SPSS Statistics Data Analysis Education Essay

Words: 494 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24040916Over 250 respondents reported working 40 hours, with the next highest frequency being under 100.

Number of Siblings

The histogram for the number of siblings shows a negatively skewed data set, with more participants reporting fewer siblings. However, the range in this variable was quite high, ranging from 0 to 22 siblings. The mean response was 3.71 siblings, the median response was 3 siblings and the mode of the sample was 2, indicating that the most frequent response was 2 siblings. In this case the mode would likely be a good representation of this sample, as it represents the majority. The mean could also be used as a way of representing the number of participants who did have more than 2 participants, but outliers, such as the individuals reporting more than 15 siblings, heavily influence the mean. After the scale reaches approximately 10 siblings, very few individuals endorse responses higher, and thus this sample does have quite a few outliers that are influencing the mean to be higher than the other measures of central tendency.

Syntax:

GET

FILE='gss.sav'.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet1.

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=educ hrs1 sibs

/FORMAT=NOTABLE

/STATISTICS=STDDEV VARIANCE RANGE MINIMUM MAXIMUM MEAN MEDIAN MODE

/HISTOGRAM NORMAL

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Descriptive Statistics:

Statistics

Highest Year of School Completed

Number of Hours Worked Last Week

NUMBER of BROTHERS and SISTERS

N

Valid

Missing

4

5

Mean

13.04

41.76…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

SPSS Statistics Data Analysis Many Essay

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53703090Overall, it appears that the relationships between these variables are somewhat similar between men and women, although there are slight differences, most keenly pointed out in the ANOVA results.

Correlations

Respondent's Sex

Age of Respondent

Highest Year of School Completed

Total Family Income

Job Satisfaction

Male

Age of Respondent

Pearson Correlation

1

-.240**

-.065

-.125**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.103

.005

N

Highest Year of School Completed

Pearson Correlation

-.240**

1

.419**

-.042

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.350

N

Total Family Income

Pearson Correlation

-.065

.419**

1

-.114*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.103

.000

.012

N

Job Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

-.125**

-.042

-.114*

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.005

.350

.012

N

Female

Age of Respondent

Pearson Correlation

1

-.275**

-.115**

-.123**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.001

.002

N

Highest Year of School Completed

Pearson Correlation

-.275**

1

.459**

-.093*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.018

N

Total Family Income

Pearson Correlation

-.115**

.459**

1

-.196**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

.000

.000

N

Job Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

-.123**

-.093*

-.196**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

.018

.000

N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Correlations

Age of Respondent

Highest Year of School Completed

Total Family Income

Job Satisfaction

Age of Respondent

Pearson Correlation

1

-.259**

-.099**

-.124**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

N

Highest Year of School Completed

Pearson Correlation

-.259**

1

.437**

-.068*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.022

N

Total Family Income

Pearson Correlation

-.099**

.437**

1

-.160**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

N

Job Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

-.124**

-.068*

-.160**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.022

.000

N

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Included

Excluded

Total

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

Highest Year of School Completed * Job Satisfaction

76.1%

23.9%

Age of Respondent * Job Satisfaction

76.0%

24.0%

Total Family Income…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

SPSS Statistics Social Science Research Essay

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63753482Look at the variables that show the change in the percentage of schools meeting or exceeding state standards (mathch94, readch94, and scich94). Test the hypothesis that the true change in the percentage meeting state standards is 0. Write a short report to the mayor detailing your findings.

Reading improved but not math and science.

Assignment #7c:

Use Assignment 7c -- Tutorial

Problem 8 ?" Chapter 13:

Look at the changes between 1993 and 1994 in graduation rates (variables grad93 and grad94), ACT scores (variables act93 and pctact94). Does it look like the Chicago school system is improving? Which schools appear to be "outliers"?

Assignment #7d:

Use Assignment 7d?"Tutorial

Problem 1 ?" Chapter 14:

Perform the appropriate analyses to test whether the average number of hours of daily television viewing (variable tvhours) is the same for men and women. Write a short summary of your results, including appropriate charts to illustrate your findings. Be sure to look at the distribution of hours of television viewed separately for men and women.

a. Based on the results you observed, is it reasonable to conclude that in the population, men and women watch the same amount of television?

no there is a significant difference between the amount of television watched by men vs. women in this sample.

b. If you found a statistically significant difference between average hours watched by men and women, would you necessarily conclude that men and women…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

Words: 559 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60533760

SPSS Exercise

Each problem below describes a different research question. For each problem, you will state the null and alternative hypotheses, determine which statistical test is appropriate to answer each question, run the analysis using SPSS and the accompanying data set from Blackboard, and then draw a conclusion based on the results of the analysis. Keep all of your SPSS output from running each analysis.

A researcher wishes to assess whether vitamin C is effective in the treatment of colds. To evaluate her hypothesis, she decides to conduct a 2-year experimental study. She obtains 30 volunteers from undergraduate classes to participate. She randomly assigns an equal number of students to three groups: placebo (group 1), low dose of vitamin C (group 2) and high dose of vitamin C (group 3). In the first and second years of the study, students in all three groups are monitored to assess the number of days with cold symptoms that they have. During the first year, students do not take any pills. In the second year of the study, students take one of the following: no active ingredient (group 1), low dose of vitamin C (group 2) and high dose of vitamin C (group 3). The dependent variable was the difference between the number of days with cold symptoms from year 1 to year 2 that each participant experienced. Positive number indicate more days with cold symptoms from year 1 to year 2; negative numbers indicate fewer days with cold symptoms from year 1 to year 2. The data for this study is in the data file ex3.sav.

1. Write the null and alternative hypothesis using words or symbols. Be sure to include specific test values where appropriate.

H0: Vitamin C intake has not…… [Read More]

SPSS Statistics Correlation & Regression Essay

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97091917401

Question 11D

1. What are the null and alternative hypotheses?

Null Hypothesis: Volume has no relation to defect rate (the slope is equal to 0).

Alternative Hypothesis: As volume increase, defect rate increases. (the slope is not equal to 0).

2. What is the population of interest? What is the sample?

All shifts at the plant in question make up the population of interest.

160 randomly selected shifts make up the sample.

3. On the basis of the output, what can you conclude about the null hypothesis?

The null hypothesis can be rejected. There is a significant linear regression between volume and defect rate and the slope is not equal to 0.

4. Can you reject the null hypothesis that the slope is 0?

Yes. The scatter plot shows a linear relationship and the regression coefficient is .740. The value of t is 13.846, indicating that the slope is 13.846 standard error units above a slope of 0, which has a significance of .000, therefore allowing one to reject the hypothesis that the slope is equal to 0.

5. Can you reject the null hypothesis that there is no linear relationship between the dependent and independent variables?

Yes. There is a relationship between the dependent and independent variables, as evidenced by the significant regression analysis and the significant correlation coefficient.

6. Can you reject the null hypothesis that the population correlation coefficient is 0?

Yes, when we reject the null hypothesis that the slope is equal to 0, this allows us to also reject the null hypothesis that the population correlation coefficient is equal to 0.

7. What would you predict the defect rate to be on a day when the volume is 4200 units? What would you predict the average defect rate to be for all days with production volumes of 4200?

Predicted…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

SPSS Statistics Social Science Research Essay

Words: 457 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 658356502%, female 5.1%

CRKEVER - male 13.9%, female 8.6%

HEREVER -- male .9%, female, .5%

5

H1: Females are more likely than males to have ever smoked a cigarette.

This hypothesis is not supported by the data. In this sample, 34.7% of those who had ever tried a cigarette were male, while 32.3% of those who had ever tried a cigarette were female.

H2: Males are more likely than females to have ever used cocaine.

This hypothesis is supported by the data. Of those who had ever tried cocaine, 13.9% were male and 8.6% were female.

6

For all of the drugs included in this survey, males made up a larger percentage than females in the group that reported having used each drug. Given that the sample has slightly more females than males overall, this finding emphasizes that men are more likely than women to have tried a wide range or drugs. The percentages were fairly close between the genders for more common drugs and legal substances, such as cigarettes and alcohol. For the illegal substances, the differences between the genders grew, with the largest difference between men and women being for ever having used crack. Males were much more likely than females to report having ever used crack (13.9% vs. 8.6%).… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001 [Computer file]. ICPSR03580-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-12-07. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03580

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001 [Computer file]. ICPSR03580-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-12-07. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03580

SPSS Statistics Data Analysis on Essay

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9139462Crosstabs would be used to test this association. There is a significant correlation between the education of a mother and a daughter (r = .474, p < .01).

e. Does Belief in Life After Death impact one's happiness in their marriage?

Belief in life after death would be the Independent Variable and Happiness in one's marriage would be the Dependent Variable. Crosstabs would be used to test this association. 83.8% of people who report being very happy in their marriage believe in life after death. 66.7% of people who report being not very happy with their marriage believe in life after death.

Part 3

a. How many people without a high school diploma find life exciting?

66

b. What percentage of people without a high school diploma find life exciting?

35.5%

c. Of the people who find life exciting, what percentage do not have a high school diploma?

14%

d. If degree is the column variable and life is the row variable, what kind of percentages should compare for the table?

The percentages would remain the same, they would just be found in a different cell.

e. Summarize the relationship, if any, between perception of life and highest degree earned.

In general, as level of education goes up, individuals are more likely to rate their perception of life as exciting.

RS Highest Degree * Is life exciting or dull Crosstabulation

Is life exciting or dull

Total

Dull

Routine

Exciting

RS Highest Degree

Less than HS

Count

24

96

66

% within RS Highest Degree

12.9%

51.6%

35.5%

% within Is life exciting or dull

37.5%

20.9%

14.0%

18.7%

% of Total

2.4%

9.6%

6.6%

18.7%

High school

Count

35

% within RS Highest Degree

6.8%

48.5%

44.7%

% within Is life exciting or dull

54.7%

54.7%

48.9%

52.0%

% of Total

3.5%

25.2%

23.2%…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

SPSS Data Analysis American Heart Essay

Words: 2342 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2721866086

34.00

additive 2

9

11.33

Total

16

Test Statisticsb

gas mileage

Mann-Whitney U

6.000

Wilcoxon W

34.000

Z

-2.701

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

.007

Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)]

.005a

a. Not corrected for ties.

b. Grouping Variable: fuel additives (per m)

P (1)

0.004

P (2)

0.008

With the two P. values being so far apart, as well as the variance of the two groups being of significant value, around 2 whole values, it is clear that there is a significant difference to be noted between the two sample groups. Through the analysis of both the variance and the computations worked out through the Mann-Whitney test, it is clear that Sample B. has a higher rate of miles per gallon than the vehicles tested in Sample a. Here, the significant difference can then be interpreted that the fuel additive used within the context of Sample B. is more effective in terms of increased mileage within its test vehicles.

B. Exercise and Calories Burnt

Data Table

Swimming

Tennis

Cycling

Data Rank

Rank a

Rank B

Rank C

8

9

5

4

14

1

11

13

3

6

10

7

12

15

2

Data Set

Sum

2040

Mean

Variance

Rank Sum

41

61

18

Rank Mean

8.2

12.2

3.6

Combined Sum

Combined Median of Ranks

8

Three separate exercises were observed three times a week for forty minutes each session. The data here shows the number of calories burnt by each different activity within that context of forty minute work outs three days a week. By using the Kruskal -- Wallis test, the data can help determine if there was a significant difference between the three activities and corresponding calorie burnt data. The test itself requires a measured independent variable, and one nominal variable with one measurement variable. In the contest of this analysis, the ranked data is the set being computed. It also depends on the fact that the K. samples are random and independent, coming specifically out of a larger sample population. Additionally, all populations within the two sample sets are expected to have normal distribution and similar variances. Here the equation for analysis…… [Read More]

SPSS Statistics Non-Parametric Data Analysis Essay

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60812220244, p = .000. Men had an average rank of 852.94 hours, while women had an average rang of 632.24 hours, indicating that on average, women worked fewer hours than men, in this sample.

4. Using a nonparametric test to see whether current salaries (variable salnow) for clerical employees differ for the four gender/race groups (variable sex/race). Compare your results from those from a parametric analysis. Summarize the conclusion.

A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to evaluate whether current salaries for clerical employees are equal between four groups: white males, minority males, white females and minority females. The results of the test indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another, X2 (3, 474) = 175.068, p = .000. The rank output indicates that white males had the highest average salary, followed by minority males, white females and finally minority females.

A one-way anova was conducted to examine the same question for the purpose of comparing the results of a nonparametric test (above) with a parametric test (one-way anova). The one-way anova yielded similar results, indicating that there are significant differences between the groups, F (3)= 54.405, p = .000. The one-way anova is capable of providing somewhat more detailed comparisons between the individual groups. The bonferroni post-hoc analyses indicate that the salaries of white males significantly differ from the other three groups. The average salary for minority males, however, is significantly differ only from that of white males and minority women, but not significantly different from that of white women. The average salary for white women is significantly different from the average salary of white men, but not significantly different from the average salaries of minority men or women. Finally, the average salary of minority women is significantly different from the average salary of men (minority and white) but not significantly different from the average salary of white women.…… [Read More]

Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.

SPSS Analysis of the Performance of Two Groups Essay

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65523157SPSS Output Interpretation

SPSS Output Intrpretation

SPSS Output Summary-Use the study information and SPSS output file provided to answer the questions listed.

Study Description: • Participants were assigned to a control group or a training group. The training group received 1 hour of training every day for one week. During the training, participants learned various techniques for decreasing their stress levels. All participants were given a life stress test to determine their current level of life stress. Scores on the test were labeled as either high or low. After a week, all participants were given a puzzle to put together in a stressful environment (e.g., loud noises, bright lights, etc.). The amount of the puzzle completed in the time frame of 5 minutes was measured according to the number of pieces completed (there were 10 pieces to the puzzle). It was expected that the training group would have different scores on the test than the control group. In addition, those who had high life stress scores were expected to perform differently than those who had low life stress scores. Lastly, those who received training and had high stress scores were expected to perform differently than those who did not receive training and had low stress scores.

The literature suggests that people can learn to better manage their everyday stress by learning and practicing stress-management regimens and stress-reduction processes. The current study investigated the influence of stress reduction training on the puzzle-solving abilities of people living with different levels of life stress. Study participants were grouped into a control group (n=15) and a treatment group (n=15), will all participants receiving training in techniques that can be used to reduce stress levels. Baseline data was collected through the administration of a life stress test to all participants. Following a period of a week, all 30 participants were required to solve a 10-piece puzzle in a stressful environment within a 5-minute period. With only 30 participants total, the sample size was small in this study.

The independent variables included the various life stress levels experienced and perceived by the research participants and the hour-long training in stress reduction they received. The quantitative data consisted of the time participants took to complete the puzzle and the number of pieces of…… [Read More]

Exploratory Data Analysis in SPSS Essay

Words: 1450 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65526135SPSS

How did you treat missing or oddly coded data, and outliers?

The SPSS function for Missing Data was used to identify any outliers or oddly coded data. The percent of missing data is high at 47.2% or 1063 potential responses to the question. The number of extremes or outliers in the high range is 220. Because the numbers are high, it would be useful to look at the raw data to determine how these answers were coded. This question is an interesting one and the pattern of responses suggests that additional analysis with this variable could reveal relationships with other factors.

What did you visually observe about your variables?

Responses to some of the questions are clustered for a number of the survey respondents. That is to say that there appear to be some respondents in the sample who are very active users of their cell phones and other respondents who barely use their cell phones.

What were the results of testing for normality for scale (interval or ratio) variables?

The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality was used because of the size of N, although both Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics are shown in the data table. The p-value is… [Read More]

Test for High School Dataset Using SPSS Software Essay

Words: 5099 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44107357High School Longitudinal Study Dataset Using SPSS Software

Scenarios 1.

This section determines African citizen's perceptions about their current level of democracy. The study uses 2015 Afrobarometer data to determine whether the current level of African democracy is statistically different from the value of 6.

Have series of reforms increased African views on the level of democracy?

The study uses the following variables to answer the research question:

Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

Level of democracy: today

The paper uses One-Sample Test statistics to answer the research question. The procedure is as follows:

In the SPSS Version 21, Start by Clicking:

Analyze ? Compare Means ?One Sample T Test

In Test Variable box:

Select

Q46b. Level of democracy ten years ago

Q46a. Level of democracy: today and Click OK.

The output of the One Sample T Test is as follows:

GET

FILE='C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav'.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

T-TEST

/TESTVAL=0

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=Q46A Q46B

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

T-Test

Notes

Output Created

11-JUL-2016 09:41:20

Comments

Input

Data

C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet1

Filter

one>

Weight

one>

Split File

one>

N of Rows in Working Data File

51587

Missing Value Handling

Definition of Missing

User defined missing values are treated as missing.

Cases Used

Statistics for each analysis are based on the cases with no missing or out-of-range data for any variable in the analysis.

Syntax

T-TEST

/TESTVAL=0

/MISSING=ANALYSIS

/VARIABLES=Q46A Q46B

/CRITERIA=CI (.95).

Resources

Processor Time

00:00:00,06

Elapsed Time

00:00:00,06

[DataSet1] C:UsersucerDownloads183172_Afrobarometer__student_8210__.sav

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Q46a. Level of democracy: today

46940

5,52

2,883

,013

Q46b. Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

44909

4,90

2,995

,014

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0

t df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Q46a. Level of democracy: today

415,007

46939

,000

5,522

5,50

5,55

Q46b. Level of democracy: ten years ago (0-10 scale)

346,461

44908

,000

4,896

4,87

4,92

As being revealed in the SPSS output, the Mean value of the Level of democracy 10 years is…… [Read More]

Statistical Test SPSS Output Is Effective as Essay

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38182974statistical test (SPSS Output) is effective as far as it goes in this particular case, but the results are not as clear as what they could be. A number of variables were used to generate results that on the surface were easily defined but a more analytical approach shows that the results could be much more comprehensive. The variables included three groups; low, medium and high scores depending on the respondent's answers to 10 questions. Additional variables included the gender of the respondent as well as the number of respondents in each category. Other variables could include the questions themselves and how the questions were written. Since there were only ten total questions, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire are two unspoken variables that should have been addressed.

SPSS serves a primary purpose of measuring the output from the respondents question, but since they questions were seeking qualitative responses, the SPSS may not have been the best methodology for assessment. One of the best things about SPSS is that the researcher can plug in the data and that SPSS will automatically provide a comprehensive analysis. Such a program does not necessarily mean that the analysis is measuring what the researcher wished to be measured. Understanding reliability and validity becomes important then from the researcher's viewpoint. Attempting to determine whether the data measures what it sets out to measures can often be described as one of the primary functions of the research and in this particular case, it does not seem that the results are particularly valid. Regarding reliability of the data means that testing quantitative data in order to evaluate if it is reliable or not. Many experts believe that…… [Read More]

Data Analysis Using SPSS Version 21 Essay

Words: 902 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55881249SPSS Software

The study chooses the Age Category as the categorical variable and Lived Poverty Index as the metric variable. The study uses SPSS software Version 21 for the analysis and presents the frequency distributions for the two variables. The visual SPSS output of both the Age Category and Lived Poverty Index are as follows:

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=AGE_COND

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Frequencies

[DataSet1] C:UsersDELL 3521DownloadsAfrobarometer__student_8210_.sav

Age Category

Valid

Missing

Age Category

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

51 and above

Total

Missing

Total

The paper uses the frequency distribution to summary the age category in a manageable form. The frequency distribution reveals that the age groups are between 18 and over 51 years. The number of participants between 15 and 35 years of age are 27,888, which are 54.1% of the participants. However, participants between 36 and 50 years of age are 13,868(26.9%). The sample population who are 51 years and above are 9,819 (19%). The total participants are 51,573 (100%). The frequency distribution table also presents the cumulative frequency of the sample population. The summary of the frequency table shows that the participants between the age 18 and 35 form the largest number of the total population and are more than 50% of all the sample population. (Trochim, 2006, Nick, 2007).

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=AGE_COND LivedPoverty

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Frequencies

[DataSet1] C:UsersDELL 3521DownloadsAfrobarometer__student_8210_.sav

Statistics

Age Category

Lived Poverty Index (average index of 5 poverty items)

N

Valid

51573

50923

Missing

14

Similarly, the study selects lived poverty index as the numeric variable and based on the frequency distribution table, the total number of people living in poverty are 50,923. From the results of the frequency distribution, the average lived poverty index shows that 8,173 people are the on the zero poverty index level. However, the total number of 190 participants are 4 for the poverty index level rate, which is the highest poverty index level.

Frequency Table

Lived Poverty Index (average index of 5 poverty items)

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

PART II

DESCRIPTIVES VARIABLES=AGE_COND LivedPoverty

/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX.

Notes

Output Created

12-juin-2016 13:30:43…… [Read More]

SPSS Data Analysis to Word Essay

Words: 724 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3332402Leadership Effectiveness Inventory Data

Reliability Analysis

After collecting data from the Nordic questionnaires, a reliability test was carried out to ascertain whether the nine scales used could predict overall satisfaction with the manager as a leader. The analysis found the scales reliable and moreover, it was apparent that reducing the questions in the questionnaires could not compromise data reliability. In addition, communication, planning/execution and teamwork were proved to be the best predictors of satisfaction from the analysis.

For this study, data used were answers to 75 questions asked to 472 respondents regarding managerial behavior within the organization. Data sources are shown in Table 1 below.

Source of Data

N

Self

Direct Reports

Peers

Supervisors

In Table 2, descriptive statistics were recorded on individual items with descending means and respective standard deviations.

Mean

Standard

analyzing table 2 above, it is clear that three variables had means of more than 4; satisfied. These variables include Q69, Q3, and Q5 as well. In addition, there were 6 variables with means of less than 3; dissatisfied. These were, Q41, Q71, Q31, Q37, Q52, and finally Q33.

From the above table, minor differences in the means were realized from the four data sources, but with no systematic differences among them. The dependent variable, Q75; Overall, how satisfied are you with this person as a leader recorded a mean of 3.92. Table 3 shows the means of this variable by reporting group.… [Read More]

Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion With SPSS Essay

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49629907GPA is interval level data one can report all measures of central tendency and dispersion (Creswell, 2012). In the original data case 38 had a GPA reported as 9.00. This value is of course impossible and since there were no missing values defined in the data set this case was treated as missing data. If used as reported it would have resulted in a much larger standard deviation and slightly larger mean for the calculations. The mean GPA of the sample was 3.2941. The median GPA was 3.2750 with a mode of 4.00. The standard deviation was .50644 (with the miscoded value the standard deviation would be .82215). The range for GPA in the sample was 2.00 with a minimum value of 2.00 and a maximum value of 4.00 (including the miscoded value would inflate the range to seven).

The syntax and output files for the analysis follows are presented in the appendix. The syntax for the analysis is as follows:

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=gpa

/STATISTICS=STDDEV VARIANCE RANGE MINIMUM MAXIMUM MEAN MEDIAN MODE

/HISTOGRAM NORMAL

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Figure One displays a histogram of the GPA for the sample. As can be seen in Figure One the data appears to be slightly positively skewed.

Because marital status is a categorical variable the mean and the median are not very good descriptors of central tendency. In the current data set there only two values for marital status either married or unmarried (0, 1). The mode can be a useful measure of central tendency for categorical variables as it does give information regarding the most frequently…… [Read More]

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th

Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th

SPSS Study Description List the Research Question Essay

Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36733503SPSS

Study Description:

List the research question for the study. The researcher is interested in looking at whether or not an appraisal from a person's manager regarding their job performance affects the person's self-esteem as measures on a self-esteem appraisal survey (SEM). According to the vignette while the researcher has managers give either a positive rating or a negative rating; he/she has no pre-experimental hypotheses regarding of how these specific appraisals will affect self-esteem (other than appraisals may affect self-esteem) and therefore the directionality of positive or negative ratings does not appear to be important in terms of the hypothesis.

Ma = Mb (Here the researcher is interested in the change on a measure of self-esteem from pre-to post intervention). Note to Customer: I'm using M. To represent mean here; it would also be correct to use the variance of the groups).

H1: Ma ? Mb

Variables. The independent variable is the feedback from the manager (either positive or negative), an ordinal discrete variable (if we assume a direction from negative to positive, but it is treated as nominal in the analysis). The dependent variable is a score on a measure of self-esteem, particularly the change in the score on the measure of self-esteem (SEM) following the intervention. The dependent variable is a ratio level discreet variable (considering you can score 0 on it). An interesting note is that the IV has two levels (positive feedback or negative feedback, a between subjects variable), but according to the vignette the researcher is not hypothesizing that positive feedback will increase self-esteem or negative feedback will lower it. The researcher is only interested in whether or not feedback changes self-esteem from a pre-to post score.

4. There are 50 individuals in the study; 25 per group according to the description.

The overall measures of central tendency in the analysis (mean and median values) indicate relatively normal distributions of overall pre and post scores on the measures of self-esteem. The overall pre-SEM mean score is was 76.52 with a median of 74 (there were multiple modes).…… [Read More]

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc.

Jackson, S.L. (2012).Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th

Jackson, S.L. (2012).Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th

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Correlations and Regression Essay

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10442438Correlation & Regression

A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.

In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.

Overall Scatterplot

Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score

Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points

The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no correlations between independent variables greater than .7 and no tolerance statistics less than .1. Additionally, no outliers were detected, as evidence by no studentized deleted residuals values greater than +/- 3 standard deviations. An examination of the leverage scores indicated that there were none greater than .5, and as such, no individual cases were exerting high leverage. Furthermore, there were no Cook's distances greater than 1, indicating that there were no unduly influential cases. Although examination of the historgram (Figure 4) indicated less than perfect normality of data, observation of the P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residuals showed acceptable normality (Figure 5).

Figure 4: Histogram

Figure 5: Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual

A hierarchical regression was run in which the quiz score predictor was entered on the first step, followed by the course points predictor on the second. The results of the model indicated that while quiz scores were not a significant predictor…… [Read More]

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Management-Research Question Hierarchy What Are Essay

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95778916It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).

Research design

In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or more points in the research process, data numbers, words, gestures are collected in different ways and for different purposes.

Critique the survey used for the study.

The survey is built using stratified disproportionate random sampling with subscribers who are considered as to one of 42 cells. In the survey a total of 710 complete questionnaires were sent and received, and in the questionnaires 676 of the respondents indicating that were the people making decision on the purchase for their organization. However, the Penton analyzed on the answers of the 676 buyers, again the data of the study were analyzed by using weighting responses from each cell according to their percentage makeup in overall population. The whole margin error of the survey is indicated as ± 4% at the 95% level of confidence. In more elaborate a good number of follow-up through telephone interviews were conducted with 40 respondents, to gain a deeper understanding of their behavior and attitudes.

Prepare the survey for analysis. Set up the code sheet for this study. How will this study be set up to be tabulated by a statistical analysis program like SPSS?

The analysis of the research will involve the coding of the collected data and then transcribing it. The interviews will be coded and then the outcome analyzed using SPSS. The coding will be done by re-reading the interview and then effectively classifying the relevant information into a series of cells (also known as…… [Read More]

Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.

Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods

Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods

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Respondents of the Study Essay

Words: 2286 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29390039

Sources of data

*Two literature searches were conducted in order to generate conditions of nurse satisfaction. One search centered on variables of work satisfaction described in relevant job satisfaction theories. The other search probed applicable reviews and meta-analysis for factors of job satisfaction relevant to the nurse profession.

The literature, in the first case, was plumbed for studies that provided theoretical insight into the concept of job satisfaction. Terms such as 'job satisfaction' and 'theory' were used to aid the research.

In the second case, research was conducted by using terms such as 'nursing', 'job satisfaction' and 'factors'. The resulting Meta analyses and literature reviews were thoroughly analyzed and only those relevant to the intent of the study retained. They had to, in other words, be congruent to the nursing profession and related to satisfaction that the employee gained from his or her job.

'Nurse satisfaction' as a result was, accordingly, broken down and defined into the following *ten categories: (1) Workload -- whether staff workload was reduced as a result of the program; (2) Empower -- whether staff felt greater empowerment and ability to do whir work; (3) Support -- whether staff felt that they received more support as a result of the program; (4) Opportunity: whether the program afforded them more opportunity; (5) Stress- whether implementation of program reduced usual levels of stress; (6) Work life- whether work life was enhanced as a result of the program; (7) Leave -- the number of nurses who left since the program was introduced was also evaluated (8) Valuable -- finally, the value of the program to the nurses was considered. (9) Team -- whether staff considered there to be a greater team spirit since program had been introduced (10) Information- whether communication / transmission of information had been enhanced as a result of the program.

Content validity would be estimated as 'adequate' according to the number of these factors incorporated in the final instrument. The fewer the number incorporated and tested, the lower would be the rating of content validity. I therefore aimed that at…… [Read More]

Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. USA: Sage

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC). Measuring job satisfaction in surveys - Comparative analytical report. Retrieved on 10/30/2011 from:

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC). Measuring job satisfaction in surveys - Comparative analytical report. Retrieved on 10/30/2011 from: