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In the year following that incident, China's State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) announced a five-year plan to address the widespread water pollution issues, committing a budget of 125 billion dollars to that national effort (Pacific Environment, 2006). In 2006 alone, the SEPA responded to 161 emergency environmental pollution incidents, almost two-thirds of which pertained to water pollution (China Daily, 2008).
Solving the Water Pollution Problem in China:
According to Ke Zhang (2006), a senior journalist with China Business Network Daily, Chinese environmental authorities report that "one water pollution incident takes place every two to three days, on average." Most experts agree that the key to addressing the water pollution problem in China lies in increasing law enforcement efforts and penalties for offending entities. Toward that end, the government has initiated a country- wide database designed to identify all pollution sources attributable to violations of environmental regulations (Pacific Environment, 2006).
Barber, K. (2007) High and Dry in the South. U.S. News & World Report (Oct 29/07).
China Daily. (2008). Tougher Law to Curb Water Pollution. (Feb 29/08).
Retrieved, December 3, 2008, from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-02/29/content_6494712.htm
PacificEnvironment.com. (2008). Water Pollution in China. Retrieved, December 3, 2008, at http://www.pacificenvironment.org/article.php?id=1878
The trouble is not only in the city of Tianjin but wastewater pollution in China is also found in the east central part of China which is three hundred miles west of Shanghai, lies the Chao Lake and is one of China's five largest freshwater lakes. The major resource of drinkable water supply comes from the Chao Lake. It is also used for an economic as well as an entertaining resource. From here the water is used for profitable and spare time fishing and as a basis for damping up the water. In several years, the quick improvement of industrial and metropolitan regions plus transformation in agricultural performance has caused harm to the lake. Even though, the instant action of industrial waste water has restricted contamination by placing heavy metals for not permitting the toxic or dangerous substances to get inside the lake. It has become congested with nourishments. These…
Massey University. (December 2, 2005). Urban Water Pollution, Communities and the State in Southeast Asia. Retrieved on December 1, 2007 at http://www.khmerstudies.org/events/Water/Storey%20Nov%202005.pdf
Green Peace. (March 21, 2007). Water Pollution, a Grim Reality? Retrieved on December 1, 2007 at http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/en/news/water-pollution-a-grim-realit
Kris Min. Wastewater Pollution in China. Retrieved on December 1, 2007 at http://www.dbc.uci.edu/~sustain/suscoasts/krismin.html
To look after for the importance of water sources, changes have to be made in the way we see and take care of our environment. The actual way out for caring about water quality must begin by destroying the starting place of toxic waste. Such successful and permanent act is the completion of cleaning the production processes. By getting rid of the use of noxious from the very first stages of production, contamination of water resources can be successfully prevented. The steady disclosure to polluted fresh water resources will be blocked or unclean stinking river and lakes as well as polluted groundwater have made water contamination a given realism we have realized to understand. Therefore, the focal point on technology destined for cleaning up the pollution to a certain extent rather than to put a stop to on it and to outline laws that simply control the amount of poison in water rather than excluding it wholly.
water pollution in Lake Huron
Lake Huron is one of the great lakes that face the challenge of pollution in Ameica. Pollution in the lake prompted the binational partnership aimed at safeguarding areas of concern that have high quality habitats. According to the environmental protection agency, the partnership undertakes remedial action plans aimed at combating the threat fish, wildlife and public health that emanate from water pollution (EPA, 2012). Being a fresh water lake, Huron has diverse species of fish and other wildlife. Nonpoint source, point source and other causes of contamination of water in Lake Huron are serious environmental hazards that need immediate restoration. Pollution of the lake affects the country's economy and public health in entirety. Besides ecosystem conservation, addressing the causes and effects of water pollution of at lake Huron helps to boost economic growth and improve public.
The major cause of pollution in Lake Huron
Bredin, J. (2002). Lake Huron Initiative Action Plan Update: April 2002. Pennsylvania, PA: DIANE Publishing.
Rose, J. & Dreelin, E. (2008). Effective Cross-border Monitoring Systems for Waterborne Microbial Pathogens: A Plan for Action. London, LND: IWA Publishing.
Stephenson, J. (2005). Great Lakes Initiative: EPA Needs to Better Ensure the Complete and Consistent Implementation of Water Quality Standards. Pennsylvania, PA: DIANE Publishing.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2012). Great Lakes: Lake Huron. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/greatlakes/huron.html
Legislative Approach Controlling Water Pollution Industrial Sources: Comparison of Trinidad Tobago European Union (EU) and the United States
The objective of this study is to compare legislative controls of water pollution by industrial sources in Trinidad and Tobago as compared to those in the United States.
Trinidad and Tobago
Environmental degradation in Trinidad and Tobago is reported to have "historical roots that are not too dissimilar from those in the reset of the world largely attributed toe economic growth and the development and growth of human population." (Emergency Management Association, 2005) This environmental degradation in Trinidad has been due to heavy industrial development and in Trinidad due to tourism development. Trinidad and Tobago both experience "much of the full range of environmental problems, from widespread pollution of its waterways and near shore waters to air pollution, chemical spills, illegal dumping, deforestation, fisheries and wildlife depletion.' (Emergency Management Association, 2005)
Harrington, W. (1989) Regulating Industrial Water Pollution in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.rff.org/rff/documents/rff-dp-03-03.pdf
Water Pollution Management Programme (2005) Emergency Management Association. 2 June 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.ema.co.tt/docs/techServ/water/rewpmp.pdf
Nitrate, Aluminum, And Lead in Drinking ater
Three mayor harmful chemicals that affect water's natural condition are nitrate, aluminum, and lead. In recent years, public fears over the contamination of drinking water by these and other contaminants have grown. Certainly, the public is right to be concerned about the possible health effects of aluminum, nitrate, and lead. Aluminum has long been linked with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, bone diseases and anemia. Nitrates are known to have gastric effects, neurological implications, as well as other effects on human health. Lead is well documented to play a role in intellectual retardation, and also impacts abdominal pain, and has other health effects. Aluminum, nitrate, and lead in the human water supply pose significant threats to public health.
Today, domestic water supplies across the world vary enormously in quality. In Great Britain, tap water (which comes from groundwater, reservoirs, and rivers) is…
Government Printing Press. Lead-contaminated drinking water in bulk-water storage tanks - Arizona and California. 1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 43, n. 41, p. 75.
Gupta, S., Gupta, R., Gupta, A., Seth, A. Bassin, J., Gupta, A. And Sharma, M. 2001. Recurrent diarrhea in children living in areas with high levels of nitrate in drinking water. Archives of Environmental health, v. 56, n. 4, p 369.
Rifat, S.I. 1994. The aluminum hypothesis lives. The Lancet, v. 343, n. 8888, p 3.
Schubert, C., Knobeloch, L., Kanarek, M.S., Anderson, H.A. 1999. Public Response to Elevated Nitrate in drinking water wells in Wisconsin. Archives of Environmental Health, v. 54, 14, p. 242.
Storm Water Pollution Protection Plan:
One of the major sources of pollutants is contaminated storm water since storm drains carry runoff from urban centers, streets, and industrial sites to open spaces in rivers. The main factor contributing factor to the problem of contaminated storm water is industrial operations. This is primarily because industrial operations are the source of oily wastes, heavy metals, and other substances. The other likely sources of pollutants include shipping, production, and storage operations that are exposed to storm water.
Since industrial operations are most likely to contribute to contaminated storm water, the federal and state governments have enacted storm water regulations that currently require various kinds of industrial facilities to develop and establish necessary measures to prevent storm water pollution. As compared to other pollution problems, storm water pollution cannot be addressed by a single set of rules that are applicable to every industrial facility. This…
"Best Management Practices for Industrial Storm Water Pollution Control." (n.d.). Sacramento
Stormwater Management Program. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.sactostormwater.org/documents/guides/industrial-BMP-manual.pdf
"Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan." (n.d.). Department of Ecology. Retrieved from State for Washington website: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/sand/swppp.html
Groundwater Pollution Issues
How does America's groundwater become polluted and what are the sources of pollution that goes into the groundwater? How important is unpolluted groundwater to the sustainability of communities? Also, what are the solutions for this pollution of the groundwater? These issues and others will be reviewed in this paper.
According to illiam M. Alley, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Environment, groundwater exists "…almost everywhere beneath the land surface" and it plays a "crucial role in sustaining streamflow between precipitation events" and in particular during "protracted dry periods" (Alley, 2006, p. 16). Alley explains that about 85 billion gallons of groundwater are "withdrawn daily," and upwards of ninety percent of that water is used for "…irrigation, public supply (deliveries to homes businesses, industry) and self-supplied industrial use" (Alley, 16). Of those 85 billion gallons withdrawn from groundwater sources daily, nearly two-thirds is used for irrigation, Alley…
Alley, William M. (2006). Tracking U.S. Groundwater / Reserves for the Future? Environment,
Dubrovsky, Neil. (2010). Elevated Nitrogen and Phosphorus Still Widespread in Much of the Nation's Streams and Groundwater. USGS. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from http://www.usgs.gov .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Hydraulic Fracturing. Retrieved September 23, 2012,
The author of this report has been asked to assess and react to a given scenario. The scenario in question relates to a drainage pool at a manufacturing facility. In this hypothetical scenario, there is a pond that is used as a catch point if there are any spills. Any superficial spills are carried to this pond. As needed, the pond is drained into a nearby stream so as to keep the pond at the proper level. It should be noted that these discharges and the pollution therein is managed and regulated by the state. Unfortunately, there is a very large chemical spill at the plant and there is a threat that the spill will reach the pond and then eventually the groundwater. The author is charged with assessing the damage due to the spillage, offer what remedial measures can be used to address the problem and how…
Dolan, M. (2016). Mayor, guv clash over how quickly to replace lead pipes. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/flint-water-crisis/2016/02/17/flint-mayor-opposes-governors-plan-replacing-pipes/80504054/
EPA. (2016). Data from Gold King Mine Response -- Emergency Response to August 2015 Release from Gold King Mine -- U.S. EPA. Epa.gov. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://www.epa.gov/goldkingmine/data-gold-king-mine-response
Plastic Pollution in the Ocean
Pollution is one of the leading harms facing the world today along with climate change, global warming, natural resource depletion, poor disposal of waste. Presently, plastics are used in covering various items because of their flexibility and durability. However, environmental concerns have always arisen because of improper discarding or recycling with some of them reaching water bodies such as oceans and becoming sources of pollution. Plastics are known to have an indestructible morphology that brings harm to the ecosystems. Moreover, they contain toxins that affect marine life thereby attracting the attention and the need for research. The following study focuses on plastic pollution in the ocean with a focus on the scientific perspectives, the negative effects such as loss of nutritional value for marine creatures, physical damages, the transport of alien species, and exposure to pathogens, and possible mitigation strategies.
Plastic pollution in the…
Beans, L. (2014, June). Plastic waste causes $13 billion in damages to marine ecosystems each year. EcoWatch. Retrieved from https://www.ecowatch.com/plastic-waste-causes-13-billion-in-damages-to-marine-ecosystems-each-y-1881928486.html
Groden, C. (2015, October). Report: Plastic pollution in the ocean is reaching crisis levels. Fortune. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2015/10/01/ocean-plastic-pollution/
Hammer, J., Kraak M. H. & Parsons, J. R. (2012). Plastics in the marine environment: The Dark side of a modern gift. In: Whitacre D. (Eds) Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Continuation of Residue Reviews), vol 220. New York, NY: Springer.
Mosbergen, D. (2017, May). The oceans are drowning in plastic – and no one’s paying attention. Huffpost. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/plastic-waste-oceans_us_58fed37be4b0c46f0781d426
Plastic Europe. (2014). Plastics- the Fact 2014/2015.
Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management
Today, the human society continuously deals with the issue of limited resources, as compared to an extensively growing amount of needs. Among these limited resources, water is vital, not only because mankind cannot survive without it, but also because it is essential to producing so many other secondary items, including food and clothing. At the same time, water and watersheds are an essential part of the environment, home to numerous species of animals and plants. Conservationism and environmental protection has a definite impact on the existence and evolution of mankind as well.
With that in mind, this project proposal will focus on identifying a set of solutions that the inhabitants in the Medina River Watershed (exar & Medina County TX) can use to address water pollution in this area, as well as the means by which water conservation can be consolidated and…
1. Engel, F.L. (n.d.) Geomorphic Classification of the Lower San Antonio River, Texas. Texas Water Development Board. Project 0604830637. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830637_LowerSanAntonioRiver.pdf
2. HDR Engineering [HDR] (2000, December). The Edwards Aquifer Watershed Brush Control Planning Assessment & Feasibility Study. Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.nueces-ra.org/II/brush/
3. Moore, E.A., & Koontz, T.M. (2003). Research Note A Typology of Collaborative Watershed Groups: Citizen-Based, Agency-Based, and Mixed Partnerships. Society & Natural Resources, 16(5), 451. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
4. O'Neill, K.M. (2005). Can Watershed Management Unite Town and Country? Society & Natural Resources, 18(3), 241-253. doi:10.1080/08941920590908097
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
Yellow River Pollution
A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)
Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government…
China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm
China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm
China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental News Network. 26 May 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1643
City Governments Fined for Yellow River Pollution (2010) China Daily. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-03/11/content_9574818.htm
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, ' http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.
Dodson, Stanley I. And Anthony R. Ives. (1998). Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, Rob. (2005). "Study Reveals Cancer Risk to Unborn Babies from City-Center Air Pollution." Sunday Herald, Feb. 20.
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…
Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.
Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.
City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…
Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at: http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf.
Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at: http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf
Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf
Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at: http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…
Colls, J 2002, Air Pollution, Spon Press, London.
Friends of Earth 2009, Briefing Pyrolysis, Gasification and Plasma, Friends of Earth Limited Company, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf >.
Hill, T 2010, Pyrolysis and Gasification briefing, UK without incineration, viewed 25 January 2011, <
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].
Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
Haiyan, L., Liang, L., Mingyi, L., & Xiaoran, Z. (2013). Effects of pH, Temperature,
Dissolved Oxygen, and Flow Rate on Phosphorus Release Processes at the Sediment and Water Interface in Storm Sewer. Journal of Analytical Methods In
Chemistry, 1-7. doi:10.1155/2013/104316
Karlsson, K., & Viklander, M. (2008). Trace Metal Composition in Water and Sediment
The water from my hometown in the Greater Cincinnati region is produced by the Miller Treatment Plant, which takes surface water from the Ohio River and is responsible for providing almost all of the region’s drinking water.
Water is first tested before entering the treatment plant and the region has a number of alerts in place to allow it to proactively monitor the water situation. For example, there is a detection system used on the Ohio River that “warns treatment plants downstream about spills so that measures can be taken before the spill reaches water intakes” (GCWW, 2017). Since the Ohio River is susceptible to contamination, it is important that these detection systems be in place to avoid any problems in the treatment process.
To protect drinking water, the Greater Cincinnati Waterworks (GCWW) can turn off the intake and water in storage while pollution dissipates and passes in the…
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.
Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…
Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf
The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.
When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the…
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
Riding a bike to work or school immediately reduces the carbon footprint that otherwise would be left from the exhaust of your car. Taking a bus, a trolley, carpooling or walking -- any of these modes of transportation is being "green" instead of contributing to pollution and to global climate change. it's true that every mile you drive your car, you produce exhaust waste, and so over a year's time of driving your car to work or school, you are adding thousands of pounds of pollutants to the air that every one breathes.
When shopping for groceries, use a cotton bag or other reusable shopping bag rather than letting the checker fill plastic bags with your purchases. Plastic bags (it is well-known) find their way onto the sidewalks, roadways, in fields and in waterways, and they cause injuries and death to wildlife, and so it is always a good way…
Waste Water Treatment
Inadequately treated waste water poses hazards such as water-borne diseases and water-body pollution. People generate wastewater (sewage) in numerous ways, including laundry and toilet use. To prevent pollution and ensure public health, waste water ought to be treated adequately. Today, waste water is not so much a problem as it was in earlier centuries, a trend that is attributable to the development of efficient sewer lines and treatment plants, otherwise referred to as centralized wastewater collection and treatment facilities. Not long ago, however, these were not as effective as they are today, and worse still, were not available to a majority of the population. People used the conventional decentralized waste systems to take care of, among others, the black waters, and still managed to lead hygienic lives.
Septic Systems: these consisted of a "septic tank, the drain field, and the soil beneath the drain field" (NCSU, 2013).…
NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/
Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.
UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://lancaster.unl.edu/acreageguide/waste.shtml
Gray Water System
As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in…
Southern California Water issue
The issue of water shortage is a fact that lives with the entire world taking into account the ever receding usable water levels. These are due to pollution, lack of access and misuse at the domestic level. The misuse at the domestic level and the very basic domestic solutions that there can be within the society as seen in other countries especially in the Middle East and desert countries is the prime focus of the paper since it is here that there are many fallacies and wrong arguments that surround the water conservation issue and yet therein to lies the solution to the water conservation approach among them being Xeriscaping.
One of the faulty logics commonly used by people at the homestead level to argue for domestic waste of water is the faulty logic of circular reasoning. Many argue that they have to use water…
Utah Valley State College, (2013). Types of Writing: Logical fallacies. Retrieved November 08, 2013 from http://www.uvu.edu/owl/infor/pdf/content_organization/fallacies.pdf
Wilson C & Feutch J., (2007). Xeriscaping: Creative Landscaping. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/garden/07228.html
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
I am convinced that Mallin's theories are true. First, he adequately supports them with his own research data. These quantitative statistics are difficult to ignore. In addition, others have made similar relational connections between populations and shellfish bed closure. Bain concurs with Mallin that shellfish beds closures are on the rise. He cites Kevin McAllister, President of Peconic Baykeeper, in noting that one-third of the Great South Bay's shellfish beds were closed for harvesting because of fecal bacteria, in 2006 (1). A report in Columbian notes that aging septic tanks that overflow in the summertime were a primary factor in the 2003 closure of all of the Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe's oyster beds in Dungeness Bay ("Pollution Closes" C6).
There is one primary questions that I think need to be addressed to follow up Mallin's results. What are the effects of increased agriculture in these areas? Is it primarily development of…
Bain, Brandon. (19 May 2006). "Soaking up Harmful Runoff." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. p. 1
Mallin, Michael. (June 2006). "Wading in Waste." Scientific American. 294(6) pp. 53-59.
"Pollution Closes Tribe's Oyster Beds." (21 Sept 2003). Columbian. p. C6.
Commercial Use of Michigan Groundwater
Appropriately named the "Great Lakes State," Michigan is the only state whose borders lie completely within the world's largest system of fresh surface water, the Great Lakes basin, which constitutes 18% of the world's water supply.(4)
Traditionally, Michigan has relied primarily on "riparian" rights analyses derived from English common law to regulate the commercial use of its largest natural resource. Since riparian concepts focus primarily on the relative rights of competing users of surface waters, there has, until very recently, been comparatively little regulation of the underground springs or aquifer system which feeds the surface water system, or of the rights of the state to control removal of water resources for use or sale elsewhere.
On November 25, 2003, Mecosta County Circuit Court Judge Lawrence Root issued a lengthy opinion that finally addressed the problem and defined many of the issues under the laws of…
1. Howlett, D., Water Battle Dredges Up Acrimony; USA Today (June 22, 2003)
Accessed at http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/mi/062203_great_lakes.htm
2. Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation v. Nestle Waters North America Inc.
49th Judicial Circuit Mecosta County Circuit Court Opinion (Nov 25, 2003) Accessed at http://www.envlaw.com/decisions/MCWC2.txt
China's Health Indicators
China has gone through impressive economic development over the past few years, and has experienced a big reduction in poverty along with other positive achievements. Due to improvement in living conditions, nutrition, and healthcare, there have been " ... declines in infant mortality and deaths from infectious diseases," according to The New England Journal of Medicine (He, 2005). But there have also been negatives associated with urbanization and industrialization -- in particular China's stubborn air pollution and its negative impacts on health -- that have increased the risk of " ... chronic disease, including vascular disease and cancer" (He, 1125). This paper reviews the health indicators for China along with other pertinent data and information relating to the well-being of the Chinese people.
China's Demographics and Data on Health Issues
The population of China (based on 2013 data from the orld Health Organization -- HO) is approximately…
He, J, Gu, D., Wu, X, Reynolds, K., Duan, X., Yao, C., Wang, J., Chen, C-S, Chen, J.,
Wildman, R.P., Klag, M.J., and Whelton, P.K. (2005). Major Causes of Death among
Men and Women in China. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(11), 1124-34.
Ooi, E. W-L. (2005). The World Bank's Assistance to China's Health Sector. The World
ater conservation can only provide so much of the resource. Other resources need to be developed to keep up with demand. The Clavey-ards Ferry project will create a reservoir that will provide an extra 12,000 acre of water for supply to the growing population needs of the San Francisco Bay area (Ibid, 3)
2) Due to the energy crisis, all sources of clean energy must be exploited. Hydroelectric power emits no air pollution. The increased energy needs of the state are graphically indicated in Exhibit 1 (Ibid, 11). The energy supplies have to come from somewhere, the Clavey-ards Ferry project is the most energy for the least cost in terms of finances and environmental impact, in particular air pollution which is a major problem in California. By 1983, the 150-megawatt power station at the new Don Pedro Dam met only half of the electricity demand in the two irrigation districts.…
Kincaid, Linda. "Saving the Tuolumne." Case Studies in Public Policy and Management. Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, 2011. Web. 19 Mar 2011. .
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
edland Wastewater Treatment Plant
edland Water is the department of the edland City council that oversees the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water in edland City. esidential households and commercial premises such as shopping centers, cafes, commercial laundries, butchers, car-washing centers, and restaurants are the main sources of waste water in edland City. Once collected, waste water is stored temporarily in abattoirs, before being released for treatment in one of the seven treatment plants located in Point Lookout, Dunwich, Mount Cotton, Victoria Point, Thorneside, Cleveland, and Capalaba (edland City Council, 2012). The author paid the Capalaba Treatment Plant a visit, and found that the plant had just upgraded to a new waste water treatment technique referred to as the Vetiver Grass System, herein referred to as the VS. The Vetiver system, "a green and environmentally-friendly waste water technology as well as natural recycling method," had just been approved by…
AMPC, 2005. Waste Water. AMPC [online] Available at http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/reports/Resources/Wastewater-enviromental-best-practice-manual.pdf
Ash, R. And Truong, P., n.d.The Use of Vetiver Grass Wetlands for Sewerage Treatment in Australia. Dokuz Eylul University Library [online] Available at http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana58/new80.pdf
Piemonte, V., De Falco, M. And Basile, A. Eds., 2013. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
Redland City Council, 2010. Waste Water. Redland City Council [online] Available at http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/EnvironmentWaste/Water/Pages/Wastewater.aspx
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…
Air Pollution in Bahrain: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://aqicn.org/map/bahrain/
Bahrain Economic Development Board (2017). Water. Retrieved online: http://www.bahrain.com/en/bi/key-investment-sectors/Pages/Water.aspx#.WQ5rmInyuRs
CIA World Factbook (2016). Bahrain Urbanization. Retrieved online: http://www.indexmundi.com/bahrain/urbanization.html
Fowler, S.W. (1993). Pollution in the Gulf. IAEA Bulletin. Retrieved online: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/35205980913.pdf
The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care…
Environmentalgraffitti, n.d. 7 Extinct Animals: Rare Photographs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/rare-photographs-
Magnuson, M.L. et al., 2005. Responding to Water Contamination Threats. [Online]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…
Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010
Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:
Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…
"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change
"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org /water/pollution/nspills.asp
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
Council, E.R. (2004). Renewable Energy in Europe: Building Markets and Capacity. London: James & James.
DeWinter, F. (1990). Solar Collectors, Energy Storage, and Materials. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press.
Herring, H., Hardcastle, R., Phillipson, R., & Energy, G.B. (1988). Energy use and energy efficiency in UK commercial and public buildings up to the year 2000. London: HMSO.
Marketing (Water Fans, India)
The market in India for water fans or misting fans as they are also called is problematical at best. Without doubt, the climate (except in the northern mountains) is hot; the problem is, it is also quite humid. Still, the Indian people have been looking for ways to stay cool for centuries. It was India that gave the world the slatted shutter; when air comes in through small spaces (as in shutters, adopted in the American South before air conditioning, or in lattice-work walls as in parts of India), it is cooled. Still, they did not develop a cooling system like that of that ancient omans, which did use water running through channels to create condensation. The reason, of course, is the problem of water quality. While industrial pollution has now added immeasurably to the water quality problems in India, the sluggish flow of…
Establishing New Ventures: Hiring People. (2004) Indiamart Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 fromhttp://finance.indiamart.com/
India. (2004) CIA World Factbook. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/in.html
India Profile. (2004) U.S. Department of State Web site. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3454.htm
Sen, Soumik. (2004) The New Cold War. Rediff Web site, April 24. Retrieved December 16, 2004 from http://inhome.rediff.com/money/2004/apr/24ac.htm?zcc=ar
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…
Associated Press. (2014, July 16). California seeks to send message to water-wasters. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from sacramento.cbslocal.com Web site: http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2014/07/16/california-seeks-to-send-message-to-water-wasters/
Lustgarten, A. (2014, July 18). California halts injection of fracking waste, warning it may be contaminating aquifers. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from www.propublica.org Web site: http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers
McCarty, J.A., & Shrum, L.J. (Spring 2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
State of California. (2014). California drought. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from ca.gov Web site: http://ca.gov/drought/
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…
Abbasi, T., & a., a.S. (2011). Renewable Energy Sources . New Delhi: PHI.
BRE (2002), BREDEM-8 Model Description: 2001 Update, BRE, UK ? BSI (1989), BS5918:
British Standard Code of Practice for Solar Heating Systems for Domestic Hot Water,
Bradford, J. & Bean, F. (2011). 'Here comes the sun: a field trial of solar water heating systems.' The Energy Saving Trust. [PDF]
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.
Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…
Helmer, Richard and Hespanhol, Ivanildo (eds.). "Water Pollution Control -- a Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles." London: Thomson Professional, 1997.
How the Scheme Works." Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Nov. 2003. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/licensing/hrsts/how_the_scheme_works.htm .
James, David. "Environmental Incentives: Australian Experience with Economic Instruments for Environmental Management." Environmental Economic Research Paper No. 5. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 1997. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.gov.au/about/publications/economics/incentives/trade.html.
Olifants River Basin, the." International Water Management Institute. 31 Oct. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Research_Impacts/Benchmark_Basins/Olifants.aspx.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.
Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.
Comerford, Michael Sean. "Red Scare Fear Grows over the Quality, Inspection and Sheer Volume of Imports from China." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 15 July 2007, 1.
Elwell, Craig K., Marc Labonte and Wayne M. Morrison. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy? Federation of American Scientists. [online]. 2007. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf .
Hirsch, Steve. "Safety Warning Issued on Chinese ATV; Government Cites Lack of Front, Parking Brakes." The Washington Times, 6 June 2007, C08.
Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives/. New York: Routledge, 2002.
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
For example, the soil in the Loess Plateau area is notoriously erodable and it is difficult to revegetate the steep slopes with a sufficiently dense cover of plantation and grass. Moreover, rainfall in the area is generally insufficient to support the growth of trees and plants even after their plantation; grazing by animals worsens the situation. Silt retention dams and structures in the silt-carrying gullies and valleys have proven more effective and thousands of dams have been built. As these dams are gradually filled up, the dam heights have to be raised. Such high retention dams, however, are a double-edged sword. Heavy once-in-a-century rains or powerful earthquakes could cause dams to break and initiate catastrophic landslides that would create even bigger floods that would do immense damage. Similarly, the Chinese have managed to control floods in the river by periodically raising the levees and the dykes but the unrelenting silt…
Chengrui, Mei, and Harold E. Dregne. "Review Article: Silt and the Future Development of China's Yellow River." The Geographical Journal. 167.1 (2001): 7.
Haihua, Tong. "Yellow River sewage spill spawns fish kill." China Daily. 2004-07-03. October 7, 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/09/content_346769.htm
Hoh, Erling. "Yellow River in Death Throes?" The Washington Times. August 31, 2001: 17.
Liang, Qiuhua. "Yellow River -- China's Sorrow" March, 20, 2002. October 7, 2006. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wolf1016/yellow_river_flooding.htm