Banking and Spreads: How Commercial Banks Utilize Spreads to Maintain Profitability
Commercial banks are institutions that provide services to their customers, including accepting deposits, cashing checks, lending money for various purposes, and providing investment products. Commercial banks are for-profit institutions, and while they rely on various sources of profit, including fees, their main source of profit is the interest rate spread (Investopedia, 2016). Interest rate spread refers to the difference between the interest rate charged by banks on loans to the private sector and the interest rate paid on various savings accounts. A simple numerical equation to describe the interest rate spread is Spread = Interest charged -- Interest paid. The interest rate paid by the bank is lower than the amount it charges to customers who have loans, and the difference between these two rates is how commercial banks derive the bulk of their income.
While a bank may derive the bulk of its income from the difference between interest rates, it is incorrect to assume that the bank's income can be determined solely by examining the rates and comparing the amounts on deposit with the amount of money lent by the bank. First, while banks may change...
Furthermore, interest on loans that once reflected an optimal and profitable rate of spread can become less profitable when the economy changes, which might be reflected by a bank lowering the interest it pays on traditional savings accounts and simple investment products.
Furthermore, it is important to realize that, even if commercial banks were non-profit entities, there would still need to be a spread between interest paid and interest charged. There are costs associated with running a bank, which must be paid through earnings. However, more importantly, it is critical to realize that some percentage of money that banks lend to customers will not be repaid. Not only will the bank not receive interest on that money, but will actually lose the principal. Therefore, it is important that a bank's spread be sufficiently large to cover those anticipated losses. To understand how important…
Interest Rate Swaps The assertion that interest rate swaps require markets to be inefficient is inaccurate. While swap markets benefit from some inefficiency, firms may have compelling non-financial reasons for wanting to make changes to the timing of their cash flows, which is the basis for firms undertaking swaps. For these end users of swaps, the swap is most beneficial at fair value, and that is the price at which the
Australian Securities Exchange and Interest Rates The Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) and the Australian Stock Exchange Index (ASX 200) comprise a heavily traded securities, debentures, derivatives, and FOREX market that has grown precipitously over the past decade. Additionally, the monetary policy of the Australian Federal Reserve has facilitated economic policy in favor of growing its companies represented within the ASX 200 index. The truth is that all central planners adjust rates for
Future Ahead In the face of global credit crisis, it is expected that Fed has to make further changes such as cut in the more important federal funds rate to maintain stability. The pattern of growth is likely to change showing a slow down. "Mark Zandi, chief economist at Moody's Economy.com, has trimmed his forecast to show economic growth of about 2.5% in the current quarter, down sharply from 4% in
Under the arrangement, moreover, a country with efficient production and a favored competitive position (including as enhanced by new capital goods) is rewarded with rising income and reduced unemployment. No grand scheme of state or international planning and direct control is required. Exchange rates are for the most part fixed under the classical gold-flows mechanisms (say, $/£ const. within fixed limits), as stated, and adjustments to trade imbalances
S. banking industry." By 1974, the card has virtually assumed its contemporary form: "What an amazing transformation has taken place since Bank of America began marketing the precursor to Visa with its 1974 ad campaign 'BankAmericard. Think of it as money.'" 3. GOALS-OBJECTIVES-STRATEGIES. The companies overall strategy can be summed up in terms of its commitment to identifying what its customers want and being there on a "firstest-with-the-mostest" basis. Taken together,
U.S. financial market. To start with, we shall have an understanding of the various concepts for the study. A Financial Market can be defined as the market that is meant for either the raising of finances or money, as it is known, or the investment of assets. (Financial Market) An investment here means the production of capital goods that are not actually meant to be consumed but are meant