffective (IAAP, 2009). Effective leaders can change the minds of their followers and in the process make an organization achieve its identified goals. This paper seeks to illuminate whether the leadership at our procurement department is effective from the perspectives of the situational leadership and contingency theory approaches. The paper establishes whether the leadership and the procurement department were directive or supportive. The paper finally captures the insights that have been gained from analyzing the leadership at the procurement department.
The leader I worked with at the procurement department knew his goals and had the power to…
Burns, T., Stalker, G.M., (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Graeff, C.L. (1983). The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View. Academy of Management Review, 8(2), 285-291.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1988). Management and Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
IAAP. (2009). Leadership Theories and Styles. Retrieved from http://www.etsu.edu/ahsc/documents/Leadership_Theories.pdf
Contingency leadership theories are based on the view that the situation dictates the ideal leadership style -- and how much of that style can be learned or not is variable.
There are elements of leadership, however, that cannot be taught. In particular, the inspirational aspect of leadership is very difficult to teach. Leaders can reach their subjects in a number of different ways, using a wide range of triggers. While to a certain extent these ways can be identified through scientific study -- psychology and sociology in particular -- there is an element of relating to other people than is entirely inherent. Some leaders are simply born with better charisma and interpersonal skills than others. The former in particular is nearly impossible to teach -- those with charisma that makes others want to follow seldom can identify what it is they do that makes them so charismatic -- they simply…
Leadership is the ability of influencing individuals or groups for attainment of particular goals. It is the ability of managing interpersonal behaviour by motivating others. There are a number of approaches to leadership, but these can broadly be categorized as Behaviouristic theory, Traits theory, Charismatic theories of leadership and transformational leadership. For the purpose of this assignment, we have chosen transformational leadership approach.
The process of transforming and changing individuals is termed as transformational leadership. In simple terms, transformational leadership can be defined as the ability to make people improve, change and led. Transformational leadership involves assessment of subordinates' needs, motives and giving them due value. Thus, it can be said that a leader having characteristics of transformational leader has the ability to increase the performance of company by giving due value to the employees/subordinates. (Hesselbein and Cohen 1999)
Transformational leadership has four factors which are commonly named…
Hesselbein, Frances, and Paul M. Cohen. (1999). Leader to Leader. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Northouse, Peter G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, second edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
It is highly likely that I will be able to develop high quality leadership traits with the passage of time.
Values and personality:
It is hard to become familiar with your personality because you cannot see the flaws in yourself. No matter how hard you try the positive aspects will come forward leaving the negative ones far behind. But observing yourself every once in a while is the key to success. It helps you change your personality according to the situation. If I had to put my values and my personality on a piece of paper I would begin it by telling about my behavior with my closed ones, my associates and especially with the ones I deal with on daily basis. I believe on taking everyone with me and not being competitive as competitiveness leads you nowhere. It might lead you to success somehow but leaves you…
Adair, John (2009) Effective Leadership London. Pan Macmillan.
Montana, Patrick J.; Bruce H. (2008). Management. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Schultz, Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen (2010). Psychology and work today: an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed. ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Zaccaro, S.J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6-16.
Leadership Applications and Theories
Tim has been described by both his boss and friends as charismatic. It is clear why this is so. In addition to constantly inspiring his staff (something he believes is critical in the acquisition of a competitive edge), Tim also continually motivates his team.
How effective do you think Tim's posts are in terms of expressing his charisma?
In the words of Williams (2011, p. 423), "charismatic leaders have strong, confident, dynamic personalities that attract followers and enable the leaders to create strong bonds with their followers." Essentially, charismatic leaders should be able to broadcast their 'charm' so that they can inspire others to action. Indeed, it is through their infectious charm (and not the formal positions they occupy) that leaders of this nature inspire followers. Tim's posts are highly inspirational and on this front, he succeeds in communicating with his team on a rather deep,…
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (5th). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Williams, C. (2011). Effective Management (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.