Social Control Theory Essays

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Social Facilitation Theory According to Essay

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12065112

The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.

This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to control the number of people in the audience or not. Moreover, the audience may be made up of accomplices or volunteers. Another important issue that should be established even from the beginning of such research is obtaining the informed consent of the participants. They should agree to be a part of the study, they should be informed about the methods and processes that are to take place and have the right to find out the results of the study.

However, the design presented is one of the simplest, involving one group and a pretest and posttest measurements (repeated measures). It is important to note, that any suggestions to a better design should take into account the current state of research on the topic. With respect to this matter, various mechanisms have been proposed to underlie social facilitation (e.g., cognitive distraction or conflict, anxiety, or arousal) and may interfere with performance and, therefore, should be taken into account (Lambert et al. 2003).… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Presence of others, Retrieved at http://myclassonline.com/pub/content/ad080d01

Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295
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How the Control Theory Works in Criminology Essay

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14982861

deviance and criminal behavior can result from people feeling disconnected from their school and home situation. This backs up the control theory, which posits that with less control -- or weak bonds -- behavior can and does become deviant and even criminal later in life.

Control Theory -- Narrative Explanations

In his narratives on delinquency, Travis Hirschi, one of the most prominent theorists when it comes to control theories, said there are four variables that help explain why people either conform to, or deviate from social norms. And this is important because delinquents are often caught up in criminal activities later in life. In the process of deviating from socially respectable behaviors -- and in the extreme, becoming involved in crime -- people are just reacting to four variables, Hirschi explains. The four are: a) attachment (with parents, peers, teachers, and others); b) commitment (this is what a person must consider prior to getting involved in criminal behavior; he risks "…losing the investment he has made in previous conventional behavior"); c) involvement (if a person is deeply involved in "conventional activities" he simply won't have time to be involved in "deviant behavior"); and d) belief (a person is far more apt to conform to proper behavior and observe society values if he believes in those rules and values (Welch, 1998).

Michael R. Gottfredson, writing an essay in the book, Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (authored by Professor Francis Cullen -- with the University of Cincinnati -- believes that there is a "large body of high quality empirical research about age and crime" that draws a fair link between "misconduct early in life and criminal behavior later in life" (Gottfredson, 2011). So Gottfredson basically agrees with Hirschi's theory in the sense that if some kind of restraint is not present in a person's life, he or she will "engage in deviance" at some point in the future (79). In social control theories, a restraint typically would be a "social bond," for example. And that social bond is "the glue connecting the individuals to society," Gottfredson continues (79). But for those with "weak social bonds" can be expected…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008). Review of the Roots of Youth

Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from  http://www.children.gov.on.ca .
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Analyzing Low Self Control Theory Essay

Words: 2356 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114176

Low Self -Control Theory

This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity, impulsivity, more physical, rather than intellectual, risk-taking, a non-verbal nature, and short-sightedness. They cannot resist the temptation to perpetrate crime, drive recklessly, smoke, drink excessively, or consume drugs. Consequently, weak self-control results in problematic interpersonal relationships, anti-social behavior, and weak involvement in community institutions. Those suffering from low self-restraint face difficulties in making and retaining friends, achieving success at the workplace and at school, and saving their marriage from falling apart. Life-course and social bond theories emphasize the significance of indirect interpersonal controls, while research works corroborate the significance of attachment bonds in preventing people from turning delinquent. The two aforementioned theories incorporate direct controls like monitoring, discipline, and rule-setting into the causative equation. Instead of highlighting direct or indirect controls as being more crucial, researchers suggest that both significantly curb delinquent behaviors. Moreover, clearly, controls function at individual as well as social levels, and characteristics of family structure impact informal familial social controls (Burfeind & Bartusch, 2006).

Self-control theory or the general theory of crime developed through the social control theory's evolution. Hirschi and Gottfredson further expanded their theory on the reasons for committing crime, summarizing it to form…… [Read More]

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Theory Based on the Factors That Leads to Juvenile Delinquency Essay

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50594089

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency

Underlying Assumptions

Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).

Structure of Theory

Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community and society. Hirschi referred to the concept of attachment to characterize the quality of the interpersonal relationships within nuclear and extended families and between and among peers as well (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002). Hirschi used the concept of belief to describe the degree to which the individual accepts and shares the dominant societal beliefs of the community outside of the extended family (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).

According to Hirschi, in principle, individuals who are connected to their local communities and to their societies more generally tend to conform their behavior to the expectations of those communities and societies (Macionis, 2008). By contrast, individuals who are not connected to their local communities and to their larger societies by virtue of the four elements of societal connectedness outlined by Hirschi are at much greater risk of juvenile delinquency early in life and to deviance (including criminal conduct) later in their lives (Schmalleger, 2009).

Strengths and Weaknesses of Social Control Theory

In many respects, Hirschi's Social Control Theory of deviance, criminality, and juvenile delinquency is completely consistent with the more general concepts of social psychology and the psychological development of individuals (Henslin, 2009). In that sense, it is difficult to argue that connectedness…… [Read More]

Sources:
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,

Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
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Social Norm Make Answer Question Completely Your Essay

Words: 1555 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31439395

Social Norm

Make answer question completely. Your answers cohesive essays. 1. Discuss explain types social norms. What role dominant culture play establishing norms? 2. What role time place defining crime? How social norms related understanding crime? Give a crime U.S. today time considered a crime? What social contributed changing definition ? 3.

Discuss and explain the various types of social norms. What role does the dominant culture play in establishing norms?

A social norm in the first place refers to something that has been accepted by the society as part of their day-to-day thing/activity. It may be a belief, behavior, action or value that is appreciated by the people/community. A social norm usually varies between different age groups and social class (income bracket) within the society. There are four types of social norms. They include the folkway, custom, and fashion, more, law. All these norms have some element of evaluation of behavior and a specific response to behavior in them (Aarts, 2003).

Folkways are those expected behaviors, although deviating from them doesn't ensure punishment. Mores are a non-written informal social norm, which when a person does anything contradicting them, may attracts a harsher treatment by the group that instituted it. Customs and fashion are norms which are related to the community's values, as it includes components such as clothing type, food and drinks. Laws, on the other hand, are those norms written down and enforced by the custodians of the law. People avoid conforming to a certain norm as a way to avoid breaking the law, which has its consequences. The dominant culture leads to the rise and norming of these social norms because most people in the society will normally identify with what is common among them.

What is the role of time and place in defining crime? How are social norms…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm and social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 18 -- 28.

Cere, D., Farrow, D., Institute for the Study of Marriage, L., & Culture. (2004). Divorcing marriage: unveiling the dangers in Canada's new social experiment: Published for the Institute for the Study of Marriage, Law and Culture by McGill-Queen's University Press.
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social Essay

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive signals" and the user requires more and more of the drug simply to feel 'normal' (Drugs and the brain, 2012, NIDA).

Even the question of what constitutes a drug has varied greatly over the ages. In the 19th century, substances such as morphine and cocaine, which are considered 'hard drugs' today with no redeeming medical value, were widely accepted in the medical profession. "During a brief period following 1884, the medical profession dubbed cocaine 'a miracle of modern science'" and laudanum was an accepted 'ladies' drug, revered for its palliative effects for very minor complaints (Goode 2006: 416). By 1900, once the addictive potential of these classes of drugs were finally recognized, they began to be regulated and regarded as more socially marginal.

Views of drug abuse changed quickly, so quickly that by 1937 the sociologist Bingham Dai published a work entitled Opium Addiction in Chicago, intended to examine the specific pathology of the practice. Dai viewed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:
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Social Work and Welfare the Essay

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28808850

This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).

As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the history as well as current theory and practice of social work. For those who believe in empowerment as essential to high-quality practice, there remains, though, the trick of merging these self-images of empowerment with the irrefutable actuality that social workers serve as instruments of social control, typically paid directly or indirectly by the state in order to do so. This is very obvious in the areas of child well-being and corrections. In child protection, for example, where social workers are the center vocation, are supported by the authority of the state, and have huge authority over their clients, the language of empowerment, affiliation, and strengths distinguishes original practices (Burford and Adams, 2010).… [Read More]

References:
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_1_31/ai_n6065937/
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Social Control Integration of Knowledge of the Essay

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92481927

Social Control

Integration of Knowledge of the Essay 'The City' with the Four Neighborhoods Described in 'There Goes the Neighborhood'

The objective of this study is to integrate the knowledge of the essay entitled "The City" with the four neighborhoods described in "There Goes the Neighborhood." This work will develop an analysis of how and why the features of the area chosen produce or lead to crime and disorder. This work will choose two of the four areas or neighborhoods described and summarize the main features including income, location, population, and race/ethnic composition and will discuss the salient factors in the location that lead to stability and the salient factors that produce change or instability. This work will identify the primary threats perceived or identified by the residents and how these threats are related to ideas such as invasion, succession, or the cycle of conflict, competition, accommodation, and assimilation. This work will answer as to where the location of the two neighborhoods are in relationship to these processes. This work will answer as to how the social organization make up the locations chosen shape or affect the crime and disorder of concern and will finally, answer as to what belief system is predominant in the areas chosen for analysis.

Introduction

The work of Sampson and Wilson (1995) entitled "Toward a Theory of Race, Crime, and Urban Equality" reports that many people "engage in subterfuge, denying race-related differentials in violence and focusing instead on police bias and the alleged invalidity of official crime statistics" and that this is despite the plethora of evidence including death records, surveys and statistical information that demonstrates clearly that "blacks are disproportionately victimized by, and involved in, criminal violence." (p.1) Sampson and Wilson report that the evidence is clear that African-Americans are up against "dismal and worsening odds when it comes to crime in the streets and the risk of incarceration." (p.1) The work of Pattillo (1998) states that social organization "is goal oriented. Social disorganization is defined as the 'inability of community structure to realize the common values of its residents and maintain effective social controls." (p.748) Therefore, social organization is a term that makes reference to the 'effective efforts of neighborhood actors toward common ends." (Pattillo, 1998, p. 748)

I. Beltway -- A Chicago Neighborhood

Beltway, a Chicago neighborhood is characterized by what is referred to as "the new parochialism, where diminished private…… [Read More]

Sources:
Carr, PJ (2003) The New Parochialism: The Implications of the Beltway Case for Arguments Concerning Informal Social Control. AJS Vol. 108. No. 6 May 2003. Pp. 1249-1291.

Pattillo, ME (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces. Vol. 76 No. 3 Mar 1998. Pp.747-774.
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Social Identity Theory Relating to Juvenile Delinquency Essay

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85318940

Juvenile Delinquency Theory

Social identity theory

Postmodernist criminology theory

Underlying assumptions

Postmodernism is a relatively unique theory of criminology: rather than simply trying to understand why people commit crimes and explain such behavior, it questions the notion of what constitutes 'crime' altogether. The underlying assumption of postmodernism is that crime is a culturally constructed concept. [One sentence thesis] For example, in the 1950s, being gay was considered criminal -- today being gay is socially accepted behavior. White-collar crime is often considered less serious than violent crime. Postmodernist theories of criminology suggests that this is not because that white-collar crime is less serious, rather it is because the perpetrators are more apt to be socially powerful and wealthy individuals who can define how crime is constructed.

Similarly, postmodernism would suggest that the social construction of the identity of the juvenile delinquent is laden with class and historical assumptions. Once upon a time, a girl who engaged in sexual activity before marriage would be considered delinquent. Today, that is not the case. Conversely, bullying behavior of teens who are gay, members of religious minorities, or simply 'different' from their peers might have been tacitly condoned at one point. Now such behaviors are clearly labeled as delinquent. The labeling of the criminal thus has more to do with the social identity of the 'labeler' of the crime than the so-called delinquent him or herself.

Structure of theory

Postmodern theories of crime derive their origin not from the discipline of criminology itself, but from literary theory and philosophy. "Post-modernism had its roots in poststructuralist French thought in the late 1960s and 1970s. Its starting point is a disillusion with the modernist thought, notably Marxism, but also with liberal theories of progress" (Cowling 2006: 2). Implicit in even many liberal theories of criminal philosophy was the idea that society was progressively getting 'better' and more enlightened. Postmodernism suggests that this idea is tautological, a delusion. Things seem to be getting 'better' merely because we are judging them by our current standards. For example, while…… [Read More]

References:
Barak, Gregg Stuart Henry & Dragan Milovanovic. (2011). Constitutive criminology: An overview of an emerging postmodernist school. Red Feather Journal. Red Feather

Institute Postmodern Criminology Series. Volume 1. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at  http://www.critcrim.org/redfeather/journal-pomocrim/vol-1-intro/001overview.html 
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Social Lives I Interviewed My Essay

Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26453774

I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.

We talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. We both agreed that having a strong family environment that encourages learning and overcoming obstacles is something that contributes to success later in life. I see this in my own experience, and my grandmother herself was quite well educated, something she contributes to her happiness and the success that she has had. She made the point that when families leave it to the schools to teach their children everything, this is when children are at risk for delinquency and failure as adults. The research I found agrees, that stimulation at an early age fosters learning, self-esteem and ability that lasts throughout life (Crosnoe, et al., 2010). From what I have learned, having a strong family system early in life allows for more time spent with children and they can gain more from the family at this early age. My grandmother certainly agreed with this. She used it to make a case for mothers staying at home, though I argued that it was not necessary to do so, I do in general agree that the more time we spend with children the better off they will be.

The last thing we talked about…… [Read More]

Resources:
Boss, P. (2009). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Springer Science.

Chee, K. & Elder, G. (2009). Mother's employment demands, work-family conflict and adolescent development. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. Vol. 35 (2) 189-202.
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Theories in Child Development Essay

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87439725

Shaping of Virtues in a Child

There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?

The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the upbringing of children and what they become in their later years. Of more significance here is the nature aspect in shaping behaviors of a child, though it should not be lost that the environment plays a crucial role as well. It has been agreed that it is not the genetic predisposition to the criminal genes that makes one a criminal but when the right social environment comes along then such a person is likely to be a criminal than one without the genes. From the study of 32 Monozygotic twins it was concluded that there was heritability involved in the behavior pattern from childhood to adulthood since the monozygotic twins behaved more similarly than the dizygotic twins regardless of the environment (Joseph, 2001).

In defense of the nurture perspective here is a case scenario of a young child getting to school. In the education system there is a basic triangle of three people; the child, the teacher/parent and the environment. The teacher here will be charged with preparation of the environment and continued updating of the learning environment to suite the contemporary environment. He is also charged with introducing the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html 

Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime
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Self-Control Theory of Crime One Essay

Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42980436



(Nofziger, 2001, p. 10)

All sociological (subculture) theories do not blame the parents of deviant children for bad parenting, some in fact say it isn't an abundance of bad parenting but a lack or limitation of positive parenting in a subculture that has peers training individual children, regardless of risk status to be deviant. (Brendtro, Mitchell & Mccall, 2007, p. 200) Most stress the need for parents to reassert focus on the family, and yet very few discuss much more difficult questions of social disparity and observed social helplessness, that contradicts the teaching of parents. When a parent tells a child that they can achieve anything they set their mind to and then they repeatedly see clues and cues in their environment that contradicts this observation, by omission when those who succeed in legitimate manners leave the community to by commission when society offers alternative (deviant) choices in abundance but limits positive socially acceptable decisions. One aspect of serious concern is the depiction of stereotypes of certain subcultures that stress their deviant nature, not only in appearance but in action over more positive role models.

A in order for this system to even begin, parents must be willing and able to devote time and energy to the individual child. Generally we hope and assume that parents will naturally want to protect and care for their children. However, as numerous studies of child abuse and neglect remind us (Buchanan 1996; Frehsee, Horn and Bussmann 1996; Straus and Gelles 1990; Zuravin 1987), this is not always the case. Estimates indicate that nearly 7 million children in the United States are abused every year by their parents (Straus and Gelles 1990). Putting aside this extreme lack of parental interest or concern for children, more subtle differences in the level of parental support and affection for children have also been found to be extremely important for predicting deviance (Kakar 1996; Baumrind 1991, 1978).

(Nofziger, 2001, p. 16)

It has been clear in sociological research, education research and many other areas of significant study of the human condition that socioeconomic and other risk factors are positively linked with outcomes, be they negative or positive and yet very few are willing to seriously discuss how these largely environmental cultural factors effect the individual and more importantly how these things can be changed. Some…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bartkowski, J.P. (1995). Spare the Rod..., or Spare the Child? Divergent Perspectives on Conservative Protestant Child Discipline. Review of Religious Research, 37(2), 97-116.

Bowman, P.J., & Sanders, R. (1998). Unmarried African-American Fathers: A Comparative Life Span Analysis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 39.
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Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior Essay

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20404070



Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. Rather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).

First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by other students than admired; and third, the urban environment is often dominated by street gangs and a criminal culture that elevates criminals to positions of perceived status on the streets (Pinizzotto 2007).

To make matters worse, urban gangs tend to recruit prospects for membership among middle school aged children who are both easily impressed by criminal role models and equally susceptible to intimidation and predatory victimization when they resist associating with neighborhood gang "sets" (Pinizzotto 2007). As a result, even exemplary parents who provide appropriate messages and parenting styles encounter difficulty when their efforts at home are contradicted by attitudes and values prevailing within the community to which their children are continually exposed.

Genetic Predisposition to Criminality:

As is the case with regard to every other conceivable aspect of human behavior, genetics contributes various components of predisposition to criminal activity.

Generally, children whose parents are athletic are more likely to be athletic; children whose parents value education are more likely to pursue advanced education; and children whose parents tend toward violence or who lack self-control are more likely than children of pacifists to have criminal records. However, the difficulty ascribing differences in human behavior to genes or environmental influence is in distinguishing inherent genetic tendencies from parenting influences (Gerrig & Zimbardo…… [Read More]

References:
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Leadership Principles Social Cognition Theory Essay

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65925035

This brainstorming would be an imaginative exercise, as well as encourage students to work together. Then, students could present their findings to the class in the form of a dialogue. The sharing of information in the form of a play would further spur social modeling and creativity. Requiring students to imagine 'what if' scenarios enables them to illustrate that they have truly assimilated the lesson material and comprehend its basic principles, and do not focus on reciting facts by rote: "Internalization refers to the process of learning -- and thereby internalizing -- a rich body of knowledge and tools of thought that first exist outside the child" (Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition, 2008, Funderstanding). Presenting a short 'dramatic' scenario would also energize students who are kinesthetic (hands-on) rather than verbal learners.

In the case of the first exercise, students would be assessed in terms of their visual recall by being asked to create their own drawing of an aspect of the printing press history they felt was 'left out' of the original sequence of drawings provided by the teacher. This would force them to extend the social modeling of observing the original pictures and allow them to use their own visual intelligence and input. In the second instance, when students reported their findings to the class in the dramatic presentation, they would be assessed upon how well they worked with their fellow students, upon their mutually-demonstrated creativity, and how their presentation reflected the knowledge that was supposed to have been gained from reading the passage.

Reference

Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition. (2008). Funderstanding. Retrieved February 17, 2011 at…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Reference

Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition. (2008). Funderstanding. Retrieved February 17, 2011 at http://www.funderstanding.com/content/vygotsky-and-social-cognition
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U K Government Social Policy Theory & Practice Essay

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59478539

U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice

The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?

Social Administrative Tradition

Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and the Continental European traditions." (The World Bank, 2011) IN the Anglo-Saxon administrative tradition "the state does not exist as a legal entity but rather one speaks of 'government' or 'government departments'." (The World Bank, 2011) In the Continental European traditions, the state is "an overarching entity capable of entering into legal contracts with other moral persons (including regions, communes, universities, etc.)." (The World Bank, 2011) The Anglo-Saxon tradition is reported as being evident "in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Anglo-American derivative systems." (The World Bank, 2011) It is reported that the "role and position of the civil service are also more subordinate within the Anglo-Saxon tradition than in the Germanic. This does not mean that the civil service is unimportant in government policy making. But the civil service in the Anglo-Saxon tradition is not assigned to a constitutional role, and tends to be subject to structural changes produced by the government of the day." (The World Bank, 2011) It is reported by the World Bank that the "separation of politics and administration is prominent in a good deal of thinking about governance in the Anglo-American tradition. And issues of politicization or possible bureaucratic dominance of public policy have been most salient in the Anglo-American democracies." (The World Bank, 2011) The key features of the Anglo-Saxon administrative tradition is that in the…… [Read More]