This involves planning, organizing, and controlling resources to achieve specific business objectives and goals. The project manager is accountable for accomplishing the project's objectives, building the project requirements, as well as managing project constraints (Ireland, 2006). The project management process encompasses several aspects; five process groups and a control system. These processes include initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and finally closing.
The international standards promote the adoption of a process approach when developing, implementing, and improving the effectiveness of a quality management system to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements. For an organization t function effectively, it has to identify and manage numerous linked activities (Lock, 2007). An activity using resources and managed in order to enable the transformation of inputs into outputs can be considered as a process. Often the output from one process directly forms the input of the next.
The application of a system of processes within an organization, together with the identification and interactions these processes, and their management, can be referred to as the process approach. An advantage of the process approach is the ongoing control that it provides over the linkage between the individual processes within the system of processes as well as over their combination and interaction.
When used in within the a quality management system, such an approach emphasizes the importance of understanding and meeting requirements, the need to consider processes in terms of added value, obtaining results of processes performance and effectiveness. The model of a process-based quality management system show that customers play a significant rate in defining requirements as inputs. Monitoring of customer satisfaction requires the evaluation of information relating to customer perception as to whether the organization has met the customer requirements.
Quality Management System
At this initial stage, the project's nature and scope are determined to ensure there is an understanding of the business environment and all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. In situation where difficulties arise, they are reported and a recommendation given to fix them. In addition, at this phase, there is a plan that revolves around analysis of the business needs in measurable goals, and reviewing of the current operations among others.
In line with this, a benchmark is created for assessing the quality of what is actually produced at the end of the project (Kerzner, 2003). It is also necessary to develop a process by which the project objectives can be achieved. This process will typically involve carrying out a number of tasks and producing a number of products during the course of the project. The tasks produce the products. For clarity of purpose and for control reasons it is useful to arrange these tasks in a top down structure, which progressively specify the required work in more detail.
Moreover, the initiation is conducted in a short timeframe; small projects should take two days, while medium to large may take up to four elapsed weeks. Small projects will produce a project initiation checklist with medium and large ones producing an initiation report.
The organization shall develop, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of the ISO standards. The organization shall identify the process needed for the quality management system and their application throughout the organization. Determine the sequence and interaction of these processes (Marsh, 1975). Determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and monitoring these processes. Implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these processes. These processes shall be managed by the organization in accordance with the requirements of international standards
Control of Documents
Documents required by the quality management shall be controlled. Records are a special type of document and shall be controlled according to the requirements. Documents procedure will be sued in approving documents for adequacy prior to issues, review and update as necessary, ensure documents remain legible and easily identifiable. Records shall be controlled and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and of the effective operation of the quality management system. Records shall remain legible, readily identifiable and retrievable. A documented procedure shall be established to define the controls needed for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention and disposition of records.
Management shall ensure quality objective, including those needed to meet requirements for product are established at relevant functions and levels within the organization. The quality shall be measurable and consistent with the quality policy. Management shall ensure that planning of the quality management is carried out in order to meet the requirements. Integrity of the quality management system is maintained when changes to the quality management system are planned and implemented (Stevens, 2002). In addition, management shall ensure that responsibilities and authorities are defined and communicated with it the organization, management shall appoint a member who shall have authority including ensuring that processes are needed for the quality management system are established, implemented and maintained. The management ensures appropriate communication processes are established within the organization and that communication takes place regarding the effectiveness of the quality management system.
Customer Related Processes
The organization shall determine requirements specified by the customer, including the requirements for delivery and post-delivery activities. Requirements not stated by the customer but necessary for intended use where known. The organization shall review requirements related to the product conducted prior to organization's commitment to supply a product to the customer and ensure that the firm has ability to defined requirements, and order requirements differing from those previously expressed and resolved.
Design and Development
The organization shall determine the design and development stages. The review, verification are supposed to be appropriate to each design and development stage. The organization shall determine the inferences between different groups involved in the design and development to ensure effective communication and authorities for design and development.
The firm shall ensure that it purchase products conforming to specified purchase requirements. This type and extent of control applied to the supplier and the purchased product on subsequent product realization. The organization shall evaluate and select suppliers based on their abilities to supply product in accordance with the organization's requirements. Criteria for selection, evaluation and re-evaluation shall be established. Records of the results of evaluations and any necessary actions arising from the evaluation shall be maintained. In addition, the organization shall establish and implements the inspection or other activities necessary for ensuring that purchased product meets purchase requirements.
Control of Production and Service Provision
The organization shall plan and carry out service provision under controlled condition, controlled environments shall include availability of information that describes the characteristics of the products, availability of work instruction, and the organization shall validate any processed for production and service provision where the resulting output cannot be verified by the subsequent monitoring. This includes processes where deficiencies become apparent only after the product is in use. The organization shall establish arrangements for processes such as use of specific methods and procedures and revalidation. The company shall exercise care with customer property while it is under organization's control. The organization shall identify, verify, protect and safeguard customers provided for use in the product. If any property is lost or found unsuitable, the customer will be informed and records maintained.
Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. In this phase, all activities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase and closure of contract applicable to the project or project phase.
The organization shall determine the monitoring and measurement to be undertaken and the monitoring and measuring devices needed to promote evidence of conformity of products to determined…