1000+ documents containing “special education”.
It is also worth noting that the evolving nature of special education can be attributed to the cultural changes, family values, and civilizations taking place. esearch attitudes towards people with special educational needs exhibit considerable variation as one move from one culture to the other. Findings show that people of different culture may perceive the similar conditions differently. For instance, Yoruba perceived that albinism as a punishment from God (Wilson, 2003). Consequently, such ideology tends to promote segregation. In fact, some cultures stigmatize disabled people by alluding that the condition is incurable and as such, they remain abnormal to the society. However, this situation has slowly had slowly been wading away as families, and individuals become more civilized. In these regards, families have started accepting the fact that disabled people are normal people, but challenged in one aspect or the other. This acceptance has made the society embrace them in….
Hallahan, D.P., and Kauffman, JM. (2000). Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Smith, J.D. (2004). The Historical Contexts of Special Education. Boston: Pearson Education
Wilson, B. (2003). Inclusion: Empirical Guidelines and Unanswered Questions. London: Routledge Falmer
Wilson, R. (2003). Special Educational Needs in the Early Years. New York: John Wiley and Sons
Some people need education which is special to their lives. Special education provides an additional services or support to the students' educational needs. In most schools and colleges across the country, special educations are sometimes provided at no cost to those students who are qualified and are eager to proceed with their studies.
Today, there are special students who need special learning needs and the only way to address this is by providing them with a special education. The range of support given to students with special education is normally based in their needs. This paper therefore gives a summary of the need for special education, and distinguishing the needs of the exceptional learners and non-exceptional learners.
There are different people with different needs who need special education in their lives. It sometimes become hard to understand people with uniqueness, therefore, taking time to understand them becomes a significant part to….
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge performed in authentic settings and the functional life skills curriculum became best practice. The functional, age-appropriate curricular focus resulted in these students demonstrating skills and knowledge not thought possible earlier" (Quenemoen, 2008).
In the 1990s, added significant new practices were acknowledged as best practice in teaching and learning for students with severe disabilities. The practice of including students with severe disabilities with representative peers in classroom settings for reasons of social inclusion, along with a new focus on self-determination skills, revealed a new approval of the students, and an accepting of values related to social development. The arrival of more complicated assistive technology opened the world of communication for the first time for some students, and improved the ability of teachers and….
Alternative Assessment. (2004). Retreived from http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/assessing/alternative.htm
Mclaughlin, M. (2000). Special education and school reform in the United States and Britain.
New York: Routledge.
Quenemoen, R. (2008). A Brief History of Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes on the relate that there are specific ways in which differential expectations are communicated to students according to the work of: "rookover, et al. (1982); rophy (1983); rophy and Evertson (1976); rophy and Good (1970); Cooper and Good (1983); Cooper and Tom (1984); Cotton (1989); Good (1987, 1982); Good, et al. (1980); Good and rophy (1984)" which are the ways as follows:
Providing fewer opportunities for high-expectation students to learn new material than for low-expectation students to learn new material;
Allowing less waiting time for low-expectation students to answer questions in class than is allowed high-expectation students;
Providing low-expectation students with the answer or calling on another student "rather than trying to improve their responses by giving clues or repeating or rephrasing questions;
Student Achievement and Special Populations Focus. http://www.eval.org/hst.stuach.htm
Hillman, S.J. Contributions to Achievement: The Role of Expectations and Self-Efficacy in Students, Teachers and Principles Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April 1984. (ED 247-290).
Jacobson, L. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1968.
Johnson, E.S. (2000). The effects of accommodations on performance assessments. Remedial and Special Education, 21,(5), 261-7.
According to the Federal Laws of the United States of America, "Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability [IDEA 97-300.26(a)]." The revised statutes of Arizona defines a child with disability as "a child who is at least three but less than twenty-two years of age, who has been evaluated and found to have a disability and who, because of the disability, needs special education and related services [ARS 15-761(2)]." Under federal law, a student can qualify for special education services under the disability categories of mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities [IDEA 97-602(3)(a)]. (Special Education - Definition), (Learning Disability Resources) & (Legal Definition of Special Education)
According to the U.S.….
Special Education - Definition' Retrieved at http://www.dysart.org/specialed/definition.htm Accessed on March 30, 2004
Learning Disability Resources' Retrieved at http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/sped/projects/ose/categories/ld.html Accessed on March 30, 2004
Legal Definition of Special Education' Retrieved at http://www.lectlaw.com/def2/s056.htm Accessed on March 30, 2004
Remedial & Special Education: Creating classroom environments that address the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of students with disabilities' retrieved at http://static.highbeam.com/r/remedialampspecialeducation/november011998/creatingclassroomenvironmentsthataddressthelinguis / Accessed on March 30, 2004
In the past, students with disabilities tended to be isolated from their peers by pecial Education paradigms that obliged them to receive learning in a physically isolated setting. Far from helping these children to achieve their full potential, such setups tended to stigmatize them, making, making it even more difficult to look beyond their ability for their own identity and how this could be applied for the benefit of society both during their school careers and thereafter.
A collaborative environment, on the other hand, can lead to a greater understanding of the challenges these children face, as well as to provide them with the potential to make the most of their abilities rather than their disabilities. When parents collaborate with educators, for example, the latter can draw up strategies that specifically target the need of the students in question. Educators can then collaborate with students in the classroom to help with….
Cortiella, Candace. Response-to-Intervention - an Emerging Method for LD Identification. Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation, 2006. http://www.schwablearning.org/articles.aspx?r=840
Giangreco, Michael E. Guidelines for Making Decisions about IEP Services. 2001. http://www.uvm.edu/~cdci/iepservices/pdfs/decision.pdf
Howard County. A Parent's guide to Due Process in Special Education. http://www.hcpss.org/files/brochure_dueprocess.pdf
NYC Department of Education. Special Education District 75. 2006 http://schools.nycenet.edu/d75/district/default.htm
As a result, children within the middle class and above receive adequate attention and treatment for special education needs at an early stage. Young children of educated parents are read to more consistently, and are encourage to read by themselves at an early age. Statistics show that most children with parents who have college degrees are read to on a daily basis before they begin attending kindergarten. In application to special education access this implies that the majority of children from affluent families will have the greatest access to the provisions of IDEA because they will have diagnosis at an early stage. Parents who care strongly about the future of their children will most likely conduct the most research and to seek special education facilities much more than underprivileged children.
The problem with delivery of special education facilities is that IDEA provides for special facilities as well as schools to….
Despite all this information, little data is actually available with regard to why teacher shortages continue. Further research is necessary the authors conclude to help alleviate the problem.
This article is important for several reasons. It points out the critical shortage of special education teachers that is prevalent in a majority of school districts across the nation. It suggests there are several different reasons for teacher shortages, including lack of educational opportunities for special education teachers, lack of incentives for entering the field, and the difficulty associated with this particular job field. There is some evidence suggesting that teacher attrition rates and lack of new teachers entering the filed have contributed the most to special education problems in the U.S.
I agree with the authors concern over the special education crisis in the United States. The authors sampled numerous national educational authorities to draw their conclusions. They suggest that increased or improved….
Flippin, Susan, Mcleskey, James, & Tyler, Naomi. "The supply of and demand for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers." Journal of Special Education, 38(1):5, 2002.
The Supply of and Demand for Special Education Teachers: A Review of Research regarding the Chronic Shortage of Special Education Teachers.
A by James McLeskey, Naomi C. Tyler, Susan Saunders Flippin
There is a critical shortage of special education teachers in the United States. This shortage is chronic and severe and exists in every geographic region of the nation. This article provides an analysis of factors influencing the supply of and demand for special education teachers.
Special education is presided over by federal law in most educational jurisdictions. According to the Indviduals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Special Education is defined as: specifically planned instruction used to meet the distinctive needs of a child with a disability, at no cost to the parents. This kind of service is in place to provide supplementary services, support, programs, specialized placements or surroundings to make sure that all students' educational needs are met. Special education is given to qualifying students at no cost to the parents. There are a lot of students who have special learning needs and these needs are addressed by way of special education. The array of special education support varies based on need and educational jurisdictions. Each state or educational jurisdiction has different policies, rules, regulations and legislation that governs what special education is and how it is used (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2011).
Special Education and Gifted -- Talented Students
Over the last several years, the issues surrounding gifted and talented as well as special needs students have been continually brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because a number of different pieces of legislation have been directing educators to improve the various techniques that they are utilizing to reach out to these individuals to include: IDEA 2004 along with the Gifted and Talented Students Act of 1988. This is just one part of the larger effort to address a host of issues that are affecting these students. These pieces of legislation are significant, because they are having a major impact on the way educators are reaching out to these individuals when addressing the different needs that they have.
As a result, number of themes and trends has begun to develop in effectively dealing with these students. A few of the….
Berlin, J. (2009). It's All a Matter of Perspective. Roeper Review, 31, 217 -- 223.
Coleman, M. (2009). The Needs of Gifted Students within an RTI Framework. Gifted Child Today, 3 (32), 14 -- 18.
Elhoweris, H. (2008). Teacher Judgement. Multi-Cultural Education, 35 -- 37.
Special Education Legislation
Individualized Education Program
Developing Standard-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs. By Sharon Lynch and Paula Adams.
Due to the need to provide equitable education and knowledge to children with special needs, the idea of Individualized Education Program (IEP) comes in handy to help make this a reality. It is upon the government's recognition of the needs of the children who have conditions that may not allow them to learn effectively or at the same speed with other children given the standard learning environment that it implemented various measures to ensure that no child is left behind in fulfilling their learning needs. Factually, these kids with learning impediments may not necessarily learn the same level of concept and complexity of ideas, hence the need to have their own individualized system that will impart the necessary skills and knowledge in them.
The attached article articulates some of the tenets….
.." (2004, p.3) the hands-on experience is also related as being important in the science class in the work entitled: "The National Curriculum" which states that science through inquiry: "...stimulates and excites pupils' curiosity about phenomena and events in the world around them" (the National Curriculum, 2006) and that science also "satisfies this curiosity with knowledge." (the National Curriculum, 2006) Scientific inquiry teaches students investigate skills in the areas of: (1) Planning; (2) Obtaining and Presenting Evidence; (3) Exploration; and (4) Consideration of evidence and making evaluations. In the area of planning students ask questions and then make decisions how to search out the answers to those questions. Students use first-hand experience and simple information sources for locating answers to these questions and as well enter a thought process about the results of decisions and learn to make comparisons. In obtaining and presenting evidence the students learn to follow instructions….
Building Bridges Between Science and Special Education: Inclusion in the Science Classroom. Electronic Journal of Science Education Vol. 4 No. 3 March 2000. Online available at http://ejse.southwestern.edu/original%20site/manuscripts/v4n3/issue.html
Bloom's Taxonomy (nd) Online available at http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
Primary Science (2003) No. 202. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. 2003.
The National Curriculum (2006) Teaching in England. Online available at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/teachinginengland/detail.cfm?id=314.
This plan should address the concerns of the parents and must be tailored to suit the specific needs of the concerned child. Developing an IEP involves a collaborative approach from the teachers, parents and students and other special education staff. Team effort is central to the success of the program as only when input from all the members are garnered can a successful plan be charted out. Once the eligibility criterion is established the next step is to put in written form the IEP. The present level of education performance document is an important source to be drawn from while developing a comprehensive IEP. It includes all information pertaining to the student's strengths, weaknesses and other qualities. Observing the performance reports of the student would provide a good idea of the strengths and weakness of the student in all areas. ased on this the expectations or goals for the….
USF, "Positive Behaviour Support," Accessed August 7, 2006, available at http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/pbs.html
LD Online, "IEP: The Process," Accessed August 7, 2006, Available at, http://www.ldonline.org/article/6277
U.S Department of Education, "A Guide to Individualized Education Program," Accessed 7th August 2006, available at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html
Fox, L., Jack, S., & Broyles, L. (2005). Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Supporting Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Addressing Challenging Behavior. Available at, http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/Kansas_Book_Web.pdf
It would not only be time consuming and expensive for each classroom teacher to develop an effective basic reading skills curriculum but such a curriculum is also fraught with a high degree of error. There is compelling evidence that supports the use of scripted programs rather than teacher-developed approaches to teach complex skills (Benner, 2005).
Second, apply positive behavioral supports to manage the behaviors of students with behavioral difficulties during reading instruction. esearchers have found that the problem behaviors of students with emotional disturbance are moderately to strongly relate to their responsiveness to reading intervention. Coercion theory offers an important rationale for the use of positive behavioral supports to improve responsiveness. Coercion theory asserts that many students with severe behavioral challenges have learned that arguing; escalation, confrontation, aggression, and noncompliance often lead to escape from undesirable tasks such as homework completion or from compliance with repeated requests to behave appropriately,….
Al Otaiba, Stephanie and Fuchs, Douglas. (2006). Who Are the Young Children for Whom Best
Practices in Reading Are Ineffective? An Experimental and Longitudinal Study. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 39(5), p.414-431.
Alvarado, Criselda Guajardo.(2006). Best Practices in the Special Education Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students. Retrieved May 28, 2010, from Web site:
" This kind of paperwork is time-consuming and meticulous.
This IEP can be reviewed as often as parents or teachers request it, and "must be accessible to all staff responsible for its implementation," which includes general education teachers and other school staff. Meanwhile, if a special education student is having problems in class, for whatever reason, he or she may be brought before the school's "Instructional Study Team," which consists of staff from the school and other professionals who have a grasp of the special education program at that school. Parents are also brought in to these meetings; also, following the meeting there is a large volume of paperwork for the teacher to address.
Meanwhile, in some states a special education teacher may have as many as 100 students; but not in Illinois. In June, 2007, after 9 public hearings throughout the state, the Illinois State Board of Education (Burke, 2007) revised….
Burke, M; Christian, M.C.; & Des Jardins, C. (2007). Illinois Special Ed rules Pass JCAR.
FRDC Newsletter, Retrieved 30 July 2007, from http://www.frcd.org/pb_nl_0707.pdf .
Plash, Shawn; & Piotrowski, Chris. (2006). Retention Issues: A Study of Alabama Special
Education Teachers. Education. Fall, 2006.
It is also worth noting that the evolving nature of special education can be attributed to the cultural changes, family values, and civilizations taking place. esearch attitudes towards people…Read Full Paper ❯
Special Education Some people need education which is special to their lives. Special education provides an additional services or support to the students' educational needs. In most schools and colleges…Read Full Paper ❯
"By the 1980s, the field had moved to a functional skills model. As the evidence for this approach mounted, the field refocused on age appropriate skills and knowledge…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases." (1989) Cotton goes…Read Full Paper ❯
Special Education According to the Federal Laws of the United States of America, "Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs…Read Full Paper ❯
In the past, students with disabilities tended to be isolated from their peers by pecial Education paradigms that obliged them to receive learning in a physically isolated setting. Far…Read Full Paper ❯
As a result, children within the middle class and above receive adequate attention and treatment for special education needs at an early stage. Young children of educated parents…Read Full Paper ❯
Despite all this information, little data is actually available with regard to why teacher shortages continue. Further research is necessary the authors conclude to help alleviate the problem. Conclusions/Evaluations This article…Read Full Paper ❯
Special education is presided over by federal law in most educational jurisdictions. According to the Indviduals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Special Education is defined as: specifically planned instruction…Read Full Paper ❯
Special Education and Gifted -- Talented Students Over the last several years, the issues surrounding gifted and talented as well as special needs students have been continually brought to the…Read Full Paper ❯
Special Education Legislation Individualized Education Program Developing Standard-Based Individualized Education Program Objectives for Students with Significant Needs. By Sharon Lynch and Paula Adams. Due to the need to provide equitable education and…Read Full Paper ❯
.." (2004, p.3) the hands-on experience is also related as being important in the science class in the work entitled: "The National Curriculum" which states that science through inquiry:…Read Full Paper ❯
This plan should address the concerns of the parents and must be tailored to suit the specific needs of the concerned child. Developing an IEP involves a collaborative…Read Full Paper ❯
It would not only be time consuming and expensive for each classroom teacher to develop an effective basic reading skills curriculum but such a curriculum is also fraught…Read Full Paper ❯
" This kind of paperwork is time-consuming and meticulous. This IEP can be reviewed as often as parents or teachers request it, and "must be accessible to all staff responsible…Read Full Paper ❯