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Sociology has been defined s the scientific study of human interaction and, as such, is accepted as a scientific activity (Leming 1997). Social science aims at discovering and explaining observed events of and in nature by means of a framework that can be tested. The goal of sociology is, therefore, to produce a body of knowledge that will provide not only an understanding of the causal processes influencing human behavior but also enable sociologists to predict social behaviors (Leming). As a science, it pursues observable and provable regularities and explains these regularities by means of a set of observable and provable propositions or statements of relationship (Leming). The very effectiveness or success of sociology lies precisely in the explanatory and predictive power of this body of knowledge derived from research.
The basic components or elements of a theory are a conceptual scheme, a set of propositions that states the…
1. Leming, MR. Sociological Theory: a Social Science Approach to the Family. Sociology 371, 1997. http://www.stolaf.edu/people/leming/soc371res/theory.html
2. Wallace RA and Wolf, A. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition. 5th edition. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999
In addition to an automatic evaluation, there needs to also be a "reflective evaluative process" in order to store information from present experiences for use in future experiences (Cunningham, et al., 2007). Basically this theory is that "reflective evaluative processes" are created (based on experience) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which takes the formulation of evaluation to a higher level, beyond attitude and beyond basic emotional responses. In other words, the PFC house learned "rules" and they play a key role when humans evaluate situations.
Affect and Proto-Affect in Effective Functioning
Andrew Ortony and colleagues posit that when humans process different levels of information four "relatively independent domains" are in play and help functioning processes; those four are: affect (value); motivation (action tendencies); cognition (meaning); and behavior (the actions of the organism) (Ortony, et al., 2005, p. 173). ithin those four levels the authors break functioning down to three components,…
Barrett, Feldman L., Ochsner, K.N., and Gross, J.J. (2007). "Automaticity and Emotion." in
J. Bargh (Ed.) Social Psychology and the Unconscious (173-218). New York: Psychology
Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D., DeWall, C.N., and Zhang, L. (2007). How Emotion Shapes
Parole violations and new crimes are frequently committed because reentering people do not have the skills and resources in order to become accustomed to community life. A lot are not capable to find work not only because they do not have considerable work histories and work skills, but also due to the societal stigma connected to their criminal and substance use histories. Characteristically, time spent in prison weakens family and community ties. Without income support or family and community support systems, people released from prison are at high danger of returning to crime in order to sustain themselves (O'Brien, 2002).
ecidivism has never been a main anxiety of policymakers and as a result of present policies and a lack of resources, communities struggle to support ex-offenders. The public fails to comprehend that the appropriate treatment and rehabilitation known to reduce recidivism is not being fully put into place. It can…
Blumstein, Alfred and Nakamura, Kiminori. (n.d.). Redemption' in an Era of Widespread
Criminal Background Checks. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from Web site:
Criminal Background Check Statutes an Overview. (2010). Retrieved March 25, 2011, from Web
As mentioned earlier, Sellin placed emphasis on the cultural diversity that was found in a modern society, in which wile criminal law contains the crime norms of inappropriate and deviant behavior, the conduct norms of less powerful groups that reflect their own specific social situations would conflict with the crime norms mentioned earlier, leading to the inculcation of criminal and deviant behavior among the members of less dominant and influential groups. Therefore, as diverse cultures permeate society, deviant behaviors would grow as a result of increased conflict, felt Sellin. Conflict can be of two main types: primary, which may occur when the norms of two different societies happen to conflict with each other, and secondary, in which a single culture is involved, and in which conflict may occur over a period of time. ("Introduction to sociology," n. d.)
When one stops to analyze culture conflict theory and its relationship to…
Akers, Ronald L; Jensen, Gary F. (n. d.) "Empirical status of social learning theory of crime and deviance" Retrieved 14 November, 2007 at http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/l/l3Bguk/Empirical%20Status%20of%20Social%20Learning%20Theory%20of%20Crime%20and%20Deviance.pdf
Avruch, Kevin. (1998) "Culture and Conflict Resolution"
US Institute of Peace Press.
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). "Human learning" Upper Saddle River,
Methods used in this application would include exciting the students by first, informing them of the new information and what it would consist of, second, presenting to the students some sort of stimuli that would elicit a performance from each individual.
The teacher and other students could then provide feedback about the specific performance, and would therefore reinforce the learning process, ie; move the information from the short-term memory to the long-term memory.
The humanistic theory takes a different approach than both the cognitive and the behavioral theories. The humanistic perspective is on the self, it is you, your perception of your experiences.
Believing in the humanistic theory means that your behavior is freely chosen by you, rather than reacting to any environmental stimuli (behavior theory) or reinforcers. The major focus of the humanistic theory is dealing with issues of self-esteem and self-fulfillment and to facilitate the individual's personal development.…
Cognitive Learning Theory - Web Quest, http://suedstudent.syr.edu/~ebarrett/ide621/cognitive.htm, Accessed August 10, 2006
Humanistic Perspective (1998), http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d46/psy/dev/Fall98/Theories/humanistic.html , Accessed August 10, 2006
EDSE 600: History and Philosophy of Education / / 3.0 credits
The class entitled, History and Philosophy of Education, focused on the origin of education and the "philosophical influences of modern educational theory and practice. Study of: philosophical developments in the Renaissance, Reformation, and revolutionary periods; social, cultural and ideological forces which have shaped educational policies in the United States; current debates on meeting the wide range of educational and social-emotional needs of students from diverse cultures." (need to add reference here)
This course precisely presented numerous, pertinent ideas for this researcher to use while writing this thesis. Due to this study, this researcher is now capable of discussing great thinkers during the time frames of the Renaissance and Reformation, as well as, ways current events of this time influenced leading thinker to accomplish what they did. Along with this understanding, this research can competently incorporate how some of the…
Anatomy of a Canon. (n.d.) Sojourn. 30 Oct. 2007
Applewhite, Ashton. Frothingham, Andrew, and Evans, Tripp. (2003), and I Quote. Saint Martin's Press. 24 Oct. 2007< http://books.google.com/books?id=H-
All these activities involve an intermittent spin out of reference lists, diagrams, lists of variables and hypothesis as David a.W., (2000) indicates. The products that emerge give a summary of the progress, give directions and act as place makers. They comprise of vestiges of theories but in the real sense they are not theories on their own.
The analysis of theory development done by researchers that is done through the use of graphical methods is among the most effective ways of making a quick comparison on various frameworks that have been peer-reviewed. The use of graphical models is also simple and compelling since it guides the process of theory development since its features for representing and constituting theories are meant to exemplify the actual qualities of the ideal theory. The graphical model is a natural way of lending itself towards the development of conceptualizations which are both systematic and complete.…
David a.W., (2000). Developing "Good" Theory Through Articulation and Examination. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Theory%20Development%20Workshop%20Slides.pdfNational Assistive Technology Research Institute, (2006). The Role of Theory and Research in Practice. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://natri.uky.edu/resources/reports/theory.html
Office of Behavioral & Social Sciences Research, (2013). Social and Behavioral Theories: Theory and why it is Important. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.esourceresearch.org/eSourceBook/SocialandBehavioralTheories/3TheoryandWhyItisImportant/tabid/727/Default.aspx
Scott R., et, al., (2008). Why use theories in qualitative research? Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a949
theories human development factors influence development. write Erickson Psychosocial theory, Freudian Psychosexual theory small piece, Maslow theory Carl Rogers Piaget theory. make involve FACTORS .
Psychoanalytic theory has made it possible for society to gain a more complex understanding of human behavior and of concepts that influence individuals in wanting to perform particular acts. Some of the most notable psychoanalysts devised a series of theories meant to assist the social order in understanding stages of development and the effect that they have on people as they grow. Psychoanalytic theory was one of the principal concepts fueling the world of psychology during the twentieth century and this is reflected by the vast amount of theories that have been created with regard to it. Individuals like Freud, Erikson, and Maslow got actively involved in improving the domain and are largely responsible for the way that the contemporary society understands people. Through focusing…
Coon, Dennis and mitterer, John, "Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior," (Cengage Learning, 2008)
Coon, Dennis and Mitterer, John, "Psychology: Modules for Active Learning (with Concept Modules with Note-Taking and Practice Exams Booklet)," (Cengage Learning, 2011)
Sugarman, Leonie, "Life-span Development: Frameworks, Accounts, and Strategies," (Psychology Press, 2001)
Core concepts can be defined as the main components of any theory on which the theory can be formulated or a model can be designed. There are certain concepts which help in the development of nursing theories. There are theories and models developed by different theorists but all of them have same core concepts. The aim of this assignment is to identify a core concept that is common to two or more contemporary nursing theories. Further we have compared and analyzed the concept definitions among the selected theories. After that, we have chosen one theory and discussed where and how it may be best applied to nursing practice. The core concept selected for the purpose of this assignment is obesity while the nursing models selected are Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model.
Obesity in adults is one of the most serious problems of…
Bernier, F. (2002) Applying Orem's self-care deficit theory of nursing to continence care: Part 2. Urologic Nursing, 22(6) 384-390.
Bond, D.S., Evans, R.K., DeMaria, E.J., Meador, J.G., Warren, B.J., Shannon, K.A., & Shannon, R.M. (2004). A conceptual application of health behavior theory in the Design and implementation of a successful surgical weight loss program. Obesity Surgery, 14 849-856.
Cox, K.R. & Taylor, S.G. (2005). Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory: Pediatric asthma as exemplar. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(3) 249-257.
Goodwin, Z.J., Kiehl, E.M., Peterson, J.Z. (2002). King's theory as foundation for an advance directive decision-making model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15 (3) 237-241.
Routine Activity & Trait Theories
The Routine Activity Theory is based on the idea that in the absence of effective controls, offenders will prey on attractive targets (A Theory of Crime Problems, n.d.). In the case of a shopping mall with an underground garage having an increase in auto theft, auto burglary, and robberies, the handlers in the situation could be parents, relatives, friends, siblings, or spouses of the offenders. The targets are the victims of the crime. The guardians are the police and security guards. The place manager controls the behavior of offenders and targets. With crime present, it is obvious the handlers, guardians, and the place manager are either absent, weak, or corrupt.
Effective measures could include adequate lighting in the garage to increase surveillance. Lighting would make it harder for the offenders to hide and sneak up on victims. Another effective measure would be surveillance cameras that…
A Theory of Crime Problems. (n.d.). Retrieved from Center for Problem Oriented Policing: http://www.popcenter.org/learning/pam//help/theory/cfm
Gassen, S. & . (2013, Mar 27). Before attack, parents of gunman tried to address son's strange behavior. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/28/us/documents...se-gabriel-giffords.html?ref=jaredleeloughner
McQuade, S. (2009). Encyclopedia of Cybercrime. Retrieved from Scribd.com: http://www.scribd.com/doc/20262442/Enclyclopedia-of-Cyber-Crime
Neutralization Theory: Gresham Sykes and David Matza. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Minnesota: http://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMneutralizaiton.htm
A major challenge that all psychologists will encounter are what factors will influence the development of children. To fully understand these different ideas requires examining the theories from: Freud, Erickson, Pavolv, Skinner, Piaget and Vygotsky. This will offer specific insights as to what factors will influence the way a child's personality develops.
In child development, there is a continuous conflict occurring among mental health professionals. The reason why, is because various theories have been developed to help explain the numerous challenges a child will go through at different stages in their lives. To fully understand these ideas requires care examining the views of: Freud, Erickson, Pavolv, Skinner, Piaget and Vygotsky. Together, these elements will provide the greatest insights as to how psychologists are addressing child development issues.
Freud believed that by the age of five years old is when all children have fully developed their personality. As they…
Child Development Theories. (2012). Child Development Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.child-development-guide.com/child-development-theories.html#theorists3
Classical Conditioning. (2010). Learning Theories. Retrieved from: http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html
Piaget. (2012). Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
Cherry, K. (2011). Erickson's Theory. About. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
theories business cycle determine viable. Explain rationale. B) ecommend policy bring U.S. current economic slump. Provide specific examples support response.
Business Cycle Theories
A) There are several theories that refer to the business cycle. The real business cycle theory states that fluctuations within the business cycle are determined by technological shocks. In the opinion of Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott, economic crisis and fluctuations cannot be determined by monetary shocks, but by external shocks, like technological developments and innovation. This theory is reflected by the Industrial evolution and its effects.
The technological progress determined by the Industrial evolution influenced significant productivity developments, the focus on industrial production, and the increase of GDP. This increased production capacity determined increases in supply (Ascari, 2010). Therefore, the specialists in the field that are in favor of this theory consider that the effects determined by these technological developments are more important than…
1. Ascari, G. (2010). Real Business Cycle Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
2. Krugman, P. & Wells, R. (2010). The Way Out of the Slump. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 23, 2012 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/oct/14/way-out-slump/?pagination=false .
theories risk management, types risk, implications portfolio theory.
As the risk factors have diversified and as new types of risks have appeared, the theories of risk management have also multiplied, with new theories to address new areas of concerns and new threats. For example, when it comes to financial risk (including a large number of related risks, such as operational risk or currency risks), the company comes under the threat of fluctuations from the financial market, whether the currency market, the interest rate market, the commodity market etc.
With this in mind, theories like Value at Risk aim to measure the maximum loss that a portfolio can undertake during a certain period of time, with a certain probability. ubsequently, such risk management approaches are then used in capital requirements, such as Basel II. Probability theories are also considered in risk management, to the degree to which the probability of an…
Since portfolio theory has two different objectives, namely to maximize profits and minimize risks, it is understandable that both theories of risk management and the correct identification of the types of risks that can affect a business are essential in reaching both objectives. In the latter case, the correct identification of risk factors to which the organization is exposed will lead to the correct risk management tools being used. At the same time, this also means that the organization has to have clearly identified the risk management theories that can help it deal with its exposure to the different factors of risk. The two elements are thus interconnected and essential in portfolio theory.
Chew, Donald, H. "Corporate Risk Management," (Columbia University Press, 2008)
Khatta, R.S. "Risk Management," (Global India Publications, 01.01.2008)
Counseling and Psychotherapy:
The acquisition of counseling and psychotherapy philosophy and framework starts is usually dependent on the personality of the counseling student and familiarity with the existing major approaches or techniques to therapeutic practice. The theoretical perspective, philosophy, and framework determine what therapists look for and what they see after making initial contact with clients. Personal philosophy and framework of therapy determines the therapist's focus and course of action while affecting his/her choice of therapeutic strategies and processes (Corey, 2012, p.4). Therefore, a counseling student should carefully consider his/her own basic assumptions when developing his/her therapy practice. This is an increasingly involving process that goes beyond mere acceptance of the tenets of a specific theory or combination of theories. Generally, an individual's theoretical approach and therapy framework is a reflection and expression of his/her experiences in life.
Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy:
Counseling and psychotherapy is a process that…
Corey, G. (2012). Case approach to counseling & psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA:
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Belmont, CA:
Old and New Theories of Addiction
CLEARING THE PATH
Connections between the Old and the New Theories of Addiction
Addiction in the Earlier Centuries, Early Theories
the Temperance Movement
In the 17th century, alcohol did not have a bad name (Sturt, 2009). It was even more respected and considered safer than water and more healthful. This made the innkeeper of spirits a valuable member of the community in those days. Moreover, man was perceived as distinct from nature. Man has a soul and free will and a sense of responsibility for his actions. Animals, in contrast, only possess biological drives. This perception of man viewed alcoholics as too indulgent in the habit and, therefore, must be punished. In the late century up to the early 20th century, the formation of the temperance movement introduced the view of drinking as evil, which makes alcoholics victims. The first disease concept surfaced at…
Angres, DH and Angres, K.B. (2008). The disease of addiction: origin, treatment and recovery. Vol. 54, Disease-a-Month: Resurrection Medical Center. Retrieved on March
18, 2014 from http://www.resurrectionmedicalcenter.reshealth.org/pdfs.subsites/addiction/the_disease_of_addiction.pdf
McKenna, G.J. (2010). Psychopathology in drug dependent individuals: a clinical review. Drug Text: International Substance Use Library. Retrieved on March 25, 2014
Psychology: Theories on Personality
Freud and Jung: Differences on their Theories of Personality
For many years, serious psychology students looking into explanations of personality, and scholars researching pivotal theories of personality, tended to associate Freud and Jung as quasi-brothers in theory; and Freud and Jung were close at one time. But as years passed, according to an article in the Journal of Analytical Psychology (Charet, 2000) -- and based on a critical examination of their divergent theories -- the research shows that Jung and Freud were for most of their careers coming from very different places, going very different places, and this paper points out those differences in theory and direction. The fact that they did part company and go dramatically different paths makes the study of their work all the more intriguing and informative regarding the whole of psychiatry, psychology, and where personality fits in.
Understanding Jung: recent biographies…
Arenella, Jessica. (2000). Manifestations of bodily concern in sexually abused girls. Bulletin Of the Menninger Clinic, 64(4), 530-543.
Arnau, Randolph C.; Rosen, David H.; & Thompson, Bruce. (2000). Reliability and validity of Scores from the Singer-Loomis Type Deployment Inventory. Journal of Analytical
Psychology, 45(3), 409-427.
Bingaman, Kirk A. (2001). Christianity and the Shadow Side of Human Experience. Pastoral Psychology, 49(3), 167-179.
However, they do not provide actionable steps that can be taken immediately to address specific threats. These elements are important, because they are: showing the overall strengths and weaknesses of using this procedure. Therefore, this theory provides basic criteria for: any kind of security protocol and should be utilized to create a general strategy. In this case, there was a tremendous amount of research that was available on this theory.
The Independent Theory
The independent theory is designed to: take the most effective security procedures and implement them into one basic strategy. There are a number of different elements that are utilized as part of this security protocol to include: the use of mapping and safeguards / layering. Mapping is when the it administrator will integrate the different computer systems together, to see how much data is: being retrieved, stored and processed. (McCumber, 2008) This is important, because this tool…
Jones, a. (2007). A Framework for the Management. BT Technology Journal, 25 (1), 30 -- 38.
McCumber, J. (2008). Assessing and Managing Security Risk. Symantec.
Montablano, E. (2011). Federal Cyber Attacks. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/security/229400156
APA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
The objective of this study is to explain ethical theories and apply that knowledge to how organizations would function were they to adopt those ethical principles. In addition, this study will examine punishments for corporations and present ideas about the relationship between ethical demands on business entities vs. those on individuals in society This study will first select a Not-for-Profit and a For Profit organization specifically those of Susan G. Komen and Merck.
Nancy G. rinker made a promise to her sister Susan G. Komen, who was dying that she would do all in her power to bring an end to breast cancer and in 1982, Susan G. Komen, a not-for-profit was launched and became the global movement for breast cancer. More than $2.5 billion has been invested in fulfilling the promise that rinker made to her sister and toward working to bring about an end to breast…
Sadler, GB (2001) Five Ethical Theories: Bare Bones for Business Educators. Retrieved from: http://missionparalegal.pbworks.com/f/Five+Ethical+Theories.pdf
Pasternak, S. (nd) The Role of Ethical Theories in Ethical Reasoning and Behavior Within Organizations. Retrieved from: http://www.ti-israel.org/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/sigalitpasternak.pdf
Zieger, S (2014) Effects of a Lack of Ethics on a Business Environment. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effects-lack-ethics-business-environment-23332.html
Locke's Theories of "Property" & Taxation
According to John Locke, the 17th century English political and social philosopher, although the entire earth and all its riches have been gifted by God to all men (and as such are the common property of the entire mankind), every individual has a "property" in his own "person." Thus the origin of all "property" is in each "person" himself. This "property" of the individual is the labor that he puts into his work during his lifetime. It is Locke's contention that nobody has any right to such labor but himself. He believed that every individual takes some part of the common "gift" that God has given to all mankind in the form of the earth's resources, and by adding to that resource by his own labor an individual makes that resource into his own "property." And just as no one has any…
John Locke. (1690). "An Essay concerning the true original, extent and end of Civil Government." Humanities Computing Website. (1997) [Full text Available online]. Retrieved on October 5, 2002 at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1651-1700/locke/ECCG/governxx.htm
According to Kerlinger and Lee, the role of theory is a vital part of building a sound hypothesis in a paper. The positioning of existing theory in this effort takes two basic shapes. First, it is important to access and utilize existing theory via prior published work that relates to the investigation. Second, it is also important to recognize the role of other researchers who have utilized the theory or theories in question in their research. Conversations and debates with researchers can assist the process of not only understanding the theory, but also utilizing it effectively in terms of creating and supporting the proposed hypotheses.
When investigating prior research, it is also important to distinguish between the theories being used and the empirical results achieved by utilizing the theories. The researcher should, for example, not mistake the results for the theory itself, but instead cultivate an understanding of the…
Allport (1979), what usually defines an in-group is that all of its members "use the term we with the same essential significance." (p. 31) The attachment in such cases is variable and flexible, meaning one can change profession or school and thus become member of a different in-group. By in-groups, we therefore understand a particular affiliation to smaller groups or groups which belong to certain constructions. Ethnic groups and race groups are also considered part of the category; however, these are understood as much larger assemblies. Secondly, "intergroup" refers to the relations occurring between two or more social groups.
Stereotyping occurs both in-group and intergroup. This assumes that, within an in-group, although individuals share similar visions in relation to the nature of the group, stereotyping may still occur. Because any group is of social nature, different organizational structures and ranks will exist. As such, within an in-group, higher-status and dominant…
Adorno, T.W., Frenkel -- Brunswick, E., Levinson. D., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harpen and Row.
Burkley, M., & Blanton, H. (2008). Endorsing a negative in-group stereotype as a self-protective strategy: Sacrificing the group to save the self. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 37- 49. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2007.01.008
Castano, E., Paladino, M.P., Coull, A., & Yzerbyt, V.Y. (2002). Protecting the ingroup stereotype: Ingroup identification and the management of deviant ingroup members. British Journal of British Psychology, 41, 365 -- 385. Retrieved from http://www.psor.ucl.ac.be/personal/yzerbyt/Castano%20et%20al.%20BJSP%202002.pdf
Dollard, J., Doob, L.W. Miller, N.E., Mowrer, O.H., & Sears, R.R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.
The concept of 'ealism' has been one of the most important and dominating theories that has come into force, especially after the World War II. The theory has not only been responsible for guiding international relations but has also been the predominant force behind the formulations of foreign policies. (Theories of International elations) For most of its history, Vietnam has been under the domination of foreign rule, most of the time by the Chinese. It was in the year 1860 that the French entered the soil of Vietnam, and by the end of the nineteenth century, they had established colonies all over Vietnam, especially around the Gulf of Tonkin. This was the area that the Japanese took complete control over, during the Second World War, until the year 1945 when the Vietnamese took up a bold stand and threw them out.
Afterwards, until the year 1955, the French…
Background. Retrieved From
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/Vietnam/background2.html Accessed on 12 December, 2004
Benjian, XIN. Security Dilemma, the Balance of Power vs. U.S. Policy towards China in the Post-Cold War Era. Retrieved From
http://www.uscc.gov/researchpapers/2000_2003/pdfs/secur.pdf Accessed on 12 December, 2004
The Conceptual and Theoretical Domains of Personality Psychology: Individual, Social, and Developmental Phases
One of the primary goals of psychology as a social science is to explain and understand, through empirical methods and findings, the nature of the individual, as s/he relates to himself/herself and the society. Psychology has its different fields of study, and each field pertains to a specific aspect of human psyche and development that is essential to the study of the individual. One of these fields is the psychology of personality, where psychologists try to find how personalities is conceived and later develops within an individual. Studying personality is essential because it determines an individual's thinking, behavior, and feeling. Establishing constructs about personality and its variants among people thus provides information for social scientists to make specific descriptions about an individual's behavior as s/he develops.
The importance of personality in the study of psychology led…
Carver, C. And M. Scheier. (1996). Perspectives on Personality. (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.
Cloninger, S. Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons. (2nd ed.). NJ: Prentice- Hall.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Generally I feel the easiest and bets way of memorizing a poem is to hear it out aloud and form a mental picture of the sea described in the poem and the activities of the sea.
Types of ehearsals
In trying to memorize information, there are basically two types of rehearsals that people engage in; the elaborative rehearsal and the maintenance rehearsal.
The elaborative rehearsal is a detailed manner of memorizing concepts by relating the words to the meaning and even their relations to other concepts within the discipline. This is as opposed to constantly repeating the word or the chunk of information in order to memorize (Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, .S. (1972). For instance looking at a word like 'cell' you look up the meaning in the anatomy dictionary, you also find out what the purpose in the body is, you also look at the shape and draw it…
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/elaborat.htm
Jeffry Ricker, (2013). Working Memory and Elaborative Rehearsal. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://sccpsy101.com/home/chapter-5/section-10/
Jennifer Mishra, (n.d). Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v9n1/vision/Mishra%20Final.pdf
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.
hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.
hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.
Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.
Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
In ode to get beyond such shallow viewpoints, they need to meely use such diffeences as the stating point fo thei conception of people fom othe ethnicities, and actually get beyond that bing about an impovement in inteacial elations.
As such, it is extemely inteesting to note how sociological concepts of standpoint theoy and systems of pivilege typify many of the esponses that Chistenson had to opinions and statements voiced by othe men in the video. Fo the most pat, Chistenson's esponses eithe contained an element of ignoance o outight disbelief to many of the social baies and misconceptions that the men of colo spoke about. These poclivities of Chistenson can widely be ationalized via standpoint theoy, which poses the notion that people's system of beliefs is geatly affected by the social goup they ae a pat of. Moeove, this theoem places a fai amount of emphasis on hegemony, a…
references within this article, he explains how people tend to follow those who are in authority, and also display the tendency to not desire to deviate from the norm. Doing so within the social context of interracial relations, for instance, would require regarding people with less power and privilege in a manner in which there is social equality -- which is a character trait that is not generally part of human nature, which tends to follow an established tradition. Meyer's article implies that nice people would rather go along and do what everybody else is doing, adhering to any authority figures along the way, that deviate and actually think for themselves and treat people differently as a result. This article denotes all the more reason why it is important to merely use the differences in various ethnic groups as a starting point for the nature of interracial relations.
In summary, there is a plentiful amount of evidence that denotes that there are pronounced differences afforded to people of different social standings. Privilege theory and standpoint theory indicate that these differences can account for the bulk of the way that people view and, ultimately, treat other people. Johnson's first two chapters in his manuscript confirm the degree of privilege afforded to those of historical majority groups in the U.S. Meyers' indicates that people will tend to conform to such unfair treatment of others -- unless they make a conscious decision to only use ethnic differences as a starting point, not ending point, for the basis of treatment between races.
Earth evolves Around the Sun
Is this idea/theory/episode/question an example of scientific activity? Why or why not?
It's important to bear in mind that the philosophers of hundreds of years ago didn't always believe that the Earth revolved around the sun. Many of these thinkers believed that the sun revolved around the Earth and that the Earth was the center of the universe -- with the sun and all the stars and planets revolving around it. However, the complicated movement of the sun made this a very difficult theory to support. "The Sun, however, does not merely rise in the east and set in the west. You can see for yourself that the Sun only rises directly in the east on the equinoxes: at all other times of the year, it rises in the northeast (summer) or southeast (winter). Also, the Sun moves with respect to the stars: the Sun…
Cain, F. (2010, March 30). Earth's Orbit Around The Sun. Retrieved from universetoday.com: http://www.universetoday.com/61202/earths-orbit-around-the-sun/
Cuk, M. (2002). Is there a proof that Earth moves? Retrieved from Cornell.edu: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=190
Motz, L. (2003). The Unfolding Universe: A Stellar Journey. New York: Perseus Books.
Tate, J. (2009, December 10). Stellar Parallax. Retrieved from Universetoday.com: http://www.universetoday.com/47182/stellar-parallax/
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…
Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…
"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida
State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.
Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
According to Finn and Jacobson (2008), "Theory is thought of as intangible, highly academic, and entirely intellectual." In other words, we study "theory" while rarely making the connection to how we apply it in our practice. In discussing the "child's-eye view" of theory, Finn and Jacobson refer to the question we so often hear from little children: But why? It seems like a simple enough, straightforward question. However, if this is the case, why is it often so difficult for adults to come up with a simple, straightforward response?
In my early life experience, I do have memories of trying to understanding events, situations, and behaviors that did not seem to make sense to me, and of the ways I tried to deal with them. For the most part, my childhood seemed to be a happy one. I had two biological parents and two siblings, and outwardly we functioned…
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.