Water Pollution Essays (Examples)

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Pollution Unfortunately There Is Quite a Diverse

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49497510


Unfortunately, there is quite a diverse array of forms of pollution of the water and the air on Earth. The paper will only focus upon a few types, with the intention of providing insight regarding the results of the pollution upon various forms of life on the planet. As far as any type of pollution, formal environmental agencies, whether public, private, or of the government, all have standards by which they determine the type of pollution and its classification. With respect to all forms of pollution, most environmental agencies have come to a consensus regarding the overall classification of pollution as it affects life. Those standards of pollution are primary forms of pollution and secondary forms of pollution.

There are two types of standards -- primary and secondary. Primary standards protect against adverse health effects; secondary standards protect against welfare effects, such as damage to farm crops and vegetation and damage to buildings. Because different pollutants have different effects, the NAAQS are also different. Some pollutants have standards for both long-term and short-term averaging times. The short-term standards are designed to protect against acute, or short-term, health effects, while the long-term standards were established to protect against chronic health…… [Read More]


Environmental Pollution Centers. (2012). Air Pollutants -- Types & Classifications. Web, Available from:  http://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/water/types/ . 2012 September 23.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Air Pollution Monitoring. Web, Available from: http://www.epa.gov/oaqps001/montring.html. 2012 September 23.

Tropical Rainforest Animals. (2012). Types of Water Pollution. Web, Available from: http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/Air-Pollutants.html. 2012 September 23.
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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across Europe at the time. (Some soda ash was imported to Europe from the New World, where deforestation was also occurring. However, because the process of deforestation had begun later in the New World, including in Canada, there were still large stands of forests.)

At the same time that the availability…… [Read More]

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations
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Water Standards Issues in Urban Planning

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49718611

Water Standards Issues in Urban Planning

The objective of this work in writing is to develop and articulate persuasive research-oriented arguments related to planning practice. This work will define the problem, present theories and cases, summarize, and highlight the salient points from those theories and cases that are found to formulate a plausible solution to the problem.

The planning process for urban runoff urban water standards must be based on regulations that make a requirement of specific programs relating to approaches in planning. Different regulations make a requirement of different approaches in planning. The planning process addressed in this work is that of watershed management and this specific planning process requires the following:

(1) Regulatory Basis -- SOWA

(2) Determining Existing Conditions -- Development of Watershed Description

(3) Quantifying pollution sources and water resource impacts -- identification of detrimental characteristics;

(4) Assessment of alternatives -- conduction of risk assessment; and (5) Development and implementation of recommended plan -- development of detrimental activities control plan. (Environmental Protection Agency, )

I. Nonpoint Source Pollution

The problem addressed in this study is that of nonpoint source pollution and the necessary action plan to be implemented in this type of situation. Nonpoint source pollution…… [Read More]


Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm

Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm

Nonpoint Source Management Planning Session II (2011) Summary Report - University of Northern Iowa Institute for Decision Making. 29 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bcs.uni.edu/idm/news/NPSMP/NPSMP_Session_2_Summary_Report.pdf

Ambrosio, JD, Lawrence, T. And Brown, LC (nd) A Basic Primer on Nonpoint Source Pollution and Impervious Surface. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet - Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0444.html
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Water Crisis in Private Water

Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72742951

Both Segerfeldt and Barlow also emphasize that the crisis especially affects the developing world. Poor people are dying from dirty water, both Barlow and Segerfeldt claim. Barlow cites the World Health Organization, claiming that "every eight seconds, a child dies from drinking dirty water," (299). Segerfeldt agrees that "the shortage of water helps to perpetuate poverty, disease, and early death," (294). Finally, Barlow and Segerfeldt both acknowledge that technically the earth does not "run out" of water (Barlow 299). Segerfeldt similarly claims that there is "no shortage" of water, "at least not globally," (294).

Segerfeldt and Barlow disagree on what causes the water crisis and most importantly, on what to do about it. Although Barlow and Segerfeldt both agree that water is a potentially renewable resource, only Barlow notes that "there is a finite amount of available fresh water on the planet," (299). The earth cannot run out of water, but the earth also cannot create new water. The problem with the finite amount of water is that it is being polluted and diverted for capitalist and industrialist endeavors worldwide. Segerfeldt does not mention the problem that pollution poses to the water crisis. Instead, Segerfeldt focuses on bad public policy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barlow, Maude. "Where Has All the Water Gone?" Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment.

Segerfeldt, Frederik. "Private Water Saves Lives." Chapter 6: Protecting the Environment."
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Water Quality and Lake Winnipeg Watershed Management Assignment 3

Words: 3674 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15322351

Water Quality and Lake Winnipeg Watershed Management

Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing an overgrowth of algae. Lake Winnipeg is one lake that has been adversely affected by eutrophication. Using Lake Winnipeg as a case study, this text demonstrates the causes of eutrophication, the effects of the same on aquatic life, and ways of minimizing its overall effects.

What are the key differences in the physical, chemical and biological features observed in a comparison of oligoptrophic with eutrophic water bodies? Which condition is more desirable based on the concept of sustainability? Why?

Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing a subsequent increase in the growth of algae and higher plants. A water body starts from a natural state (the oligoptrophic stage) through a mesotrophic state, and finally reaches the eutrophic state with the further addition of nutrients. In the eutrophic state, the water quality is low and nutrient build-up is evident in both sediments and water. Euphoric water bodies are characterized by among other things, i) low dissolved oxygen concentrations in deeper waters, ii) high nutrient concentration levels, iii) decreasing light penetration, iv) high phosphorus concentrations, and iv) an…… [Read More]


California Department of Public Health. (2015). Blue-Green Algae: Cyanobacteria Blooms. California Department of Public Health. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from https://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/environhealth/water/Pages/Bluegreenalgae.aspx

Malley, D. F., Ulrich, A. E. & Watts, P. D. (2009). Food and Water Security in the Lake Winnipeg Basin: Transition to the Future. The Thomas Sill Foundation. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from http://www.pdkprojects.com/pdf/Food%20and%20Water%20Security%20in%20the%20Lake%20Winnipeg%20Basin.pdf

Moshiri, G. A.(Ed.). (1993). Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvements. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Shaw, G. R., Moore, D. P. & Garnett, C. (2004). Eutrophication and Algal Blooms. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c06/e6-13-04-04.pdf
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Pollution Environmental Issues Have Long

Words: 1582 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73408945

In addition, fuel emissions for vehicles must be carefully monitored and government agencies should work to ensure that they meet safe and acceptable standards to reduce pollution. (How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution?)


The purpose of this paper is to discuss global warming and pollution.

We found that global warming occurs because of an accelerated green house effect. We found that pollution occurs because of harmful emissions caused by fossil fuels and industrialization. Our investigation found that pollution can result in serious health problems including lung cancer. We also found that pollution can stunt lung growth in children and irritate existing conditions. Finally, we asserted that preventative measures must be taken to reduce air pollution. Preventative measures can take place with the development of alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Global Warming in Brief. 2000 http://www.globalwarming.org/article.php?uid=65

How can air pollution hurt my health?


How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution? http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/pollution-main.html
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Polluting Water and Poisoning Fish

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79641449

Water Pollution

Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. )

The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw sewage and oil spills. Ocean and river pollution have increased in line with industrial human development, with more toxic wastes being drummed in water than ever before. This has reached the stage when marine life and fishing stock in many oceans is being negatively affected. "Beaches around the world are…… [Read More]


Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm

Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury

Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005.  http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html 

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
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Water and Plastic Bottle Burden

Words: 1800 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79110006

With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.

This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual lives and, therefore, society.

1. 1. Eric Lichtfouse. Mireille Navarette. Philipe Debaeke. Veronique Souchere. Caroline Alberola. (2009) Sustainable Agriculture. New York: Springer.

2. Adams, Mike. Healing with Water: The Work of Water Cure Pioneer Dr. Batmanghelidj, Natural News 6-2005.

Last Accessed 28 April 2010: http://www.naturalnews.com/003202.html

3. Klessig, Lance. Water is…… [Read More]

7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, (http://www.fluoridealert.org/health...)

8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, (http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/)

9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation...)
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Water Sustainability in the Developing World

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12437467

Water Delivery

Water sustainability has been of increasing concern in academia as a political as well as an environmental problem. My dissertation will specifically focus on water sustainability in the Caribbean and how to improve methods of delivery. Water is a finite, not an infinite resource, and must be treated as such. Additional research is needed to see how best to improve current quality and availability in the region. One useful method of doing so is reviewing how governments have tried and in some cases failed in the past to improve water sustainability in other areas of the developing world.

Technology provides many potential benefits for improving water quality, according to Jha (et al. 2007). In the article "Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: prospects and constraints" the authors examine how the pollution and exploitation of groundwater is causing a critical problem for the environment in India. Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) can work to circumvent some of these issues, although the technology is still in its nascent stages. The uses for RS and GIS include the assessment of current resources and damages; selecting artificial recharge sites; flow and pollution modeling;…… [Read More]


Biswas, A. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A reassessment.

Water International, 29:2, 248-256. DOI: 10.1080/02508060408691775

Jha, M. et al. 2007. Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: prospects and constraints. Water Resource Management 21:427 -- 467. DOI 10.1007/s11269-006-9024-4.

Jonker, L. 2007.Integrated water resources management: The theory -- praxis -- nexus, a South African perspective. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 32, 1257 -- 1263.
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Geology Water Is an Important Resource of

Words: 1795 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43049191


Water is an important resource of earth and an inevitable requirement of life. There is no life without water; regardless it is human life, animal life or plant life. Water is mandatory for all kinds of life and it is no exaggeration to mention that if life ends, no activity is required on the face of earth. So it is a valid statement that water is life.

The fundamental concepts of economics emphasize on the scarcity of resources and their efficient usage. It is because; there are unlimited consumers of a limited resource. It may be argued that natural resources are unlimited, however, the way human being manages them for maximum benefits becomes a constraint in their capacity. For example, the natural resources of water may be present but to ensure their accessibility to the areas located far from these resources is a burning question. The authorities and responsible bodies are in a fix how to efficiently manage the resources.

This paper casts lights upon certain natural resources like water and elaborates their consumption with respect to their availability.

Change in Water Consumption

It is broad daylight that population of the world is increasing hence the resource need is…… [Read More]


Scientus. (2010). Retrieved from  http://www.scientus.org/Wegener-Continental-Drift.html 

US Department of Energy. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_production.html
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Yellow River Pollution

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31821980

Yellow River Pollution

A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)

Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government in China has "…prioritized cleaning up its polluted rivers and has pledged vast sums for the purpose -- one plan is to flush the Yellow with water diverted from the cleaner Yangtze -- enforcement of environmental laws at the local level remains spotty at best. Local government officials often have…… [Read More]


China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from:  http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm 

China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm

China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental News Network. 26 May 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1643

City Governments Fined for Yellow River Pollution (2010) China Daily. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-03/11/content_9574818.htm
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Oceans & Waters Surface Runoff Is the

Words: 1744 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16433019

Oceans & Waters

Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).

CONTROL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given time for nature to help filer or to remove chemicals. The sites themselves are protected from runoff so that the chemicals and pollutions that are captured do not work their way into usable holdings or drinking water. Waters not treated in drains can pick up bacteria, viruses and even parasites…… [Read More]


Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .

California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. <  http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.

LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/>.

Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
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Global Pollution Has Increased Significantly

Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17928543

While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.… [Read More]


1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm

2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,,  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html 

3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html

4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
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Multiple Forms of Pollution Are Quickly Becoming

Words: 2377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31213112

Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.

One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is associated with congestive urban areas that are forced to deal with noises from construction, automobile traffic, air traffic, and railways. The issue was, largely, ignored by scientists and city planners during the majority of the twentieth century because it was not deemed a legitimate form of pollution. After all, it…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.

Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.

Dodson, Stanley I. And Anthony R. Ives. (1998). Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Edwards, Rob. (2005). "Study Reveals Cancer Risk to Unborn Babies from City-Center Air Pollution." Sunday Herald, Feb. 20.
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Addressing the Problem of Pollution in Tampa Florida

Words: 4211 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35019060

urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.

Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida


Urban areas in the U.S. are impacted by several types of pollutants, whether air or waste or water pollution. This study focuses on a specific urban area in Florida in the city of Tampa to assess how the city is addressing the issue of environmental health and safety and what its city managers could do…… [Read More]


Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.

Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.

City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
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Computing Pollution

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82536596

Computing Pollution

Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.

Air Pollution Emission

One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteRef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. Reported as a key tool in screenings of vehicular exhaust emissions (VEESs) is that of 'line source emission modeling' as it assists in the management and control of such emissions in the urban environment. (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, paraphrased) [1: Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for…… [Read More]


Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at:  http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf .

Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at: http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf

Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf

Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at: http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
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San Diego Tijuana Water Ecademic

Words: 1496 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39728113

San Diego-Tijuana water epidemic. The writer of this paper presents the history as well as the current factors involved in the problem. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

In recent decades the world has come to realize that the earth's resources are not comprised of a bottomless pit. It has been acknowledged that there are resources that are threatening to run out or contaminate so that they can no longer be useful to mankind. One of the most important resources the world has is the water supply. Without water the world would perish, therefore it is vital to maintain a clean and well cared for system at all times. The San Diego Tijuana water supply is under a constant threat of contamination as well as other problems. A drought that refuses to lift limits the amount of water available to the areas and the water that is received must be preserved. In addition to nature's timetable a troubles with water there is a dispute between San Diego and Tijuana about water ownership and water use (McDonnell A 25). The Tijuana area is frequently dependent on the U.S. For its water supply, which in turn short circuits the…… [Read More]


San Diego Water Pollution (SANDIEGO)(Accessed, 5-15-2002)


Department of State, Treaties in Force: Bilateral Treaties & Other Agreements: 'Mexico'., U.S. History, 09-01-1990.

____. DROUGHT MAGNIFIES IMPORTANCE OF U.S.-MEXICO WATER DISPUTES. SourceMex - Economic & Political News on Mexico, PG 56
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Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

Words: 2404 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29164775

This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.

Removal of Plastic from Municipal Waste

Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags, microwavable trays, margarine tubs, food trays and packaging material for some toys and electronic items. According to Waste Online (2002), approximately three million tones of plastic waste are generated in United Kingdom every year. There are various alternatives to remove and recycle plastic e from municipal waste. According to Foster…… [Read More]

Reference List

Colls, J 2002, Air Pollution, Spon Press, London.

Friends of Earth 2009, Briefing Pyrolysis, Gasification and Plasma, Friends of Earth Limited Company, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf>.

Hill, T 2010, Pyrolysis and Gasification briefing, UK without incineration, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf>.

Fantom, I 2005, Should I replace my ESP with a Fabric Filter? Filtration Society, Birmingham, England.
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Challenges to Clean Water Systems in Rural Regions

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63192389

Obtaining Clean Water in Rural and Developing Regions

In rural areas and in the developing world, supplying clean drinking water is a challenge that institutions and researchers alike face. As The Water Project notes, in developing nations like Africa, "surface water sources are often highly polluted, and infrastructure to pipe water from fresh, clean sources to arid areas is too costly of an endeavor" (Lewis). Thus, adequate funding and proper technological infrastructure combine with naturally arid environments and water pollution to create the four main obstacles to rural/developing areas obtaining clean water.

As Moe et al. of the Institute of Medicine in Washington, DC, indicate, the problems facing the obtainment of clean water in the developing world and in rural areas are due primarily to a balkanization effect, in which all the variables needed to come together to effect a strategy and sufficient infrastructural environment for delivery are broken apart. Elements are missing, financing comes up short, stability within regions (both economic and political) is lacking, private sector investment drives up, and pollution is rampant. There is not enough collaboration or integration among private sector investors, institutions, governmental offices, businesses that leave a footprint on the environment, and communities. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lewis, Lori. "Rural and Urban Water Issues in Africa." The Water Project. Web. 5

June 2016.

Massoud, M., Al-Abady, A., Jurdi, M., Nuwayhid, I. "The challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in rural areas of developing countries." Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 72, no. 10 (2010): 24-30. Print.

Moe, Christine; Institute of Medicine. Global Environmental Health. Washington, DC:
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Analyzing Pollution in the Oceans

Words: 2524 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49155046

Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges



"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"

Pollution in the Oceans

Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.

'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is optimization of the system function when the capacities of the two entities to respond are balanced with the complex nature of individual tasks. There is need to extend network support to assist them turn into practice communities and entities that will influence change. That is essential if the problem of…… [Read More]


Anon., n.d. [Online]

Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf

Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].

Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
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Dealing With Pollution in Water Runoff

Words: 1801 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80620053

clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.


The potentially nasty (if not deadly) effects of improper water runoff management can manifest in a number of ways and this has been seen both in the United States and around the rest of the world. For example, there are the heavy dust particles found in stream networks in areas near…… [Read More]


Haiyan, L., Liang, L., Mingyi, L., & Xiaoran, Z. (2013). Effects of pH, Temperature,

Dissolved Oxygen, and Flow Rate on Phosphorus Release Processes at the Sediment and Water Interface in Storm Sewer. Journal of Analytical Methods In

Chemistry, 1-7. doi:10.1155/2013/104316

Karlsson, K., & Viklander, M. (2008). Trace Metal Composition in Water and Sediment
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Water and Our Life

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3833023

Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).

Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.

Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to be cleansed of the salt, thereby ensuring its potability. However, Rachel does not provide any grounds to support her claim, or even come up with a solution such as the one stated by this essay. Her essay contains no material at all to support her assertion. Instead, what she offers…… [Read More]

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Water Resources of New York

Words: 1283 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42317485

Anthropological Analysis; The Water Resources of New York

This paper is an illustration of the supply problems of water resources of long island, New York. It has 5 sources.

The human being has certainly come a significantly long way in terms of exceptionally evolutionary development and advancement within all sectors and components constituting the geographical as well as intangible parameters of contemporary society. Though there have been various, monumentally significant outcomes and benefits accompanying most of the developmental establishments and advancements of mankind till date, however, there are almost an equal number of disadvantages that have also accompanied this significant rate of advancement.

Take into consideration, for instance, the primarily disadvantageous and deteriorative consequences of such achievements as the power to wage nuclear warfare and the ecologic downfall of inventions that give off harmful chemicals as by products. Moreover, the inherently destructive nature of man has also led him to largely exploit a great many of natures resources that we humans have been prevalently taking for granted. Oxygen, the most biologically essential element, which we exploit in so much as negatively adulterating with vehicle fumes and CFCs, is one of them, while water, an equally essentially compound, is another.

Human-induced…… [Read More]


Citizens Environmental Research Institute (2003); Water Resources @


New York Ground Water Conditions (Accessed 2003) @

Brown C.J., Walter D.A., & Colabufo Steven (1999); Iron in the Aquifer System of Suffolk County U.S., Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations
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Causes Implications and Intervention Strategies Water Scarcity

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28496950

Water Scarcity

The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.

Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for settlement and the quantity of food required to cater for the population's needs increases. More rainwater thus flows into the seas and oceans instead of being trapped in the soil, and more of the little that is trapped is channeled towards food production at the expense of other basic needs.…… [Read More]

References Cited

Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf

The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25

Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
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Marine Life Pollution Can Be Defined in

Words: 1527 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36829379

Marine Life Pollution

Pollution can be defined in different prospective including economics. The economics definition of pollution denotes pollutions as loss of environ quality. Furthermore it defines the cost of pollution as the cost of environmental loss (Goodstein, 2011). However the literary meanings of pollution are defined as the contamination of environment that can cause harmful effects on the inhabitants.

These effects are particular with the environment and a number of pollutions are present including air, water, industrial, carbon, and marine pollutions. All these pollutions have a varying degree of effects in their particular environments. The essay is focused to investigate causes of marine pollution and its effects on the sea life. The solutions are also provided to mitigate the effects of marine pollution.

Marine pollution:

Marine pollution is the represented as the contamination of sea environment through various activities either taking place on earth or within the sea. Most of the contamination is caused through human intervention of sea environment. The water on land in thrown in sea taking a number of contaminated materials with itcaucuses the marine pollution.On the otherhand the litter thrown in sea is also one of the major causes of earth pollution sent into seas.…… [Read More]


Bergmann, M., & Klages, M. (2012). Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory Hausgarten. Marine pollution bulletin.

Burke, LM, Reytar, K, Spalding, M & Perry, A 2011, Reefs at risk revisited (p. 130). Washington, World Resources Institute, USA.

Charles, A. (2012). People, oceans and scale: governance, livelihoods and climate change adaptation in marine social -- ecological systems. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.

Goodstein, ES 2011, Economics and the Environment, Wiley, USA.
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Mitigating the Effects of Emerging Water Pollutants

Words: 2538 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46682089

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment

Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.


A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in most cases, some chemicals like pesticides are released deliberately into the environment. Water forms a major and significant means by which these chemicals reach the living organisms in the environment, which exert their effects upon consumption, or accumulate in the water bodies. Therefore, water carries the imprint of all the…… [Read More]


Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8

Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246

Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
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Marine Pollution the Ocean Covers

Words: 2459 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37263677

S. has jurisdiction. The dumping specifically of biodegradable plastics into the sea in these navigable waters and in offshore areas less than 25 nautical miles from the nearest land is strictly forbidden. Metals, bottles, crockery and similar garbage cannot be disposed of into the sea within 12 nautical miles from the closest land (U.S. Congress).

Food waste, paper, rags, glass and similar wastes cannot be thrown into navigable waters or those offshore and within three nautical miles from the nearest land, except in the emergency cases of separate garbage of fixed or floating platforms within 500 meters of these units. In addition, all manned, commercial and oceangoing U.S. flag ships measuring 12.2 meters or more in length and subject to U.S. jurisdiction must keep record of garbage discharges (U.S. Congress).

The Secretary of State is empowered and required to administer and enforce the MARPOL Protocol and his authority includes issuing necessary regulations (U.S. Congress 1960). Violating the Protocol is unlawful and constitutes a class D felony (U.S. Congress) as well as incurs civil liabilities. Ships must be inspected and made to report.

Certain ships shall be required to maintain refuse record books, shipboard management plans and display placards to notify…… [Read More]


1. Boukhari, Sophie. 20,000 Worlds Under the Sea: Ocean Pollution. UNESCO Courier: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1998

2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Oceans. Perspectives on Marine Environmental Quality Today, 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html

3. Glausiusz, Josie. Dead Zones - Pollution Killing Off Ocean Life. Discover, 2000

4. Mulvaney, Kieran. A Sea of Troubles: in the International Year of the Ocean, Are We Reaching the Limits? E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc., 1998
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China Water Political Ecology in

Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80257996

Yeh (2009) argues that ecological projects in China must be examined form a political ecology perspective, in which certain state-sponsored projects are seen to be damaging to many of the citizens immediately affected by the ecological pursuits. While this author certainly has a political point to make, it is hardly an ecological one, and ultimately seems to argue for continuing ecological harm out of a sense of political fairness that would ultimately lead to much greater inequalities for the disadvantaged who will, out of sheer political reality, always reap the worst of any situation. That is, of the projects sponsored by the Chinese government were not allowed to go forth in order to provide short-term economic and political benefit to the populous, the resulting ecological damage would impact these people in far worse ways within a generation.


The political ecology perspective is a political perspective on ecological issues, and not some grand unification of the two theories. While this is not immediately clear in the research perspective itself, its application to real world issues such as the problem of clean drinking water in China, as well as other environmental issues in the country, makes this quite obvious. These examples…… [Read More]


Ho, K.; Chow, Y. & Yau, J. (2003). "Chemical and microbiological qualities of the East River (Dongjiang) water, with particular reference to drinking water supply in Hong Kong." Chemosphere 52, pp. 1441-50.

Ma, C. (2010). "Who bears the environmental burden in China -- an analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources?" Ecological economics 69, pp. 1869-76.

Qin, B.; Zhu, G.; Gao, G.; Zhang, Y.; Li, W.; Pearl, H. & Carmichael, W. (2010). "A Drinking Water Crisis in Lake Taihu, China: Linkage to Climatic Variability and Lake Management." Environmental management 45, pp. 105-12.

Tilt, B. (2007). "The political ecology of pollution enforcement in China." China quarterly 192, pp. 915-32.
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Air Pollution

Words: 3064 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920229

Air Pollution: A Testament to Human History

Air pollution is woven throughout the fabric of our modern life. A by-product of the manner in which we build our cities, air pollution is waste remaining from the ways we produce our goods, transport ourselves and our goods, and generate the energy to heat and light the places we live, play, and work.." (Davis, 1)

The most important natural resource on which humans depend is often overlooked. It is around us and inside of us; this vital resource is everywhere. It is vital to our survival, yet although it is almost omnipresent on earth, the supply is in danger. The air we breathe supplies us and all animals with oxygen, an essential element for the body to live. Air as we know it is almost completely composed of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and inert gases. Unfortunately, the composition of air has been affected by the humans that have released substances into the air that would not naturally occur, some of which can be harmful in any number of ways to the planet and to humans as individuals. This tainting of the earth's atmosphere is known commonly as air pollution. "It is not…… [Read More]


Alley, F.C. And Cooper, David. Air Pollution Control. Chicago: Waveland Press, 2002.

Becklane, John and Sue. Pollution. New York: Gloucester Press, 1990.

Boubel, Richard. Fundamentals of Air Pollution. New York: Academic Press, 1994.

Davis, Ayne; Wark, Kenneth; and Warner, Cecil. Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control. New York: Addison-Wesley Pub Co, 1997.
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War on Pollution of the

Words: 2299 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97943031

.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)

The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of sulfur dioxide "were found to be below air quality standards throughout the Gulf region." (Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup, 2004) Additionally stated is: "Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and cobalt in inhalable particles were found to be higher than their assumed safe limits, whereas nickel, vanadium, and copper were within safe limits.…… [Read More]


Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf

Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf

Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage

Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
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Marin Pollution

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2423944


In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.

When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the microplastic phenomenon. These microplastic particles are ingested by animals like mussels and others in varying stages of the food chain which could have adverse effects on people who consume these animals. Microplastic particles are defined as: "understanding these to mean plastic objects whose diameter is less than five millimeters --…… [Read More]

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Bottled Water vs Tap Water

Words: 3081 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64496752

S.) buy bottled water "because we believe it is healthier." Those beliefs are based on the fact that "Many consumers are willing to swallow the sales hype" but in reality "there is little evidence that bottled waters are substantially healthier to drink than ordinary tap water."

If one is truly thinking "green" about food and drink, there are more things to consider with regards to drinking water than the decision between tap water and bottled water. For example, in the UK, by the time Fiji water arrives on supermarket shelves it has traveled 10,000 miles. How much fossil fuel was used in the transporting of that water? What was the impact on climate change? And Naya Spring water travels 3,000 miles to arrive in the UK. How much greenhouse gas was released into the atmosphere so that Englanders could drink supposedly pure spring water from Canada?

On the Web site Dream Beverages, where a number of bottled water companies have their product displayed, there is a photo of a very young girl drinking from a liter-sized plastic bottle of Naya Spring Water. Under the photo the copy reads, "Naya water originates in the wilderness." People who live in crowded, noisy,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Daeschlein, Georf, Kruger, William H., Selepko, Christian, Rochow, Markus, Dolken, Gottfried,

Kramer, Axel. "Hygienic safety of reusable tap water." BMC Infectious Diseases 7.45

2007): 45-57.

Dream Beverages. "Naya Spring Water." Retrieved April 2, 2008, at  http://www.dreambeverages.com .
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International Water Policy

Words: 2453 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48183499

operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.

Water management

According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to become more frequent and serious. New approaches to long-term water planning and management that incorporate principles of sustainability and equity are required and are now being explored by national and international water experts and organization" (Gleick 1998: 571). Throughout much of the 20th century, the focus was on increasing water…… [Read More]


Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.

Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS

Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319

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Reducing Pollution in Any Neighborhood

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68547829

Riding a bike to work or school immediately reduces the carbon footprint that otherwise would be left from the exhaust of your car. Taking a bus, a trolley, carpooling or walking -- any of these modes of transportation is being "green" instead of contributing to pollution and to global climate change. it's true that every mile you drive your car, you produce exhaust waste, and so over a year's time of driving your car to work or school, you are adding thousands of pounds of pollutants to the air that every one breathes.

When shopping for groceries, use a cotton bag or other reusable shopping bag rather than letting the checker fill plastic bags with your purchases. Plastic bags (it is well-known) find their way onto the sidewalks, roadways, in fields and in waterways, and they cause injuries and death to wildlife, and so it is always a good way to reduce pollution by bringing your own bag for groceries. Moreover, you can purchase small grain sacs at the local health food or other progressive stores for your fruits and vegetables, so you don't need to use the plastic bags offered in the supermarkets for your lettuce, mushrooms, fruits and…… [Read More]

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Conventional Methods of Waste Water Treatment

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44993840

Waste Water Treatment

Inadequately treated waste water poses hazards such as water-borne diseases and water-body pollution. People generate wastewater (sewage) in numerous ways, including laundry and toilet use. To prevent pollution and ensure public health, waste water ought to be treated adequately. Today, waste water is not so much a problem as it was in earlier centuries, a trend that is attributable to the development of efficient sewer lines and treatment plants, otherwise referred to as centralized wastewater collection and treatment facilities. Not long ago, however, these were not as effective as they are today, and worse still, were not available to a majority of the population. People used the conventional decentralized waste systems to take care of, among others, the black waters, and still managed to lead hygienic lives.

Septic Systems: these consisted of a "septic tank, the drain field, and the soil beneath the drain field" (NCSU, 2013). The tank, which acts as a temporary storage, is linked to the drain field through a buried pipe. In the tank, solids are separated from liquids and stored at the bottom as sludge (UNL, 2011). The drain field delivers the septic effluent from the tank to the soil, which filters…… [Read More]


NCSU. (2013). Septic Systems and their Maintenance. North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from  http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/publications/Soilfacts/AG-439-13/ 

Rapaport, D. (1995). Sewage Pollution in Pacific Island Countries and how to Prevent It. Center for Clean Development.

UNL. (2011). A Place in the Country: the Acreage Owner's Guide. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Retrieved 2 May 2014 from http://lancaster.unl.edu/acreageguide/waste.shtml
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Bottled Water Be Banned Why

Words: 3428 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40223799

Is Bottled Water Truly as Pure as the Industry Would Like Us to Believe?

The NRDC hired three independent laboratories to conduct the testing of more than 1,000 plastic bottles -- 103 different brands -- and found that "about one third" the 103 brands contained "significant contamination," that is, levels of chemical or bacterial contaminants that exceed federal and state standards. After the independent labs completed their research and testing, NRDC also hired an "independent data verification firm" to confirm the accuracy of the results. The data showed that nearly one in four of the bottled waters tested (23 of the 103 waters, or about 22%) "violated strict applicable state (California) limits for bottled water in at least one sample" (NRDC). The most commonly found contaminant was "arsenic" or other cancer-causing man-made compounds.

One in five of the bottles tested (that is 18 of 103, or 17%) contained "more bacteria than allowed under microbiological-purity 'guidelines'" that have been adopted by some states, the industry, along with the European Union. The data released by the NRDC shows that about 33% of the 103 waters violated some "enforceable state standard" or otherwise exceeded microbiological-purity guidelines -- or both.

About one-fifth of the…… [Read More]


Baskind, Chris. (2010). 5 Reasons not to drink bottled water. Mother Nature Network. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from  http://www.mnn.com .

Beverage Industry. (2011). Bottled water recycling rates on the rise. 102(1), p. 13.

Buildings. (2010). Seattle University bans selling bottled water, 104(12), p. 16.

Department of Health and Human Services / Food and Drug Administration. Docket No.
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Gray Water Systems

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67300469

Gray Water System

As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in cold regions often face different challenges in treatment of wastewater from those of warmer regions." (Gao, Smith, & Sego) Unfortunately, the world has yet to create an economical or cost effective method for converting the vast amounts of ocean and sea water into useable drinking water.

That being said, the…… [Read More]

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Florida's Water Developing Water Issues

Words: 1865 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20772121

Florida Green Industries. June 2002. 7 Dec. 2007 http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/bmp/turfBMP.pdf.

Carbonate-Rock Aquifers." Aquifer Basics. United States Geological Survey. 31 Jan. 2005. 8 Dec. 2007 http://capp.water.usgs.gov/aquiferBasics/carbrock.html.

Cervone, Sarah. "Florida Aquifers." Planet Management in Florida Waters. University of Florida. 2003. 6 Dec. 2007 http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/aquifers.html.

Cervone, Sarah. "Florida Geology." Plant Management in Florida Waters. University of Florida. 2003. 8 Dec. 2007 http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/geology.html.

Cervone, Sarah. "Florida Sinkholes." Plant Management in Florida Waters. University of Florida. 2003. 5 Dec. 2007 http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/sinkholes.html.

Domestic Wastewater." Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 14 Nov. 2007. 8 Dec. 2007 http://dep.state.fl.us/water/wastewater/dom/index.htm.

Fact Sheet: Florida." U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. 5 Dec. 2007 http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=Search&_lang=en&_sse=on&geo_id=04000US12&_state=04000US12.

Floridan Aquifer System." Ground Water Atlas of the United States. U.S. Geological Survey. 6 Dec. 2007 http://capp.water.usgs.gov/gwa/ch_g/G-text6.html.

Forstall, Richard L. "Florida: Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990." U.S. Census Bureau. 27 Mar. 1995. 7 Dec. 2007 http://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/fl190090.txt.

Hydrologic Cycle." NASA's Observatorium. 1999. 9 Dec. 2007 http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/earth/hydrocycle/hydro1.html.

Perlman, Howard. "The Water Cycle: Infiltration." U.S. Geological Survey. 24 Aug. 2007. 8 Dec. 2007 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycleinfiltration.html.

Quick Facts on... 50 Ways to Be Water Smart." South Florida Water Management District. 8 Dec. 2007 http://my.sfwmd.gov/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/COMMON/PDF/SPLASH/SPL50WAYS.pdf.

Rosenberg, Matt. "Karst Topography and Sinkholes." About.com: Geography. 2007. 7 Dec. 2007 http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/karst.htm.

Shaw, George H. "Karst…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources in Florida. Florida Green Industries. June 2002. 7 Dec. 2007 http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/bmp/turfBMP.pdf.

Carbonate-Rock Aquifers." Aquifer Basics. United States Geological Survey. 31 Jan. 2005. 8 Dec. 2007 http://capp.water.usgs.gov/aquiferBasics/carbrock.html.

Cervone, Sarah. "Florida Aquifers." Planet Management in Florida Waters. University of Florida. 2003. 6 Dec. 2007 http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/aquifers.html.

Cervone, Sarah. "Florida Geology." Plant Management in Florida Waters. University of Florida. 2003. 8 Dec. 2007 http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/geology.html.
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Xeriscaping Southern California Water Issue the Issue

Words: 1147 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32984306


Southern California Water issue

The issue of water shortage is a fact that lives with the entire world taking into account the ever receding usable water levels. These are due to pollution, lack of access and misuse at the domestic level. The misuse at the domestic level and the very basic domestic solutions that there can be within the society as seen in other countries especially in the Middle East and desert countries is the prime focus of the paper since it is here that there are many fallacies and wrong arguments that surround the water conservation issue and yet therein to lies the solution to the water conservation approach among them being Xeriscaping.

One of the faulty logics commonly used by people at the homestead level to argue for domestic waste of water is the faulty logic of circular reasoning. Many argue that they have to use water the way they do since if they do not then how else would they use it and yet they found the family or society using water as it is being used. Most of such come from lawn and landscape people. The xeriscaping comes in to break this circular thinking and…… [Read More]


Utah Valley State College, (2013). Types of Writing: Logical fallacies. Retrieved November 08, 2013 from http://www.uvu.edu/owl/infor/pdf/content_organization/fallacies.pdf

Wilson C & Feutch J., (2007). Xeriscaping: Creative Landscaping. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/garden/07228.html
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Fouling Our Nest From Unquenchable America's Water Crisis

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42339084

The New River in California is so polluted that border patrol agents will not venture in, even when undocumented workers are crossing (Glennon 68). Another source of contamination is the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline, which significantly worsens the risks posed by gasoline spills. Gas spills with MTBE are much worse than regular gas spills because they penetrate the surface rather than hovering above -- it is more difficult to clean up and more difficult to go below the surface to find a clean source of water (Glennon 71). Without greater regulation of this contaminant, people have little ability to limit its use, other than limiting fuel use in general.

There have been attempts to improve government regulation and oversight of the water supply. For example, the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that all municipalities regularly test their local water supplies for a series of chemicals. This, however, does not protect individuals who rely upon private well sources for water (Glennon 71). Only New Jersey mandates that upon the sale of a house the well water be tested for safety; a recent California study found that in a single county, more than 40% of all well…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Glennon, Robert. Unquenchable: America's water crisis and what we can do about it.

Island Press, 2010.
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Cadmium in Wastewater and Drinking Water the

Words: 6106 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81125932

Cadmium in Wastewater and Drinking Water

The importance of efficiently controlling and monitoring potential toxins in water systems is extremely important. The potential contaminant known as Cadmium (Cd) is a naturally occurring trace metal that is regularly found in various types of ores. Its most common commercial uses are in the metal plating and coating of transportation vessels, household-cooking utensils, machinery and nickel-cadmium batteries (Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation, 2010). As a result of its multitude of uses, there are an equally large number of ways in which Cd can find its way into water systems. The most common of these are leaching, pipeline corrosion, corrosion from transportation vessels, runoff from metal and ore refineries among others. Cd is also capable of resulting in various negative health effects to humans unfortunate enough to consume it. Failure to adequately monitor Cadmium levels can result in numerous unsolicited health outcomes such as: "nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation, sensory disturbances, liver injury, convulsions, shock and renal failure," and these are only the effects of short-term exposure (Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation, 2010, p. 1). Prolonged exposure to cadmium-infected water can result in life-threatening "kidney, liver, bone and blood damage" (Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation, 2010,…… [Read More]


Advanced Purification Engineering Corporation, 2010, 'Drinking Water Contaminants: Cadmium', Retrieved April 13, 2011, from  http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/cadmium-contaminants-removal-water.htm 

Ahmed, FE 2001, 'Analysis of pesticides and their metabolites in foods and drinks', Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 649-661.

Ansari, IA, Dewani, VK & Khuhawar, MY 1999, 'Evaluation of metal contents in Phulleli canal and Hyderabad city sewage by flame atomic absorption spectrometer', Journal of Chemical Society (Pakistan), vol. 21, pp. 359-368.

Bag, H, Lale, M & Turker, ART 1999, 'Determination of Cu, Zn and Cd in water by FAAS after preconcentration by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) immobilized on sepiolite', Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 363, pp. 224-230.
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Noise Pollution Thermal and Acoustic

Words: 6532 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65340280

S. However, Russia continues to treat noise exposure as a minor problem. American physicians have associated some seemingly unrelated conditions to sound exposure. Long-term exposure to transportation noise has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk (Babisch, 2006). Hearing loss can occur at even low levels of sound that occur for an extended time (Sisto et al., 2007; Reuter et al., 2007; Dobie, 2007). Noise related hearing loss can occur in a variety of work settings (Mrena et al., 2007; Trost and Shaw, 2007; Moon 2007).

). Therefore, every work situation needs to be evaluated for the potential to cause hearing loss. Many of the ill effects of noise may be linked to loss of sleep (Rios and daSilva, 2005; Robertson et al., 2007; Lu et al., 2005).

Although the limits set by Title 42 are not requirements by Russia or the UK, they will be used as guidelines in the design of the structure. In the U.S. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets guidelines for workers during an 8-hour workday (OSHA, 2007). This facility will not be subject to inspection by OSHA, but its regulations set an excellent standard for worker safety. Therefore, it is in the best…… [Read More]


Air Services Limited. 2007. Company Overview. [online]

http://www.airport.co.uk / [Accessed October 11, 2007].

Babisch, W. 2006. Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk: updated review and synthesis of epidemiological studies indicate that the evidence has increased. Noise Health. 8(30):1-29.

Country-Studies. 2007. Russia. Environmental Problems. [online]
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Oceans & Plastic Pollution the

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31117096

9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.

Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). What is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).

There is lethal danger for small marine organisms as well, when it comes to "microscopic plastic particles" that lodge in sediments and surface waters of oceans, Katsanevakis explains (p. 71). After these microscopic particles are ingested by small marine organisms (lugworms, bivalves, barnacles and amphipods), and these organisms are in turn consumed by larger species, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University

Press, New York City, 585

Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.

Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
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Global Water Crisis & the Middle East

Words: 1799 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54617644

Global Water Crisis & the Middle East

The entire premise of the hydrological cycle is apparent when one views the planet as a living organism, the Gaia idea. From condensation through evaporation and precipitation, all aspects of the cycle work together to form the basis for the Earth being an organism called "The Blue Planet." Interruptions of any aspect of the cycle have negative effects that multiply in seriousness as they progress through the cycle. Nature's filtration system, along with the balance between the large mega-forests and weather, kept the relationship between potable water and human life viable (Lovelock 2000).

The Gaia Concept - Too, taking the Gaia concept a bit further, if we look upon the world as a Global Village, with some areas that have plenty of water, and other places that are continually experiencing a shortage. In fact, the problem is so great, that the World Health Organization estimates that 1/6th of the world lacks access to potable water, and at any given time, 50% of humans have one of the six main diseases (diarrhea, schistosomiasis, trachoma, infestation with ascaris, guinea work or hookworm) (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. October 2010 < http://www.nature.com/nature/focus/water/renewable_map.html >.

Barlow, M. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water. New York: New Press, 2008.

Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers. "Water Woes." May 2001. The University of Wisconsin. October 2010 .

DeVillers, M. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. Baltimore: Mariner Books, 2001.