Social Control Theory Essays (Examples)

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Social Facilitation Theory According to

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12065112

The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.

This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to control the number of people in the audience or not. Moreover, the audience may be made up of accomplices or volunteers. Another important issue that should be established even from the beginning of such research is obtaining the informed consent of the participants. They should agree to be a part…… [Read More]


Presence of others, Retrieved at

Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295

Social Facilitation, Retrieved at
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How the Control Theory Works in Criminology

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14982861

deviance and criminal behavior can result from people feeling disconnected from their school and home situation. This backs up the control theory, which posits that with less control -- or weak bonds -- behavior can and does become deviant and even criminal later in life.

Control Theory -- Narrative Explanations

In his narratives on delinquency, Travis Hirschi, one of the most prominent theorists when it comes to control theories, said there are four variables that help explain why people either conform to, or deviate from social norms. And this is important because delinquents are often caught up in criminal activities later in life. In the process of deviating from socially respectable behaviors -- and in the extreme, becoming involved in crime -- people are just reacting to four variables, Hirschi explains. The four are: a) attachment (with parents, peers, teachers, and others); b) commitment (this is what a person must consider prior to getting involved in criminal behavior; he risks "…losing the investment he has made in previous conventional behavior"); c) involvement (if a person is deeply involved in "conventional activities" he simply won't have time to be involved in "deviant behavior"); and d) belief (a person is far more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008). Review of the Roots of Youth

Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from .

Welch, K. (1998). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Florida State University. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from
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Analyzing Low Self Control Theory

Words: 2356 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114176

Low Self -Control Theory

This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity, impulsivity, more physical, rather than intellectual, risk-taking, a non-verbal nature, and short-sightedness. They cannot resist the temptation to perpetrate crime, drive recklessly, smoke, drink excessively, or consume drugs. Consequently, weak self-control results in problematic interpersonal relationships, anti-social behavior, and weak involvement in community institutions. Those suffering from low self-restraint face…… [Read More]


Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Theory Based on the Factors That Leads to Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50594089

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency

Underlying Assumptions

Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).

Structure of Theory

Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community and society. Hirschi referred to the concept of attachment to characterize the quality of the interpersonal relationships within nuclear and extended families and between and among peers as well (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002). Hirschi used the concept of belief to describe the degree to which the…… [Read More]


Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,

Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American

Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
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Social Norm Make Answer Question Completely Your

Words: 1555 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31439395

Social Norm

Make answer question completely. Your answers cohesive essays. 1. Discuss explain types social norms. What role dominant culture play establishing norms? 2. What role time place defining crime? How social norms related understanding crime? Give a crime U.S. today time considered a crime? What social contributed changing definition ? 3.

Discuss and explain the various types of social norms. What role does the dominant culture play in establishing norms?

A social norm in the first place refers to something that has been accepted by the society as part of their day-to-day thing/activity. It may be a belief, behavior, action or value that is appreciated by the people/community. A social norm usually varies between different age groups and social class (income bracket) within the society. There are four types of social norms. They include the folkway, custom, and fashion, more, law. All these norms have some element of evaluation of behavior and a specific response to behavior in them (Aarts, 2003).

Folkways are those expected behaviors, although deviating from them doesn't ensure punishment. Mores are a non-written informal social norm, which when a person does anything contradicting them, may attracts a harsher treatment by the group that instituted it.…… [Read More]


Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm and social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 18 -- 28.

Cere, D., Farrow, D., Institute for the Study of Marriage, L., & Culture. (2004). Divorcing marriage: unveiling the dangers in Canada's new social experiment: Published for the Institute for the Study of Marriage, Law and Culture by McGill-Queen's University Press.

Frank Heiland, & Shirley H. Liu. (2005). Family Structure and Wellbeing of Out-of-Wedlock Children: the Significance of the Biological Parents' Relationship. Demographic Research 15, 61 -- 104.

Hipp, J.R. (2010). A Dynamic View of Neighborhoods: The Reciprocal Relationship between Crime and Neighborhood Structural Characteristics. Social Problems, 57(2), 205-230
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive signals" and the user requires more and more of the drug simply to feel 'normal' (Drugs and the brain, 2012, NIDA).

Even the question of what constitutes a drug has varied greatly over the ages. In the 19th century, substances such as morphine and cocaine,…… [Read More]


Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Social Work and Welfare the

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28808850

This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).

As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the history as well as current theory and practice of social work. For those who believe in empowerment as essential to high-quality practice, there remains, though, the trick of merging these self-images of empowerment with the irrefutable actuality that social workers serve as instruments of social control, typically paid directly or…… [Read More]


Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:

Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
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Social Control Integration of Knowledge of the

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92481927

Social Control

Integration of Knowledge of the Essay 'The City' with the Four Neighborhoods Described in 'There Goes the Neighborhood'

The objective of this study is to integrate the knowledge of the essay entitled "The City" with the four neighborhoods described in "There Goes the Neighborhood." This work will develop an analysis of how and why the features of the area chosen produce or lead to crime and disorder. This work will choose two of the four areas or neighborhoods described and summarize the main features including income, location, population, and race/ethnic composition and will discuss the salient factors in the location that lead to stability and the salient factors that produce change or instability. This work will identify the primary threats perceived or identified by the residents and how these threats are related to ideas such as invasion, succession, or the cycle of conflict, competition, accommodation, and assimilation. This work will answer as to where the location of the two neighborhoods are in relationship to these processes. This work will answer as to how the social organization make up the locations chosen shape or affect the crime and disorder of concern and will finally, answer as to what belief…… [Read More]


Carr, PJ (2003) The New Parochialism: The Implications of the Beltway Case for Arguments Concerning Informal Social Control. AJS Vol. 108. No. 6 May 2003. Pp. 1249-1291.

Pattillo, ME (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces. Vol. 76 No. 3 Mar 1998. Pp.747-774.

Sampson, RJ and Wilson, WJ (1995) Toward Unified Theory of Race, Crime and Urban Inequality. Crime and Inequality. Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. 1995. University Press.
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Social Identity Theory Relating to Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85318940

Juvenile Delinquency Theory

Social identity theory

Postmodernist criminology theory

Underlying assumptions

Postmodernism is a relatively unique theory of criminology: rather than simply trying to understand why people commit crimes and explain such behavior, it questions the notion of what constitutes 'crime' altogether. The underlying assumption of postmodernism is that crime is a culturally constructed concept. [One sentence thesis] For example, in the 1950s, being gay was considered criminal -- today being gay is socially accepted behavior. White-collar crime is often considered less serious than violent crime. Postmodernist theories of criminology suggests that this is not because that white-collar crime is less serious, rather it is because the perpetrators are more apt to be socially powerful and wealthy individuals who can define how crime is constructed.

Similarly, postmodernism would suggest that the social construction of the identity of the juvenile delinquent is laden with class and historical assumptions. Once upon a time, a girl who engaged in sexual activity before marriage would be considered delinquent. Today, that is not the case. Conversely, bullying behavior of teens who are gay, members of religious minorities, or simply 'different' from their peers might have been tacitly condoned at one point. Now such behaviors are…… [Read More]


Barak, Gregg Stuart Henry & Dragan Milovanovic. (2011). Constitutive criminology: An overview of an emerging postmodernist school. Red Feather Journal. Red Feather

Institute Postmodern Criminology Series. Volume 1. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at 

Cowling, Mark. (2006). Postmodern policies. Internet Journal of Criminology.

Retrieved October 17, 2011 at
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Social Lives I Interviewed My

Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26453774

I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.

We talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. We both agreed that having a strong family environment that encourages learning and overcoming obstacles is something that contributes to success later in life. I see this in my own experience, and my grandmother herself was quite well educated, something she contributes to her happiness and the success that she has had. She…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Boss, P. (2009). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Springer Science.

Chee, K. & Elder, G. (2009). Mother's employment demands, work-family conflict and adolescent development. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. Vol. 35 (2) 189-202.

Church, W., Wharton, T. & Taylor, J. (2009). An examination of differential association and social control theory. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Vol. 7 (1) 3-15.

Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R., Pianta, R. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Childhood Development. Vol. 81 (3) 972-987.
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Theories in Child Development

Words: 734 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87439725

Shaping of Virtues in a Child

There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?

The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the upbringing of children and what they become in their later years. Of more significance here is the nature aspect in shaping behaviors of a child, though it should not be lost that the environment plays a crucial role as well. It has been agreed that it is not the genetic…… [Read More]


Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from 

Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from
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Self-Control Theory of Crime One

Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42980436

(Nofziger, 2001, p. 10)

All sociological (subculture) theories do not blame the parents of deviant children for bad parenting, some in fact say it isn't an abundance of bad parenting but a lack or limitation of positive parenting in a subculture that has peers training individual children, regardless of risk status to be deviant. (Brendtro, Mitchell & Mccall, 2007, p. 200) Most stress the need for parents to reassert focus on the family, and yet very few discuss much more difficult questions of social disparity and observed social helplessness, that contradicts the teaching of parents. When a parent tells a child that they can achieve anything they set their mind to and then they repeatedly see clues and cues in their environment that contradicts this observation, by omission when those who succeed in legitimate manners leave the community to by commission when society offers alternative (deviant) choices in abundance but limits positive socially acceptable decisions. One aspect of serious concern is the depiction of stereotypes of certain subcultures that stress their deviant nature, not only in appearance but in action over more positive role models.

A in order for this system to even begin, parents must be willing and able…… [Read More]


Bartkowski, J.P. (1995). Spare the Rod..., or Spare the Child? Divergent Perspectives on Conservative Protestant Child Discipline. Review of Religious Research, 37(2), 97-116.

Bowman, P.J., & Sanders, R. (1998). Unmarried African-American Fathers: A Comparative Life Span Analysis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 39.

Brendtro, L.K., Mitchell, M.L., & Mccall, H. (2007). Positive Peer Culture: Antidote to "Peer Deviance Training." Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(4), 200.

2001). Bullies, Fights, and Guns: Testing Self-Control Theory with Juveniles. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
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Self-Control Theory of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20404070

Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. Rather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).

First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by other students than admired; and third, the urban environment is often dominated by street gangs and a criminal culture that elevates criminals to positions of perceived status on the streets (Pinizzotto 2007).

To make matters worse, urban gangs tend to recruit prospects for membership among middle school aged children who…… [Read More]


Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Leadership Principles Social Cognition Theory

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65925035

This brainstorming would be an imaginative exercise, as well as encourage students to work together. Then, students could present their findings to the class in the form of a dialogue. The sharing of information in the form of a play would further spur social modeling and creativity. Requiring students to imagine 'what if' scenarios enables them to illustrate that they have truly assimilated the lesson material and comprehend its basic principles, and do not focus on reciting facts by rote: "Internalization refers to the process of learning -- and thereby internalizing -- a rich body of knowledge and tools of thought that first exist outside the child" (Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition, 2008, Funderstanding). Presenting a short 'dramatic' scenario would also energize students who are kinesthetic (hands-on) rather than verbal learners.

In the case of the first exercise, students would be assessed in terms of their visual recall by being asked to create their own drawing of an aspect of the printing press history they felt was 'left out' of the original sequence of drawings provided by the teacher. This would force them to extend the social modeling of observing the original pictures and allow them to use their own…… [Read More]


Lev Vygotsky and Social Cognition. (2008). Funderstanding. Retrieved February 17, 2011 at
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U K Government Social Policy Theory & Practice

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59478539

U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice

The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?

Social Administrative Tradition

Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and the Continental European traditions." (The World Bank, 2011) IN the Anglo-Saxon administrative tradition "the state does not exist as a legal entity but rather one speaks of 'government' or 'government departments'." (The World Bank, 2011) In the Continental European traditions, the state is "an overarching entity capable of entering into…… [Read More]

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Who's Controlling Our Emotions Emotional Literacy as a Mechanism for Social Control

Words: 8437 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90031219




At the core of becoming an activist educator

Is identifying the regimes of truth that govern us the ideas that govern how we think, act and feel as educators because it is within regimes of truth that inequity is produced and reproduced. (MacNaughton 2005, 20)

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...."

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." These terns, according to Nolan (1998; Furedi 2003; cited by Ecclestone N.d., 135), denote a therapeutic ethos prevalent in American culture that some consider to be seeping into British media, popular culture and politics. Currently, in England, "Personalised learning," according to Ecclestone (2005, 456), includes an increasing number of initiatives, which constitute a powerful discourse to respond to varied, frequently contradictory public, political and professional concerns relating to a person's emotional needs. Her article debates critical policy research and evaluates the subtle ways policy initiatives strive to develop "emotional well-being and encourage emotional engagement with public services resonate with images of the 'diminished self' emerging in broader cultural discourses." An expansive therapeutic ethos blurring differences between welfare and education, is also taking hold in Britain, Ecclestone (N.d., 135) points out. This process constitutes part of the…… [Read More]


Benninga, Jacques S., Marvin W. Berkowitz, Phyllis Kuehn, and Karen Smith. "Character andAcademics: What Good Schools Do Though There Has Been Increasing Interest in Character Education among Policy Makers and Education Professionals, Many Schools Hesitate to Do Anything That Might Detract from Their Focus on Increasing Academic Performance. The Authors Present Evidence Indicating That This May Be Misguided." Phi Delta Kappan 87.6 (2006): 448. Questia. 24 June 2008


Buckingham, David, and Andrew Burn. "Game Literacy in Theory and Practice." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 16.3 (2007): 323+. Questia. 24 June 2008

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Communication Theory Social Penetration Theory

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24624682

2. Relational Dialectics Theory

Relational dialectics theory is defined as an "interpretive theory of meaning-making in familial and non-kin relationships" (Baxter a.L., 2008). The dialectical process of thinking increases in a major manner our general view of the conceptual framework on life and relationships that we form in life. Through the dialectical view, we are able to see what we could not see before in relationships, as well as seeing afresh the things that we saw at a surface level. The theory is very instrumental in crisis or conflict solution and mediation between two conflicting parties.

The dialectical theory has employed four approaches mainly in solving dialectical tensions described as follows:

(a). Totality; which recognizes that contradiction is part and parcel of the human existence and cannot be understood in isolation. It says that dialectics are related intrinsically to each other. Therefore there is a great interdependence of people in a relationship

(b). Contradiction; is considered the pivot of dialectics since it refers to the antagonism that exists between two subjects who have to stay together. It kind of describes unified opposition. This is when we have two tendencies that are unified yet constantly negating each other.

(c). Motion; which…… [Read More]


Counseling Central, (2011). Counseling Definition of the Week: Self-Disclosure. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from

Taylor D. & Altman I., (2008). Social Penetration Theory. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from

Baxter a.L., (2008). Relational Dialectics. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from
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Delinquency Deterrence Response Sociological Theories and Social Process Theories

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81727173

Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents

Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.

Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). This means that the offender will receive a lesser punishment than if they were in an adult courtroom. In older days, juvenile crimes were often dismissed and the perpetrator let off with a slap on the wrist. This often led to the commission of more crimes rather than the perpetrator going straight. Many states are now taking an opposite…… [Read More]

The National Guard Youth Foundation is an organization which helps disadvantaged youth (National 2013). According to the social structure theory, young people who are financially disadvantaged will be more likely to commit crimes and to get into legal trouble. Many people in financially disadvantaged communities feel that they cannot overcome this difference and so turn to trouble out of anger and frustration as much as necessity. This program takes kids, most of whom have already been in some manner of legal difficulties and uses military knowledge to provide the young people with discipline and determination. They also encourage involvement in the military and in pursuing a college education.

b. Social Process Theories

Social process theories postulate that communication with peers can have either positive or negative effects on a young person. Youths who interact with dangerous people who are interested in criminal behaviors will be more likely to commit crimes themselves. Research indicates that sports teams are an ideal way to keep young people out of trouble (DeLeon 2012). School-sponsored sports programs ensure that teens are with people in similar circumstances. They have to keep their
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Strain Social Learning and Social Disorganization Theories

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23626827


The relationship between Postivist, Social Disorganization, Social Learning and Strain Theories is one of evolutionary growth and development in terms of building, shaping, remolding and altering the perspective of how human nature is impacted by various factors.

The Posititvist Theory was rooted in an analysis of both biological and psychological factors as they applied to criminal behavior. This was the focus on a natural explanation, the experiences gathered through sense data to explain phenomena. One of the most basic and brutal concepts born of this theory was that criminals are born rather than made by their environment. In other words -- crime is in their blood: they simply had bad natures. One of the main Positivist theorists was Cesare Lombroso.

In response to this theory -- and out of the argument of nature vs. nurture -- came Social Disorganization Theory and Social Learning Theory. The former stipulated that location and environmental factors were the real causes of crime. For example, bad neighborhoods that had no social fabric, organization principles or controls, would naturally produce criminal activity as a result of the social disorganization inherent in the social system. The latter (social learning theory) viewed that criminal activity was not…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems.

(pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Akers, R., Jennings, W. (2009). Social Learning Theory. 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
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Social Psychology Social Beliefs and

Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79190155

I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.

Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can also be explained by proximity and interaction. Being closer to a person physically allows them to become more attractive since one is exposed to them almost daily (Myers, 2012). Our interactions on a daily basis, according to Myers (2012), also mediated this friendship and increased our attraction toward one another.…… [Read More]


David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Social Psychology Bringing it All Together

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41289536

Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second World War, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have long known that groups are also capable of committing violent and destructive acts that individuals would never consider doing on their own (Feenstra Chapter 15). Attribution of negative characteristics to a group, constantly repeated in mass media images and slogans, can have decidedly lethal effects (Feenstra Chapter 4). Social control…… [Read More]


Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.

Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.

Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.

Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
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Social Strain Robert K Merton's

Words: 1904 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93893589

By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).

In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social strain theory have helped to refine the theory and redefine certain of its parameters such that the theory is now not entirely recognizable as that first put forward by Merton (1938), but that is clearly rooted in this theoretical framework and the initial conclusions that were derived from its study.…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.

Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.

Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.

De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
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Social Contexts of Development the

Words: 3669 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39089120

(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)

Role of Workplaces:

Respectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have increased in numbers and persuade in recent years at the levels of national and local activity. (Promoting decent work: The role of civil society)

Greater public consciousness and developments in communication technology give them an essential role in advancing job promotion and sustainable livelihoods, and in the achievement of social…… [Read More]


Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at . Accessed on 26 February 2005

Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005

Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at on 27 February 2005

Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at Accessed on 26 February 2005
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Social Dimensions of Crime the

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27384933

I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.

I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the findings of the other authors that social class, social disorder, lack of social cohesion and even racial differences are main factors causing criminal activity. Psychological theories of crime associate crime with abstractions like mental illness, intelligence, or personality. None of these factors reflects the findings of the six articles. The…… [Read More]


Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from

Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
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Social Psychology Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43654034

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Introduction & Outline of the

Research Evaluation

Concepts of Social Psychology

Attitudes and Persuasion

Social Identity Theory

Social Influences

Cultural and Gender Influences

Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior

Introduction & Outline of the Essay

Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change

The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section the researcher will evaluate latest research and pertinent literature allied to social psychology and group behavior. The researcher will focus on trends in recent literature, the rising topics/apprehensions in this field of research.

In second section, the author will discuss the concepts of psychology specially focusing on what are the…… [Read More]


Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.

Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.

Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Social Sciences Why Are the

Words: 443 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661651

Still, this idea should also be supported by data about birth control use and an analysis of how often responsible attitudes towards sexuality are discussed in the media, rather than a deconstruction of a few ads.

The issue of ethics in psychology and anthropology also requires a certain rigorous and rule-based methodology. To avoid exploiting or changing home cultures, anthropologists must maintain a proper distance from their subjects. Researchers in psychology cannot abuse subjects in a laboratory environment to prove a theory.

The issue of 'common sense' inevitably plays some role in social science theory, given that researchers are human beings, and bring their own cultural assumptions to their studies and the construction of hypotheses. But common sense can never replace statistical, experimental, and recorded data about another culture. What constitutes common sense varies widely from culture to culture and era to era. 'Common sense' or cultural misconceptions may tell us that the 1950s was a happy era of "Leave it to Beaver" although statistics may show that far more women worked than images of the era suggest, and memories and cultural artifacts show that there was tremendous fear in the country, as evidenced by McCarthyism, air raid drills, and…… [Read More]

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Social Psychology and the Beliefs

Words: 2219 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94639444

According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological theorists and used in their concepts of anomie and strain theory. They consider disappointment of people and unequal economic success and upward social mobility to be major factors in understanding social and class conflict in modern society.

Freud also questioned the value of the so-called "Golden Rule" that was very…… [Read More]

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Social Mobility Introduction and Purpose

Words: 2142 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5909008

The author goes about this by building upon the existing literature on working-class social reproduction. He identifies three themes that encourage social class transfer among the generations; these include resistance and contestation; the peer group; and the structural location of the family (Kaufman, 2005, p. 251). Kaufman then applies these to the middle class in order to arrive at his findings.

Interestingly, the author finds that, while middle-class young people do engage in resistance and rejection, this occurs in a manner that promotes reproduction (Kaufman, p. 252). While the young often reject their parents' desires for their professional careers, they nonetheless proceed to choose careers that would ensure their remaining social position by also rejecting non-professional careers. For the author, this indicates a need to actively pursue a career within their social class, which indicates a more conscious choice than many researchers appear to account for.

Kaufman also finds that peer group loyalty is as applicable to the middle class as the working class (p. 258). Middle-class young people are as dependent upon peer group interactions as their working class counterparts. Hence, the greatest likelihood is that careers would be chosen that would perpetuate peer group ties.

As for the…… [Read More]


Dominguez, S. And Watkins, C. (2003). Creating Networks for Survival and Mobility: Social Capital Among African-American and Latin-American Low-Income Mothers. Social Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1.

Kaufman, P. (2005, Jun). Middle-Class Social Reproduction: The Activation and Negotiation of Structural Advantages. Sociological Forum, Vol. 20, No.2.

Marshall, C. And Rossman, G.B. Designing Qualitative Research, 4th Edition.
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Social Work Macro Social Intervention

Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75262864

The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.

It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of the girls ate a low-calorie meal together; received suggestions about meal planning and shopping to make healthy eating affordable; and participated in collective physical activities. They were also encouraged to set realistic fitness goals for the family, just as the girls set fitness goals for themselves. To ensure compliance, when…… [Read More]


Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among

African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.

Retrieved July 9, 2010 at 

Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
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Social Work Is an Important

Words: 2884 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78986634

The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be

Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.

In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families and so on. Each family structure has different challenges. For instance, in a blended family the step parents may have difficulty getting along with their step children. In such an instance the social worker may need to assist the family in solidifying the relationship so that the family unit can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. / glossary.html

Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press

Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009

Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
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Social Theory of Crime Kubrin

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66057777

" Their opinion does have merit but it is limited

It is impossible to separate the person from the environment because both of these ideas depend on each other to make sense. A person needs an environment in which to live in, his environment is his present surroundings. This cannot be escaped and therefore sociological theories that proclaim environment as being a proponent in causing crime is correct at some level of investigation. Flipping the argument also reveals that a person has made a free will choice to maintain themselves within a specific environment also proclaiming the truth in life course sociological theories of criminal behavior.

Both can be used effectively when appropriate however. The truth much like crime is relative and unique to the individual. Blanket statements or panaceas that offer impossible solutions doesn't help frame the argument and ultimately detracts from the more important parts of the discussion. The best sociological theory that may explain criminal behavior must incorporate both sides of the discussion just like the human brain, or we have an unnatural and false theory.… [Read More]


Kubrin, C. (nd). Criminal Behavior. Video.

Silver, E. & Miller, L.L. (2004). Sources of informal social control in Chicago neighborhoods. Criminology, 42(3), 551 -- 583. Retrieved from Id=70192&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Walklate, S. (2003). Perspectives in criminological theory. In Understanding criminology (2nd ed. pp. 15 -- 37). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
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Social Work Policy Analysis the

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62291573

This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.

As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.

The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and terminally ill will be freed up to be allocated toward other uses. Since the statute effects the population in question, the public will not take any action to change the mindset of these ill individuals. Rather, their "right-to-die" will be supported. The long-term effect of the statute is that no…… [Read More]


Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:

Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.

Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
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Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

Words: 1397 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19889572

Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients

My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.

My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.

Summary of Experiences

My first impressions were that Legacy Gardens provided optimal care for the elderly. Up until this point in time I had held a somewhat negative image of care centers, believing that they were a place that people might 'dump' elderly family members or sick patients in order to 'wash their hands…… [Read More]


Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New

York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
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Theories of Social Control in Schools

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91442014

Structural Theory

What is the chain of command in your organization?

In every school system, the primary individual who interacts with students is the teacher. Teachers can monitor student behavior such as withdrawal from peers, failing to complete assignments, or signs of possible trouble at home. If teachers suspect that students are being abused or are engaged in illicit activity, they have a responsibility to report it to the relevant authorities although automatic notices are sent to parents if students miss more than a specific number of days without an excuse or if student grades drop below a certain margin.

What is the formal authority in the organization?

The formal authority within a school organization is embodied in the principal, although even the principal must abide by the formal laws of the state regarding student attendance and progress.

That is, who has economic, legal, contractual, collegial authority?

Teachers also have a certain amount of collegial influence on one another -- in other words, they wish to uphold standards in the classroom similar to their fellow professionals and lax or rigorous standards can affect one another. Even more of an effect are performance reviews, particularly for teachers who are not yet…… [Read More]


Sawchuk, S. (2015). Teacher performance evaluation. EdWeek, 35 (93). Retrieved from:

Structurational theory. (2010). University of Twente. Retrieved from:
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Social Psychology and the Perspectives

Words: 1940 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25591850

Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.

To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.

Personal Response and Conclusion

There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses in both positions articulated by Mill and by Freud. Of particular value is Mill's view that the most important function of modern society and of its political and government institutions is to protect individuals from potential harms caused to them by others without justification. That is a notion that is…… [Read More]

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Social Entrepreneurialism and Sustainability

Words: 4420 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61337118

Social Entrepreneurship

Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?

Development of Social Entrepreneurialism

Corporate Social Responsibility


Social Inequality

Social Entrepreneurship and Food

Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will be outlined that include environmental problems and social issues such as inequality. Finally, the concepts developed within the study will then be applied to a specific social problem to illustrate some of the ways that a social entrepreneur might work to solve them.

Development of Social Entrepreneurialism

Social entrepreneurship was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 28 April 2016].

Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do people obey the rules at all? Why don't more people break the law?

His answers include what other theorists would reply to that question. The "choice theorist" would answer that question by saying people fear getting punished for wrongdoing (Siegel, 248). The "structural theorists" would observe, "…obedience is a function…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society found itself in need of an alternative to the social disorganization perspective of criminology. Hirschi observed that social institutions such as organized religion, the family, and educational institutions have lost their appeal for young people with the arrival of rock and roll, drugs, and the civil rights movement. These trends…… [Read More]


Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from:

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from:

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from:

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from:
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.… [Read More]


Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online:

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online:

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online:
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Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso

Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72636028

Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal Behavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods of social research utilize empirical scientific methods and "are grounded in the rational proof-disproof of scientific assertions and assume a knowable objective reality." (Farr, nd) The objective of positivism is to obtain objective facts, unlike interpretivism, which is subjective and is more concerned with uncovering the meaning behind actions; and…… [Read More]


Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from:

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from:
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Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Suggests That

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82978264

Criminal Justice Theories

Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so that offenders are more likely to drift towards criminal behavior when they feel as if an injustice has occurred

The containment theory is that every person has some proclivity for criminal behavior in them, but that they are contained from doing so because of internal and external constraints. Containment theory…… [Read More]


Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:

See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website:
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Analyzing Criminology Classical Theory

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20824315


Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.

Week 2 Discussion

Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The first method is the uniform crime report. This encompasses the collection of data from police department records all over the nation regarding reported crimes and arrests. The strengths are that it is a measure of arrests and homicides and it is a dependable nationwide sample. The downside is that it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved:

Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved

Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.

Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
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Social Media and How it Goes on

Words: 2736 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19237487

Social Media and how it goes on to affects people. The advantages and the risks of social media are discussed. Furthermore, it goes on to talk about appropriate and inappropriate content. Use of social media in the professional world is also discussed.

Social Media is basically the modes of interaction among persons in which they produce, exchange, and share information in varied virtual communities and network. (Ahlqvist et al., 2008) This information can include written information, pictures, videos and audio notes as well. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) describe this form of technology as varies internet origin applications that were created on technological and ideological foundations that merely allow the exchange of content that the user himself created. Initially, social media was only prevalent on laptops or pcs but now this technology has move on to mobile phones. This therefore enables users to upload and share information instantaneously. The advent of social media presented the world with some opportunities along with risks as well. A major setback that has been seen by social media is the amount of time people spend on social media websites.

There are various different channels that fall under social media. The first and most common social…… [Read More]


Ahlqvist, T. et al. (2008). Social media road maps exploring the futures triggered by social media. VTT Tiedotteita - Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, 2454 pp.13.

Bullas, J. (2009). Survey Reveals: The Top 5 Social Media Channels Companies Are Using | Jeffbullas's Blog. [online] Retrieved from: / [Accessed: 16 Apr 2013].

Daft, R.L., & Lengel, R.H. (1986). Organizational informationrequirements, media richness, and structural design. ManagementScience, 32(5), 554 -- 571.

Fama, E.F. (1970). Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work. Journal of Finance, 25(2), 383 -- 417.
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Social Science and Why Is it Important

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11208514

Social Science and Why Is it Important?

The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)

Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)

The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments of the scientific kind then the consideration that the social world did not emerge from the natural world but was contagious to it shows that while science may be best able to explain natural phenomenon it is not useful in any way defining or explaining human behavior. Thus seeking scientific…… [Read More]


Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social

Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.

Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy

Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
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Social Sciences in Education the Development and

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66610854

Social Sciences in Education

The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science, history, psychology, communication and linguistics.

There are two broadly-defined schools of thought in the contemporary understanding of social sciences. A positivist interpretation of the social sciences utilizes the scientific method in the study of human society. An interpretivist social scientist tends to utilize analysis, written deconstruction, and contextualization to examine theoretical linkages. One of the more notable tendencies of contemporary social science practice have been researchers who use hybrid styles, techniques, and methodologies in their work to look at their topics from many angles (Vessuri 2000).

In the primary and secondary school settings in the United States, the social sciences are taught as broad, comprehensive courses in social studies departments. The National Council for the Social Studies states that social studies is "the integrated study of the social sciences and…… [Read More]


Jacoby, Sanford M. (2005). "Social Science in Europe, Japan, and the United States" Comparative Labor, Law, and Policy Journal. Vol. 23:819

National Council for the Social Studies. (2009). "About National Council for the Social Studies." Retrieved from: 

Hess, Diana. (2001) "Teaching Students to Discuss Controversial Public Issues" Social Studies Development Center. Retrieved from:

Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 135-150.