This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008). The study found that those who did use CAM were less likely to keep doctors' appointments, follow doctors' recommendations and adhere to the prescribed medication regiments in the past three days (2005).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV / AIDS-risk and mental health problems like depression, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among LGBM (2009).
Sandfort, Melendez and Diaz (2007) conducted a study that explored whether or not gender nonconformity in gay and bisexual men is related to mental problems and if so, whether the relationship is mediated by negative experiences that are likely linked with gender nonconformity, including both abuse and harassment. LGBM who considered themselves to be effeminate had higher rates of mental distress and had reported more negative experiences compared with LGBM who did not consider themselves to be effeminate.
Morales (2009) notes that LGBM often lead lives that are put into different categories; they are compartmentalized into different social areas: the gay community; the Latino community; and the predominantly heterosexual, White society. Though a person may take part in different sexual behaviors, their identity as LGBM is "relative to their level of self-awareness or their coming out process" (2009).
There may be limited resources for LGBM in their communities because of a myriad of factors. The factors may consist of language use, acculturation, their level of assertiveness, their managing immigration (there may be a constant threat of deportation, etc.) (Morales 2009). Because some LGBM may feel isolated by cultural views and/or religion, they may have their need to conceal their sexuality reinforced. Morales notes that among the LGBM who had access to social support, they were 40% - 60% less likely to engage in risky anal intercourse with a partner (2009).
Jernewall, Zea, Reisen, and Poppen (2005) conducted a survey in which the purpose was to look at the degree to which HIV-positive LGBM used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as to explore the relationship between CAM use and adherence to ...
Toro-Alfonso, Varas-Diaz, and Andujar-Bello (2002) present an evaluation of an HIV prevention model and intervention that targets LGBM and men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico. A series of workshops were created that were based on the health belief model in combination with concepts of self-efficacy, cognitive theory, and community development (2002). After the intervention, the participants involved showed lower risk indexes (2002).
Arreola, S.G., Neilands, T.B., & Diaz, R. (2009). "Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men." American journal of public health,2(99).
Brooks, R.A., Etzel, M.A., Hinojos, E., Henry, C.L., & Perez, M. (2005). "Preventing HIV
among Latino and African-American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS patient care
Carballo-Dieguez, a., Dolezal, C., Leu, C.S., Nieves, L., Diaz, F., Decena, C., & Balan, I.
(2005). "A randomized controlled trial to test an HIV-prevention intervention for Latino
gay and bisexual men: lessons learned." AIDS care,17(3), 314-328.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, September 23). "HIV among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM)." CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/index.htm
Diaz, R.M., Ayala, G., & Bein, E. (2004). "Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities." Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology,10(3), 255-267.
Flores, S.A. & Millett, G. (2009). "General and gay-related racism experienced by Latino gay men." Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology,15(3), 215-222.
Guarnero, P.A., & Flaskerud, J.H. (2008). "Latino gay men and depression." Issues in mental
health nursing,29, 667-670. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Jernewall, N., Zea, M.C., Reisen, C.A., & Poppen, P.J. (2005). "Complementary and alternative medicine and adherence to care among HIV-positive Latino gay and bisexual men."
AIDS care,17(5), 601-609.
Latino AIDS. "Latino/Hispanic men who have sex with men." (2010). Latino AIDS. Retreived
Morales, E.S. (2009). "Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration." American psychologist, 805-816.
Ramirez-Valles, J., Garcia, D., Campbell, R.T., Diaz, R.M., & Heckathorn, D. (2008). "HIV
Infection, sexual risk behavior, and substance use among Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons." American journal of public health,98(6), 1036-1042.
Sandfort, G.M., Melendez, R.M.m & Diaz, R.M. (2007). "Gender nonconformity, homophobia, and mental distress in Latino gay and bisexual men." Journal of sex research,44(2), 181-
Toro-Alfonso, J., Varas-Diaz, N., & Andujar-Bello, I. (2002). "Evaluation of an HIV / AIDS
prevention intervention targeting Latino gay men and men who have sex…
The study found that those who did use CAM were less likely to keep doctors' appointments, follow doctors' recommendations and adhere to the prescribed medication regiments in the past three days (2005).
Homophobia and Heterosexism Berkman and Zinberg's (1997) study "Homophobia and Heterosexism in Social Workers" examines the prevalence of homophobia and heterosexism in social workers. The researchers also correlate the relative homophobia or heterosexism with a variety of other factors such as gender, level of education about homosexuality, level of contact with gay men and lesbians, and religiosity. The authors create their research hypothesis based on prior research; however, much prior research
Human Sexuality and Homophobia Even in the wake of political correctness, homophobia still haunts many people in our culture. Heterosexuality is still the dominant social expression and any intimate relationship that falls outside the accepted boundaries of heterosexual union is considered to be taboo. The modern media and institutes of higher learning are only recently beginning to try changing the ingrained belief that heterosexuality is the only "normal" form of sexual
Racism / Prejudice Anyone that is not aware of the recent protest demonstrations in cities across the United States -- resulting from the killing of unarmed African-Americans by police in Ferguson Missouri and New York City -- are simply not paying attention to the contemporary events. These killings -- and the failure of grand juries in both cities to indict the blameworthy officers -- have stirred the conscious of millions of
A model of marriage must be created for women that do not polarize the two genders into conventional roles, regardless of who works outside the home. Masculine and feminine ideals of power must become blended, and the very notion of what constitutes masculinity and femininity must be questioned, otherwise the idea if a 'real woman' or a 'real man' makes a better leader will forever render the debate schematic and
men in the hip-hop world. She has been a spokesmodel for Jenny Craig, a company that explicitly utilizes her 'real woman' image to sell its weight-loss product. "She's a CoverGirl and, off-screen, manicures a wholesome image" (What's worse, 2009, Querty). To emphasize her critique of Black male desire and to create another image for a Black woman to 'be' in the world would challenge prevailing norms and the new
While the issue has become a states' issue, the main objection to narrowly construing marriage as a union between a man and a woman (as the Defense of Marriage Act, 1996 does) is based on substantive due process available under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution . Therefore most of the efforts in this regard are aimed at re-establishing these parameters. 3. Talk about sexism in the workplace. Have you ever