Theater of the Opressed
History of Theatre of the Oppressed: Critique of the Community Theatre as a Means of Empowerment in Social Work: A Case Study of Women's Community Theatre
Similar to institutional and professional theatre, community theatre uses a combination of mime, ritual dance, song and drama as a means of communicating messages, knowledge and ideology to the audience (Mulenga, 1993). Nonetheless, community theatre does not purport traditional theatrical components and professional stage production. Rather, this kind of theatre reportedly takes inspiration from the community's life story (Erven, 2001; Mda, 1993; Miller, 1979). In this way, common communal issues are brought to the forefront bringing those who participate as actors or audience members into the "socio-political arena" (Boehm & Boehm, 2003).
In Boehm and Boehm's 1993 article, "Community Theatre as a Means of Empowerment in Social Work: A Case Study of Women's Community Theatre," the authors posit the general acceptance of empowerment as a social work construct (Guitierrez, 1994; Jackson & Morris, 1999; Rappaport, 1987; Rose, 2000; Solomon, 1976). Although many themes have been posited as to what empowerment entails, a widely accepted construct is the raising of consciousness and the development of critical thinking skills (Lee, 2001). Moreover, one of the reported goals of empowerment is to aid oppressed groups who have suffered systematic disenfranchisement and loss of power to develop a greater understanding and address the role of powerlessness in maintaining personal as well as societal problems (Itzhaky & Gerber, 1999).
Boehm and Boehm maintain that community theatre supports the principles of empowerment on many levels including personal, group and community (2003). As evidence of the posited theory, researchers conducted a case study of six women guided by a director and a social worker through the process of establishing and participating in community in Israel. According to the findings, participants were empowered by the process through the evolution of the development…… [Read More]
Dimly lit prison kitchen. It is after hours, and only a skeleton crew is on hand: RAY and ANGELA. They are inside the kitchen, but the spotlight is on TOM and GARY, who sit across from each other in the dining room just outside.
TOM: Inmate at Phoenix Prison Complex, serving a life sentence for murder.
GARY: Inmate at Phoenix Prison Complex, serving 15 years for assault and battery.
ANGELA: Kitchen worker, 30-year-old female
RAY: Corrections officer, 28-year-old male
Scene 1: Pizza Night
TOM: Tonight's the night.
TOM: Tonight. You remember what we talked about, right?
TOM: What do you mean, "right"? Well? What did I tell you?
GARY: We wait until 2AM.
TOM: Well what time is it, genius?
GARY (looking at a watch that doesn't exist, as his wrists are bare): I don't know.
TOM (exasperated): What time do you get off work?
GARY: What time did I get off work? Uh, today's Friday, right?
TOM: No, it's Saturday. (shouting) WHO CARES WHAT DAY OF THE WEEK IT IS?
GARY: Because sometimes I work until midnight and sometimes until
TOM: Gary, Gary, Gary, are you nervous? Are you going to fuck this up for us? Don't fuck this up, Gary! Don't screw me over Gary! Because if you screw me over
GARY: I ain't screwin' no one over, Tom. I just lost track of the time, I did. I don't know what day of the week it is. Oh wait!
TOM (looking around, thinking Gary saw someone or something): What? What is it?
GARY: We had pizza for dinner.
TOM: So? So what! What does that have to do with anything, you idiot?
GARY: Friday is pizza night. It's Friday.
TOM: No it ain't, it's Saturday. We don't always have pizza on Friday. I went to class today. I never go to class on Friday because I'm working the license plate factory on GARY: What is it? What is it, Tom?
TOM: I don't know what day it is either, you know.
GARY: You sure tonight's the night?
TOM: Sure, why not? We've got…… [Read More]
William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and Moliere, brought us so many masterpieces not only valuable as works of art, but also as very important sources of understanding the society in the Renaissance. More important, when reading or wathching these plays, we can understand today the universality of Man.
We are not allowed to forget the Asian theater which bears the stamp of the philosophical and religious ideas and beliefs of the times when it was created.
Up to the 20th century, theater continued to play an important role in every society around the world.
Stages and performers and costumes have constantly changed in theater during the ages, but its role in educating people hasn't. It is one of the best ways be make children understand the "surroundings" worldwide, the best way to entertain them, but also the best way to make the very young start asking questions about civilizations and cultures and history. Once started they will never stop wanting to find out more about the world they live in and about its roots.
That is why theater from the ancient Greeks to our days has and is palying a keyrole in education, everywhere in the world.… [Read More]
Theater in the Elizabethan Age
The Elizabethan period in England was dominated by intrigue at court (which was a constant) and the willpower of Elizabeth herself, but the various people formed a strata that looked more similar to today than most would guess. Throughout recent history, going back a thousand years or so, society is simplistically divided into three groups: wealthy, merchants/artisans, poor. These three can be further delineated, but for these purposes it is not necessary. During Elizabethan times, leisure became more common for the two lower classes and there was more for everybody to do that was meant for pleasure rather than work. Researchers into the period agree that the theater was a major source of entertainment for all of the different groups, but they do not agree how that was structured. This paper will look at the different classes of Elizabethan theater goers and try to determine how they were influenced both as a group and separately.
The theater crowd was greatly restricted in one way. Theaters were an oddity in small towns and villages; it just did not pay for troupes to travel to a small hamlet, or even a group of them, because they would probably not redeem the cost of their travel.[footnoteRef:1] This meant that the primary place of theatrical endeavor was London even though there were other cities that had some small houses. London was actually very well supplied with playwrights, actors and theaters, but these were often on the outskirts of the town because they were still considered something of a sinful indulgence at the time.[footnoteRef:2] One researcher says that "theaters were generally relegated to the "liberties" -- i.e. To the outskirts of London town, where they kept company with bear gardens, bowling greens, low taverns, and bawdy houses."[footnoteRef:3] For some reason leisure was considered both undignified and sinful. Since most of the people at the time were relatively Puritanical in their belief system, they did not want the theater to be incorporated into downtown London. The fact that it was…… [Read More]
theater order variety fortunate today. Because Shakespeare the Globe Theater great
It was quite an experience to watch Shakespeare's Globe Theater Production of Othello in 2007. There are quite a few elements of Shakespeare, and of dramatic works in general, that take on different connotations when they are acted out and presented to the public vs. simply being read. These connotations had both positive and negative effects for both of the media in which a play may be absorbed, either by watching it in person or by reading it. As such, they certainly contributed to a unique viewing of Othello.
One of the several aspects of a dramatic work that is enhanced by watching a play is humor. The laughter of the audience, indeed, the audience's very participation in the Globe Theater's 2007 production of Othello, helped to heighten the viewing experience. Whereas in reading a play one merely laughs at the humor in the monologues and dialogues presented within the work, in proper theater there is situation comedy in which there are no words spoken and plenty of opportunities for the audience to laugh. In such a manner was the audience in the Globe Theater's production of Othello an active participant in the play, as it helped to clue me in as a viewer as to when parts were funny or serious.
One of the drawbacks of watching this play -- in which the military leader Othello's happiness, in the form of his wife Desdemona and his coveted position as general in the Venetian army, is destroyed -- was the actual language, the old/middle English Shakespearean prose/poetry that makes for compelling reading, but which is not easily understood when it's rapidly spoken. In many parts, it was hard to understand what certain members of the cast were saying, particularly during parts of heightened emotion when the characters would yell at each other. The fact that they were shouting (and also…… [Read More]
Phantom of the Opera" -- Recent theater performance
What is all the fuss about? For many years, ever since this reviewer was a child, stories have been spun about the wonders of this tale, of Erik, the lonely and murderous phantom of the Paris Opera tunnels, who falls in love with a lovely orphaned ballet dancer and soprano, named Christine. He mentors her in her music through the mirror of her dressing room until she falls in love with a man named Raul. Erik, the phantom, tries to steal her away forever, but only after Christine takes the starring role in the opera he has been writing for the stage for many years. At the end of the play, he allows Christine to live her own life and leaves the theater.
Since this play has been running for so long, much of the cast's chorus is seasoned, and all of the current performers are replacements for the originals. Many of them appear to be singers by training rather than actors, as they tend to sing to the audience, rather than emotionally interact with one another. The only exception is the woman who plays Christine's rival,…… [Read More]
Most theatergoers are familiar with the poem by African-American writer Langston Hughes, which asks "What happens to a dream deferred?" One of the possibilities offered in Hughes's poem is "Does it dry up / like a raisin in the sun?" This gives the title to Lorraine Hansberry's legendary 1959 drama A Raisin in the Sun, about the attempts of an African-American family to purchase a house in a largely-white suburb. Bruce Norris's 2011 Pulitzer Prize winning play Clybourne Park is, in many ways, a contemporary rewrite of Hansberry's play -- but it seems to explore the possibility that Langston Hughes hinted at in the last line of his poem: "What happens to a dream deferred? / Does it explode?" Certainly Grant Mudge's production of Clybourne Park, now running at Notre Dame University, is an explosive event -- the fireworks fly onstage in the lively impassioned performances by the ensemble cast, and they continue in discussions held by audience members afterward.
Norris' play is, inescapably, about Obama's America, and more specifically about the widespread but contentious claim that America is now a "post-racial" society. He uses the premise of Lorraine Hansberry's original play to show events taking place before and after the aspiring African-American family tries to buy their house in a white neighborhood in 1959. As a result, the two acts of the play feature two different sets of characters, but taking place in the same house. In the first act, we see the story of A Raisin in the Sun told from the perspective of the white characters (one of whom is the only white character in Hansberry's original play). In the second act, circumstances have changed: the neighborhood is now entirely black, but undergoing gentrification. So we see, with some historical irony, a white couple 50 years later undergoing difficulties in attempting to purchase a house in an all-black neighborhood.
If anyone in 2014 doubts that…… [Read More]
Theatre in Antiquity:
The Romans and the Greeks in a Quest for Entertainment
Entertainment in antiquity was often found at a theater, in the form of a play. Due to the efforts of the Romans and the Greeks in this particular area, we have a rich dramatic culture today. However, as mentioned in the paper, there are basic differences between Roman and Greek theaters. Though both provided forms of entertainment, they did so in different ways. The Roman Theater was often used to prove prowess and authority. Though it included some dramatic plays, this theater, which was in the form of a structure such as the Coliseum, with arches and seating for thousands of people, was often utilized for non-entertainment purposes, such as punishments, combat and executions. This was, again, due to the fact that the Roman society was very hierarchical, and Romans utilized a lot of propaganda to keep this kind of mentality intact.…… [Read More]
Elizabethan theatre is a general concept embodying the plays written and performed openly in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I from 1558 to 1603. The term can be applied more generally to also incorporate theatre of Elizabeth's immediate successors, James I and Charles I, till the end of public theatres in 1642 on the inception of Civil War. (Elizabethan theatre: Wikipedia) During the end of 16th century and inception of 17th century William Shakespeare dominated the theatrical environment, and at that time witnessing a play during afternoon was considered a great entertainment for many members of London society and acclaimed similar popular form of entertainment as that of going to movies and plays presently. A thorough look at the theatre of Shakespeare's time however, will entail many distinctions between the Elizabethan theatre and the movies and plays of today. (Welcome to the world of the Elizabethan theatre!)
During the later part of 15th century, plays were being staged in two kinds of theatre buildings: the private theatre and the public theatre. During 1576, the first public theatre in London was constructed and during the period Shakespeare was bringing out his plays and highest number of play houses in London were emerged in comparison to other European cities. To illustrate Rose was constructed during 1587, the Swan in 1595, the Globe in 1599 and the Fortune in 1600. Shakespeare and his patronizing company, Lord Chamberlain's Men, played in the Globe theatre. (Welcome to the world of the Elizabethan theatre!)
Elizabethan theatres originated from several bases. A primary source was the obscurity of the plays that were integral part of religious ceremonies in England and other parts of Europe during the middle Ages. The mystery plays were complicated retellings of legends depending upon biblical themes, actually performed in churches but later becoming more prone to the secular celebrations that grew…… [Read More]
(Philadelphia Theater Company)
This year, the magic and the splendor of the Holiday Season would be welcomed by the Philadelphia Dance Theater, which would perform with a hundred artistes, the ever popular holiday season play, the 'Nutcracker'. It must be noted that the very first Nutcracker Ballet performance was given in the year 1892, and it is the story of a young and lonely orphaned German girl named Laura, who dreams of a Nutcracker Prince. This particular production by the Philadelphia Dance Theater Company was choreographed by the 'Artistic Director', Joy Delaney-Capponi, and a very important feature of the play is the profusion of lavish Victorian hand made costumes that the actors on stage wear during their renditions. (100 dancers to welcome the Holiday Season November 12 when The Nutcracker comes to Horsham stage)
One costume in particular is certainly eye catching, and this is the eight feet by ten feet wide skirt that Mother ginger wears during the play, with the purpose of hiding eight children under her skirt during the play. Some of the other dazzling features of the production by the Philadelphia Dance Theater are the 'growing tree', which literally expands from a mere eight feet to a massive twenty feet as the play and the scenes unfold. The fact is that the audience is literally drawn into the story that is unfolding in front of them, and when special effects like, for example, falling snow, fog rolling on to the stage when there is a battle being enacted are added to the show, the effect created is that of a wonderland and a mystical setting that would amaze and surprise the viewers.
The primary dance style in the Nutcracker by the Philadelphia Theater Company is that of Classical Ballet, and at times during the play there is character dancing, with an additional international flavor. For example, sweets and hot chocolate are presented as from Spain, tea as from China, coffee from Arabia, and candy from Russia, marzipan from France. In addition, there are two important guest…… [Read More]
The theater of the 1930s often saw strategies that wanted to expose the tragedy of American life at the time, but did not want to keep the audience in a state of depression, because after all, that was their everyday experience. As such, many theater productions began implementing multi-faceted strategies which included the combination of several genres in order to provide a flexibility that would both sadden and humor. Here, the research suggests that these plays prompt "us at one moment to objectivity and laughter and at the next moment to empathy and profound sad feeling; or in which the clauses are written to multiply, on top of one another and having an equal or near-equal weight, producing that suspenseful, odd, grotesque response of neither happy-nor-sad, a twist, a painful wringing" (Fearnow 52). The productions of the Mercury Theater definitely embodied that style, as Orson Welles often included in his more melodramatic productions a strange and satirical comedic sense.
Overall, the Mercury Group in many ways embodies the spirit of theater in the 1930s here in the United States. Its productions represented a move into a more modern existence, while still echoing the painful experiences of the Great Depression in an artful and complex way. The group helped move theater into more mass distributed media, and paved a path to a new sense of modernity.… [Read More]
Perhaps there is something deeper to Twilight than anyone is willing to admit. So, then, we must ask ourselves: What are these films about? Is there not something revealing even about the reflections seen in popular culture? Cannot pop culture, therefore, be considered part of high culture? Must it be discarded simply because it is popular? I don't think that it must. And yet there is something distinctly different about the Tree of Life that Twilight simply does not have. One might call it vision or purpose. Perhaps this is the difference between high culture and popular culture. Needless to say, however, at a cinema one may often choose either/or.
Still, Umberto Eco states that "according to traditional standards in aesthetics, Casablanca is not a work of art, if such an expression still has meaning" (Eco 197). This is an interesting observation by Eco for a number of reasons. First, it points out that one of the most celebrated movies of all time is not what traditionalists or high culture purists would classify as part of high culture: it is a pop culture phenomenon. Secondly, however, Eco qualifies his statement with the curious phrase "if such an expression still has meaning." It is indicative of the radical transformation in the way art and culture are now analyzed both by amateurs and scholars, low and high cultures, that Eco should have to add this qualifier. Why might going to the movie theater to see a film by Antonioni be considered participation in high culture? What distinguishes a work by him or Malick from a standard Hollywood studio production? Again, we arrive at the same question. If popular culture scholars are compelled to give such a definition, it may be because "high culture" descended into the ranks of popular culture through the works of such artists as Richard Hamilton, Jaspar…… [Read More]
Live Theater's Financial Struggles
Live theater is one of the most enduring art forms. In older times, traveling troops performed at different locations, providing one of the more consistent forms of entertainment through much of history. Eventually, cities and larger towns began building buildings that were devoted to players, and theater became a common form of entertainment. However, as movies became popular, the theater began to lose its common appeal. This decline has continued as electronic entertainment has grown more popular. However, in addition to facing competition from other forms of entertainment, the theater is very vulnerable to changes in the economy. As a result, many live theaters seem to perpetually struggle with their finances. This has even led to speculation that, outside of the Broadway context, live theater is destined to fail. While that hopefully is not true, it is certain that live theaters are struggling.
In September 2010, in Bristol, Tennessee, the Theatre Bristol was an example of one such struggling theater. Many local theaters rely not only on ticket sales, but also financial donations, to make ends meet. However, all organizations that relay upon charitable donations struggle in an economic recession and theaters are not immune from this effect. "You can only go so long without support, and the bills become due,' said Gwendolyn Arnold, president of Theatre Bristol's Board of Directors. 'If something doesn't happen or change by the end of this month, I don't see Theatre Bristol remaining in operation. We're running out of time'" (Brown). In fact, Emily Anne Thompson, the theater's executive director, believed that in September 2010 the theater was facing immediate closure (Brown).
In order to understand why a down economy impacts small local theaters so significantly, one has to understand the operating realities of a small theater. For example, many small theaters put on children's programs during the week, and they depend on field trips from local school districts to fill the seats in those shows. However, as school districts are hit by financial difficulties, one of the first things to be cut…… [Read More]
Globe Theater is the place where most of William Shakespeare's major works including his famous four tragedies were first staged. This fact alone makes it a fascinating subject for students of literature and history to explore. Although the original building was destroyed in the mid-seventeenth century, a new "Globe Theater" has been built near the site of the old theater in London. The building replicates many of the original features of Shakespeare's Globe Theater and still stages some of the bard's plays to give the modern theater going audience the original 'flavor' of the bard's masterpieces. This paper traces the history of the Globe Theater, describes the original building's main features, and covers the recent re-building of the new Globe in the vicinity of the old theater.
Cuthberg Burbage, an associate of Shakespeare and brother of the most famous Shakespearean actor of the time, Richard Burbage had inherited a London theater called simply 'The Theater.' (Pressley, para No. 3) When the lease on the land on which it was built expired, Cuthberg and his associates including several actors, decided to take the matters in their own hands. They dismantled 'The Theater', transported its material across a frozen River Thames and proceeded to construct a new theater that was named "The Globe." The new theater, with its trademark logo of Hercules carrying the world on his shoulders, was located in the Bankside district of London alongside three other theaters -- the Rose, the Swan and the Hope. Shakespeare was a shareholder in "The Globe" and his name has become linked forever with the theater as it staged most of his plays over the next several years and became the finest theater in London. (Malvasi, para No. 1; Moore, para 1 & 2)
Although no drawings of the original Globe exist, a fairly accurate picture of the theater can be pieced together as a result of various descriptions and archeological findings. Like most theaters of the time, the Globe was an octagonal-shaped building with an open air stage located on the inside that could accommodate up to 3000 people.
The stage of the Globe was a five feet high level platform of about 43 X 28 feet size. The stage was fitted with mechanisms such as trap doors in its floor that were creatively utilized by Shakespeare in his plays. It…… [Read More]
In the Hollywood Pictures Backlot one can take part in an "I want to be in pictures" moment. The Disney Animation attraction provides an insider's view exhibiting the number of Disney's animated movies and characters were created. The Hyperion theatre hosts Aladdin -A Musical Spectacular that is a 45-minute live performance with brilliant visual effects for which one has to wait for nearly an hour. The latest attraction of the park is the Tower of Terror after a 1930s hotel which was shown in The Twillight Zone. The most frightening part of this attraction is the service elevator ride which transports one from the basement of the Hollywood Tower Hotel to the 13th Floor and returns back once again at speeds where people scream loudly. (Sights and Activities: Disney's California Adventure)
Bug's Land, which comes inspired from the film A Bug's Life shows an insect's point-of-view. At the Princess Dot Puzzle one has the choice of cooling off or getting soaked by a huge garden hose pipe and can also ride in pill-bug shaped bumper cars. The short show it's tough to be a Bug gives one a 3-D look at the life of an insect. The Golden State celebrates California's history and natural beauty with several regions inclusive of the Bay Area, Pacific Wharf, and Condor Flats where one gets the opportunity to soar over California, a breathtaking simulated hang-glider ride over the Californian terrain. Grizzly River Run is a white-water raft ride that ends in a drop down from a 22-feet waterfall. The film Golden Dreams is a sappy rush through the history, which is hosted by the legendary Whoopi Goldberg. Present also is a 1-acre farm and winery, a nature trail, as well as a tortilla factory. And not to be missed in the night is the Disney's Electrical Parade which is a procession in which all the floats and characters are festooned with numerous tiny lights. (Sights and Activities: Disney's California Adventure)
Entertainment History from another foreign country: Japan
The Walt Disney release of the Japanese blockbuster 'Spirited Away'…… [Read More]
Program Evaluation of a University Theater Program
The purpose of the graduate level theater program at Metropolitan University in Manhattan, New York, is to prepare students to make meaningful contributions to the theater industry. This program incorporates a multi-faceted approach to achieve this objective. It has very specific areas of concentration to assist in improving the quality of performances and shows to galvanize the general public to become interested in the theater as it once was prior to the advent of television and other technological advancements. Its areas of concentration in playwriting, dramaturgy, directing and acting all are designed to fulfill this objective. The program also aims to improve marketing strategies and general sponsorship opportunities/skills so that the theatrical movement becomes revitalized -- areas of concentration in production and theater management are created to address these pressing needs. The program is also attempting to garner student interest in University wide performances, and offers cross-disciplinary studies and interaction to achieve this objection.
In addition to addressing the pragmatic concepts of finance, management, marketing and promotion that are necessary to for both this particular theater and for the theater industry in general to thrive, there are certain aesthetic principles that are at the core of the purpose of Metropolitan University's theater program. Students are encouraged to push the boundaries of creativity and to fulfill the true purpose of theater, to which the subsequent quotation alludes. "The best theater in every culture and in all eras has not only reflected its time but also shaped its society and often helped point it toward the future. The Theater Program aims to train theater artists to fulfill that important role in today's society" (Columbia, No Date). Thus, the aesthetic component of this program is as equally relevant as its practical focus on keeping theater alive and meaningful in today's society.
Program Process Theory
Like many theater programs, the one considered in the evaluation within this document utilizes a methodology which combines coursework, participation, and pragmatic experience in the surrounding world of theater. Quite simply, the students are educated with the basic foundation of academic theater concepts which pertain to their various…… [Read More]
Japanese Kabuki Theater
Japan's classical theater comprises four major forms i.e. noh, kyogen, bunraku puppet theater, and Kabuki. Japanese Kabuki Theater emerged during the Edo period, which was a period of more than 250 years of peace i.e. between 1600 and 1868. The theater is a reflection of the merchant culture that characterized the Edo period as reflected in its magnificent costumes and scenery. Moreover, the influence of this era on Kabuki is reflected in its plays that comprise larger-than-life heroes and common people attempting to reconcile their individual desires with social obligations. As compared to the other forms of Japanese classical theaters, Kabuki continues to be very popular in the modern Japanese society. Consequently, Kabuki regularly plays to enthusiastic audiences in different theaters such as Osaka's Shochikuza, Kyoto's Minamiza, and Tokyo's Kabukiza. Therefore, this form of Japanese classical theater is regarded as a vibrant and exciting traditional theater in the nation's drama or art industry.
Elements of Kabuki Theater
As one of the four forms of Japanese classical theater, Kabuki is a renowned traditional form of theater whose roots can be traced back to the Edo period. Given its historical and modern significance in Japan's art industry, this conventional form of Japanese classical theater was named in UNESCO Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 (Japan Fact Sheet, p.1). Kabuki is generally an art form that is loaded in showmanship, which has played a major role in its increased popularity in the traditional and modern Japanese societies. There are several elements of the Kabuki Theater that significantly influences its performance.
The first element of Kabuki Theater is plays, which are classified into three major categories i.e. historical plays (jidai-mono), domestic plays (sewa-mono), and dance pieces (shosagoto). These categories emerge from the fact that the name "Kabuki" signifies song, dance, and skill. Moreover, the categories emerge from the fact that most of Kabuki's plots are usually based on moral conflicts, historical events, renowned stories, warm hearted dramas, tales of tragedy of conspiracy, and love stories (Japan Guide par, 4). However, approximately half of Kabuki plays that are performed in…… [Read More]
Measurement and Marketing
The Boston Ale Theater
In this scenario regarding marketing questionnaires at the Boston Ale Theater, marketing director Betty Lucas has shown poor judgment in the authorship of her questionnaire, the choice of venue of the marketing questionnaire, and methodology of her information-gathering strategy. All of these factors in combination are sure to result in improperly measured and skewed statistical results.
While the intern in question may be quite competent, this is no guarantee that this individual has a sense of what type of questions will give clues as to the audience the Boston Ale Theater desires and is likely to attract. The intern might simply ask generic questions about age and gender, rather than include other, equally important questions that are more pertinent to the focus of what the public wishes to see.
More importantly, the gender and age break down for the single show being surveyed may not provide a representative measurement sampling for the theater as a whole, but only for that particular night. A Friday as opposed to a Saturday night may attract a different, but still loyal audience. For example, Friday night might be a popular 'date night,' and thus might be more balanced between men and women 50/50, even if more women, in general, see shows at the Boston Ale during its Wednesday showings, and Saturday and Sunday showings. The show's location in the yearly calendar might even affect the demographic measurement of the questionnaire results. Shows that take place around exam finals in the college-student dominated area of Boston might draw a lower proportion of students, on a given night, even if younger people make up a substantial percentage of the audience on most weekends.
The show that is being profiled may not be typical of most of the shows that the theater puts on, and thus draw an…… [Read More]
modern art through concepts normally associated with media is a relatively new one. Yet, the dimensions of the context associated with the birds eye view of a culture as viewed through the advertisement for fine art exhibition is a substantially modern and fascinating message. The current exhibition at the IVC gallery of Polish theater posters is demonstrative of a successful representation of the rebirth of an artistic expression. Even in the case that the work itself, the theatrical production, may or may not have been successful the advertisement for it can be seen as an independent work of its own.
The success of Polish poster art had strong artistic foundations and was not only due to the advantageous social conditions. The graphic artists who established the Polish poster school were first and foremost excellent artists. (IVC Gallery Website)
The demonstrative work associated with Polish Poster art created a social movement that funded and established a permanent museum dedicated solely to poster art from the genre.
Two works of particular interest are the poster for Madame Sans Gene, and a poster advertising a production written by the Polish writer Iwan Turgieniew. Both works are a simple female figure in a central and balanced composition. The poster with the least mystery, for the production Madame Sans Gene, artist unknown is representative a very youthful and expressive female figure in bust like portrait pose, wearing a very large Napoleonic military cap, shadowing her eyes, but showing her youthful nose and full sensual painted mouth with a high honor medal on the lapel of a simple camisole which cradles her large bosom. The work is simplistic and has the tenor of Japanese anemia without the refined edge. The colors are as bold and seductive as the youthful and seductive lips of the…… [Read More]
Demand and Supply of Home Theater Furniture
Demand and supply are the core concepts of economics and these are what determine the price of any given item. When demand of a certain item increases, it is usually followed by a corresponding increase in supply. And thus the price is affected. However there are times when demand increases more sharply than supply and this causes price to move up. In any case, price is directly dependent on supply and demand trends of a commodity. In this paper, we shall focus on demand of home theater furniture which has sharply gone up in last few years, thanks to home theater systems that promise to provide quality cinema experience at home. William L. Hamilton, 'Coming to a Living Room near You' (2003) focuses on the rising demand for home theater furniture: "The $23-billion-a-year furniture industry is in a state of high excitement over an item of furniture that, in the average living room, looks like a huge Danish. Your local bakery would call it a bear claw. The furniture industry calls it home theater seating. The furniture industry, like many of its domestic brethren, has been having a tough economic time lately. In this climate, home theater seating may emerge as a star. Larry Thomas of Furniture Today, a trade weekly, said: "It seems to be a real hot category right now, in the last 12 months ... " If contemporary furniture is often a triumph of style over substance, home theater seating is a solid triumph of substance over style."
While everyone is certainly excited over sudden and rather unexpected growth in home theater furniture market, economists and marketers are also analyzing the possible reasons for this growth, Hamilton maintains that it is due to the rising popularity of home theater systems which is quality family time. It has now become the symbol of family time and people usually sitting around and having…… [Read More]