Randomized Control Trial for Lgbm Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).

Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV / AIDS-risk and mental health problems like depression, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among LGBM (2009).

Sandfort, Melendez and Diaz (2007) conducted a study that explored whether or not gender nonconformity in gay and bisexual men is related to mental problems and if so, whether the relationship is mediated by negative experiences that are likely linked with gender nonconformity, including both abuse and harassment. LGBM who considered themselves to be effeminate had higher rates of mental distress and had reported more negative experiences compared with LGBM who did not consider themselves to be effeminate.

Morales (2009) notes that LGBM often lead lives that are put into different categories; they are compartmentalized into different social areas: the gay community; the Latino community; and the predominantly heterosexual, White society. Though a person may take part in different sexual behaviors, their identity as LGBM is "relative to their level of self-awareness or their coming out process" (2009).

There may be limited resources for LGBM in their communities because of a myriad of factors. The factors may consist of language use, acculturation, their level of assertiveness, their managing immigration (there may be a constant threat of deportation, etc.) (Morales 2009). Because some LGBM may feel isolated by cultural views and/or religion, they may have their need to conceal their sexuality reinforced. Morales notes that among the LGBM who had access to social support, they were 40% - 60% less likely to engage in risky anal intercourse with a partner (2009).

Jernewall, Zea, Reisen, and Poppen (2005) conducted a survey in which the purpose was to look at the degree to which HIV-positive LGBM used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as to explore the relationship between CAM use and adherence to treatment. The study found that those who did use CAM were less likely to keep doctors' appointments, follow doctors' recommendations and adhere to the prescribed medication regiments in the past three days (2005).

Toro-Alfonso, Varas-Diaz, and Andujar-Bello (2002) present an evaluation of an HIV prevention model and intervention that targets LGBM and men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico. A series of workshops were created that were based on the health belief model in combination with concepts of self-efficacy, cognitive theory, and community development (2002). After the intervention, the participants involved showed lower risk indexes (2002).


Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).

Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV

among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care

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Carballo-Dieguez, a., Dolezal, C., Leu, C.S., Nieves, L., Diaz, F., Decena, C., & Balan, I.

(2005). "A randomized controlled trial to test an HIV-prevention intervention for Latino

gay and bisexual men: lessons learned." AIDS care,17(3), 314-328.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, September 23). "HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM)." CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/index.htm

Diaz, R.M., Ayala, G., & Bein, E. (2004). "Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities." Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology,10(3), 255-267.

Flores, S.A. & Millett, G. (2009). "General and gay-related racism experienced by Latino gay men." Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology,15(3), 215-222.

Guarnero, P.A., & Flaskerud, J.H. (2008). "Latino gay men and depression." Issues in mental

health nursing,29, 667-670. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Jernewall, N., Zea, M.C., Reisen, C.A., & Poppen, P.J. (2005). "Complementary and alternative medicine and adherence to care among HIV-positive Latino gay and bisexual men."

AIDS care,17(5), 601-609.

Latino AIDS. "Latino/Hispanic men who have sex with men." (2010). Latino AIDS. Retreived

from http://www.latinoaids.org/docs/latinos_msm.pdf

Morales, E.S. (2009). "Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration." American psychologist, 805-816.

Ramirez-Valles, J., Garcia, D., Campbell, R.T., Diaz, R.M., & Heckathorn, D. (2008). "HIV

Infection, sexual risk behavior, and substance use among Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons." American journal of public health,98(6), 1036-1042.

Sandfort, G.M., Melendez, R.M.m & Diaz, R.M. (2007). "Gender nonconformity, homophobia, and mental distress in Latino gay and bisexual men." Journal of sex research,44(2), 181-

Toro-Alfonso, J., Varas-Diaz, N., & Andujar-Bello, I. (2002). "Evaluation of an HIV / AIDS

prevention intervention targeting Latino gay men and men who have sex…

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