Marketing Advertising The XYZ Company Term Paper


) Rule 3 - Request that the moderator use a non-directive approach. (A non-directive approach is one that constructs questions for the group that encourages participants to be free flowing with their descriptions)

Projective techniques are often useful in easing participants out of an analytical mode. One projective technique, asks, "If this company were an animal what animal would it be? What would the competitors be?" In this way, they talk about brand image without being peppered with a series of brand questions.

Use advance written questionnaires. This primes respondents on key issues to be discussed, and it gives them a reference for the group discussion, thus making it easier for the unpopular viewpoint to be mentioned. ("Well, no one else has said this, but...")

Rule 4 - Don't count heads! (It's tempting, but this is not a projectable quantitative method, no matter how many groups


The objectives of the research are to gauge the effectiveness of brand and advertising on the consumer public.


Qualitative marketing research is generally used for exploratory purposes, has a small number of respondents and is not generalizable to the whole population - the statistical significance and confidence are not calculated such as in focus groups, in-depth interviews and projective techniques. (Market Research Tools: Qualitative Market Research, 2006)

Methods used in Qualitative market research are:

1) Focus discussion studies;

2) Depth interviews triads (one interviewer and two respondents) dyads (one interviewer and one respondent)

3) Observational techniques combined with interviewing.

Qualitative research is suggested by the Power Decisions Group when:

You're in new territory and little is known - When considering products or new markets, qualitative research can deliver an early landscape profile of consumer or business buyer attitudes and behavior.

Customer perceptions or attitudes may be hidden from easy view - When the product category may represent unspoken meaning to buyers, qualitative market research may provide needed tools.

Generate ideas for products, advertising, or brand positioning - The nuances of buyer attitudes and beliefs can often provide stimulus for fresh new ideas, and feed a formal idea generation process.

Screening ideas and concepts - Qualitative market research can be a useful first step, prior to quantitative research, to screen new advertising, product, or positioning concepts. This allows time for refining concepts prior to quantitative market research. (Power Decisions Group, 2006)


The following chart labeled Figure 1 illustrates the Qualitative Research Methodology structure.

Qualitative Research Structure

Source: Power Decisions Group (2006)

Qualitative research is "a marketing research method that plays an important market research role in conducting customer value analysis, customer satisfaction research, market segmentation research, branding and naming research, brand equity research, and new product research." (Power Decisions Groups, 2006) Additionally stated is that qualitative market research."..means "quality." Conversely, and importantly, it does not mean "quantity." Qualitative research methods are designed to talk to a relatively few people in the target audience of interest. The purpose of qualitative research is to plumb the depths and range of buyer attitudes and beliefs, not to measure incidence, project, or forecast quantity." (Power Decisions Group, 2006)


Focus-Groups: The instrument that has been chosen for use in this research is the instrument of focus-group and in-depth interviews. The focus group is generally groups of 6 to 12 people traditionally conducted in a live group setting with a moderator or in online groups conducted via the internet, or can be accomplished through a phone conference with web or video. For the purpose...


The moderator must understand how to engage in non-directive questioning of respondents.
In-depth Interviews: The in-depth interviews will use open-ended questioning and will be through one-on-one questioning in a non-directive approach which is useful to explore how the respondents think about the advertising of the company's product. The interview will be in a live-group setting with a moderator.

Market Survey Types





Type 1: Qualitative Market Survey Types" Focus Groups

Groups of 6 to 12 people

Traditionally, in live group setting with moderator

Online groups conducted via internet

Phone conference w / web or video

Moderator must know how to engage in non-directive questioning. (If moderator is merely to pepper people with structured questions, do a quant survey instead.)

Group interaction can stimulate unplanned reactions.

New ideas spawned

Group-think can occur.

Individuals have little time to speak individually; participants may hide or be passive.

Often an artificial "performance mentality" as clients view behind one-way mirror.

Depth Interviews with or without projective techniques)

Long, in-depth interviews using open-ended questioning.

Usually one-on-one, however dyads and triads may be used.

A non-directive approach often useful to explore how respondent thinks about category.

Traditionally, in live group setting with moderator

Online groups conducted via internet

Phone conference w / web or video

Group interaction can stimulate unplanned reactions.

New ideas spawned

Group-think can occur.

Individuals have little time to speak individually; participants may hide or be passive.

Often an artificial "performance mentality" as clients view behind one-way mirror.

Source: Power Decisions Group (2006)


Data analysis in this method is through qualitative interpretive means in which data is coded and tabulated by key words, phrases or reactions of the respondents.


The time schedule for this research is set for a three-month period in which the focus groups and one-on-one interviews will take place.


The budget for this research will not be a large one as only a small amount will be needed to complete this research. The following are requirements in completing this research:

Personnel - Needed are a moderator and a moderator's assistant.

Budget - Needed is a facility for conduction of the focus-groups and the one-on-one interviews. Therefore, rental on a facility will be the largest budgetary concern in this research.


Marketing Research (2006) United States Small Business Association Online available at (

Marketing Research (2006) Wikipedia. Online available at (

Thomas, Jerry W. (1997) Hang the Innocent. Decision Analyst. Online at:

Thomas, Jerry W. (1994) New Products. Decision Analyst. Online at:

Thomas, Jerry W. (1995) Advertising Tracking. Online available at:

Market Research Tools: Qualitative Market Research (2006) Qualitative Market Research is Best as an Exploratory and Development Market Research Method. Power Decisions Group. 2006 Sept 7. Online available at

Power Decisions Group (2006) Online available at

Marketing Advertising: Research Proposal

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