Water Pollution Essays

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Pollution Unfortunately There Is Quite a Diverse Essay

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49497510

Pollution

Unfortunately, there is quite a diverse array of forms of pollution of the water and the air on Earth. The paper will only focus upon a few types, with the intention of providing insight regarding the results of the pollution upon various forms of life on the planet. As far as any type of pollution, formal environmental agencies, whether public, private, or of the government, all have standards by which they determine the type of pollution and its classification. With respect to all forms of pollution, most environmental agencies have come to a consensus regarding the overall classification of pollution as it affects life. Those standards of pollution are primary forms of pollution and secondary forms of pollution.

There are two types of standards -- primary and secondary. Primary standards protect against adverse health effects; secondary standards protect against welfare effects, such as damage to farm crops and vegetation and damage to buildings. Because different pollutants have different effects, the NAAQS are also different. Some pollutants have standards for both long-term and short-term averaging times. The short-term standards are designed to protect against acute, or short-term, health effects, while the long-term standards were established to protect against chronic health effects. (EPA, 2012)

The duration of the effects of a type of pollution is one of the first ways it is classified and understood. Information regarding pollution may make some people sad, but hopefully information regarding pollution additionally motivates people into taking action, whether on a small case, such as within their own home, as well as on a large scale, such as with the assistance of a government agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency. The pollution focused up on in this paper will be the kinds that humans direct produce or contribute heavily to, such as petroleum pollution in the water, fertilizers that begin in the soil and travel to the water, and industrial waste that ends up in…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Environmental Pollution Centers. (2012). Air Pollutants -- Types & Classifications. Web, Available from:  http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/water/types/ . 2012 September 23.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Air Pollution Monitoring. Web, Available from: http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/montring.html. 2012 September 23.
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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental Essay

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across Europe at the time. (Some soda ash was imported to Europe from the New World, where deforestation was also occurring. However, because the process of deforestation had begun later in the New World, including in Canada, there were still large stands of forests.)

At the same time that the availability of wood ash was declining, the demands for soda ash were steeply increasing. Soda ash along with potash (which is chemically potassium carbonate) are both essential ingredients in a number of industrial processes, including the production of paper, soap, glass, and fabric. While the Leblanc process was first used on a wide-scale basis in France -- which by the first decades of the 19th century was producing 10,000-15,000 tons of alkali each year -- it was in Britain that the process (and its environmental consequences) was used at its highest levels.

The first British soda works using the Leblanc process was established in 1816 on the River Tyne (thereby producing both water and air pollution).

At this time, while there were no legal restrictions on the polluting aspects of the alkali-production process; however, there were tariffs in place on salt. This fact -- given that salt is an integral ingredient to the Leblanc process -- kept the use of this process in check and so coincidentally limited the environmental effects of the process.

When the salt tariffs were repealed, large chemical works were established in…… [Read More]

References:
Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/marine/science/pshh.htm

Global Forest Watch, http://www.globalforestwatch.ca/riparian/riparian-leg-bkgrnd.pdf
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Water Standards Issues in Urban Planning Essay

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49718611

Water Standards Issues in Urban Planning

The objective of this work in writing is to develop and articulate persuasive research-oriented arguments related to planning practice. This work will define the problem, present theories and cases, summarize, and highlight the salient points from those theories and cases that are found to formulate a plausible solution to the problem.

The planning process for urban runoff urban water standards must be based on regulations that make a requirement of specific programs relating to approaches in planning. Different regulations make a requirement of different approaches in planning. The planning process addressed in this work is that of watershed management and this specific planning process requires the following:

(1) Regulatory Basis -- SOWA

(2) Determining Existing Conditions -- Development of Watershed Description

(3) Quantifying pollution sources and water resource impacts -- identification of detrimental characteristics;

(4) Assessment of alternatives -- conduction of risk assessment; and (5) Development and implementation of recommended plan -- development of detrimental activities control plan. (Environmental Protection Agency, )

I. Nonpoint Source Pollution

The problem addressed in this study is that of nonpoint source pollution and the necessary action plan to be implemented in this type of situation. Nonpoint source pollution results in alteration to the natural habitat and has been cited as the reason for the majority of water quality problems near various bodies of water including lakes, tributaries, and coastline. Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) is the "introduction of pollutants into a system through a non-direct or unidentified route." (Ambrosio, Lawrence, and Brown, nd) Potential sources of NPS pollution include such as "agriculture and forestry practice, septic systems, recreational boating, urban runoff, construction, and physical changes to stream channels…" (Ambrosio, Lawrence, and Brown, nd) It is reported that the term 'nonpoint' "is used to distinguish it from point source pollution" which is pollution derived from specific sources. (Ambrosio, Lawrence, and Brown, nd) NPS pollution…… [Read More]

Sources:
Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm

Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm
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Water Crisis in Private Water Essay

Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72742951

Both Segerfeldt and Barlow also emphasize that the crisis especially affects the developing world. Poor people are dying from dirty water, both Barlow and Segerfeldt claim. Barlow cites the World Health Organization, claiming that "every eight seconds, a child dies from drinking dirty water," (299). Segerfeldt agrees that "the shortage of water helps to perpetuate poverty, disease, and early death," (294). Finally, Barlow and Segerfeldt both acknowledge that technically the earth does not "run out" of water (Barlow 299). Segerfeldt similarly claims that there is "no shortage" of water, "at least not globally," (294).

Segerfeldt and Barlow disagree on what causes the water crisis and most importantly, on what to do about it. Although Barlow and Segerfeldt both agree that water is a potentially renewable resource, only Barlow notes that "there is a finite amount of available fresh water on the planet," (299). The earth cannot run out of water, but the earth also cannot create new water. The problem with the finite amount of water is that it is being polluted and diverted for capitalist and industrialist endeavors worldwide. Segerfeldt does not mention the problem that pollution poses to the water crisis. Instead, Segerfeldt focuses on bad public policy and poor water resource management by governments as the main culprits. Segerfeldt's solution to the water crisis is to encourage effective privatization efforts worldwide. Barlow's suggestion is to reject privatization, unlimited economic growth, and globalization in favor of cooperative community-based stewardship of water resources (300).

Barlow's argument is stronger than Segerfeldt even though Segerfeldt makes some valid points. Segerfeldt is correct that governments do not manage water resources well and that poor people -- some of the most important stakeholders worldwide -- suffer as a result. However, part of the problem is that governments are more concerned with creating partnerships with big business. Privatization would make the problem worse because then governments and private water companies would be working together to regulate such things as access to water; the prices of water; how the water will be used and diverted; and how water will be managed for pollution. Thus, only a small minority of primary stakeholders would benefit from privatization. Private corporations and governments work in collusion and are often corrupt. Neither are valid stakeholders in the issue because the point is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Barlow, Maude. "Where Has All the Water Gone?" Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment.

Segerfeldt, Frederik. "Private Water Saves Lives." Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment."
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Water Quality and Lake Winnipeg Watershed Management Assignment 3 Essay

Words: 3674 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15322351

Water Quality and Lake Winnipeg Watershed Management

Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing an overgrowth of algae. Lake Winnipeg is one lake that has been adversely affected by eutrophication. Using Lake Winnipeg as a case study, this text demonstrates the causes of eutrophication, the effects of the same on aquatic life, and ways of minimizing its overall effects.

What are the key differences in the physical, chemical and biological features observed in a comparison of oligoptrophic with eutrophic water bodies? Which condition is more desirable based on the concept of sustainability? Why?

Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing a subsequent increase in the growth of algae and higher plants. A water body starts from a natural state (the oligoptrophic stage) through a mesotrophic state, and finally reaches the eutrophic state with the further addition of nutrients. In the eutrophic state, the water quality is low and nutrient build-up is evident in both sediments and water. Euphoric water bodies are characterized by among other things, i) low dissolved oxygen concentrations in deeper waters, ii) high nutrient concentration levels, iii) decreasing light penetration, iv) high phosphorus concentrations, and iv) an algae population that is predominantly cyanobacteria. A comparison of the biological, chemical and physical features of eutrophic and oligoptrophic waters is presented in the table below.

Features

Oligoptrophic

Eutrophic

Physical/Chemical Features

Depth

Deep

Shallow

Sediment levels

Low

High

Sediment nutrient concentrations

Low

High

Water column nutrient concentrations

Low

High

Dissolved oxygen levels at the bottom

High

Low

Biological Features

Primary productivity

Low

High

Species diversity

High

Low

Dominant phytoplankton

Diatoms/green algae

Cyanobacteria

Phytoplankton diversity

High

Low

Bloom frequency

Rare

Common

(Source: Shaw, Moore & Garnett, 2004, n.pag)

Oligotrophism is more desirable for sustainability. Here is why: the algae that bloom as a consequence of eutrophication die as they begin to compete among themselves for available nutrients. These dying algal are oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, which deplete oxygen supplies in the water, causing the death of fish and other forms of useful aquatic life (Shaw et al., 2004). Moreover, the increase of anaerobic bacteria in water as a result of eutrophication results in an increase in gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide,…… [Read More]

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Pollution Environmental Issues Have Long Essay

Words: 1582 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73408945

In addition, fuel emissions for vehicles must be carefully monitored and government agencies should work to ensure that they meet safe and acceptable standards to reduce pollution. (How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution?)

Conclusion

The purpose of this paper is to discuss global warming and pollution.

We found that global warming occurs because of an accelerated green house effect. We found that pollution occurs because of harmful emissions caused by fossil fuels and industrialization. Our investigation found that pollution can result in serious health problems including lung cancer. We also found that pollution can stunt lung growth in children and irritate existing conditions. Finally, we asserted that preventative measures must be taken to reduce air pollution. Preventative measures can take place with the development of alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles.

Works… [Read More]

References:
Global Warming in Brief. 2000 http://www.globalwarming.org/article.php?uid=65

How can air pollution hurt my health?
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Polluting Water and Poisoning Fish Essay

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79641449

Water Pollution

Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. )

The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw sewage and oil spills. Ocean and river pollution have increased in line with industrial human development, with more toxic wastes being drummed in water than ever before. This has reached the stage when marine life and fishing stock in many oceans is being negatively affected. "Beaches around the world are closed regularly, often because of high amounts of bacteria from sewage disposal, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer." ( ibid)

The causes of water pollution are usually divided into two main categories; namely, direct and indirect sources of contamination. Direct sources of pollution refer to "effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, and waste treatment plants etc. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. " (Rubin K.) An example of direct pollution would be the Exxon Valdez oil spill. This occurred in 1989, when the Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef, and "spilled nearly 11 million gallons of oil into the biologically…… [Read More]

Sources:
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
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Water and Plastic Bottle Burden Essay

Words: 1800 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79110006

With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.

This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual lives and, therefore, society.

1. 1. Eric Lichtfouse. Mireille Navarette. Philipe Debaeke. Veronique Souchere. Caroline Alberola. (2009) Sustainable Agriculture. New York: Springer.

2. Adams, Mike. Healing with Water: The Work of Water Cure Pioneer Dr. Batmanghelidj, Natural News 6-2005.

Last Accessed 28 April 2010: http://www.naturalnews.com/003202.html

3. Klessig, Lance. Water is Life -- Bottled Water Industry, International Environmental Problems and Policy, 2004.

Last Accessed 28 April 2010: http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/klessill/

4. Hartley, Jo. Ban Plastic Water Bottles. Natural News, 30 January 2009.

Last Accessed 25 April 2010: http://www.naturalnews.com/025480.html

5. Walters, Sheryl, the Consequences of Using Flouride, Natural News 23 April 2009.

Last Accessed 27 April 2010: http://www.naturalnews.com/025480.html

6. Fluoride and Water, (http://kidshealth.org/parent/genera...)

7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, (http://www.fluoridealert.org/health...)

8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in…… [Read More]

References:
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )

9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation...)
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Water Sustainability in the Developing World Essay

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12437467

Water Delivery

Water sustainability has been of increasing concern in academia as a political as well as an environmental problem. My dissertation will specifically focus on water sustainability in the Caribbean and how to improve methods of delivery. Water is a finite, not an infinite resource, and must be treated as such. Additional research is needed to see how best to improve current quality and availability in the region. One useful method of doing so is reviewing how governments have tried and in some cases failed in the past to improve water sustainability in other areas of the developing world.

Technology provides many potential benefits for improving water quality, according to Jha (et al. 2007). In the article "Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: prospects and constraints" the authors examine how the pollution and exploitation of groundwater is causing a critical problem for the environment in India. Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) can work to circumvent some of these issues, although the technology is still in its nascent stages. The uses for RS and GIS include the assessment of current resources and damages; selecting artificial recharge sites; flow and pollution modeling; hazard assessment and protection; estimating natural recharge of groundwater; and other forms of data analysis and process monitoring (Jha 2007: 427). Groundwater is a critical natural resource because of its relatively low level of vulnerability even when the rest of the region faced with drought so maintaining it is vital to future survival.

Unfortunately, several logistical barriers exist to the use of RS and GIS technology in nations where there is the deepest and most critical need for it, such as India. A literature review reveals that current studies proving the utility of technology in improving groundwater in the region is limited and not scientifically rigorous. While the developed world is currently monitoring its groundwater using cutting-edge technology, developing world governments often impose security restrictions that prevent the free dissemination of information and there is a lack of funding for facilities. The authors conclude with recommendations for improvement, including offering more affordable technology…… [Read More]

Resources:
Biswas, A. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A reassessment.

Water International, 29:2, 248-256. DOI: 10.1080/02508060408691775
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Geology Water Is an Important Resource of Essay

Words: 1795 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43049191

Geology

Water is an important resource of earth and an inevitable requirement of life. There is no life without water; regardless it is human life, animal life or plant life. Water is mandatory for all kinds of life and it is no exaggeration to mention that if life ends, no activity is required on the face of earth. So it is a valid statement that water is life.

The fundamental concepts of economics emphasize on the scarcity of resources and their efficient usage. It is because; there are unlimited consumers of a limited resource. It may be argued that natural resources are unlimited, however, the way human being manages them for maximum benefits becomes a constraint in their capacity. For example, the natural resources of water may be present but to ensure their accessibility to the areas located far from these resources is a burning question. The authorities and responsible bodies are in a fix how to efficiently manage the resources.

This paper casts lights upon certain natural resources like water and elaborates their consumption with respect to their availability.

Change in Water Consumption

It is broad daylight that population of the world is increasing hence the resource need is multiplied. There is immense increase in the requirements of the resources because of increased industrialization and improved standard of living. As time proceeds, the luxuries are converted into necessities and more and more people start demanding them. The relationship between resources and human lives is twofold. The availability of resources enhances life style and when it becomes a need; its supply has to be aligned with demand.

Same is true for water resources. Its consumption is not for only for intake as drinks but uncountable activities like washing, cleaning, irrigation, swimming, entertainment development like fountains etc. need water for their completion. In a country like United States, where population is increasing rapidly because of economic attraction for people living in all areas of the world, the consumption of water is multiplying. United States is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Scientus. (2010). Retrieved from  http://www.scientus.org/Wegener-Continental-Drift.html 

US Department of Energy. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_production.html 
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Yellow River Pollution Essay

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31821980

Yellow River Pollution

A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)

Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government in China has "…prioritized cleaning up its polluted rivers and has pledged vast sums for the purpose -- one plan is to flush the Yellow with water diverted from the cleaner Yangtze -- enforcement of environmental laws at the local level remains spotty at best. Local government officials often have a stake in the very factories responsible for the pollution." (Time World, 2006)

II. Pollution Causes

It is reported in the China Daily edition of March 11, 2010 that the government of Xian and Xianyang, two of China's Shaanxi Province, major cities in the northwest of China, have been fined 500,000 or $73,500 for having polluted a tributary of the Yellow River, the second longest waterway in China, according to an environmental watchdog. The city governments are to be fined for "excessive discharges that cause a rise in 'chemical oxygen demand' (COD) -- a measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in the chemical…… [Read More]

Sources:
China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from:  http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm 

China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from:  http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm 
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Oceans & Waters Surface Runoff Is the Essay

Words: 1744 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16433019

Oceans & Waters

Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).

CONTROL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given time for nature to help filer or to remove chemicals. The sites themselves are protected from runoff so that the chemicals and pollutions that are captured do not work their way into usable holdings or drinking water. Waters not treated in drains can pick up bacteria, viruses and even parasites from common elements like pet and animal droppings. This can introduce agents that kill or destroy native plants and animals, or that can actually over encourage the growth of plants and make the waters uninhabitable. Humans can also catch diseases from these occurrences when they swim in or drink untreated water.

OIL AND PRODUCTION POLLUTION: We have seen repeatedly in recent years that oil does not mix well with ocean or other natural waterways. Though media coverage sensationalizes these events, the fact is that oil spills and such make up only about 12% of the reasons why processed petroleum like this get into waters. The remainder comes from urban runoff, ship cleaning and maintenance, and outright dumping (The Guides Network, 2012). Many people still believe that because oil itself comes from the ground,…… [Read More]

References:
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. < http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/pugetsound/building/bulkhead_eff.html >.

The Guides Network. Water pollution guide. 2012. <  http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/oilpollution.html >.

US EPA. Aquatic Biodiversity. Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 2010. .
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Global Pollution Has Increased Significantly Essay

Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17928543

While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.… [Read More]

Bibliography:
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm

2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,,  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html 
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Multiple Forms of Pollution Are Quickly Becoming Essay

Words: 2377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31213112

Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.

One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is associated with congestive urban areas that are forced to deal with noises from construction, automobile traffic, air traffic, and railways. The issue was, largely, ignored by scientists and city planners during the majority of the twentieth century because it was not deemed a legitimate form of pollution. After all, it does not contaminate water, soil, or air; but it does tend to drastically reduce the quality of life for those exposed to it incessantly. In recognition of this fact, an increasing amount of laws and pressures from citizens have brought the matter to the forefront. As recently as February 17, "An Okinawa court has awarded neighbors of a U.S. Air Force base the largest compensation on record for noise pollution in Japan. The 5,541 plaintiffs, who live near Kadena Air Base on the Japanese island, were awarded $26.6 million, which is the largest sum awarded in a suit against an airbase or airport for making noise."

This exemplifies an increased concern in many communities with pollution in all forms. Japan, in general, has tended to be on the front lines of the battle against pollution; presumably, this is a result of their extraordinarily high population density -- resulting in an amplification of many…… [Read More]

References:
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.

Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.