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If integration with a conventional social group helps prevent suicide and "delinquency" (Hirschi 1969) and motivates people to fight, make sacrifices for a community, or commit deviant acts on behalf of a sub-cultural group, it should affect almost all forms of deviance. The absence of social integration with conventional groups should be influential in psychotic behavior (unless that specific behavior is organically determined and totally uncontrollable); without integration into nonbusiness groups, entrepreneurs, who are highly motivated to turn a profit, should be free to engage in price fixing; and strong social integration with any group should inspire some to excess zeal in fulfilling what they perceive as group expectations (over conformity), which may result in various forms of deviance. Since Hirschi's version, the best-known expression of the social control argument, does not convey this breadth, it must be regarded as shortsighted. Even the proliferation of separate theories of social integration…
Durkheim, Emile.  1951. Suicide, A Study in Sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson, edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Reprint, Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press.
Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hirschi, Travis. 1983. "Crime and the Family." In Crime and Public Policy, ed. James Q. Wilson, 53-68. San Francisco: ICS Press.
The primary insulator against delinquency is therefore seen as the youth's self-concept itself, while external containment factors serves as reinforcement. On the other hand, excessively negative external factors could also lead to delinquency, despite a positive self-concept in the individual.
Toby, J. (1957). Social Disorganization and stake in Conformity
Toby makes the concept of self and its influence on the likelihood of delinquency even more specific by focusing on the likelihood of the youth to be recruited successfully by gangs. According to Toby, a young person's conventional social connections and commitments is the main element in this likelihood. A lack of such connections, for example, means that the young person does not have much to lose when affiliating with gangs and becoming delinquent. On the other hand, young persons who are connected with conventional social institutions and commitments are less likely to become delinquent gang members. This is what the…
Hirschi, T. (1983) Crime and family policy
In this publication, Hirschi further highlights the social bonds that can act as a buffer against criminal behavior. He also recognizes the effect of family life on the self-control strategies that are internalized in early life. When these are not in place, external factors such as the role of ambition and peers can much more easily encourage delinquency.
These are also factors that can play a role in bullying. While social controls are most likely in place at schools to discourage this type of social abuse, peer groups and, to a degree, ambition can play a role in encouraging it. A young person who bullies another may for example be considered "cool" by his peers, or consider himself as socially much more adept than the target of his bullying.
But what is not clear is the causality. Do criminals seek out safe regions to commit their crimes, or are certain areas inherently destined to house criminal activity? Social control needs individuals acting on their own free will in order to complete the circle of logic in this argument. Both sides are needed to make a coherent and rational understanding of the subject.
Social control theory is useful in explaining criminal theory only up to the point that free will of the individual is absent. The ability that one has to act on his or her own accord is inversely proportional to the amount of control that society has on that individual. This trade off or relationship is the basis on which social control theory can be accepted as causing criminal behavior. For some individuals that have limited imagination and free will, society definitely has the ability to override that…
Kubrin, C. (nd). Criminal Behavior. Video.
Silver, E. & Miller, L.L. (2004). Sources of informal social control in Chicago neighborhoods. Criminology, 42(3), 551 -- 583. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/pqdlink?did=707219431&Fmt=7&client Id=70192&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Walklate, S. (2003). Perspectives in criminological theory. In Understanding criminology (2nd ed. pp. 15 -- 37). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
The ultimate form of control that brings the biggest reward is to do something the Don needs. To grant him a "favor." Then, he is in debt, and, by his standards, he must repay that debt. The Don is a master of favors, and so, usually, he is the one granting the favor and expecting repayment. This form of social control ensures he will remain strong and so will his family and that if anything happens to the family, there will be many debtors ready and willing to help the Don in his hour of need. He uses social control brilliantly to ensure his own superiority and rule over his "kingdom."
Most people think of social control as the constraints society places on each other to control crime. For most people, the need for social control of crime increases as crime rates increase. One writer notes, "The crime rate by…
1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States (R. J. Kelly, K. Chin, & R. Schatzberg, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Jackson, P.I. (1989). Minority group threat, crime, and policing: Social context and social control. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Ruddy, a.S. (Producer), & Coppola, F.F. (Director). (1972). The godfather [Motion picture]. Hollywood, CA: Paramount Pictures.
Conflict Theory & Social Control Theory: A Comparison
Both conflict theory and social control theory have their similarities and differences. It is important to discuss and address those issues because both theories have been used as a way to talk about the occurrence of crime in contemporary American society. To that end, the effects of positive and negative reinforcement on crime must be considered in both theoretical frameworks. Examples of the issues faced also matter, in order to ensure that each one of the concerns faced by society are handled properly where criminality is concerned. Because criminality is a large part of any society, the ways in which criminals are handled - and the ways in which they develop their criminal behavior - are both very important to consider in an effort to reduce the number of criminals in that society.
Since there are several different theories about how criminality…
Hirschi, T. (2002). Causes of delinquency. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Hirschi, T. & Gottfredson, M.R. (2005). Punishment of children from the perspective of control theory. In Michael Donnelly and Murray A. Straus. Corporal punishment of children in theoretical perspective. New Haven, CT; London, UK: Yale University Press.
Stark, R. (2007). Sociology (10th ed.). NY: Thomas Wadsworth
Thio, A. (2008). Sociology: A brief introduction (7th ed.). NY: Pearson
Role theory holds that the way in which people act is a result of the awareness of roles and the duties associated with them. For Joe Henry, the role players in his life perform their duties with such neglect and ambivalence that he is forced to compensate for their shortcomings and juggle multiple roles that he is unsuited for. As a result, he finds himself in over his head and struggles to maintain a balance. He embarks on illegality (thieving) to pay his father’s debts and restore his mother’s records. In the end, he is arrested, which is actually the best thing that could have happened for him as it takes him out of the environment he is in and allows him to resume the role of just being a child. He needs time to develop and mature and grow into the role of adult, and being taken into custody…
Bao, W. N., Haas, A., Chen, X., & Pi, Y. (2014). Repeated strains, social control, social
learning, and delinquency: Testing an integrated model of general strain theory in China. Youth & Society, 46(3): 402-424.
Koenig, A., Eagly, A. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content:
Observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(3), 371-392.
Miller, B., Morris, R. (2014). Virtual peer effects in social learning theory. Crime &
Delinquency, 62(12): 1543-1569.
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…
Presence of others, Retrieved at http://myclassonline.com/pub/content/ad080d01
Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295
Social Facilitation, Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_facilitation.htm
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
deviance and criminal behavior can result from people feeling disconnected from their school and home situation. This backs up the control theory, which posits that with less control -- or weak bonds -- behavior can and does become deviant and even criminal later in life.
Control Theory -- Narrative Explanations
In his narratives on delinquency, Travis Hirschi, one of the most prominent theorists when it comes to control theories, said there are four variables that help explain why people either conform to, or deviate from social norms. And this is important because delinquents are often caught up in criminal activities later in life. In the process of deviating from socially respectable behaviors -- and in the extreme, becoming involved in crime -- people are just reacting to four variables, Hirschi explains. The four are: a) attachment (with parents, peers, teachers, and others); b) commitment (this is what a person must…
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008). Review of the Roots of Youth
Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.children.gov.on.ca .
Welch, K. (1998). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Florida State University. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu .
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…
"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf
Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…
Burford, Gale and Adams, Paul. (2010). Restorative justice, responsive regulation and social work. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Chapter 4: The role of the social worker. (2006). Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Web site:
Power Control Theory Definitions and Meaning
Power control theory argues that treating sons and daughters differently is what causes the difference that exists in risk perceptions among the genders and so is the cause of resulting delinquencies. The exploratory will therefore focus in situations where two parents are present and siblings are of the opposite sex (Blackwell & Mark, 2003). The focus of power control theory is how gender relations get established, maintained and perpetuated in the society. It is notable that power control theory tries to explain "common" delinquent behavior. This paper will therefore examine criminal offences committed by adults that aren't overly offensive such as income tax cheating, driving under the influence, assault and illegal gambling. These offenses are closely parallel to those used frequently in deterrence research (Blackwell, Perceived sanction threats, gender, and crime: A test and elaboration of power control theory, 2000).
Considering the various definitions…
Blackwell, B. (2000). Perceived sanction threats, gender, and crime: A test and elaboration of power-control theory. Criminology, 439 - 488.
Blackwell, B., & Mark, R. (2003). Power-control as a between- and within-family model: Reconsidering the unit of analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Blackwell, B., & Piquero, A. (2005). On the relationships between gender, power control, self-control, and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 1 - 17.
Hagan, J., Simpson, J., & Gillis, A. (1987). Class in the Household: A Power-Control Theory of Gender and Delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 788 - 816.
I wanted to talk to my grandmother about this, moving away from our own family context. She believed strongly that the family is the central unit of social control, with the parents as strong disciplinarians who teach their children social norms and enforce those norms. I made the point that while many people believe this view is true, there are a lot of examples of people who grow up in non-traditional households that turn out not to be delinquents. I turned out fine, and many of my friends who grew up in non-traditional families were able to find their social norms from other sources. I think the family does play an important role, but it is not necessary to have a traditional family in order to instill values. My grandmother respectfully disagreed.
e talked a little bit about how family contributes to one's success as an adult. e both agreed…
Boss, P. (2009). Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach. New York: Springer Science.
Chee, K. & Elder, G. (2009). Mother's employment demands, work-family conflict and adolescent development. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. Vol. 35 (2) 189-202.
Church, W., Wharton, T. & Taylor, J. (2009). An examination of differential association and social control theory. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. Vol. 7 (1) 3-15.
Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R., Pianta, R. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Childhood Development. Vol. 81 (3) 972-987.
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime
(Nofziger, 2001, p. 10)
All sociological (subculture) theories do not blame the parents of deviant children for bad parenting, some in fact say it isn't an abundance of bad parenting but a lack or limitation of positive parenting in a subculture that has peers training individual children, regardless of risk status to be deviant. (Brendtro, Mitchell & Mccall, 2007, p. 200) Most stress the need for parents to reassert focus on the family, and yet very few discuss much more difficult questions of social disparity and observed social helplessness, that contradicts the teaching of parents. When a parent tells a child that they can achieve anything they set their mind to and then they repeatedly see clues and cues in their environment that contradicts this observation, by omission when those who succeed in legitimate manners leave the community to by commission when society offers alternative (deviant) choices in abundance but…
Bartkowski, J.P. (1995). Spare the Rod..., or Spare the Child? Divergent Perspectives on Conservative Protestant Child Discipline. Review of Religious Research, 37(2), 97-116.
Bowman, P.J., & Sanders, R. (1998). Unmarried African-American Fathers: A Comparative Life Span Analysis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 39.
Brendtro, L.K., Mitchell, M.L., & Mccall, H. (2007). Positive Peer Culture: Antidote to "Peer Deviance Training." Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(4), 200.
2001). Bullies, Fights, and Guns: Testing Self-Control Theory with Juveniles. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
U.K. Government: Social Policy Theory & Practice
The objective of this study is to answer all four questions stated as follows: (1) What is the social administrative tradition? (2) What is meant by liberal welfarism? (3) Explain the parliamentary policy- making process? In addition (4) Detail the New Right critique of the welfare state?
Social Administrative Tradition
Grover Starling, administration scholar is reported to have described six characteristics of government's public administrative responsibility: (1) responsiveness; (2) flexibility; (3) competence; (4) due process; (5) accountability; and (6) honestly. (Shiguang, nd) Traditional government responsibility is noted to be that of maintaining public order. (Shiguang, nd) The World Bank identifies four primary administrative traditions as being those of: (1) Anglo Saxon (minimal state); (2) Continental European: Germanic (organicist); (3) Continental European: French (Napoleonic); and (4) Scandanavian: (mixture of Anglo-Saxon and Germanic). The most fundamental difference is reported to be "between the Anglo-Saxon and…
2. elational Dialectics Theory
elational dialectics theory is defined as an "interpretive theory of meaning-making in familial and non-kin relationships" (Baxter a.L., 2008). The dialectical process of thinking increases in a major manner our general view of the conceptual framework on life and relationships that we form in life. Through the dialectical view, we are able to see what we could not see before in relationships, as well as seeing afresh the things that we saw at a surface level. The theory is very instrumental in crisis or conflict solution and mediation between two conflicting parties.
The dialectical theory has employed four approaches mainly in solving dialectical tensions described as follows:
(a). Totality; which recognizes that contradiction is part and parcel of the human existence and cannot be understood in isolation. It says that dialectics are related intrinsically to each other. Therefore there is a great interdependence of people in…
Counseling Central, (2011). Counseling Definition of the Week: Self-Disclosure. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://counsellingcentral.com/counselling-definition-of-the-week-self-disclosure/
Taylor D. & Altman I., (2008). Social Penetration Theory. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/900829/social_penetration_theory.html?cat=72
Baxter a.L., (2008). Relational Dialectics. Retrieved March 2, 2011 from http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405131995_yr2011_chunk_g978140513199523_ss24-1
Juvenile Delinquency and Deterrents
Explain how the threat of punishment does or does not deter juvenile delinquency.
Punishment of juvenile delinquents has been a hot button issue in many jurisdictions because of the need to prosecute crime but also the desire to shield young people from harm. Usually when a young person commits a crime, he or she is sentenced to detention in either a juvenile facility or perhaps even an adult prison facility for a length of time appropriate to their crime. General deterrence is a theory that states that the fear of punishment will be enough to prevent crime. For those that are not deterred by the thought of punishment, there is always detention. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, nearly 70% of juvenile delinquency cases will end in a juvenile court (Shoemaker 2009,-page 39). his means that the offender will receive a lesser…
The National Guard Youth Foundation is an organization which helps disadvantaged youth (National 2013). According to the social structure theory, young people who are financially disadvantaged will be more likely to commit crimes and to get into legal trouble. Many people in financially disadvantaged communities feel that they cannot overcome this difference and so turn to trouble out of anger and frustration as much as necessity. This program takes kids, most of whom have already been in some manner of legal difficulties and uses military knowledge to provide the young people with discipline and determination. They also encourage involvement in the military and in pursuing a college education.
b. Social Process Theories
Social process theories postulate that communication with peers can have either positive or negative effects on a young person. Youths who interact with dangerous people who are interested in criminal behaviors will be more likely to commit crimes themselves. Research indicates that sports teams are an ideal way to keep young people out of trouble (DeLeon 2012). School-sponsored sports programs ensure that teens are with people in similar circumstances. They have to keep their
Social Institution and Organized Crime
Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…
Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.
Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/
Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
Several theorists have used social contract theory to understand the government’s role in taking care of the public and addressing the public’s needs. Current political issues offer further examination of social contract theory and how it may help with understanding government obligation and public participation. Rousseau's social contract theory is best and most relevant for understanding and offering solutions to contemporary political issues like mandatory vaccination, taxation, and universal healthcare because it offers a foundation from which to explain the perceived obligations of both the government and the public. Rousseau’s version of social contract theory contrasted against other theorists like Hobbes's and Locke's social contact theories demonstrates how one interpretation of a theory may be better suited for modern political issues over others.
According to social contract theory via Locke’s interpretation, when the government remains unsuccessful in securing natural rights or fulfilling society’s best interest often recognized as the…
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
By the 1980s, theories had begun to swing the other way again, with doubts being cast on the relevance of aggregate social strain theories (Bernard 1987). Even social strain theorists were finding new and more individualistic and specific features within the theory (Agnew 1985).
In the past two decades, social strain theory has continued to be attacked by some as an antiquated and invalidated method for explaining subversive and criminal behavior, with some theorists stating outright that the empirical evidence supports alternative explanations far better than it supports traditional social strain theories (Burton et al. 1994). Other researchers have found evidence that in their view directly refutes certain aspects of social strain theory while seeming to support certain other conclusions and hypotheses that are a part of the overall explanation for criminality (De Clercq & Dakhil 2009). Ultimately, all of the problems and discrepancies that have been found with social…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social forces 64(1): 151-67.
Bernard, T. (1987). Testing social strain theories. Journal of research in crime and delinquency 24(4): 262-80.
Burton, V., Cullen, F., Evans, T. & Dunaway, R. (1994). Reconsidering strain theory: Operationalization, rival theories, and adult criminality. Journal of quantitative criminology 10(3): 213039.
De Clercq, D. & Dakhil, M. (2009). Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed. Journal of business venturing 24(5): 477-90.
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…
Marvella E. Ford, Barbara C. Tilley, & Patricia E. McDonald. (1998). Social support among
African- American adults with diabetes. Journal of American Medicine. 90 (6) 361-365.
Retrieved July 9, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568240/pdf/jnma00165-0047.pdf
Story, Mary, et al. (2003, Winter). "An after-school obesity prevention program for African-
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
This is based on the theory, posed by citizens, that certain individuals afflicted with terminal illnesses should have the legal right to hasten their death.
As a result, individuals that acquire these disabilities often view death as an extremely viable solution.
The target population that the Oregon Death with Dignity statute involves are those that are terminally ill. There are both long and short-term effects of the statute on the rest of the population, as well as the target population. Oregon has the fourth highest rate of elder suicide in the United States, and the statute appears to be a short-term solution to a long-term problem. The statute gives physicians the long-term power to judge whether a particular suicide is rational, based on the physician's evaluation of the individual's quality of life. The short-term effect of the statute is that federal resources previously used to care for the elderly and…
Gil, D. (1976). A Framework and Synthesis of Social Policies. Unraveling Social Policy:
Theory, Analysis, Political Actions towards Social Equality. Cambridge, MA: 31-56.
Gil, D. (1992). Unraveling Social Policy. (5th Ed.) Rochester, VT: Schenkman.
Social Work Internship Experience With Alzheimer Patients
My service learning experience was a positive one. I had the opportunity to work at an Alzheimer's care facility, with patients exhibiting various stages of Alzheimer's disease. I learned through my interactions with older adults at the clinic that much like anyone else, Alzheimer's patients need stimulation, warmth, compassion and an environment that encourages interaction and relationship building.
My views of older adults have changed significantly since working with patients at the care center. Whereas in the past I might have assumed that all older adults were mentally less cognizant of their emotions and feelings and 'numb' to the world around them, I learned instead that many have a great compassion for caring, and many desire simply to enjoy much of the same things than anyone else would at their age. My experiences are described in greater detail below.
Summary of Experiences
Gebo, L. "Biological Systems and their Impacts on Later Adulthood." Chapter 14. New
York, Thompson Brooks Cole: 2004.
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion
There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Sociological Theories of Crime
There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.
Social Control Theory
According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…
Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
Criminal Justice Theories
Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…
Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:
See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'
Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.
eek 2 Discussion
Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…
Boston University Metropolitan College. Reintegrative Shaming & Restorative Justice, 2016. Web. Retrieved: https://learn.bu.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1942479-dt-content-rid-6162758_1/courses/14sprgmetcj602_ol/week06/metcj602_W06L01T04_Reintegrative.html
Criminal Justice. Similarities and Differences Between Social Control Theories and Other Major Theories of Crime. Social Control Theory, 2016. Web. Retrieved http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/theories/social-control-theory/7/
Mongold, Jennifer L., and Bradley D. Edwards. "Reintegrative Shaming: Theory into Practice." Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology 6.3 (2014): 205.
Podgor, Ellen S. "The challenge of white collar sentencing." The Journal of criminal law and criminology (2007): 731-759.
Social Media and how it goes on to affects people. The advantages and the risks of social media are discussed. Furthermore, it goes on to talk about appropriate and inappropriate content. Use of social media in the professional world is also discussed.
Social Media is basically the modes of interaction among persons in which they produce, exchange, and share information in varied virtual communities and network. (Ahlqvist et al., 2008) This information can include written information, pictures, videos and audio notes as well. Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) describe this form of technology as varies internet origin applications that were created on technological and ideological foundations that merely allow the exchange of content that the user himself created. Initially, social media was only prevalent on laptops or pcs but now this technology has move on to mobile phones. This therefore enables users to upload and share information instantaneously. The advent of…
Ahlqvist, T. et al. (2008). Social media road maps exploring the futures triggered by social media. VTT Tiedotteita - Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, 2454 pp.13.
Bullas, J. (2009). Survey Reveals: The Top 5 Social Media Channels Companies Are Using | Jeffbullas's Blog. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.jeffbullas.com/2009/08/10/survey-reveals-the-top-5-social-media-channels-companies-are-using / [Accessed: 16 Apr 2013].
Daft, R.L., & Lengel, R.H. (1986). Organizational informationrequirements, media richness, and structural design. ManagementScience, 32(5), 554 -- 571.
Fama, E.F. (1970). Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work. Journal of Finance, 25(2), 383 -- 417.
Social Science and Why Is it Important?
The definition of social science has been narrowed down to those sciences that deal with human activities and human behavior as opposed to science that studies natural phenomenon. However this division may be superfluous now because modern science has its origin from the old social sciences. Science evolved from the society which also contained many thoughts that may be out of the realm of modern science like "religion, philosophy, ideology and politics." (Williams, 2000)
Thus the scientific theories are based on a philosophical thinking that is often shaped by politics or religion. The relationship between science and other streams of human thought and science changed with the changes in scientific method which again form within the disciplines of each branch of science is different and often contradictory. (Williams, 2000)
The argument at this stage is if the social world is amenable to experiments…
Bowker, Geoffrey C; Star, Susan Leigh; Turner, William; Gasser, Les. (1997) "Social
Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Brooks, Stephen; Gagnon, Alain-G. (1994) "The Political Influence of Ideas: Policy
Communities and the Social Sciences." Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
Social Sciences in Education
The development and specialization of the various fields in the social sciences started with the establishment of sociology as an academic discipline in the 19th century. The architects of this early discipline include Max Weber, Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Over time, the social sciences have broadened to include other disciplines looking at human life through in a variety of contexts, including anthropology, economics, political science, history, psychology, communication and linguistics.
There are two broadly-defined schools of thought in the contemporary understanding of social sciences. A positivist interpretation of the social sciences utilizes the scientific method in the study of human society. An interpretivist social scientist tends to utilize analysis, written deconstruction, and contextualization to examine theoretical linkages. One of the more notable tendencies of contemporary social science practice have been researchers who use hybrid styles, techniques, and methodologies in their work to look at their…
Jacoby, Sanford M. (2005). "Social Science in Europe, Japan, and the United States" Comparative Labor, Law, and Policy Journal. Vol. 23:819
National Council for the Social Studies. (2009). "About National Council for the Social Studies." Retrieved from: http://www.socialstudies.org/about
Hess, Diana. (2001) "Teaching Students to Discuss Controversial Public Issues" Social Studies Development Center. Retrieved from: http://www.indiana.edu/~ssdc/cpidig.htm
Vessuri, Hebe. (2000). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century." Current Sociology 50, no. 1 135-150.
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…
Allen, Jo Ann (1991) Understanding Families, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, Office of Human Development Services, United States Department of Health and Human Services. Online available at:
Anderson, Ralph E., Carter, Irl. E. And Lowe, Gary (1999) Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Social Systems Approach. Aldine Transaction 1999. Google Books. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=hYfv-ieHdYkC
Family Developmental Theory (nd) University of Kansas -- Department of Psychology. Online available at: http://www.psych.ku.edu/dennisk/PF642/Family%20Developmental%20Theory.pdf
Fontaine, Reid Griffith (2005) Applying system Principles to Models of Social Information Processing and Aggressive Behavior in Youth. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 11 (2006) 64-76.
Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Platt, a.M., & Cooreman, J.L. (2001). A multicultural chronology of welfare policy and social work in the United States. Social Justice 28, 91-137.
Reisch, M. (1998). The sociopolitical context and social work method, 1890-1950. Social Service Review, June, 162-181.
Carlton-LaNey, I., & Hodges, V. (2004). African-American reformers' mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia, 19, 3, 257-272.
Gordan, L. (2002). If the Progressives were advising us today, should we listen? Journal of the Guilded Age and Progressive Era 1, 1-8.
Gordan, L. (1991). lack and white women's visions of welfare: Women's welfare activism, 1890-1955. Journal of American History, Sept. 559-590.
Williams, L.F. (2003). An assult on white privilege: civil rights and the…
Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. In a different mirror: A history of multicultural America (pp 1-170. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Company.
Kilty, K., & Haymes, M. (2000). Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…
Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf
Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.
Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…
Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Social Media and Technology
The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…
Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.
Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3729&context=etd
Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills
The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…
Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf
Johansson T., at.al (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journalhttp://edu.au.dk/fileadmin/edu/Forskningsprojekter/Science-didaktik/Preschool_teachers_view_on_childrens_learning.pdf
Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from http://center.serve.org/ss/preactive.php
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.