Capital Structure Case Study Chapter

Length: 5 pages Sources: 6 Subject: Business Type: Chapter Paper: #83294343 Related Topics: Financial Ratio Analysis, Fixed Costs, Net Present Value, Cash Flow
Excerpt from Chapter :

Financial Ratios

a) The free cash flow model implies that the value of the firm is the present value of the expected future free cash flows. Under this model, capital structure can affect firm value. The free cash flow model is as follows (Cherewyk, 2015):

FCF = EBIT (1-t) + depreciation -- CAPEX -- ? working capital -- ? other assets

In this portion of the model, the free cash flow is not affected by the capital structure. Interest on debt is not included in the free cash flow, nor is the tax effect of this interest. However, when the free cash flow is discounted, it is discounted using the weighted-average cost of capital, and that is affected by the level of debt and the cost of debt. By changing the WACC, the firm changes the rate at which the free cash flow is discounted, thereby affecting firm value. Generally, the cost of debt is lower than the cost of equity, which means that the discount rate will be lower, and the present value of the expected future free cash flows higher, when the firm carries more debt in its capital structure.

B1) Business risk is the risk that factors affecting the free cash flows (or revenues, or profits) will change in the future. Such risks should be specific to the nature of the business, but they can be either internal or external. They are not general market risks. Many factors affect business risk, including the cost of inputs, demand, regulations, competitors -- anything that can affect the stability of the profits or cash flows from the business.

B2) Operating leverage refers to the fixed costs in the operating structure. They contribute to business risk as the denominator. Basically, as revenues fluctuate, the ability of the company to scale up or down its costs in line with changes in

...

A business can have highly volatile cash flows, but if it can scale down or up in line with those flows, it is not as risky as a business with a high amount of fixed costs. Fixed costs increase business risk because the business can be more susceptible to negative effects of the fluctuations that it faces. As example, consider the unit breakeven point:

P -- V = $5 per unit

FC = $200, so 200 / 5 = 40 units sold is the breakeven point.

c) 1) 2)

Firm 1 (no leverage)

Firm 2 (leverage)

EBIT

EBIT

Interest

0

Interest

Tax

Tax

Net Income

Net Income

Equity

20000

Equity

10000

ROE

9.00%

ROE

10.80%

C3) This example illustrates the effect of leverage on ROE. The ROE is higher with leverage because the equity level is lower. The net income (numerator) is lower, but the denominator (equity) is lower, too, which means that the ROE ends up higher for the leveraged firm.

d) Financial risk is the risk that is associated with the firm's choice of financing vehicles, whereas business risk is the risk associated with the cash flows/revenues, in other words the running of the business. Financial risk exists specifically because of the financial choices that the firm has made, such as the choice of capital structure.

e) If EBIT falls to $2,000, the following occurs:

Firm 1 (no leverage)

Firm 2 (leverage)

EBIT

2000

EBIT

2000

Interest

0

Interest

Tax

Tax

Net Income

Net Income

Equity

20000

Equity

10000

ROE

6.00%

ROE

4.80%

This shows that leverage affects return. The risk is higher with respect to ROE because the net income is going to be lower with leverage, on account of the interest payments. The interest payments decrease the amount of earnings that can be returned to the shareholders. So while leverage is good when the company is making a lot of money, it also increases risk to the shareholders because of the…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Cherewyk, P. (2015). Valuing firms using present value of free cash flows. Investopedia. Retrieved August 31, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental-analysis/11/present-value-free-cash-flow.asp


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