It is also worth noting that the evolving nature of special education can be attributed to the cultural changes, family values, and civilizations taking place. Research attitudes towards people with special educational needs exhibit considerable variation as one move from one culture to the other. Findings show that people of different culture may perceive the similar conditions differently. For instance, Yoruba perceived that albinism as a punishment from God (Wilson, 2003). Consequently, such ideology tends to promote segregation. In fact, some cultures stigmatize disabled people by alluding that the condition is incurable and as such, they remain abnormal to the society. However, this situation has slowly had slowly been wading away as families, and individuals become more civilized. In these regards, families have started accepting the fact that disabled people are normal people, but challenged in one aspect or the other. This acceptance has made the society embrace them in various institutions. Furthermore, this realization has seen the number of teachers enrolling for training in special education increase significantly.
From the matters discussed above and the evolving nature of special education, it is essential to acknowledge the progress that specialists have made in this field. As it is evident, children with special educational needs are humans and deserve to be treated just like any other person. Choosing to segregate the victims based on disabilities only serves to stigmatize them further instead of helping them deal with their conditions. The choice to include them in the 'whole school' curriculum is laudable except for the little logistical concerns. One of the biggest questions that have plagued the minds of many is the basis of classifying the children with specials needs into various categories. It is an undeniable fact that the level of disability varies from one person to the other. However, choosing blindly to incorporate all the children in the mainstream classes would be like burying the head in the soil and assuming that the danger is gone. The future remains unknown. From a personal point-of-view, it is crucial for the educational system, schools, and other agencies involved permitting an open policy relating to special education concerns. For instance, parents and children should be permitted to choose freely which school their children should attend.
In addition, it is a laudable move by legal institutions to prohibit segregation of disabled people in…… [Read More]
Some people need education which is special to their lives. Special education provides an additional services or support to the students' educational needs. In most schools and colleges across the country, special educations are sometimes provided at no cost to those students who are qualified and are eager to proceed with their studies.
Today, there are special students who need special learning needs and the only way to address this is by providing them with a special education. The range of support given to students with special education is normally based in their needs. This paper therefore gives a summary of the need for special education, and distinguishing the needs of the exceptional learners and non-exceptional learners.
There are different people with different needs who need special education in their lives. It sometimes become hard to understand people with uniqueness, therefore, taking time to understand them becomes a significant part to the growth and development of the country. For example, the children need special educational needs if they seem to be having learning difficulties or disabilities which make it difficult for them learn just like the other children of their age mates. Other people that require special education are people with disabilities such as physical, mental or learning disability. All these people can be helped by the Educators who are involved in helping people with special needs by finding out methods of producing a healthy environment for education as well as, assisting them.
Students with special educational needs should be given an exemption from usual educational requirements, and children with communication problems should be provided with their educational plan from those who are able to communicate without difficulties. This is because, the people who do not require special needs tends to be active as compared to those who require special education. Therefore, teachers should try their best in handling their case different from other students.
The need of exceptional learners and non-exceptional learners
The research carried out shows that, about 10% of students' population across the world are said to be exceptional learners, hence they…… [Read More]
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge performed in authentic settings and the functional life skills curriculum became best practice. The functional, age-appropriate curricular focus resulted in these students demonstrating skills and knowledge not thought possible earlier" (Quenemoen, 2008).
In the 1990s, added significant new practices were acknowledged as best practice in teaching and learning for students with severe disabilities. The practice of including students with severe disabilities with representative peers in classroom settings for reasons of social inclusion, along with a new focus on self-determination skills, revealed a new approval of the students, and an accepting of values related to social development. The arrival of more complicated assistive technology opened the world of communication for the first time for some students, and improved the ability of teachers and students to work together (Quenemoen, 2008).
The next major shift was that of common curriculum access, as mandated by IDEA 1997, and clarified by NCLB 2001 and IDEA 2004. Academics united earlier precedence's including useful, social inclusion and self resolve in the curriculum for students with severe disabilities across the nation in principle, if not in practice, in all schools. "IDEA 1997 required that all children who receive special education services are to have access to and make progress in the general curriculum, but NCLB and IDEA 2004 and subsequent regulatory language for both laws clarified that the general curriculum was defined as based on the same academic standards and expectations that applied to all other students in a given state. Alternate assessments are to be aligned to or connected to in later terminology related to peer review the state content standards in each grade" (Quenemoen, 2008).
Regardless of intentions, each new wave of educational reform has had to face the problem that high-stakes…… [Read More]
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "Brookover, et al. (1982); Brophy (1983); Brophy and Evertson (1976); Brophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and Tom (1984); Cotton (1989); Good (1987, 1982); Good, et al. (1980); Good and Brophy (1984)" which are the ways as follows:
Providing fewer opportunities for high-expectation students to learn new material than for low-expectation students to learn new material;
Allowing less waiting time for low-expectation students to answer questions in class than is allowed high-expectation students;
Providing low-expectation students with the answer or calling on another student "rather than trying to improve their responses by giving clues or repeating or rephrasing questions;
Providing inappropriate reinforcement to low-expectation students which is not contingent on performance;
Criticism of low-expectation students for failure more severely and more often than high expectation students and praising low-expectation students less frequently.
Failing to provide feedback to responses of low-expectation students;
Paying more attention to high-expectation students than low expectation students;
Seating the low-expectation students farther from the teacher than high-expectation students.
Providing less feedback and briefer feedback to low-expectation students;
Interacting with low-expectation students more privately than publicly and structuring their activities much more closely
Conducting differential administration or grading of tests or assignments, in which high-expectation students -- but not low-expectation students -- are given the benefit of the doubt in borderline cases
Conducting less friendly and responsive interactions with low-expectation students than high-expectation students, including less smiling, positive head nodding, forward leaning, eye contact, etc.
Asking high-expectation students more stimulating, higher cognitive questions than low-expectation students
Making less frequent use of effective but time-consuming instructional methods with low-expectation students than with high-expectation students, especially when time is limited." (Cotton, 1989)
Cotton states in the summary of the report that: "Teacher expectations and accompanying behaviors have a very real -- although limited -- effect on student performance, accounting for five to ten percent of student achievement outcomes.
There is more power in the communication of low expectations in limiting student achievement than communication of high-expectations in raising student achievement.
Low-expectation students have better attitudes in classrooms where differential treatment is low…… [Read More]
According to the Federal Laws of the United States of America, "Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability [IDEA 97-300.26(a)]." The revised statutes of Arizona defines a child with disability as "a child who is at least three but less than twenty-two years of age, who has been evaluated and found to have a disability and who, because of the disability, needs special education and related services [ARS 15-761(2)]." Under federal law, a student can qualify for special education services under the disability categories of mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities [IDEA 97-602(3)(a)]. (Special Education - Definition), (Learning Disability Resources) & (Legal Definition of Special Education)
According to the U.S. federal code (Section 300.7-(10) of 34 CFR Parts 300 and 303), Learning disability can be defined as "a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia." According to the 'lectric law library, Special Education is defined as "Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a handicapped child, including classroom instruction, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions." (Special Education - Definition), (Learning Disability Resources) & (Legal Definition of Special Education)
Special Education is a method in the mainstream education process that addresses the needs of those children who are marred by physical and mental disabilities. Since such children cannot form part of the mainstream educational process, there was a need for a…… [Read More]
As a result, children within the middle class and above receive adequate attention and treatment for special education needs at an early stage. Young children of educated parents are read to more consistently, and are encourage to read by themselves at an early age. Statistics show that most children with parents who have college degrees are read to on a daily basis before they begin attending kindergarten. In application to special education access this implies that the majority of children from affluent families will have the greatest access to the provisions of IDEA because they will have diagnosis at an early stage. Parents who care strongly about the future of their children will most likely conduct the most research and to seek special education facilities much more than underprivileged children.
The problem with delivery of special education facilities is that IDEA provides for special facilities as well as schools to children with disabilities. However, access to these facilities are through references from doctors, medical professionals and teachers. Low income children, especially those living in ethnic ghettos have dramtically less access to these recommendation facilities which will dramatically affect how they are perceived and held accountable for their actions. Black parents, who grow up in a culture of underachievement are much less likely than white parents to pay particular attention to the needs of their children. The implicit problem with delivery is that self-motivation is a critical determinant of how much access to specific resources are available to those with special education needs. This is of course, severely impedes individuals from underprivileged backgrounds from getting the access to special education that the federal government provides under IDEA.
There are many possible solutions to the current problems associated with the effect of poverty and race on unequal access to special education services. IDEA after all has taken significant steps forward in the formation of a unified national policy to help special education access for all children. The implicit problem is to develop a method for easy access to facilities and treatment centers. One proposed solution is to engage in testing at the pre-natal stage and progressive testing during the infantile stage at hospitals to ensure that disabilities are recognized at an early age. The extension of IDEA Part C would be the most useful element to underprivileged children because they would be able to receive treatment at an early stage. Providing…… [Read More]
Despite all this information, little data is actually available with regard to why teacher shortages continue. Further research is necessary the authors conclude to help alleviate the problem.
This article is important for several reasons. It points out the critical shortage of special education teachers that is prevalent in a majority of school districts across the nation. It suggests there are several different reasons for teacher shortages, including lack of educational opportunities for special education teachers, lack of incentives for entering the field, and the difficulty associated with this particular job field. There is some evidence suggesting that teacher attrition rates and lack of new teachers entering the filed have contributed the most to special education problems in the U.S.
I agree with the authors concern over the special education crisis in the United States. The authors sampled numerous national educational authorities to draw their conclusions. They suggest that increased or improved pay and incentive programs will help encourage teachers to stay in the special education field.
I agree with this, but also think further education and training is necessary to help teachers cope with the harsh realities of working with emotionally and mentally impaired students. This is as the authors point out, the area where the greatest shortages of teachers currently exist. Working with this population must be extremely challenging. The authors hint that further education and training may help teachers in this area, however this in my opinion should be the primary area of emphasis for future studies related to special education. In addition diverse recruiting techniques should be adopted by agencies to encourage teachers from multiple ethnic backgrounds to join the field. Only then can the inadequacies that currently exist in the special education field be adequately addressed.
Flippin, Susan, Mcleskey, James, & Tyler, Naomi. "The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers." Journal of Special Education, 38(1):5, 2002.
The Supply of and Demand for Special Education Teachers: A Review of Research regarding the Chronic Shortage of Special Education Teachers.
A by James McLeskey, Naomi C. Tyler, Susan Saunders Flippin
There is a critical shortage of special education teachers in the United States. This shortage is chronic and severe and exists in every geographic region of the nation. This article provides an analysis of factors influencing the supply of and demand for…… [Read More]
Special education is presided over by federal law in most educational jurisdictions. According to the Indviduals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Special Education is defined as: specifically planned instruction used to meet the distinctive needs of a child with a disability, at no cost to the parents. This kind of service is in place to provide supplementary services, support, programs, specialized placements or surroundings to make sure that all students' educational needs are met. Special education is given to qualifying students at no cost to the parents. There are a lot of students who have special learning needs and these needs are addressed by way of special education. The array of special education support varies based on need and educational jurisdictions. Each state or educational jurisdiction has different policies, rules, regulations and legislation that governs what special education is and how it is used (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).
At the federal level the governing law is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Characteristically, the kinds of disabilities will be plainly acknowledged in the jurisdiction's law that surrounds special education. Students meeting the qualifications for special education support have needs that will frequently require support that goes beyond what is usually offered or received in the regular classroom setting. This law was reauthorized by Congress in 2004, leading to a series of changes in the way special education services are put into practice. These changes are still in place today and affect the delivery of special education and related services. Several notions have become part of the special education vocabulary because of this law. These include FAPE (free appropriate public education), IEP (individualized education program) and LRE (least restrictive environment). These concepts have been built into the special education system to make sure that equal access to education is available for all students (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).
The…… [Read More]
Special Education: Collaboration Between Teachers
The majority of special education students receive instruction in both general education classes as well as special education support classes. Most of these students are enrolled in Resource Support Programs in which a special education teacher has responsibility for offering learning supports across the general education curriculum. The job of the special education teacher, or Resource Specialist, is to ensure that the student's IEP is properly implemented. This requires ongoing communication and collaboration with general education teachers.
In most cases a special education student in elementary school and above will have a least two to three different teachers in addition to his or her special education support. These general education teachers need to be offered guidance and support regarding how to modify curriculum and how to properly implement any behavior plans.
The most effective way in which teachers can collaborate is to ensure that they spend a sufficient amount of time in the general education classroom offering the needed support to the student. Most special education programs are designed to ensure that students have "push-in" support from a specialist, and that special education provider should ensure that he or she is present in the classroom where the student has the highest level of need for academic support. By being present in the classroom the special education teacher can interact directly with the general education teacher and offer insight and teaching tips.
Communication is a key factor in effective collaboration, and special education teachers should make face-to-face contact as well as using memos or emails to request updates on student progress. Many teachers develop very effective systems in which their student track their academic and behavioral progress in…… [Read More]
J. This limitation is summarized in the following passage:
Sometimes, disagreements about educational benefit are called "Cadillac-Chevrolet" disputes. Remember: In Rowley, the Supreme Court ruled that children are entitled to an appropriate education (i.e. A Chevrolet), not the best education money can buy (a Cadillac). http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep_guidance.html#Law_and_Regulations
The above accurately describes some of the limitations that public schools have to meet the needs of special education children. This may or may not be helpful to remind the grandparents of at this point in the process. It seem entirely likely that they know this (and certainly any well-run IEP program would have made this information known to the grandparents at the very beginning of the process) but the grandparents may need to be reminded of the legal limits for J.J.'s education.
It is significant that one of the most important objections that the grandparents have is that J.J. will face emotional abuse at work rather than the fact that he will be unable to keep a job. They are worried about this second condition, but it does not seem to be paramount. They may also feel that the district has in an important way broken trust with them because they may well have believed that the district would provide full services through J.J.'s eighteenth birthday and possibly even through his twenty-first birthday. If the IEP team and the district did not inform the guardians that this was a possibility, then they should probably apologize to them. If they had already informed the grandparents of this fact, then the IEP team members should (gently) remind the family that they have done so.
One thing that is very important to stress at this point is the fact that the IEP team members may be on somewhat shake legal ground by suggesting that J.J. leave school before he is eighteen. The possibility of his getting a…… [Read More]
Special Education Legislation
Individualized Education Program
Developing Standard-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs. By Sharon Lynch and Paula Adams.
Due to the need to provide equitable education and knowledge to children with special needs, the idea of Individualized Education Program (IEP) comes in handy to help make this a reality. It is upon the government's recognition of the needs of the children who have conditions that may not allow them to learn effectively or at the same speed with other children given the standard learning environment that it implemented various measures to ensure that no child is left behind in fulfilling their learning needs. Factually, these kids with learning impediments may not necessarily learn the same level of concept and complexity of ideas, hence the need to have their own individualized system that will impart the necessary skills and knowledge in them.
The attached article articulates some of the tenets of the IEP and the way they can be implemented and the accompanying benefits thereof. The article indicates that IEP needs to note how the individual disabilities affect the learning of the particular students. This is accompanied by the measurable goals that need to be taken to ensure the children effectively learn. In as much as there is the narrowing of the general curriculum in approaching the IEP and the learning needs of the children, there is rampant integration of the functional content into the learning. This ensures that the teaching of these children is not rigid but flexible enough to accommodate even the most specific needs of this category of children. Notably, the general curriculum should not restrict these teachers to adhere strictly to science, math, science or language. Indeed doing so would defeat the meaning of the IEP and particularly the individualization aspect.
The IEP is also noted to require goals and objectives that take into account the special needs as well as the curriculum unlike the…… [Read More]
Special Education Transitions
Transition planning is part of the Individual Education Plan (IEP) process for children and adolescents with disabilities. Planning for transitions from program to program across a student's academic career provides support and modifications that might be needed in order to promote a student's progress. Each level of educational program presents its own set of challenges, and planning for those challenges -- as a student moves from pre-school, to elementary school, to secondary school, and finally to post-secondary settings -- can avoid ineffective use of resources while maximizing the student's academic experience. This paper briefly discusses transition planning across different school and program levels for a student who has been identified as emotionally and behaviorally disordered (EBD) and who might be attending school at Lake Holcombe School in Holcombe, Wisconsin (Holcombe School, 2011).
Lake Holcome is a small, rural school with a student population of about 375 students in a single building (Holcombe School, 2011). The school serves all ages of children from pre-Kindergarten through high school (Holcombe School, 2011). There are approximately 116 high school students (Holcombe School, 2011). In this cross-categorical program, transition planning may be less complicated than in schools with more formal divisions between age-level and grade-level programs, simply because everyone is under the same roof, so to speak (Holcombe School, 2011). On the other hand, one of the tenets of transition planning is to extend the students' experiences beyond their current environment -- this is the fundamental challenge facing Lake Holcombe school -- a challenge that naturally takes on more significance as the students mature and progress through their programs.
In Wisconsin, the Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSEA) operates a Center for Students with Disabilities that helps to deliver services and programs…… [Read More]
It would appear that the pre-training of parents in dealing with autism augments the hands-on training that the children receive. While there is need for more research, it appears that this relationship has been demonstrated to be significant.
Dawson, G., et. al. (2009). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism:
The early start denver model. Pediatrics, 125, 17-23.
In the journal Pediatrics, a study was published regarding a controlled trial in order to evaluate the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) as a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention that improves the outcomes of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The population studied consisting of 48 children with ASD 18 to 30 months that were randomly put in to 1 of 2 groups. The first of these was an intervention group that was run by trained therapists and parents for 2 two years. The second of these involved referrals to community special education providers for intervention. Compared with the children who received community-interventions, those who received ESDM showed improvements in IQ, autism diagnosis and adaptive behavior. Two years after beginning the intervention, the ESDM group on improved some 17.6 standard points compared to 7.0 points in the comparison group as opposed to base-
line scores. The ESDM group maintained growth in adaptive behaviors compared to a sample of typical children. Over the 2-year span of the study, the comparison group displayed significantly greater delays in the area of adaptive behaviors. Adolescents who got ESDM were also more prone to experience a diagnosis change from autism to…… [Read More]
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," Rasch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition, both of these federal laws require the active participation of students served within these programs in all the large-scale assessment activities (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002).
As a result, one of the greatest anticipated benefits of inclusive educational accountability systems is that administrators and policymakers will have improved access to more comprehensive information so they can form a more accurate picture of how inclusive practices affect student performance (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In this regard, Thurlow, Elliott and Ysseldyke (1998), suggest that improved access to this type of information will also provide educators with opportunities to determine whether the programs already in place are actually helping those special needs students acquire the academic background and life skills they will need to succeed, as well as what impact such inclusive practices have on the other students.
In spite of the increasingly diverse nature of the nation's multicultural schools, the challenge of meeting the needs of diverse groups of students…… [Read More]
These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.
This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who are I the special education group. However, the proponents of the exit exams refute this issue, as they offer the view that these exams would provide the school with the tolls and equipment needed to identify and help those students who are struggling with the curriculum of the exam, and this would help the teachers offer special attention to these students. A major advantage, according to the supporters of the exit exams, is that there will be a consistency and a uniform standard in what students are learning all across the state, and this would help formulate a uniform educational system for each and every student in schools everywhere. This sort of standardized education would also serve to provide the student with the framework and the foundation for a better future, and also prepare them for the next set of exams that they would be required to take; that is, the post-secondary exams.
When the standards of education are raised to a certain level, then the achievement levels of the students would increase proportionately, and this would inevitable mean that the public would be suitably impressed with the performance foot he students, and…… [Read More]
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.
May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students and explains their use and different interpretations and then asks them to take photographs in accordance to what they have understood. Any good reader will relay that the best part about reading is the expressions and vocabulary. Vocabulary is mainly an understanding of the use and interpretation of the words being used and this process has helped the special-needs students in their reading skills when it has been included in the curriculum.
Use of advancing technologies in education
Use of technology has been widely recognized as a vital tool for literacy improvement. Although, the relationship between technology and literacy improvement has been asymmetrical, enough evidence exists to encourage teachers to use latest technology tools to advance student learning. The three most successful applications that have enhanced the literacy education over the years for the special-needs students are (a) Voice detection software; (b) Tele-cooperation operations of the Internet, and - Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and new portable processors or…… [Read More]
The IEP takes into account the results of the assessment while developing a plan for the future. The evaluation results include not only behavioral observations but also socio-cultural background. If the student has a physical disability, the IEP might address the need for specialized technologies or classroom adaptations. On the other hand, if the student has a learning disability, the IEP might include recommendations for lesson adaptation.
The IEP is developed in accordance with the principle that the child will thrive in the least restrictive environment (LRE). A learning environment must be coordinated to meet the needs of the student. If the mainstream classroom at the child's standard school can provide the LRE, then the child will be mainstreamed with some lesson adaptations to suit the child's strengths. However, some students will require special education services in alternative school or classroom settings. The IEP is tailor made and there is no one size fits all approach.
During the special education process, the student depends on a thorough support system. The support system must extend beyond the school doors into the community and home environment. Parents and other family members are usually the first and most reliable support system. When the family presents challenges to the special education process, the school administrators may need to seek for ancillary services available in the community. Problems arise during the teaming process when parents' desires clash with professionals' best practices, or when educators and administrators are not paying adequate attention to the parents' concerns.
Parents are requested and expected to be a part of their child's special education -- from the pre-referral to the IEP stage. In conjunction with special education professionals, representatives from the school board, administrators, and teachers, parents must be able to offer input about the child's learning habits at home. The parents may be requested to provide special tools or technologies at home and in some cases are eligible for funding to do so. In some cases, parents may require support for themselves. Parents who do not speak English may require a translator, for example. The translator ensures that parents understand each step of the special education process and are welcome to participate in it.… [Read More]
As the civil rights victories of the Civil Rights era develop in ways that help shape the long-term social culture of the nation, cultural diversity considerations are becoming the standard rather than the exemplary exception to the routine as may have been true throughout much of the last decades of the 20th century. Naturally, as cultural diversity becomes a dominant social theme, it has also impacted all aspects of American education, including special education (Burton, Moore, & Magliaro, 2004; Lascarides & Hinitz, 2000). Naturally, the important need of accommodating cultural diversity within special education programs is at least as important as achieving that objective in traditional education programs. That is because the detrimental effect of every additional barrier to learning and social development is magnified in special education.
Likewise, cultural diversity also entails corresponding lingual diversity. In that regard, the importance of mitigating the potential barriers represented by language issues is already an important concern within traditional educational programs, so much so that significant resources have been dedicated to the specific needs of traditional English-as-Second-Language student populations. Naturally, the addition of language barriers to the existing challenges of special needs learners can greatly undermine their educational progress. If language barriers are important to traditional educational programs, it is obviously only that much more important with respect to special education students.… [Read More]
Special Education and Gifted -- Talented Students
Over the last several years, the issues surrounding gifted and talented as well as special needs students have been continually brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because a number of different pieces of legislation have been directing educators to improve the various techniques that they are utilizing to reach out to these individuals to include: IDEA 2004 along with the Gifted and Talented Students Act of 1988. This is just one part of the larger effort to address a host of issues that are affecting these students. These pieces of legislation are significant, because they are having a major impact on the way educators are reaching out to these individuals when addressing the different needs that they have.
As a result, number of themes and trends has begun to develop in effectively dealing with these students. A few of the most important include: how to reach out to these individuals and customizing various programs that will cater to each person's unique learning style. At the same time, various questions have emerged from our research that is indicating that a transformation is taking place to include:
How can educators effectively address the requirements of special needs students based on maintaining the basic curriculum objectives?
What kinds of techniques can be utilized to: identify, support and deal with issues that are unique to gifted and talented students?
The various findings of the studies that we were looking at are indicating that a unique approach must be taken when examining: the social background of the student, their individual needs, conducting an effective assessment, utilizing various troubleshooting techniques that are a part of a larger group effort and the effect that it is having on the person. The relevance of this research is illustrating how educators must have the flexibility to adapt to a host of situations that they are facing. These different elements are important, because they are highlighting how the techniques and the way they reaching out to students, will be continually changing based upon these factors.
Coleman…… [Read More]
This plan should address the concerns of the parents and must be tailored to suit the specific needs of the concerned child. Developing an IEP involves a collaborative approach from the teachers, parents and students and other special education staff. Team effort is central to the success of the program as only when input from all the members are garnered can a successful plan be charted out. Once the eligibility criterion is established the next step is to put in written form the IEP. The present level of education performance document is an important source to be drawn from while developing a comprehensive IEP. It includes all information pertaining to the student's strengths, weaknesses and other qualities. Observing the performance reports of the student would provide a good idea of the strengths and weakness of the student in all areas. Based on this the expectations or goals for the particular student may be appropriately ascertained. The IEP document should also explicitly specify non-participation of the student in particular activities with other non-disabled students. [LD Online]
Analysing the present level of performance also enables the committee responsible for forming the IEP to have a more exact understanding of the learning style of the particular student, and also to identify the teaching methods that are either effective or ineffective for the particular student. [U.S. Department of Education] the present level performance report also highlights the particular disabilities and how it affects the student's participation and performance. Thus, special education services that are needed for the student, the training needed for the teachers are all identified based on the present performance report. Since the present level of performances report includes all these important information about the student it constitutes the basic input for development of long-term goals, short-term objectives and a comprehensive IEP for the student.… [Read More]