Spss Essays (Examples)

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Correlations and Regression

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10442438

Correlation & Regression

A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.

In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.

Overall Scatterplot

Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score

Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points

The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no correlations between independent variables greater than .7 and no tolerance statistics less than .1. Additionally, no outliers were detected, as evidence by no studentized deleted residuals values greater than +/- 3 standard deviations. An examination of the leverage scores indicated that there were none greater than .5, and as such,…… [Read More]

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Management-Research Question Hierarchy What Are

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95778916

It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).

Research design

In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or more points in the research process, data numbers, words, gestures are collected in different ways and for different purposes.

Critique the survey used for the study.

The survey is built using stratified disproportionate random sampling with subscribers who are considered as to one of 42 cells. In the survey a…… [Read More]


Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.

Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods

Morgan B, (2008). PTC 604 - Communication Theory and Research

Fritz K, (2008). Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research MPH Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health
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Respondents of the Study

Words: 2286 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29390039

Sources of data

*Two literature searches were conducted in order to generate conditions of nurse satisfaction. One search centered on variables of work satisfaction described in relevant job satisfaction theories. The other search probed applicable reviews and meta-analysis for factors of job satisfaction relevant to the nurse profession.

The literature, in the first case, was plumbed for studies that provided theoretical insight into the concept of job satisfaction. Terms such as 'job satisfaction' and 'theory' were used to aid the research.

In the second case, research was conducted by using terms such as 'nursing', 'job satisfaction' and 'factors'. The resulting Meta analyses and literature reviews were thoroughly analyzed and only those relevant to the intent of the study retained. They had to, in other words, be congruent to the nursing profession and related to satisfaction that the employee gained from his or her job.

'Nurse satisfaction' as a result was, accordingly, broken down and defined into the following *ten categories: (1) Workload -- whether staff workload was reduced as a result of the program; (2) Empower -- whether staff felt greater empowerment and ability to do whir work; (3) Support -- whether staff felt that they received more support as…… [Read More]


Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. USA: Sage

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC). Measuring job satisfaction in surveys - Comparative analytical report. Retrieved on 10/30/2011 from:


Lloyd S, Streiner D, Shannon S. Predictive validity of the emergency physician and global job satisfaction instruments. Acad Emerg Med 1998;5:234 -- 241.
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Mann-Whitney U Test the Mean

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38044589

They hypothesis is rejected. The Chi-Square was significant X2 (1, 84) = 4.403, p < .05. The proportion of females alive at discharge was much greater than the proportion of males alive at discharge. This can be seen in the barchart below.

alive discharge * gender Crosstabulation



male female alive discharge no





Expected Count









Expected Count









Expected Count




4) Correlation & Regression

Variables: Hours in Operating Room & Number of Preop Risk Factors

Scatter Plot:

Hypothesis: The population correlation coefficient is equal to 0.

The hypothesis fails to be rejected. The correlation coefficient is not significant (p. = .694).

The value of R. was .043 and the R. Squared value was .002, which, had the model been significant, would have indicated that the number of pre-op…… [Read More]


Norusis, M.J. (2008). Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS Statistics 17.0.
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Posting Due Date 5 00Pm Monday Weighting 20 You

Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8156694

Posting/Due date: 5:00pm Monday

Weighting: 20%

You need to complete the following request set by a fictitious professor (any similarity with persons living or dead is entirely deliberate). You can find the dataset on the course website in the Course Content section. You need to provide the Description, Method and Results paragraphs. It should be written in a style that is consistent with the other paragraphs, i.e. To academic journal level.

"Dear student,

I've been struck down by a debilitating illness that has rendered me unable to work or dispense statistical advice. Unfortunately, the evaluation of the targeted policing project is due shortly and I need you to write up some sections. This was the evaluation we were commissioned by QPS into their experimental patrolling strategy. They identified a number of police beats in which they tested a new style of patrolling. Our task was to tell them whether recorded crime went down in the post period compared to the pre-period. Pre and post periods were 12 months and we simply took the annual crime count and computed a monthly average for both pre and post periods.

All I have been able to compile is the Interpretation section of the…… [Read More]

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Effect of IQ on GPA Regression and Correlation

Words: 1658 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66246136

Regression, Correlation: Effect of IQ on GPA

Effective teaching begins with understanding the thinking and reasoning abilities of one's students and devising ways to ensure that the classroom setting is accommodative of the inherent differences in cognitive capabilities and that all students get to benefit from the learning process. One way of measuring a child's intellectual ability is by administering the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- Forth Edition (WISC-IV), which measures IQ on the basis of a child's processing speed, working memory, perceptual reasoning, and verbal comprehension skills. Children below the average range in IQ are thought to have lower understanding, thinking, and reasoning abilities compared to their peers. It is the instructor's duty to follow up such children's class activities with therapeutic interventions to ensure that they remain at par with the rest of the class. This text presents the hypotheses, regression results, and descriptive statistics of a study that sought to determine the relationship between IQ and GPA by administering the WISC-IV to forty, 14-year-old ninth-graders.


Numerous studies have shown that ceteris paribus, children with higher cognitive abilities are likely to be better academic achievers than their peers with lower cognitive abilities. Towards this end:

H1:…… [Read More]


Duckworth, A.L. & Seligman, M.E. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.

Jackson, S. (2011). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Rubin, A. & Babbie, E. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T. (2010). Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology and Education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Inc.
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Statistical Analysis of Restaurant Patrons

Words: 1636 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41501656

Many patrons tip based on how quickly their food is delivered, and if it is hot or not, how it tastes, did it meet the patrons' expectations or not for this specific type of food, what is the frequency of the patrons' dining on this specific type of food.

There are also an entire series of attitudinal questions regarding why this specific restaurant was chosen, and these could range from convenience for a family meal together, or for a special occasion. Clearly expectations are significantly higher for those respondents going out to dinner for an anniversary, birthday, or significant family event - all instances were respondents would be going to more upscale restaurants.

There is the entire price/quality aspect of this research. It is one experience to dine at McDonalds' or Burger King and have the expectation of the burger and fries tasting like they have in the past, and quite another to eat at a local 4-star restaurant where patrons would expect highly personalized service and an attentive waiter or waitress during the dining experience. In short, there are major environmental variables that need to also be taken into account, specifically in the area of price and quality expectations.…… [Read More]


ResearchMethods (2007) - Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. Accessed from the Internet on July 11, 2007 from location:  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measlevl.php 

SPSS Files:
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Testing a Sample of Iqs Compared to the Population Mean

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73357601

colloquially individuals may think that some people are smarter than others, the more scientific term for the concept of being smart is intelligence. The notion of measuring a person's intelligence was first pursued in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet (Kamin, 1995). The French government was looking for a way in which to help predict which students would have the most difficulty in school (Kamin, 1995), so they hired Alfred Binet, who was a psychologist, to develop a test. Binet developed the first intelligence test, a version of which is still used today (Kamin, 1995). Intelligence testing really took off during World War I, when the U.S. army wanted a way to screen a high number of army recruits. This lead to the development of new forms of intelligence tests in order to determine which army recruits were of a higher intelligence and would be successfully in leadership roles (McGuire, 1994).

The modern intelligence quotient, or IQ, is based on standardized tests where the mean score of the sample is defined as 100 (Neisser, 1997). With one standard deviation being +/- 15, approximately 95% of all humans have an IQ score somewhere within the range of 70 and 130. IQ…… [Read More]


Gupta, V. (1999). SPSS for Beginners. 1st Books Library.

Kamin, L.J. (1995). The pioneers of IQ testing. In Ressell Jacoby & Naomi Glauberman (Eds.), The Bell Curve Debate: History, Documents, Opinions. New York: Times Books.

McGuire, F. (1994). Army alpha and beta tests of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Intelligence. New York: Macmillan.

Neisser, U. (1997). Rising scores on intelligence tests. American Scientist, 85, 440-447.
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Change Management in Healthcare Organizations

Words: 16366 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93329389

1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis

The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AMR Research for example show that nearly 60% of the members of a medical value chain have no idea who the real customer is for their services. This pervades the healthcare industry, as the sources of funding are often seen as the customer (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). The for-profit healthcare providers often see the insurance companies,…… [Read More]


Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.

Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.

Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.

Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
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Media Exposure in Body Image Attitudes Using

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17964875

Media Exposure in Body Image Attitudes Using a One-Way Design

Research Methods- Investigating the effects of media exposure in body image attitudes using a one-way design

This research tries to analyze the connection in between media use and body discontentment by comparing the media with the internal element of self-confidence and various other social elements such as peer and adult mindsets. A sample of 30 female undergraduates finished measures of media exposure. The paper develops three specific conditions that were analyzed and that had stimuli created for them; these three conditions were the idealized figures, the non-idealized figures and control images of no figures. Moreover, social/environmental impacts and self-confidence showed to be the toughest signs of body frustration, which recommends that the indirect result of media messages on body frustration is a vital location for additional evaluation.


Thin models and starlets seem to rule the requirement of beauty in today's media, ever-present on television, and in publications, films, and Internet websites. They represent what many believe to be the idealized figures. Ads targeting girls include thin and gorgeous models in preferable situations in order to offer clothes, add-ons, and various other items. There is a mediated standard for idealized…… [Read More]

This research of body discontentment in females (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures) is essential due to the fact that body frustration might result in hazardous disordered-eating habits such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa (Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983). Body discontentment has actually been linked to media usage because media are frequently recognized as sources ladies count on for info about their physical look (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures), and thin models and starlets are seemingly the requirement in present media (projected idealized figures). Cultivation and social contrast concepts have actually been utilized to analyze the association in between media usage and body discontentment (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures). The objective of this job was to draw from the 2 concepts to analyze the effect of media exposure on internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized image) and body frustration in context with various other social/environmental elements like peer and adult mindsets.

The first phase in the task was committed to comprehending the standard relationships amongst internal and social/environmental elements-- consisting of media, friends and parents-- and the internalization of the thin suitable. When become part of the statistical analysis, the media exposure measures did not appear to have substantial connections to internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized figures). Total TV exposure and dramatization exposure appeared to have considerable connections to internalization of the thin suitable however their effect appeared to be eclipsed by various other aspects. This outcome contributes to the concerns about the importance of total TV exposure vs. exposure to certain categories, and their association with girls' approval of slimness (projected idealized figures) as a social and cultural worth. Nonetheless, the absence of proof of a connection in between genre-based exposure and some thin-ideal truth shows needs to be seen thoroughly due to the manipulated nature of the exposure measures. The absence of a regular circulation for those seeing measures makes it tough to make conclusions about their relations with internalization of the thin suitable. Although general media exposure was not connected, a media connection appeared. Up contrast with media figures was the toughest media aspect connected to internalization of the thin perfect and its contribution to the model was equivalent to self-confidence. Nevertheless, generally talking, peer mindset towards slimness was the main aspect connected with internalization of the thin suitable.

This observation recommends the resonance could play a fundamental part in forming the mindsets that are associated with
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Management Distributed Order Management Systems

Words: 4856 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12855735

AMR Research (2005) believes that companies must begin developing and redeploying current order management architectures with the focus on delivering more flexibility rather than a strategy that delivers far less. The move toward customer-driven fulfillment processes requires the ability to build and adapt channel-specific, product-specific, and customer-specific order flows quickly without an army of developers creating custom code.

However, the days of big bang, rip-and-replace implementations are over, and any significant it project must have two key attributes: the ability to use existing investments in data and business logic and the ability to be deployed iteratively. Both of these require thinking about the order management applications in terms of architectures, rather than a laundry list of features and functions. The users that are good candidates for the various types of Distributed Order Management (DOM) applications that are defined in this analysis should place significant emphasis on the architecture support across the following four key levels which are graphically presented in Figure 3, Distributed Order Management Hierarchical Model as defined by AMR Research (2003). Data Services anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents. This model is very useful…… [Read More]


AMR Research (2006) - What is Demand Visibility? AMR Research Report. Published March 14, 2006. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere and Roddy Martin.

AMR Research (2005) - the Handbook of Becoming Demand Driven. AMR Research Report. July 15, 2005. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere, Roddy Martin, Debra Hofman.

AMR Research (2003) - Configuration is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. AMR Research Report. Monday March 31, 2003. Retrieved from the Internet on May 3rd, 2006 at http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/ConfigurationIstheHeartofCustomerFulfillmentforComplexProductManufacturers.pdf

Askegar and Columbus (2002) - Channel Management Best Practices: It's All About Orders. AMR Research Report. Monday September 9, 2002. Retrieved from the Internet on May 7, 2006:
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Statistical Relationships in the General

Words: 1825 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86355510

Figure 6 represents the cross-tabulation of religious service attendance with x-rated movie viewing. In this analysis, it is interesting to observe that weekly church attendance may "inoculate" respondents against watching an x-rated movie, but that no other level of religious involvement has a particular influence on porn consumption. Of the respondents who have seen an x-rated motive in the past year, their religious service attendance patterns follow the same trend as respondents who claim not to have seen an x-rated movie in the past year, with the glaring exception of those who report weekly attendance. This seems to be another case of regression to the mean, in which a socially normative response (weekly church or temple attendance) overwhelms useful data and obscures a potentially interesting correlation.

Appendix: Figures and Tables

Figure 1. Frequency histogram of religious service attendance.

Table 1. Proportion of missing data in routine and controversial questions.



% Missing from sample




Marital status






Law against porn?



Death penalty?



Your health



X-rated movie



Figure 2. Histogram of biblical literalist beliefs.

Figure 3. Histogram of party identification

Figure 4. Histogram of belief…… [Read More]

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Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty of

Words: 7443 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80641661

The results of the data analysis are presented below in both tabular, graphic and narrative analyses formats.


Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable without being valid, but cannot be valid without being reliable. To develop a model by which validity issues could be assessed we used the validation model developed by Chandler and Lyon (2001) in which there are several approaches for establishing construct validity, including (a) content validity, (b) the substantive component of construct validity, - the structural component of construct validity, and (d) external validity.


Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of a score from a measurement scale (Chandler and Lyon, 2001). For the purposes of this study, reliability was gauged using the responses from the like categories of the online survey.

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Background and Overview.

In order to successfully compete in the unending race for a customer's business, in an economic manner, an organization and its management must develop a competitive edge; such a competitive edge may come in the form of understanding how a company's customers value a given quality dimension (relative to the…… [Read More]


Chandler, Gaylen N. And Douglas W. Lyon. (2001). "Issues of Research Design and Construct Measurement in Entrepreneurship Research: The Past Decade." Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 25(4), 101.

Crockett, Kate. (2004, August 31). "Globetrotting for Less; Whether it's Visiting Friends at Other Universities, Catching Up with Family or Backpacking across Australia There Are Plenty of Discounts and Offers Available to the Discerning Student." The Evening Standard, 12.

Crosby, Leon B., Raffaele Devito and J. Michael Pearson. (2003). "Manage Your Customers' Perception of Quality." Review of Business, 24(1), 18

Doganis, Rigas. Airline Business in the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge, 2001.
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Job Outing This Research Was Done to

Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83068714

Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first figure to investigate is the average or mean job satisfaction score for the entire group which was 34.15 out of 50. The standard deviation from the score is 7.516 which is rather high signifying a potential weakness in this analysis. The median score is 34 which helps strengthen the mean's…… [Read More]


Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html
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Same Sex Marriage

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76327961

Same Sex Marriage


Gender Gap




The study conducted is a research on the topic of "Same Sex Marriages." The study aims to identify the key variables in the context of same sex marriages. The research will find out that the variables that are leading to different opinions on this topic. There are three hypotheses in the research will be proved through the data collected and analyzed.

The issue of same sex marriage has emerged in the past few decades and has different perspectives which have resulted in a number of changes in the legislations and changes in the marriage laws. These changes have varied from country to country and state to state. The same sex marriage is a matter of civil rights, social rights, moral rights, equality, and human rights. There have been numerous debates on the issue of same sex marriage and the opinions are divided. 11 countries have legalized same sex marriage nationwide. In many other countries it has been legalized in some states like USA and Brazil while in Australia it is legalized if one of the two partners has gone through a gender reassignment therapy.

Marriage is often defined as a legal…… [Read More]


Abraham, J. (2010) Public Relations: Why the Rush to Same-Sex Marriage? And Who Stands to Benefit? The Women's Review of Books, 17 (8): 12 -- 14.

Adam, K. (2009) "Survey -- Generations at Odds: The Millennial Generation and the Future of Gay and Lesbian Rights." Public Religion Research Institute.

Hasin, D. (2010) "Lesbian, gay, bisexual individuals risk psychiatric disorders from discriminatory policies." Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

Harry, K. (2010) Data Points: Support for Legal Same-Sex Marriage. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 70, 200-225
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Crosstabs and Chi Square

Words: 2015 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36211236

Chi-Square, T-Test and Correlation

Research Methods in Psychology a (HPS201/HPS771)

Crosstabs and Chi-Square


Some researchers have suggested that there are two main types of personality: Type A and Type B. Individuals with Type A personality are characterized as being conscientious and competitive. They strongly desire success and typically present with higher levels of stress. Conversely, individuals with Type B personality are typically less stressed and tend to be more laconic, relaxed and less concerned with competition.

Due to the higher levels of stress experienced by those with Type A personality, health insurance risk evaluators are interested in knowing whether individuals with Type A personality are at greater risk of having a heart attack.

You are hired as a researcher to investigate this research question. You take a random sample of 40 individuals aged between 40 and 60 years and assess their personality to determine whether they possess a Type A or Type B personality. You then ask them whether they have experienced a heart attack before (yes/no). You then run a Chi-Square test of independence to determine whether there is a relationship between Personality Type (A or B) and Heart Attack incidence (Yes or No) and obtain the following…… [Read More]


Emory.edu. (n.d.). One-Sample t-Test. Retrieved from emory.edu:  http://psychology.emory.edu/clinical/bliwise/Tutorials/TOM/meanstests/tone.htm 

MacLeod, S. (2011). Type A Personality. Retrieved from Simplypsychology.org: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html
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Regression vs Correlation Correlation Is Used to

Words: 1038 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12052463

Regression vs. correlation?

Correlation is used to test whether two variables covary, the strength of the relationship, and the direction of the association. A correlation calculation will generate a P-value and a correlation coefficient (r). By comparison, regression will generate the slope and intercept for a best-fit line that can be used to predict unknown values for the dependent variable.

What percentage of depression is not associated with Facebook usage?

The coefficient of determination (r2) is 0.661, which means that 66.1% of the variance in depression is due to the amount of time spent on Facebook; therefore, 33.9% of the variation in depression cannot be explained by time spent on Facebook.

Q3: Variables that could be contributing to the variance not explained by time spent on Facebook?

The unexplained variance in depression scores is the amount of error between measured levels of depression for a study subject and what was predicted by the regression line. This error is due to other variables, possibly naturally-occurring variation. Natural variation in depression could be explained in part by genetic differences or environmental factors like early life experiences (Klengel & Binder, 2013). The amount of variation explained by genetic factors is represented by the…… [Read More]


Klengel, T. & Binder E.B. (2013). Gene-environment interactions in major depressive disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(2), 76-83.
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Best Sports Coaching Style

Words: 2837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65576702

Autonomy-Supportive Coaching

Autonomy-Supporting Coaching

Not unlike the world of business, many researchers and pundits have evaluated and looked at the world of sports as a way to analyze whether and how certain coaching styles are beneficial or non-beneficial in terms of the performance and outcomes of the team in question. Of course, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a controlled environment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" comparisons can be difficult. Even so, there are many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undertaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the supportive-autonomy coaching arc as opposed to other methods.

Autonomy-Supportive Coaching

The subject of this report is an analysis of whether autonomy-supportive coaching is or is not beneficial and effective in boosting performance of the athletes subjected to the method. Not unlike business and other similar situations, it will be assessed whether the leader of the team, typically the coach, can instill and improve performance by using the autonomy-supportive method. Obviously, team dynamics with a spots team are different than a business environment. Even further down the proverbial rabbit hole…… [Read More]

references for male and female coaches. Women in Sport and Activity Journal,

21(2), 6

Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Pro-social and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(4), 527

Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., and Espnes, G.A. (2004). Physical self-concept and sports: Do gender differences still exist?. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum

Publishers, 50(1-2), 119-127
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Codes Were Labeled Thus for

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45828525

e. those discounting repetitive). In this case, 8 such digits.

Confidence level: The amount of confidence that I have about this data- that it closely approximates actual sample is quite high (95.9%)

3. The age range of 45-54 had the highest amount of women (54%) using the low-cholesterol diet followed by 55 and over (49%), then 35-44 age range (46%) least in the 1-24 age range (29%). It seems that preference for this diet peaks amongst females in the late middle years. With men, there is a slightly different shift with the majority (35%) actually preferring this diet in their older years and regressing as they decrease in age, with a major shift occurring between the 13% in the age interval 16-24 and the 25% of the age interval 25-34. Of the difference between the sexes, women by far (54% at its peak) are more interested in the diet than men. As comparison between the ages, the diet seems most popular from 45 years onwards (43%); somewhat popular between the ages 25-34 and 35-44 (34% and 37% respectively) and least popular in the youngest age interval (21%). Apparently, its popularity increases with age. In short, I would market that specific…… [Read More]

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Redundancy Methodology the Impact on

Words: 1572 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5604263

The survey would be distributed to respondents through Survey Monkey and would focus on a number of areas of organizational orientation related directly to the identification and elimination of redundancies. Among the areas upon which the survey would focus would the nature and causes of organizational redundancy; perceptions of the downsizing which has occurred in response to redundancy; a sense of organizational justice as this pertains to treatment of both the departed and survivors; the experiences pertaining to Survivors' Syndrome as this may or may not be present; the commonality of stress amongst survivors following downsizing; the degree to which those left behind report to feeling a sense of personal commitment to the organization; any feelings of citizenship within the community comprised by the organization; the impact of guilt felt over the departure of friends and co-workers; and the health consequences pertaining to sustained stress produced by changes in the organization.

These subjects represent individual hypotheses relating to the expected impact on personnel of redundancy-based downsizing. Responses would be used to measure the degree to which each of these individual hypotheses contributes to the overarching assumption that redundancy-based downsizing surrenders certain Human Resource imperatives in favor of purely financial efficiency.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Miranda, R. & Lerner, A. (1995). Bureaucracy, Organizational Redundancy and the Privatization of Public Services. Public Administration Review, 55.

Streeter, C.L. (1992). Redundancy in Organizational Systems. Social Service Review, 66(1), 97-111.
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EMV in Iranian Banks EMV

Words: 3023 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37609481

This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.

3.5 Data Collection

The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample pool will consist of all Iranian banks, it is not expected that this data collection method will create sample bias in the study population.

The distances that need to be traveled and time constraints might have an affect in the sample pool for the face-to-face interview portion of the study.…… [Read More]


Hall, C. 2009. New study pinpoints risk issues for Hispanic business owners. Houston Business Journal. Friday, May 8, 2009.

"List of Banks in Iran." 2010. Available at:  http://openoffshorebankaccountsfornonresidents.com/ListofBanksinIran.htm . [accessed August 29, 2010].

Sumner, M. 2000. Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects Journal of Information Technology 15, 317 -- 327
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Global Economic Crisis on the

Words: 8527 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88136701

To an average individual within the United States however, the relevance is reduced, with importance only for gathering general knowledge on the country. The jurisdiction of the analysis expands as far as the data is available and does not constitute intrusion on matters of national secrecy.

2. Review of Literature

2.1 Research Tools

The primary tool to be used in the answering of the posed questions is that of conducting research. This tool is based on the analysis of the available information in order to find answers to the posed questions. Based on the sources used in conducting the research, the methodology can be categorized into four main areas:

Primary research -- meaning the analysis of primary information, or that coming directly from the players in the Nigerian business environment.

Secondary research -- or the analysis of information generated by secondary parties, mostly organized in international players that do not directly conduct operations in Nigeria, but which assess the environment's features. Such sources could include economists specialized in international affairs or international organizations assessing global trends, such as the Word Trade Organization or the International Monetary Fund.

Books and peer reviewed research -- this category of research operations is based…… [Read More]


Little, K.L., 1973, African Women in Towns: An Aspect of Africa's Social Revolution, CUP Archive, ISBN 052109819X

Mambula, C., 2002, Perceptions of SME Growth Constraints in Nigeria, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 40

Manby, B., 1999, the Role and Responsibility of Oil Multinationals in Nigeria, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 53

Soludo, C.C., 2009, Global Financial and Economic Crisis: How Vulnerable is Nigeria?, Central Bank of Nigeria, Retrieved from http://www.cenbank.org/OUT/SPEECHES/2009/GOVADD-21-1-09.PDF on June 9, 2009
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Market Research Final Assuming That

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47768565

This is where the fundamental disconnect is in the purchasing process and why despite the heavy investments in catalogs and games the company is still struggling. It is not reaching the most profitable customers on a consistent basis.

4. Using the appropriate t-test, determine if those who purchased from Gucci and those who did not (q11), are different in terms of a. Their evaluations of catalogs (q7_a - q7_f), b. Their perceptions of Gucci (q12_a - q12_d), and c. Their evaluations of the demonstration catalog (q13_a - q13_f)?

Interpret the results, provide marketing implications.

The result of completing the t-tests further supports the observation that catalogs are seen as informative, yet not useful enough based on top-of-mind awareness of respondents alone. Respondents varied significantly however in their evaluations of catalogs in general and the demonstration catalog provided by Gucci for the research project. According to the t-test completed comparing means of those that had purchased from Gucci catalogs by their overall evaluation of catalogs, respondents found them at to be informative yet not useful enough, and also having a higher price than other channels to purchase through (.936). Perceptions of Gucci based on those who purchased from the catalogs showed…… [Read More]

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Santa Clara County Research CC

Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37276780

(Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)

Walker & Staton also stress that all of the aspects of cultural competency that are understood, should be applied through systems that are sensitive to such needs.

As a quality of empathy, cultural sensitivity is not testable as content, but it can be an expectation of practice in the same sense that integrity or justice can be. The desirable posture for the social worker is one of cultural agnosticism -- not trusting in any particular cultural mold (the social worker's or the client's) to determine what is right, wrong, or ultimately meaningful (Sue, 1998). (Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)

As Green would likely attest the definitions of need, appropriate and empathetic are likely to be variant across individual situations and of course across cultures. The idea of teaching multiculturalism as an aspect of social work training then must be significantly sensitive to the idea that though certain things and actions can be expected by individuals and families of a particular culture, they should not be and the only assumptions made should be regarding how the broader society might react to or deal with a culturally diverse individual or family. (Galambos, 2003, p. 3)…… [Read More]


Galambos, C.M. (2003). Moving Cultural Diversity toward Cultural Competence in Health Care. Health and Social Work, 28(1), 3.

Green, J. (1999) Cultural Awareness in Human Services: A Multi-Ethnic Approach. 3rd Ed. Boston. MA: Allyn and Bacon.

National Association of Social Workers. (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence in social work practice. Washington, DC: Author. Synopsis available at http://www.socialworkers.org/sections/credentials/cultural_comp.asp

Nybell, L.M., & Gray, S.S. (2004). Race, Place, Space: Meanings of Cultural Competence in Three Child Welfare Agencies. Social Work, 49(1), 17.
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Satisfaction Trust and Commitment in

Words: 7853 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 285065

Research Aim

The purpose of this research is to investigate customer's loyalty throughout the dimensions of satisfaction, trust and commitment for mobile phone industry in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition, this research also provides practical knowledge which customers are dissimilar in satisfaction and look for different levels of relationship with mobile phones. To sum up briefly, it is completely useful for marketers to comprehend which paradigms affect customers to create good relationship with companies in order to sustain the customer's loyalty.

Research Objectives

These are research objectives which are needed to be accomplished in order to reach the above research aim which are stated as following:

To study the relationship marketing to the mobile phone industry in Thailand.

To study the customer satisfactions factor to the mobile phone.

To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and trust.

To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and commitment.

To identify the effect of trust and commitment over customer's loyalty.

Research Questions

From the research aim, there are research questions which are relevant to this research. The research questions are as following:

What are the main factor of customer's satisfaction in the area of trust and commitment to mobile phone?

How are…… [Read More]


Bailey, S. And D.E. Schultz. (2000). "Customer/Brand Loyalty in an Interactive Marketplace." Journal of Advertising Research, 40(3), p. 41.

Bruhn, M. (2003), Relationship marketing: management of customer relationships, Pearson Education, UK.

Chung, Sungmi and Mike Sherman. (2002). "Emerging Marketing: Companies Don't Need State-of-the-Art Tools, Huge Volumes of Customer Information, and Armies of Experts to Use Continuous-Relationship Marketing Effectively." The McKinsey Quarterly, p. 62.

Churchill, G.A. And Iacobucci, D. (2005), Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, 9th edition, Thomson, USA.
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Men Beating They Wives This

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79581785

The dependent variables in this study will be the scope of wife beating and the causal factors that contribute to it. Questions five through nine on the survey address these variables. In order to evaluate perceptions of scope, the author asks participants to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in the U.S. population. Four options are provided for how many men beat their wives in the aforementioned population: 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 and 1/500. The participant is asked to check one.

The causal factors for domestic violence listed in the survey (questions 6-9) are drug and alcohol use, mental or personality issues, and cultural differences. These factors emerged as the most influential in predicting the prevalence of domestic violence in the reviewed literature. The survey addresses cultural, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of relationships that were repeatedly shown to influence the scope of domestic violence (see literature review). The participants are asked to rate the influence of these four causal factors from very influential to not very influential. The hypothesis for the study is that regardless of student background (independent variable), drug and alcohol and mental personality issues (dependent variables) will be rated most influential in causing men to physically abuse their…… [Read More]

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Function of This Study Is

Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84974468

In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. Such a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling frame encompassing a complete listing of sampling units. Preferably, the sampling frame should consist of all the sampling units in the given population. However, in practice, such information is rarely available. For this reason, researchers usually use substitute lists that contains the same information but may not be comprehensive. In…… [Read More]

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Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart Foundation of the

Words: 5383 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45363162

Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart

Foundation of the Study

This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a single cent was offered to the family members of the deceased.

Wal-Mart has deep pockets and little regard for lawsuits. The Human Rights Watch (2011) said that Wal-Mart employs strategies that are illegal, patently violating employees' rights. Wal-Mart is alleged to purchase clothing and other cheap items from shops in…… [Read More]


Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved  http://www.nytimes.com/ 


Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056

Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
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Parent's Selection for Supplementary Tutoring Centre in

Words: 17068 Length: 63 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55989986

Parent's Selection for Supplementary Tutoring Centre in Hong Kong - Primary School Level

With reference to the above discussion, it can be apparently observed that the education industry in Hong Kong is quite expanded. However, the performance of students and educational growth in the country can be observed to be weakening which indicates that the education sector in Hong Kong requires to be facilitated significantly within a short-run period. This in turn signifies the importance of supplementary tutoring centres to render expanded assistance to the students from the primary level of schooling. In relation to this context, there are various factors which can be identified to have a substantial impact over the decisions taken by parents regarding the supplementary tutoring facility for their children.

Related to this certain fact various researches have been taken into consideration such as the study conducted by Davies (2004), Bray & Kwok (2003), and Blachford & Catchpole (2003) among others. However, most of these researches lack in presented an in-depth but comprehensive understanding of the current scenario in the field of supplementary tutoring in Hong Kong primary school level. Furthermore, it has often been observed that researchers tend to analyze the issue with reference to…… [Read More]

The schools should re-assess their curriculum in order to avoid the need of supplementary tutorial centres.

Strong disagree <1 2-3 4-5-6> Strongly agree

Source: (Francis & et. al., 2004)
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Social Anxiety

Words: 2290 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22385514

Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social anxiety, was tested on 89 college students and compared to the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and Eysenck's Introversion Scale (Eysenck. 1970; 1971) for validity. The psychometric properties of the scale, future directions for research, and practical applications of the scale are discussed.

The Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) consists of feelings of apprehension, worry, or nervousness concerning being placed in situations where one may interact with others or may be scrutinized by others (Weeks, Heimberg, Rodebaugh, & Norton, 2008). Nearly everyone experiences some degree of anxiety pertaining to specific social situations, but a social anxiety disorder is identified when this level of anxiety is extreme, unrealistic, and out of proportion to the…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: Author.

Anthony, M.M. (1997). Assessment and treatment of social phobia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 826 -- 834.

Brown, E.J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R.G., Juster, H.R., Brown, T.A., & Barlow, DH (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9, 21-27.

Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105
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Difficulties That Elderly People Encounter and Their

Words: 1028 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26561840

Difficulties that Elderly People Encounter and Their Life Satisfaction," which was published within the scholarly journal Social Behavior and Personality in 2008, social scientists Kasim Karatas and Veli Duyan analyze the level of life satisfaction experienced by elderly residents of the Ankara region of Turkey, while also exploring the various factors which may negatively influence one's life satisfaction. According to the authors, "the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of elderly people and the effects that difficulties they encounter in daily life have on their life satisfaction" (2008), with the dually overriding objectives of determining a causal relationship between life satisfaction and either sociodemographic characteristics or hardships experienced. Relying on the tried and true methodology of administering a detailed survey and questionnaire combination, in this case to a sample of 109 females and 76 males between the ages of 60 and 98 living in the Kocatepe Solidarity Center for Elderly People, Karatas and Duyan apply SPSS statistical analysis to determine the presence of meaningful correlations between the variables. The divergence between sociodemographic factors, which are largely defined by the research team as inherited traits such as susceptibility to disease, migration experience, income bracket, and urban vs.…… [Read More]

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Tourism and Hospitality

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81920937

Role of Conferences in the Strategic Development of the Hotel Industry

Case Study of Five Star Hotels in Jordan

Jordan has a rich cultural and archaeological patrimony. Many natural wonders and a particularly welcoming people make tourism a natural resource and vehicle for Jordan's economy.

Conversely, the Jordan tourism industry has demonstrated poor performance in past few years relative to the volatile political situation in the region.

Analyzing both the natural potential for success and the historical evidence for failure within Jordan's tourism industry through scientific research methodology may well provide viable alternatives to current widely held practices and beliefs.

This study will delve into the specific revenue producing areas of developing conferences in Jordan, how to conduct them, facility use and maximization, and the issues that surround successful delivery of this medium. This thesis will also provide data on the means of offering the world a safe, beautiful, and accommodating place to hold symposiums, summits, conferences, workshops, and conventions for business, economic, governmental, and even private use.

Challenges - The Core Issues

In order to compete in the tourism and hospitality arena, certain criteria must be met.

The facility must contain a suitably sized, comfortable, and reasonably adaptable conference…… [Read More]

Swan TW, 'Economic Growth and Capital Accumulation', Economic Record, 32, 1956.

Tourism Forecasting Council, Forecast, Commonwealth Department of Tourism, August 1994.

Wilcox DA, 'Lessons for Tourism Industries from the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles' A Report by Economics Research Associates to THC'94, 1994
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Consumer Internet Commerce a Rhetorical Approach

Words: 4073 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41216100

complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.

Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of making mistakes in the field can be substantial: A badly designed website can make all the difference not only for a single sale but for the entire future of a company. This dissertation examines the rhetoric if websites, arguing that creating a good website is possible for any business that…… [Read More]


VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)

Survey Questionnaire


1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
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Role in the Group Working With Other

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11882636

Role in the group

Working with other people can often present its own share of challenges. Thus, far in doing this social sciences research, I have indeed found this to be true. My previous experience working with this group has been an experience of growth and development, though not without its share of challenges. These challenges have only succeeded in making me stronger and more communicative with others. This paper represents a reflection on the latest experience I have had collaborating with the other members of my group and what I learned.

For this group, I participated in assisting with the questions used for the survey and the use of the spss program to construct the survey. The process was largely extremely satisfying for me, and as I gathered, for nearly all members of the group at large.

I felt that I was able to effectively motivate others. Whenever we were brainstorming questions for the survey, and I felt as though we were coming up with ideas that were generally very trite, I felt I was able to aptly inspire others to think more outside of the box. I felt I was able to offer suggestions and ideas that helped…… [Read More]


Friedman, K. (2010). Shut-up and Say Something. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing


Hiam, A. (2010). Business Innovation. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing