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SPSS Data Analysis
Does the number of average study hours per week during the semester accurately predict final exam grades?
Independent variable: average number of study hours per week.
Hours is continuous data because it can take on any value below 168 hours, which is the number of hours in a week. Even though the data is reported in integer form the 'hours' data is continuous.
Hours data is quantitative, since it can be summed, divided, and multiplied.
Hours data is ratio data because it has a natural zero point. For example, the range of hours that a student can theoretically study per week is between zero and 168 hours.
Hours is a predictor variable, because it is believed/assumed to influence the outcome of the study.
Dependent variable: Final exam score.
Final exam scores is a discrete variable as reported, although it could be a continuous variable with a value…… [Read More]
List the research question for the study. The researcher is interested in looking at whether or not an appraisal from a person's manager regarding their job performance affects the person's self-esteem as measures on a self-esteem appraisal survey (SEM). According to the vignette while the researcher has managers give either a positive rating or a negative rating; he/she has no pre-experimental hypotheses regarding of how these specific appraisals will affect self-esteem (other than appraisals may affect self-esteem) and therefore the directionality of positive or negative ratings does not appear to be important in terms of the hypothesis.
Ma = Mb (Here the researcher is interested in the change on a measure of self-esteem from pre-to post intervention). Note to Customer: I'm using M. To represent mean here; it would also be correct to use the variance of the groups).
H1: Ma ? Mb
Variables. The independent variable…… [Read More]
Over 250 respondents reported working 40 hours, with the next highest frequency being under 100.
Number of Siblings
The histogram for the number of siblings shows a negatively skewed data set, with more participants reporting fewer siblings. However, the range in this variable was quite high, ranging from 0 to 22 siblings. The mean response was 3.71 siblings, the median response was 3 siblings and the mode of the sample was 2, indicating that the most frequent response was 2 siblings. In this case the mode would likely be a good representation of this sample, as it represents the majority. The mean could also be used as a way of representing the number of participants who did have more than 2 participants, but outliers, such as the individuals reporting more than 15 siblings, heavily influence the mean. After the scale reaches approximately 10 siblings, very few individuals endorse responses higher,…… [Read More]
Overall, it appears that the relationships between these variables are somewhat similar between men and women, although there are slight differences, most keenly pointed out in the ANOVA results.
Age of espondent
Highest Year of School Completed
Total Family Income
Age of espondent
Highest Year of School Completed
Total Family Income
Age of espondent
Highest Year of School Completed
Total Family Income
Sig.…… [Read More]
Look at the variables that show the change in the percentage of schools meeting or exceeding state standards (mathch94, readch94, and scich94). Test the hypothesis that the true change in the percentage meeting state standards is 0. Write a short report to the mayor detailing your findings.
eading improved but not math and science.
Use Assignment 7c -- Tutorial
Problem 8 ?" Chapter 13:
Look at the changes between 1993 and 1994 in graduation rates (variables grad93 and grad94), ACT scores (variables act93 and pctact94). Does it look like the Chicago school system is improving? Which schools appear to be "outliers"?
Use Assignment 7d?"Tutorial
Problem 1 ?" Chapter 14:
Perform the appropriate analyses to test whether the average number of hours of daily television viewing (variable tvhours) is the same for men and women. Write a short summary of your results, including appropriate charts to illustrate…… [Read More]
Each problem below describes a different research question. For each problem, you will state the null and alternative hypotheses, determine which statistical test is appropriate to answer each question, run the analysis using SPSS and the accompanying data set from Blackboard, and then draw a conclusion based on the results of the analysis. Keep all of your SPSS output from running each analysis.
A researcher wishes to assess whether vitamin C is effective in the treatment of colds. To evaluate her hypothesis, she decides to conduct a 2-year experimental study. She obtains 30 volunteers from undergraduate classes to participate. She randomly assigns an equal number of students to three groups: placebo (group 1), low dose of vitamin C (group 2) and high dose of vitamin C (group 3). In the first and second years of the study, students in all three groups are monitored to assess the number…… [Read More]
1. What are the null and alternative hypotheses?
Null Hypothesis: Volume has no relation to defect rate (the slope is equal to 0).
Alternative Hypothesis: As volume increase, defect rate increases. (the slope is not equal to 0).
2. What is the population of interest? What is the sample?
All shifts at the plant in question make up the population of interest.
160 randomly selected shifts make up the sample.
3. On the basis of the output, what can you conclude about the null hypothesis?
The null hypothesis can be rejected. There is a significant linear regression between volume and defect rate and the slope is not equal to 0.
4. Can you reject the null hypothesis that the slope is 0?
Yes. The scatter plot shows a linear relationship and the regression coefficient is .740. The value of t is 13.846, indicating that the slope is…… [Read More]
2%, female 5.1%
CKEVE - male 13.9%, female 8.6%
HEEVE -- male .9%, female, .5%
H1: Females are more likely than males to have ever smoked a cigarette.
This hypothesis is not supported by the data. In this sample, 34.7% of those who had ever tried a cigarette were male, while 32.3% of those who had ever tried a cigarette were female.
H2: Males are more likely than females to have ever used cocaine.
This hypothesis is supported by the data. Of those who had ever tried cocaine, 13.9% were male and 8.6% were female.
For all of the drugs included in this survey, males made up a larger percentage than females in the group that reported having used each drug. Given that the sample has slightly more females than males overall, this finding emphasizes that men are more likely than women to have tried a wide range…… [Read More]
Crosstabs would be used to test this association. There is a significant correlation between the education of a mother and a daughter (r = .474, p < .01).
e. Does Belief in Life After Death impact one's happiness in their marriage?
Belief in life after death would be the Independent Variable and Happiness in one's marriage would be the Dependent Variable. Crosstabs would be used to test this association. 83.8% of people who report being very happy in their marriage believe in life after death. 66.7% of people who report being not very happy with their marriage believe in life after death.
a. How many people without a high school diploma find life exciting?
b. What percentage of people without a high school diploma find life exciting?
c. Of the people who find life exciting, what percentage do not have a high school diploma?
d.…… [Read More]
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)]
a. Not corrected for ties.
b. Grouping Variable: fuel additives (per m)
With the two P. values being so far apart, as well as the variance of the two groups being of significant value, around 2 whole values, it is clear that there is a significant difference to be noted between the two sample groups. Through the analysis of both the variance and the computations worked out through the Mann-Whitney test, it is clear that Sample B. has a higher rate of miles per gallon than the vehicles tested in Sample a. Here, the significant difference can then be interpreted that the fuel additive used within the context of Sample B. is more effective in…… [Read More]
244, p = .000. Men had an average rank of 852.94 hours, while women had an average rang of 632.24 hours, indicating that on average, women worked fewer hours than men, in this sample.
4. Using a nonparametric test to see whether current salaries (variable salnow) for clerical employees differ for the four gender/race groups (variable sex/race). Compare your results from those from a parametric analysis. Summarize the conclusion.
A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to evaluate whether current salaries for clerical employees are equal between four groups: white males, minority males, white females and minority females. The results of the test indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another, X2 (3, 474) = 175.068, p = .000. The rank output indicates that white males had the highest average salary, followed by minority males, white females and finally minority females.
A one-way anova was conducted to examine the same…… [Read More]
SPSS Output Interpretation
SPSS Output Intrpretation
SPSS Output Summary-Use the study information and SPSS output file provided to answer the questions listed.
Study Description: • Participants were assigned to a control group or a training group. The training group received 1 hour of training every day for one week. During the training, participants learned various techniques for decreasing their stress levels. All participants were given a life stress test to determine their current level of life stress. Scores on the test were labeled as either high or low. After a week, all participants were given a puzzle to put together in a stressful environment (e.g., loud noises, bright lights, etc.). The amount of the puzzle completed in the time frame of 5 minutes was measured according to the number of pieces completed (there were 10 pieces to the puzzle). It was expected that the training group would have different scores…… [Read More]
How did you treat missing or oddly coded data, and outliers?
The SPSS function for Missing Data was used to identify any outliers or oddly coded data. The percent of missing data is high at 47.2% or 1063 potential responses to the question. The number of extremes or outliers in the high range is 220. Because the numbers are high, it would be useful to look at the raw data to determine how these answers were coded. This question is an interesting one and the pattern of responses suggests that additional analysis with this variable could reveal relationships with other factors.
What did you visually observe about your variables?
esponses to some of the questions are clustered for a number of the survey respondents. That is to say that there appear to be some respondents in the sample who are very active users of their cell phones and other…… [Read More]
statistical test (SPSS Output) is effective as far as it goes in this particular case, but the results are not as clear as what they could be. A number of variables were used to generate results that on the surface were easily defined but a more analytical approach shows that the results could be much more comprehensive. The variables included three groups; low, medium and high scores depending on the respondent's answers to 10 questions. Additional variables included the gender of the respondent as well as the number of respondents in each category. Other variables could include the questions themselves and how the questions were written. Since there were only ten total questions, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire are two unspoken variables that should have been addressed.
SPSS serves a primary purpose of measuring the output from the respondents question, but since they questions were seeking qualitative responses,…… [Read More]
The study chooses the Age Category as the categorical variable and Lived Poverty Index as the metric variable. The study uses P software Version 21 for the analysis and presents the frequency distributions for the two variables. The visual P output of both the Age Category and Lived Poverty Index are as follows:
[Dataet1] C:UsersDELL 3521DownloadsAfrobarometer__student_8210_.sav
51 and above
The paper uses the frequency distribution to summary the age category in a manageable form. The frequency distribution reveals that the age groups are between 18 and over 51 years. The number of participants between 15 and 35 years of age are 27,888, which are 54.1% of the participants. However, participants between 36 and 50 years of age are 13,868(26.9%). The sample population who are 51 years and above…… [Read More]
GPA is interval level data one can report all measures of central tendency and dispersion (Creswell, 2012). In the original data case 38 had a GPA reported as 9.00. This value is of course impossible and since there were no missing values defined in the data set this case was treated as missing data. If used as reported it would have resulted in a much larger standard deviation and slightly larger mean for the calculations. The mean GPA of the sample was 3.2941. The median GPA was 3.2750 with a mode of 4.00. The standard deviation was .50644 (with the miscoded value the standard deviation would be .82215). The range for GPA in the sample was 2.00 with a minimum value of 2.00 and a maximum value of 4.00 (including the miscoded value would inflate the range to seven).
The syntax and output files for the analysis follows are presented…… [Read More]
Run a linear regression of time spent studying (Study; independent) predicting time spent watching TV (TV; dependent). Copy and paste your output and answer the following questions.
How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend studying per week (in hours)?
How much time do you spend watching TV per week (in hours)?
How much time do…… [Read More]
Correlation & Regression
A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.
In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.
Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score
Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points
The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no…… [Read More]
It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).
In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or…… [Read More]
Sources of data
*Two literature searches were conducted in order to generate conditions of nurse satisfaction. One search centered on variables of work satisfaction described in relevant job satisfaction theories. The other search probed applicable reviews and meta-analysis for factors of job satisfaction relevant to the nurse profession.
The literature, in the first case, was plumbed for studies that provided theoretical insight into the concept of job satisfaction. Terms such as 'job satisfaction' and 'theory' were used to aid the research.
In the second case, research was conducted by using terms such as 'nursing', 'job satisfaction' and 'factors'. The resulting Meta analyses and literature reviews were thoroughly analyzed and only those relevant to the intent of the study retained. They had to, in other words, be congruent to the nursing profession and related to satisfaction that the employee gained from his or her job.
'Nurse satisfaction' as a result was,…… [Read More]
They hypothesis is rejected. The Chi-Square was significant X2 (1, 84) = 4.403, p < .05. The proportion of females alive at discharge was much greater than the proportion of males alive at discharge. This can be seen in the barchart below.
alive discharge * gender Crosstabulation
male female alive discharge no
4) Correlation & egression
Variables: Hours in Operating oom & Number of Preop isk Factors
Hypothesis: The population correlation coefficient is equal to 0.
The hypothesis fails to be rejected. The correlation coefficient is not significant (p. = .694).
The value of . was .043 and the . Squared value was .002, which, had the model been significant, would have indicated that the number of…… [Read More]
Posting/Due date: 5:00pm Monday
You need to complete the following request set by a fictitious professor (any similarity with persons living or dead is entirely deliberate). You can find the dataset on the course website in the Course Content section. You need to provide the Description, Method and Results paragraphs. It should be written in a style that is consistent with the other paragraphs, i.e. To academic journal level.
I've been struck down by a debilitating illness that has rendered me unable to work or dispense statistical advice. Unfortunately, the evaluation of the targeted policing project is due shortly and I need you to write up some sections. This was the evaluation we were commissioned by QPS into their experimental patrolling strategy. They identified a number of police beats in which they tested a new style of patrolling. Our task was to tell them whether recorded…… [Read More]
colloquially individuals may think that some people are smarter than others, the more scientific term for the concept of being smart is intelligence. The notion of measuring a person's intelligence was first pursued in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet (Kamin, 1995). The French government was looking for a way in which to help predict which students would have the most difficulty in school (Kamin, 1995), so they hired Alfred Binet, who was a psychologist, to develop a test. Binet developed the first intelligence test, a version of which is still used today (Kamin, 1995). Intelligence testing really took off during World War I, when the U.S. army wanted a way to screen a high number of army recruits. This lead to the development of new forms of intelligence tests in order to determine which army recruits were of a higher intelligence and would be successfully in leadership roles (McGuire,…… [Read More]
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…… [Read More]
Figure 6 represents the cross-tabulation of religious service attendance with x-rated movie viewing. In this analysis, it is interesting to observe that weekly church attendance may "inoculate" respondents against watching an x-rated movie, but that no other level of religious involvement has a particular influence on porn consumption. Of the respondents who have seen an x-rated motive in the past year, their religious service attendance patterns follow the same trend as respondents who claim not to have seen an x-rated movie in the past year, with the glaring exception of those who report weekly attendance. This seems to be another case of regression to the mean, in which a socially normative response (weekly church or temple attendance) overwhelms useful data and obscures a potentially interesting correlation.
Appendix: Figures and Tables
Figure 1. Frequency histogram of religious service attendance.
Table 1. Proportion of missing data in routine and controversial questions.
Question…… [Read More]
Differences in opinions between various study groups are expected to become apparent. These differences will help to determine the amount of bias present in opinions regarding housing discrimination among non-Irish nationals. Interpretation of these hypotheses will depend on the consistencies in opinion found between various groups.
The hypotheses will help to determine if the opinions of various groups in Dublin are biased. However, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts being examined, the following research questions will also be explored, in addition to the hypotheses. These research questions will be addressed through specific sets of survey questions.
1. Are there differences in opinion regarding the quality of housing between Irish and non-Irish nationals living in Dublin?
2. Are non-Irish nationals well educated, at least as much as the Irish national population in Ireland?
3. Do non-Irish nationals deserve to become home owners, as much as…… [Read More]
However, when the researcher is interested in giving a highlight of how the response patterns vary across the subgroups, then the scores can be treated as discrete choices thus allowing them to be ordinal values Miller & Salkind, 2002.
In this case the intervals between the positions on the scale are monotonic but not well defined to make them numerically uniform increments thus making the likert scale have ordinal properties Oppenheim, 2000()
Identification and evaluation of the type of scale
a. This is a category scale since it has more than two response categories in order to minimize errors but still providing more information when the categories are ordered based on the particular descriptive or evaluative dimension.
b. This is a numerical scale since it has two bipolar adjectives at the beginning and the end of the scale with five response positions.
c. This is a likert scale since it…… [Read More]
This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.
u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction
u1 > u0
Null: H0: u1 / u0
Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.
Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.
The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.
The first…… [Read More]
Chi-Square, T-Test and Correlation
esearch Methods in Psychology a (HPS201/HPS771)
Crosstabs and Chi-Square
Some researchers have suggested that there are two main types of personality: Type A and Type B. Individuals with Type A personality are characterized as being conscientious and competitive. They strongly desire success and typically present with higher levels of stress. Conversely, individuals with Type B personality are typically less stressed and tend to be more laconic, relaxed and less concerned with competition.
Due to the higher levels of stress experienced by those with Type A personality, health insurance risk evaluators are interested in knowing whether individuals with Type A personality are at greater risk of having a heart attack.
You are hired as a researcher to investigate this research question. You take a random sample of 40 individuals aged between 40 and 60 years and assess their personality to determine whether they possess a Type…… [Read More]
egression vs. correlation?
Correlation is used to test whether two variables covary, the strength of the relationship, and the direction of the association. A correlation calculation will generate a P-value and a correlation coefficient (r). By comparison, regression will generate the slope and intercept for a best-fit line that can be used to predict unknown values for the dependent variable.
What percentage of depression is not associated with Facebook usage?
The coefficient of determination (r2) is 0.661, which means that 66.1% of the variance in depression is due to the amount of time spent on Facebook; therefore, 33.9% of the variation in depression cannot be explained by time spent on Facebook.
Q3: Variables that could be contributing to the variance not explained by time spent on Facebook?
The unexplained variance in depression scores is the amount of error between measured levels of depression for a study subject and what was…… [Read More]
Not unlike the wold of business, many eseaches and pundits have evaluated and looked at the wold of spots as a way to analyze whethe and how cetain coaching styles ae beneficial o non-beneficial in tems of the pefomance and outcomes of the team in question. Of couse, the question is a multi-faceted one and analyzing such a question in a contolled envionment can be difficult. Samples sizes and "apples to apples" compaisons can be difficult. Even so, thee ae many takeaways and points of analysis that can and should be undetaken so as to gauge the efficacy of a team if it is subjected to the suppotive-autonomy coaching ac as opposed to othe methods.
The subject of this epot is an analysis of whethe autonomy-suppotive coaching is o is not beneficial and effective in boosting pefomance of the athletes subjected to the method.…… [Read More]
e. those discounting repetitive). In this case, 8 such digits.
Confidence level: The amount of confidence that I have about this data- that it closely approximates actual sample is quite high (95.9%)
3. The age range of 45-54 had the highest amount of women (54%) using the low-cholesterol diet followed by 55 and over (49%), then 35-44 age range (46%) least in the 1-24 age range (29%). It seems that preference for this diet peaks amongst females in the late middle years. With men, there is a slightly different shift with the majority (35%) actually preferring this diet in their older years and regressing as they decrease in age, with a major shift occurring between the 13% in the age interval 16-24 and the 25% of the age interval 25-34. Of the difference between the sexes, women by far (54% at its peak) are more interested in the diet than…… [Read More]
This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.
3.5 Data Collection
The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample…… [Read More]
(Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)
Walker & Staton also stress that all of the aspects of cultural competency that are understood, should be applied through systems that are sensitive to such needs.
As a quality of empathy, cultural sensitivity is not testable as content, but it can be an expectation of practice in the same sense that integrity or justice can be. The desirable posture for the social worker is one of cultural agnosticism -- not trusting in any particular cultural mold (the social worker's or the client's) to determine what is right, wrong, or ultimately meaningful (Sue, 1998). (Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)
As Green would likely attest the definitions of need, appropriate and empathetic are likely to be variant across individual situations and of course across cultures. The idea of teaching multiculturalism as an aspect of social work training then must be significantly sensitive to the…… [Read More]
The purpose of this research is to investigate customer's loyalty throughout the dimensions of satisfaction, trust and commitment for mobile phone industry in Bangkok, Thailand. In addition, this research also provides practical knowledge which customers are dissimilar in satisfaction and look for different levels of relationship with mobile phones. To sum up briefly, it is completely useful for marketers to comprehend which paradigms affect customers to create good relationship with companies in order to sustain the customer's loyalty.
These are research objectives which are needed to be accomplished in order to reach the above research aim which are stated as following:
To study the relationship marketing to the mobile phone industry in Thailand.
To study the customer satisfactions factor to the mobile phone.
To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and trust.
To identify the relationship between various component satisfaction and commitment.
To identify the…… [Read More]
The dependent variables in this study will be the scope of wife beating and the causal factors that contribute to it. Questions five through nine on the survey address these variables. In order to evaluate perceptions of scope, the author asks participants to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in the U.S. population. Four options are provided for how many men beat their wives in the aforementioned population: 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 and 1/500. The participant is asked to check one.
The causal factors for domestic violence listed in the survey (questions 6-9) are drug and alcohol use, mental or personality issues, and cultural differences. These factors emerged as the most influential in predicting the prevalence of domestic violence in the reviewed literature. The survey addresses cultural, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of relationships that were repeatedly shown to influence the scope of domestic violence (see literature review). The participants are asked…… [Read More]
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]
Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…… [Read More]
Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia
Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social anxiety, was tested on 89 college students and compared to the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and Eysenck's Introversion Scale (Eysenck. 1970; 1971) for validity. The psychometric properties of the scale, future directions for research, and practical applications of the scale are discussed.
The Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia
Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) consists of feelings of apprehension, worry, or nervousness concerning being placed in situations where…… [Read More]
Difficulties that Elderly People Encounter and Their Life Satisfaction," which was published within the scholarly journal Social Behavior and Personality in 2008, social scientists Kasim Karatas and Veli Duyan analyze the level of life satisfaction experienced by elderly residents of the Ankara region of Turkey, while also exploring the various factors which may negatively influence one's life satisfaction. According to the authors, "the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of elderly people and the effects that difficulties they encounter in daily life have on their life satisfaction" (2008), with the dually overriding objectives of determining a causal relationship between life satisfaction and either sociodemographic characteristics or hardships experienced. Relying on the tried and true methodology of administering a detailed survey and questionnaire combination, in this case to a sample of 109 females and 76 males between the ages of 60 and 98 living in the Kocatepe…… [Read More]
Role of Conferences in the trategic Development of the Hotel Industry
Case tudy of Five tar Hotels in Jordan
Jordan has a rich cultural and archaeological patrimony. Many natural wonders and a particularly welcoming people make tourism a natural resource and vehicle for Jordan's economy.
Conversely, the Jordan tourism industry has demonstrated poor performance in past few years relative to the volatile political situation in the region.
Analyzing both the natural potential for success and the historical evidence for failure within Jordan's tourism industry through scientific research methodology may well provide viable alternatives to current widely held practices and beliefs.
This study will delve into the specific revenue producing areas of developing conferences in Jordan, how to conduct them, facility use and maximization, and the issues that surround successful delivery of this medium. This thesis will also provide data on the means of offering the world a safe, beautiful, and…… [Read More]
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…… [Read More]
ole in the group
Working with other people can often present its own share of challenges. Thus, far in doing this social sciences research, I have indeed found this to be true. My previous experience working with this group has been an experience of growth and development, though not without its share of challenges. These challenges have only succeeded in making me stronger and more communicative with others. This paper represents a reflection on the latest experience I have had collaborating with the other members of my group and what I learned.
For this group, I participated in assisting with the questions used for the survey and the use of the spss program to construct the survey. The process was largely extremely satisfying for me, and as I gathered, for nearly all members of the group at large.
I felt that I was able to effectively motivate others. Whenever we…… [Read More]
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…… [Read More]
web-based surveys and their usefulness in reducing the cost of business research. The writer explores several aspects of web-based surveys including performance and comparison to traditional type surveys. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
There are many reasons that people gather information today. ealth professionals gather information to help determine health trends, needs and problems. Marketing professionals gather information so that the consumer can be better served. Churches gather information to better provide for the spiritual needs of the public. Law enforcement officials gather information to ascertain crime trends as well as other information that is useful for predictions and budgeting needs. Different sized governments gather information for the purpose of providing public services to those who live within their geographic area as well as estimations and predictions about the future of the area. There are many reasons to gather information and there are very few instances…… [Read More]
National corporations own many chains, even though several others are independently owned but affiliated with a chain through a franchise agreement.
Types of Hotels
The U.S. Department of Labour (2004) denotes five basic types of hotels:
Commercial - These hotels operate year round and are primarily located in cities or suburban places. The larger properties offer an assortment of services for their guests, such as coffee shops, restaurants, cocktail lounges, gift shops, newsstands, theatre, health spas, swimming pools, etc.. Even larger hotels offer banquet rooms, ballrooms to accommodate wedding receptions; business meetings. Convention and business meetings provide major sources of revenue for larger hotels
esort - These hotels are primarily located in vacation destinations near mountains, the seashore, or other attractions. Nowadays, some resorts provide additional convention and conference facilities to stimulate their customers to combine business with pleasure. (U.S. Department of Labour, 2004)
esidential - These establishments provide a…… [Read More]
Workers With in Small Firms
Chapter I outlines the problems this research aims to address, namely an information gap that may, if filled, enhance employment for potential and existing workers with disabilities. This chapter defines the problem background, purpose of research, theoretical framework through which conclusions will be drawn from survey data gathered in the field, the research questions the survey instrument seeks to answer, the definition of terms those questions employ and limits and delimitations of the intended research. Once those parameters are outlined, the claim this argument attempts to support, that closing a gap in information describing satisfaction and productivity for workers with disability in small firms below conventional definitions of 500 workers or less may improve employment for a historically marginalized population, leads to conclusions that thus inform the subsequent methodological and analytical chapters.
Problem Background: The Uncashed 'Triple Paycheck'
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities…… [Read More]
Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan: Human Trafficking
For a study into human trafficking and how many people end up being trafficked every year, quantitative measurement is necessary. Qualitative methods could be used, but they would be better suited toward providing insight into the feelings of those who were trafficked, as opposed to the prevalence of the trafficking problem itself (Creswell, 2003; Given, 2008). Since there are several options and ways this issue can be measured, it is important to decide not only what type of measuring instrument will be used but the level of measurement that is really important for the study (Bales, 2004).
Human trafficking can be very difficult to measure, based on the secretive nature of much of it and the unwillingness of traffickers (and many victims) to talk about the issue (Bales, 2004; Berger, 2012). However, that does not mean there is no way…… [Read More]
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Describe ways in which MS Excel can be used by a manager of an organization as a tool for interpreting data
There are different ways in which a manager of an organization can employ MS Excel as a tool for data interpretation. One of the uses of MS Excel is collating, which encompasses collecting associated data items into a single item. The layout and formatting of the worksheet can enable the managers to perceive data sets in a structured and organized formation, which augments clarity of the data. The second benefit is processing. Excel cells can include functions, formulas as well as references to other excel cells, that permit one to glean information in prevailing data sets. Therefore, excel functions can facilitate the process of interpreting a data set in a manner that is suitable to the data itself and the system in position.…… [Read More]
With.573 correlation of Unibody directly influencing Body-on-Frame sales in the years sampled. Table 3 provides the results of the query made in SPSS Version 13.
Table 3: SPSS Correlation Coefficients
With the statistical analysis showing reasonably strong predictability, the next step is to evaluate the specific 14-month time series for greater insights into the variability and predictability of the data. What emerges from completing a Linear egression along with every exponential smoothing techniques for curve fitting is further evidence of linear (.702 regression) in addition to quadratic (.737 regression) shows that variations in Body-on-Frame demand are explained through these statistical techniques.
Table 4: Model Summary and Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable: BodyOnFrame
The…… [Read More]
The use of information technology has become a necessity in the developed corporate world that has been faced with a variety of developments that have been identified to make work easier for management in organizations. For the sake of better understanding of available information, managements require application of technologies such as software that can facilitate the processes that are involved in management. This paper seeks to discuss a development plan for the introduction of a new software technology in the management process of an organization. The paper will look into the business need for the technology, the initiative as well as other technologies that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the initiative.
Every organization that is considered to be progressive with an advantage of a going concern is characterized with a level of growth in its operations and capacity. Most business enterprises are realized…… [Read More]
Many inteesting questions elated to students ae categoical. Fo instance, thee is consideable inteest in the diffeent enollment pattens of male and female students in the following majos: Science, technology, engineeing, and mathematics (STEM). While the liteatue does povide obust data fo the numbes of students enolled in these majos, intiguing questions emain that may be bette suited to moe qualitative data collection. Fo instance, a eseach question is: What baies ae peceived by female students with egad to focusing on these majos, and do male students face simila baies? Categoical epesentation of pesumed baies could fom the basis fo a study using Chi-squae analysis to exploe the fequency of students who identify paticula baies to selecting STEM majos. Chi-squae analysis, o goodness of fit, elies on fequency data, which means that it has applicability fo nominal data ("SPSS Help Sheet," n.d.). The vaiables of gende and the…… [Read More]
The main feature of my viewpoint concerning the importance of being an IT manager that has been changed following the readings and interactions with others has been just how essential the IT manager position is to the success of companies of all types and sizes. An army may move on its stomach, but it is reasonable to suggest that many companies today move on their information technology resources. In this regard, Jia, eich and Pearson emphasize that, "The role of the IT function within the organization has expanded considerably in recent years, driven by changing expectations from business and the evolving technological environment" (2008, p. 294). Therefore, a responsive and well informed information technology manager can therefore contribute to the difference between success (and failure) of their enterprises in ways that have never been possible in the past (Desai, Hart & ichards, 2009). In fact, Jia and her associates (2008)…… [Read More]
SAS contains an excellent graphics package for producing graphics and visuals to enhance the display and reporting of statistical information. The focus of this study is to examine the graphics uses of the SAS system and to provide a description for each use of graphics with the SAS system and then to compare the SAS system with other graphics packages available in today's market. Toward this end, this work will conduct a review of literature in this area of study.
(1) What are the various types of graphics that can be performed using the SAS system?
(2) What are the applications of SAS graphics?
(3) How does SAS graphics differ from other graphics packages?
The work of Phil Spector reports that the SAS system was developed in the early 1970s decade at North Caroline State University and was intended originally for use by management and analysis of agricultural…… [Read More]
Health Care Improvements
The health care industry is one that is much criticized in the United States. Many consumers look at this industry as one big giant industry that is only concerned about profitability, not about the health and safety of its customers. The health care industry must make many changes to change their image and provide better service to its customers. Medicare is a government health care insurance that covers 80% of the medical cost for individuals over the age of 65 years. Medicare currently has a bad reputation with its customers and with doctors. It is important for Medicare to change its reputation and build better relationship with customers and with doctors. By changing their image, Medicare will attract more doctors to become participants and this will be a better service for the customers. In this paper I will address some important steps that Medicare could take to…… [Read More]
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…… [Read More]
tests (CTs) and scales vs. norm-eferenced
Criterion-referenced tests (CTs) are often the preferred method of assessing the performance of many practitioners in the healthcare and 'helping' professions such as nursing. An example of a criterion-based objective is that a student mastered 90% of the terms on a particular test (McDonald 2002). The NCLEX (National Council Licensure Examination) for nurses is an example of such a test: all nurses that pass the test can obtain licensure. The test is deemed to be both reliable and valid. "The reliability of the NCLEX examination is assessed via a decision consistency statistic. This statistic is used instead of a traditional reliability statistic such as Cronbach's alpha because it captures the reliability of dichotomous pass/fail decisions rather than the reliability of continuous scores or ability estimates" (eliability of NCLEX, 2013, NCSBN: 2).
In terms of the NCLE, the exam attempts to ensure content validity; face…… [Read More]
Thirty undergraduate students will be recruited to participate in this study. At least one student will represent each of the University academic departments. They will be recruited via Ashford University Facebook group. Most of the students are active Facebook users. So, a post inviting volunteers to participate in this study will be read by majority of the students. Each participant will be compensated because they are expected to attend two different sessions. The study will be carried out according to the ethical standards set by Ashford University.
All the participants will fill an informed consent form. The form will tell participants that they are participating in a study about temperament and creativity and their responses will not be used for any other purposes apart from this study.
Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and Formal Characteristics of Behavior - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) questionnaire will be administered…… [Read More]
Humans faces numerous challenges arising from majorly stress and conflicts in life that interferes with them in one way or the other. These daily predicaments cause one to be temperamental. Temperament is a state where an individual’s behavior and emotions show anger (Drabick and Ribanowitz, 2017). Such altered emotions and actions deprive one sense of focus, reasoning rationally and even having a decorum behavior. Researchers notes that temper is on the rise among children and adolescent individuals and as such it is becoming a major problem (Schimmel and Jacobs, 2011).Anger at time becomes chronic that one destroys things ,physical and verbal abuse ensues, unruly behavior and sometimes leads to suicide or homicide .For instance, Robin Williams, the famous Hollywood actor ,committed suicide out of depression.
In as much as there is considerable level of negative effect of anger, there is certain degree of anger that can…… [Read More]
Once this data is captured, the third objective of building an equilibrium-based model that conceptually defines the relationship of companies who chose to invest from a strategy standpoint over those that were functionally-driven and the differences in profitability as a result. This model will also be used as the basis of creating a four-step maturity model that will attempt to show how over time strategy-based implementations are more effective at creating collaboration within and between firms choosing this approach.
The most significant benefit of this study is determining what factors contribute to the success or failure of CM systems, taking into account implementation planning and strategies to mitigate resistance to change. The success or failure of CM system implementations is often with the area of change management and alignment of these systems to business strategies (Foss, Stone, Ekinci, 2008). The proposed research will show through an equilibrium model and…… [Read More]