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Health Illness and Society
Social stigma exists in multiple forms that are mostly related to the culture, ethos, plumpness, race, color, creed, gender, disease and ailments. Stigmatization can cause negative impact on the lives of individuals. They not only impact the health of the people but also affect their mental stability and state of mind. This somehow makes these sufferers feel insecure about them and transforms them into insecure individuals. They develop a feeling of insecurity and their self-esteem is negatively affected. They believe that their worth is adversely affected. Such circumstances can occur in the place of work, educational environment like schools and colleges, health care centers, and even in one's own family. People are insecure in their family settings as well. Stigma may also be labeled as a tag that links an individual to unsolicited physiognomies (Ali, 2008). In such circumstances, people start recognizing the traits that make…
Ali, S.H. (2008) 'Stigmatized Ethnicity, Public Health, and Globalization', Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 22-33.
Berger, , (2006) Workable Sisterhood: The Political Journey of Stigmatized Women with HIV / AIDS, 1st edition, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dipboye, R., and Colella, A. (2005) Discrimination at Work: The Psychological and Organizational Bases, Mahwah: Lawerence.
Hinshaw, , (2007) The Mark of Shame: Stigma of Mental Illness and an Agenda for Change, 4th edition, New York: Oxford University Press.
Mixed race means that a person belongs to different races. Their ancestry, which means where they come from, has the presence of multiple races that could mean that either their parents or their grandparents belong to two different races (Abraham, 2005). There has been discussion on how the children 'label' themselves around people. (Tizard & Phoenix, 93) Labeling: Allotting something a name. However, in this instance labeling is referred to how the kids label themselves.
Black-white, white-black, or mix? If the children think they are white, that's a problem. Also, they cannot even think of themselves as completely black either. The stigma that arises here is psychological damage and a loss of identity in the long run. (Tizard & Phoenix, 93) Some people can totally combat this quest of identities; others are at a loss of attaining a true identity due to mixed race.
The mixed racism often comes out…
Abraham Lincoln. "House Divided" Speech. (1858).
Carolyn Abraham, Molecular Eyewitness: DNA Gets a Human Face (quoted from Globe and Mail, June 25, 2005).
Chestnutt, Charles W. "The House Behind The Cedars." Kessinger Publishing, 2004.
Cohn, D'Vera. "Multi-Race and the 2010 Census." Retrieved 2011-04-26.
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Olive's tactic, however, is accompanied by "indeeperism" -- that is, the more the pressure builds (and the more her stigma grows on both sides of the fence), the more she is prevented from disclosing techniques. Her lies build until her friendships are threatened. Even then she finds it difficult to overcome her stigma, since those who have helped her earn it refuse to testify to its illegitimacy (since they, of course, have benefited from it). Olive develops a case of away syndrome as she is more and more abandoned by both communities and forced to withdraw into herself (whereupon she resolves to come clean by telling the truth).
Thus a game between the "discredited" and the "discreditable" ensues (Goffman 57). Olive has been discredited by supposed normals, but in reality, she can easily discredit the discreditable who are only passing as normals (such as Mrs. Griffith, Marianne whose relationship…
Gluck, Will, dir. Easy a. Los Angeles: Screen Gems, 2010. Film.
Goffman, Erving. Stigma. London: Penguin, 1963. Print.
Payne, Sarah. "The Effects of Stigma Applied to Depression." Interdisciplinary
Research Conference. Drury University. 8 Dec 2011.
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…
Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative
Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189
Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.
Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
While he supported me in my endeavors, he raised many questions, >Why do you want to enter social work? How do you think you are going to provide for your family and the lifestyle you are accustomed to?" Deferring to socialization pressures that still impel them to fulfill the "breadwinner" role and avoid feminine characteristics, they may segregate themselves from women in the profession, selecting specialties or positions that society deems as more appropriate for men (Williams, 1995). They too may emphasize the masculine aspects of their jobs to "reduce the dissonance between their professional and gender identities" and to justify their career choices (Christie, 1998, p. 506). Thereby, male social workers adhere more closely to the social definition of masculinity" (ritton, J. & Stoller M., 1998).
The young people who are trying to enter into a social work profession "hope to advance research and social work services for men…
Britton, J. & Stoller M. (Autumn, 1998), Engendered disparity: Males in Social Work, Retrieved December 6, 2006, from The Advocate's Forum, Vol.5, No.1, Web Site: http://www.ssa.uchicago.edu/publications/advforum/v5n1/v5i1a2.html
Chattopadhay, T. (2004), Role of men and boys in promoting gender equality: advocacy brief / Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, Retrieved December 6, 2006, at http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/unesco_role_of_men.pdf
Christie, A.(2001), Men and social work, New York, NY USA: Palgrave Publishers, Retrieved December 3, 2006, at http://site.ebrary.com/lib/csueastbay/Doc?id=2002957
Gillingham, P. (January, 2006), Male social workers in child and family welfare: New directions for research, in Social work, Volume 51, number I
In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…
Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.
Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.
Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
Those values include the fact that I am very socially conscious and am very aware of my responsibilities and obligations as a social worker. I constantly strive to comprehend and understand the theories of human behaviors and social systems, and in doing so I strive to employ that understanding in order to promote the positive aspects of society and mankind. I am very apt to assist someone in solving the problems faced in their life or lives, and oftentimes see simple solutions even in the most complex scenarios. My strengths are that the values and beliefs I hold dear are the same values and beliefs that will hold me in high regard with the clientele I am most likely to interact with.
Humanism in particular plays a pivotal role in my values since I have always cared for my fellow humans and will continue to do so for as long…
Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.
Parenting a Child with a Disability
Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.
Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.
Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.
Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.
Hispanic Immigrants & Social Networks
Successful immigration of Hispanic persons to the U.S. involves much more than a shift in geographical location. or the purposes of this dissertation, 'successful immigration' denotes the successful establishment of an independent existence is the U.S., to include ease of motion within a familial, social, and political context, as facilitated by language acquisition and the development of trust in the democratic government. I consider this form of immigration successful based on past and current studies suggesting that Hispanic immigrants benefit from language acquisition and the development of political trust, while immigrants who do not learn the English language are limited in their ability to experience the American culture and, as a result, have difficulty functioning in this culture, which in turn discourages trust and supports alienation.
The term 'acculturation' refers to the process of adopting cultural attitudes, behavioral norms, values and beliefs not…
For example, while the Latino National Political Survey (LNPS) conducted in 1990 failed to measure the influence of family and civic ties on the development of trust, the Latino National Survey (LNS), conducted in 2006, included several cross-disciplinary variables -- to include family and civic ties -- however it stopped short of exploring the types of information communicated through these ties, to include information pertaining to the cultural and political climate.
Nonetheless, the cross-disciplinary nature of the LNS paved the way for further research into the influence of family and civic ties on the development of trust specific to Hispanic immigrants to the U.S. What is needed now, and what I will endeavor to present in the following pages, is a study that incorporates the findings of the LNS into a comprehensive look at the acculturation and institutional context variables that support or discourage political trust development.
The following dissertation examines the acculturation process of Hispanic-Americans in three parts: language acquisition, the potential for the development of depression, and the factors contributing to the development of political trust. As discussed in this introduction, each component of the process of acculturation informs the other, however the specific ways in which this information is passed has yet to be addressed. For example, while previous studies support the claim that language acquisition results in a more positive experience in social, educational and professional sectors, the incentives for learning language -- in addition to the sources of resistance to language -- remain unclear, or at the least incomprehensive. It is the purpose of this dissertation to present a comprehensive study of acculturation in the institution context of Mexico and the U.S., accounting for several cross-disciplinary factors, to include distance, gender, age, family and civic ties as influencing the three components of acculturation.
More and more business and personal interaction is going to be taking place online. Because of that, it is not possible to dismiss social media. It is here to stay, and it does have value. However, how best to use it, how much value it really offers, and where it is going in the future are all issues to address. The media tools are taking the world somewhere exciting, and as boundaries fade and change the social rules that have been in place for so long are requiring a complete rewrite. Where will social media take society in the future? That remains to be seen. Most likely, social media will continue to grow and expand. That will allow it to change just as society changes, and that can help people who were previously focused on face-to-face interaction make the move to social media. Despite the value of interacting online, though,…
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
Schizophrenia, Dissociative Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
While some symptoms of schizophrenia, dissociative disorder and bipolar disorder might seem similar, prompting individuals to suspect that the three different mental health disorders are interchangeable, the reality is that these three problems are quite distinct. This paper will discuss the broad differences between them as well as way to educate the client about his or her disorder, his or her family about it, and ways to reduce stigma.
As the DSM-5 points out, schizophrenia a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, or even a possible catatonic state at times. Symptoms include incoherent speech, paranoia, distorted perceptions, confused or disordered thinking, and an inability to concentrate. This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months (American Psychiatric Association,…
Client is an African-American male, age 19, diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder 1 (296.89), with mixed and psychotic features. Lability and mood cycles have become more rapid recently. Currently, the client is experiencing an acute but mild manic episode.
The client has no significant biological issues. As the first in his family known to have Bipolar Disorder, no genetic component to the disorder has been determined, but further work in a family therapy context might help determine if there are any biological risk factors. The client is physically healthy. He does not use drugs or alcohol, but tends towards a pattern of excessive denial.
Psychologically, the client struggles with low self-esteem, denial, and mood swings. Although the client reports strong and amicable relationships with family and friends, there may be little empathy from his closest relatives due to perceived stigma about bipolar disorder and lack of knowledge of the…
Balanza-Martinez, V., Lacruz, M. & Tabares-Seisdedos, R. (2015). Staging and early intervention in bipolar disorder. Chapter 15 in Neuroprogression and Staging in Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press.
CDC (2015). Burden of mental illness. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/burden.htm
Cipriani, A., et al. (2005). Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 162(10): 1805-1819.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA, 2015). Bipolar disorder statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_statistics_bipolar_disorder
Social media technology has fundamentally altered the ways people interact with each other, and the ways people think about themselves. Some of the changes have been positive and healthy, such as the creation of new social networks that bring like-minded people together. However, not all of the repercussions of social media are positive socially or psychologically. Both Shannon Matesky and Stephen Marche discuss the downsides of social media. Matesky and Marche both suggest that social media provides a poor substitute for face-to-face contact, and that users of social media should try more to connect with themselves and with other people outside of the digital realm.
Friendship remains defined by the same principles, but social media has introduced the world to a new category of friendship that could not exist otherwise. The shallow interactions that develop between individuals that have never met in person, or who have had only superficial personal…
Marche, Stephen. "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?" The Atlantic. May 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/05/is-facebook-making-us-lonely/308930/
Matesky, Shannon. "My Space." Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z7vqXxw3Os0&feature=player_embedded
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
For women, breastfeeding has the ability to bring back the shame of an attack or an occurrence of unwanted touching (Wood, 2010, pp. e137).
Additionally, the idea of sexual activity, for an individual who has experienced trauma and fear touch, can become an incurable fear should it not be addressed. For an individual who has suffered this type of trauma, an unsolicited touch from another human being as simple as a hand on their shoulder can bring back vivid memories of the trauma as well as the ability to place that individual right back into the emotional state of the trauma (Hatfield, 1994, pp.1). This type of situation is key to understanding personal boundaries despite the need for touch in the realm of humanity.
As seen in viewing the many facets of touch within humanity and the direct link to emotion that touch can provide for individuals, one can…
Adenauer, H., Elbert, T., Engler, H., Gola, H., Kolassa, S., Schauer, M. (2011). "Victims
of rape show increased responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war and torture related PTSD." Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(2): pp. 213-220.
Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 17 July 2012].
Carey, B. (2010 February 23). "Evidence that little touches do mean so much." Missouri
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…
Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.
Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research
Also, this should be seen as a short-term solution for people who are temporarily out of jobs in the U.S. And not as a long-term means to living comfortably.
Social Security Benefits
Social security benefits help many elderly and disabled people to live a reasonable life. In 2010, more than 53 million Americans received social security benefits that amount to a whopping $703 billion. Out of these, 34 million retired workers accounted for $40 billion and $1.7 billion went to 2.9 dependents of retired workers at an average amount of $1,170 per month. The eight million disabled workers and their $1.9 billion dependents received an average of $1,065 per month and this amounted to $8.5 billion and $0.6 billion respectively. The remaining $6.3 billion went to 6.4 million survivors at an average monthly benefit of $1,129. (Social Security Administration USA, 2010).
The Social Security Administration of the U.S. estimates that…
USDA Food and Nutrition Service. (December 2010). State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/snap/FILES/Participation/Reaching2008.pdf
DeParle, Jason. (November 28, 2009). Food Stamp Use Soars and Stigma Fades. New York Times.
Social Security Administration USA (2010). Fact Sheets. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ssa.gov/pressoffice/factsheets/basicfact-alt.pdf
Trumball, Mark. (2011, January 17). The Retirement Workforce. Christian Science Monitor.
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…
Akerstrom, a., 2009, Corporate governance and social responsibility: Johnson & Johnson, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364045605X
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge, ISBN 0415265908
Conley, J.M., Williams, C.A., 2005, Engage, embed and embellish: theory vs. practice in the corporate social responsibility movement, Journal of Corporation Law, Vol. 31, No. 1
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high costs of low price (documentary available on DVD)
Disability as Diversity
People who are disabled very much face an uphill climb when it comes to surviving and thriving in the workplace. Indeed, the physical and/or mental challenges faced by the disabled are compounded by the way that organizations and the people therein react to them and that includes whether they are hired, what they are hired to do and how people treat the disabled employee upon hire. While much of the overall outlook is grim, a strong organizational culture that is installed and enforced properly via the following of social justice and similar principles can be a tool to make the disabled workers feel more welcome rather than as an outcast or someone that is not as worthy or capable.
One seminal work on the matter noted in the introduction that shall be covered in-depth in this report is that of Spataro. When it comes to organizational…
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in this article discusses the fact that corporate responsibility is fledgling in protecting employees at Ealing Hospital. The case discusses instances when professionals lost their jobs when stepping forward to report others fur unethical conduct. There is evidence that the hospital has covered up several instances of fraud and attempted to remove those that reported wrongdoing. The Health Secretary, Stephen Dorrell has reported that an investigation will be conducted to review the actions against whistleblowers (Lakhani, 2011).
There are many health colleagues who have come to the aid of those facing unemployment and blacklisting as a result of stepping up. These health professionals are adamant in getting compensation and protection through NHS or the Strategic Health Alliance for histleblowers. That is health professionals willing to put themselves on the line to protect patients and expose gross neglect and waste of taxpayers money (Lakhani, 2011). One…
A.B. Carroll. A Three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance,' Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, 1979: pp. 497-505.
Hohnen, Paul. 'Corporate social responsibility: an implementation guide for business'. 2007. International Institute for Sustainable Development.
Lakhani, Nina. 'Hung out to dry: scandal of the nhs whistleblowers'.
Counseling Skills and Their Use in Social ork
Counseling skills can encompass many different aspects of life, and they are of great use to those in social work. Unfortunately, many social workers do not realize just how important these kinds of skills are and therefore do not get the training in them that they really need. Since social workers are not counselors and do not usually see what they do as 'therapy' of any kind, they do not look to counseling as having a place in their work and the families that they often are called upon to help. However, much of what a social worker does for those that need help is actually counseling of a sort, and by learning more about counseling skills those that spend their time in the social work field can utilize what they already know, along with the counseling skills, to help many more…
Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 8, 231-246.
Glancy, G., Regehr, C., & Bryant, A. (1998) Confidentiality in crisis: Part I: The duty to Inform. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 43(12), 1001-1005.
Hepworth, D., Rooney, IL, & Larsen, A. (1994). Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Marshall, M., & Von Tigerstorm, B. (1999). Confidentiality and disclosure of health Information. In J. Downie & T. Caulfield (Eds.), Canadian Health Law and Policy (pp. 143-177), Toronto: Butterworths.
However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other culture had prohibitions against infanticide, while other cultures openly permitted the practice.
In chapter seven, Edersheim goes on to discuss the raising of Jewish children. Different ages of children had different roles and expectations. Children learned early on the protection of the Mesusah. In addition to formal instruction, children learned by observing their parents engage in rituals. The book of Proverbs is helpful to an understanding of how Jews were to raise their children. The most important part of the education of a Jewish child was religious education. Much of this instruction came as the result of children watching their parents, because Jews lived their religion as part of their daily lives. In addition to informal instruction, some children received formal…
WA 2 social sciences
Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…
Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.
Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).
HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.
Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820140
Personal Social Status
Social status can be defined as the reference, prestige, or honor ascribed to an individual's personality or position in society. It could be attained by virtue of family or racial background; or through innate ability or life achievements. Some other factors that determine one's social status include gender, occupation, religion, lifestyle, and education.
While culture is usually defined as a way of life of a group of people within a geographical setting, however, there also exists an individual level of culture known as personal culture. Personal culture is usually an expression of one’s personal beliefs or philosophy and perspective on life issues generally. It is usually a reflection of an individual’s upbringing; which is made up of culture, lifestyle and belief system the person is exposed to. Others are gender, history, education, residency location, and disability (“Social Categories”).
It is common for one's culture to be predominantly…
When the Employer Sanctions provision of the Immigration Reform and Control ct of 1985 was passed by Congress, there followed widespread discrimination against foreign-looking merican workers, especially sians and Hispanics. Failure to carry a national I.D. card would likely come to be viewed as cause for search, detention or arrest of minorities. The stigma and humiliation of constantly having to prove that they are mericans or legal immigrants would weigh heavily on such groups.
On the other hand Bolton (2010) reports Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin (Ill.), calculates mericans have become more comfortable with the idea of a national identification card. "The biometric identification card is a critical element here," Durbin said. "For a long time it was resisted by many groups, but now we live in a world where we take off our shoes at the airport and pull out our identification. People understand that in this vulnerable world,…
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). 2003. 5 problems with national id cards. ACLU, 8, September, http://www.aclu.org/technology-and-liberty-/5-problems-national-id-cards (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April, http://thehill.com/homenews/senate/95235-democrats-spark-alarm-with-call-for-national-id-card (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April,
Socioeconomic Status, ace and Healthcare
Higher rates of illness among blacks as compared to whites have become a persistent thing over time. At the same time other ethnic/racial minority groups have over the years shown an elevated disease risk for some of the health conditions. This paper will look at how race and socioeconomic status combine to affect health. Health comprises of several dimensions such as loss of functionality, diseases and conditions, disability and even death. The process of health change within a population is thought to start with the onset of diseases and conditions that lead to loss of functionality and impairment and eventually cause disability or even death. The development of some of the chronic diseases, while they are not recognized clinically until one reaches their middle age is affected mostly by lifelong circumstances that are related to race and socioeconomic status. Some factors affect the likelihood of…
Williams, D.(1999). Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health
The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination. Retrieved June 10,2014 from http://www.isr.umich.edu/williams/All%20Publications/DRW%20pubs%201999/race,%20SES,%20and%20health.%20the%20added%20effects%20of%20racism%20and%20discrimination.pdf
Crimmins, E., Hayward, M., & Seeman, T.(2010). Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Health. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25526/
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…
Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse
Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/
Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
Erving Goffman and Stigma
In his book Stigma, sociologist Erving Goffman considers the issue of stigma, offering a detailed look at how people respond to others based on stigma, why people act the way they do towards stigmatized individuals, and how being stigmatized impacts those that have the stigma. Goffman's ideas are partly drawn from the work of George Herbert Mead and Georg Simmel. However, Goffman extends on their ideas and offers a more contemporary view of stigma. These issues will now be considered. This will begin by considering Goffman's definition of stigma. This will be followed by a consideration of how people respond to stigmas. Finally, Goffman's ideas will be compared to those of Mead and Simmel.
Erving Goffman (5) defines a stigma as "an undesired differentness from what we had anticipated." The idea of "differentness" means that something about an individual is different from what is considered…
Goffman, E. Stigma. New York: Touchstone, 1986.
terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?
Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…
Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.
FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism
Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
The American Heritage Online Dictionary specifies Terrorism as an illegal use or threatened use of force or physical violence by an individual or pre-arranged team against individuals or physical assets with the objective of frightening or pushing societies or governments, typically for ideological or political reasons. Provided this meaning this paper will try to clarify on how terrorism has an effect on society as an entire and how it has actually triggered alterations in existing laws as it relates to the security of all U.S. citizens.
Terrorism is a significant problem in American and has a remarkable affect on individuals of all walks of life, since terrorism has an effect on everybody both directly as ell as indirectly in one form or another.
Considering that the notorious 9-11 terrorist attacks on the United States there have actually been lots of alterations in the way police assess and execute their…
American Heritage Online Dictionary (2009), Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/terrorism
Dantzker, Mark L. (2005, Jul 25). Understanding today's Police. Criminal Justice Press.
Gentile, John. Free Donuts and More: A Commentary on Police Misconduct and Corruption. Problems, Issues and Challenges in Law Enforcement. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.spiritofthelaw.org/sol1art1.html
Hasisi, Badi. (2008, Spring). Police, politics, and culture in a deeply divided society. (Symposium on Redefining International Criminal Law). Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 98(3), 1119(27).
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.
Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
Such results, if typical, would have a dramatic impact on the bottom line of any company that implements such programs. By definition, this improves employee productivity ($ value output per employee).
In our company, substance abuse by employees is a serious problem, and the impacts mirror those of other companies in the developed world. hile we do not experience significant rates of injuries as the result of substance abuse, we do experience the other negative outcomes that are associated with substance abuse in the workplace -- absenteeism and lost productivity especially. There are pervasive negative effects on the culture of the organization as well, with employee resentment occurring, but yet not being manifested in either stigmatization or support.
As with most firms, we understand that it is in all likelihood easier and cheaper to address substance abuse issues with the employee than it is to find, hire and train…
Bacharach, S.; Bamberger, P. & Biron, M. (2010). Alcohol consumption and workplace absenteeism: The moderating effect of social support. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 95 (2) 334-348.
Cook, R.; Back, A. & Trudeau, J. (1996). Substance abuse prevention in the workplace: Recent findings and an expanded conceptual model. Journal of Primary Prevention. Vol. 16 (3) 319-339.
Cook, R. & Schlenger, W. (2002). Prevention of substance abuse in the workplace: Review of research on the delivery of services. Journal of Primary Prevention. Vol. 23 (1) 115-142.
FSIPP. (2010). Prescription drug abuse in the workplace on the rise. Centre Daily Times. Retrieved October 23, 2010 from http://www.centredaily.com/2010/10/21/2287321/prescription-drug-abuse-in-the.html
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001042308 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622
Stern, S.B., Smith, C.A., & Jang, S.J. (1999). Urban Families and Adolescent Mental Health. Social Work Research, 23(1), 15. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001243622 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228
Sternberg, R.J., & Dennis, M.J. (1997). Elaborating Cognitive Psychology through Linkages to Psychology as a Helping Profession. Teaching of Psychology, 24(3), 246-249. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77001228 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
Stock, M.R., Morse, E.V., Simon, P.M., Zeanah, P.D., Pratt, J.M., & Sterne, S. (1997). Barriers to School-Based Health Care Programs. Health and Social Work, 22(4), 274+. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000581383
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
He also has hallucinations about being followed by a federal agent, in keeping with his academic world where the government seeks on the one hand to employ mathematicians and scientists and on the other hand mistrusts them. Many of the encounters he has in his mind with this agent and others have the aura of a detective movie, showing that Nash is replaying films he has seen and that these serve as the inspiration for his visions. In a way, that serves as another pattern in his mind, linking what he saw in the theater with what he believes is happening to him. Nothing comes out of whole cloth but always comes from experience and is then reformed in a form it did not have in reality.
In this way, the film shows the viewer the kind of world experienced by the schizophrenic and why this world is disorienting and…
Howard, Ron. A Beautiful Mind. Universal Pictures, 2001.
Scott, a.O. "From Math to Madness, and Back." The New York Times (21 Dec 2001). May 5, 2008. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0CE7D6103EF932A15751C1A9679C8B63 .
Both women suffer hard and endure their pain gracefully. Wang Ya-Ming cries but does not feel sorry for herself. Her tears are like a symbolic means of self-purification. She stood "with her back to the classroom," and did not make a habit of crying (3). Her inner strength is evident in her self-composure. Wang Ya-Ming is stalwart and self-contained. She studies hard and for the most part ignores and quietly endures the taunting and teasing. At one point in the story, the narrator notices that her chin was "tilted slightly higher than usual, as through she were calmed by a feeling of repose and a sense of contentment," (3). When she is forced to sleep on a hard bench outside of the dorm bedroom, she comments, "Sleep is sleep no matter where you lie down, so what's the difference," (5). In a similar way, Hsiang Lin's Wife demonstrates remarkable strength…
role of nurses in dealing with rise and spread of HIV AIDS in the vulnerable community of Orange County Orlando FL. Homeless males between the ages of 40-50 were the target population for this paper. Ways to tackle this issue in accordance with the healthy NC2020 objectives have also been explained.
In a diverse population, such as that of Orange County, Orlando FL, there is no doubt that health risks and problems would be just as varied, especially among the different communities based on race, age, ethnicity and income class. However, this paper's special focus is on assessing the increased likelihood of the homeless males of Orange County between the ages of 40 and 50 to be exposed to HIV / AIDS, keeping in mind the three factors that this aggregate community has in common -- those of sex, social class and age, and regional belonging.
Homelessness has been on…
Anonymous (2010).Population of Orange County, Florida: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Graphs, Quick Facts. CensusViewer.com .
Anonymous (2011).ORANGE COUNTY COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSESSMENT.Division of Public Health, North Carolina.
Anonymous (2013).Healthy North Carolina 2020: A Better State of Health. NC Department of Health and Human Services.
Evans, Nancy (2011). HIV / AIDS for Florida Healthcare Professionals.EMS-CEU.com.
The economic divide is of primary concern because it has become a point of embittered debate. The average French citizen makes ten times that of the average North African immigrant. Industries such as hospitality and retail are almost completely closed to all North African immigrants, and channels of traditional education are much harder to break into for the immigrant class. All of this contributes to how much the North African immigrant class has suffered economically.
In addition to the socio-economic factors that institutionally affect immigrant integration, political participation plays an enormous role as well. Although the French government has an extremely strong democratic system, there are no MPs within congress who is of North African dissent. France's political system has done little other than fluff to attempt to integrate the North African immigrant class into mainstream society. From the educational perspective, North African demographics receive less educational funding and secondary…
The creation of the state of Israel in Palestine lent Jews in America a degree of legitimacy. And Jewish-Americans were now on the cusp of a new reality.
Unit IV: 1946-1976
In the 1950s the Anti-Defamation League sought to have the immigration laws of decades prior repealed. President Truman was sympathetic to the millions of displaced persons, a good portion of which were Eastern Europeans of Jewish descent. Even though America was largely outraged at news of the Holocaust, many Americans reserved the suspicion that Jews were crooked bankers secretly poised for world domination. The immigration laws were not repealed.
The 1950s also saw a debate concerning the census of 1960: should it contain religious questions? Here was an issue that embraced social, political and religious points all at once. The way Jewish-Americans faced the issue had repercussions for the entire nation. The book Protestant-Catholic-Jew had helped establish the idea…
General Grant's Infamy. (2010). Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/grant.html
Goodkind, S.B. (1918). Prominent Jews in America. Toledo, OH: American Hebrew
Hollinger, D. (2009). Communalist and Dispersionist Approaches to American Jewish
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…
Boston:Economy. (2009, March). Retrieved December 2010, from City-Data.com: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-Economy.html
Health and Social Disparities. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://sph.bu.edu/Maternal-a-Child-Health/department-of-community-health-sciences/menu-id-617096.html
Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf
Medical Research in Boston. (2010, February). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://www.bumc.bu.edu/
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…
Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.
De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.
Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.
Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
, 2001; Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2003). (Copeland, 2005, p. 265)
Populations hardest hit are African-American, Hispanic and Native American populations and as with many other health care access issues the concentration of individuals with limited or no access to healthcare is often associated with low SES urban areas and rural communities with access issues of their own. (Buckley & Van Giezen, 2004, p. 43) (Beverly, Mcatee, Costello, Chernoff & Casteel, 2005, p. 197) the access to health care issue, for many is a cumulative issue that is partnered with a general lack of access to other opportunities, such as adequate housing and employment. (Lopez, 2007, p. 985) it must also be said that job benefits tend to skip over certain employment situations, frequently the lower paying the job the less likely an individual is to have access to job related health benefits, and this statistic is increasing as more…
Beverly, C.J., Mcatee, R., Costello, J., Chernoff, R., & Casteel, J. (2005). Needs Assessment of Rural Communities: A Focus on Older Adults. Journal of Community Health, 30(3), 197.
Buckley, J.E., & Van Giezen, R.W. (2004). Federal Statistics on Healthcare Benefits and Cost Trends: An Overview Federal Government Statistical Agencies Provide a Variety of Healthcare Information on Diverse Aspects of the Nation's Healthcare Picture. Monthly Labor Review, 127(11), 43.
Copeland, V.C. (2005). African-Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization. Health and Social Work, 30(3), 265.
Lopez, I.F. (2007). "A Nation of Minorities": Race, Ethnicity, and Reactionary Colorblindness. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 985.
Student Unrest and the Vietnam ar
It is certainly a fact that the widespread and sometimes violent student unrest in the 1960s was largely based on young people's objections to the war in Vietnam. But it should be noted that the youthful rage against the American involvement was not driven exclusively by moral, political and social issues. But that rage was also fueled the fact that during the 1960s young people could not vote until they were 21 years of age, but they could be drafted -- and they were by the hundreds of thousands -- at age 18. This paper reviews the relationship between student demonstrations and the war in Vietnam, and concludes with the political and social aftermath of the war.
Student-Led Demonstrations Against the Vietnam ar: As a brief background into the demonstrations against the Vietnam ar, the 1960s were a time when America experienced terrible events…
Franklin, Bruce H. (2000). Vietnam & Other American Fantasies. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hagopian, Patrick. (2009). The Vietnam War in American Memory. Amherst, MA: University
of Massachusetts Press.
Halstead, Fred. (1978). Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against
Co-Teaching (Collaborative Teaching Model) Benefits Students Socially, Academically or Behaviorally.
Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is a method of delivery that involves delivering instruction to students in a diverse environment. Typically two or more teachers are employed in a co-teaching classroom. At this point in time the literature available on co-teaching suggests that co-teaching may have positive effects on students, particularly from a social and academic viewpoint. However all of the authors surveyed suggested that further systematic and empirical studies must be explored to fully examine the benefits or negative effects co-teaching has on the classroom.
Murawski & Swanson (2001) conduct a meta analysis to synthesis data-based articles related to co-teaching. Specifically the researchers intent is to examine the effects co-teaching has on the general and special education personnel and students. In particular the professionals show interest in finding new methods for increasing teacher efficiency for meeting the needs of students…
Austin, V.L. (2001). "Teachers' beliefs about co-teaching." Remedial and Special
Education, 22(4): 245
Gerber, P.J. & Popp, P.A. (2000). "Making collaborative teaching effective for academically able students: Recommendations for implementation and training." Learning Disability Quarterly, 23(3): 2000
Murawski, W.W., & Swanson, H.L. (2001). "A meta-analysis of Co-teaching research."
S. Census Bureau) It is clear after having reviewed this information that this area is quite needy in provision of alcoholism treatment and intervention.
VI. Treatment Program Community Marketing Process
In the initiative of reaching the community both through media and public relations as tools to raise awareness the organization will be enabled to alert members of the community about the services available. Promotions, marketing, public relations and media advocacy are all critical specifically as these are all integrated with the business sector and as well adapted by nonprofit organizations. In the attempt to market or advertise to the community the available services all venues of the media should be sought and the mass media in the form of newspaper and magazines and other printed material as well as media through television and radio broadcast communications and finally through the Internet's provision of electronic media. Communication with the media should…
Ervin, N.E. (2002). Advanced community health nursing practice: Population-focused care. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN# 0-8053-7364-0.
Bensley, R.J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (EDs). (2003). Community health education method: a practitioners guide. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN# 0-7637-1801-7
Andreasen, A.R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN# 0-7879-0137-7
Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services Policy Brief entitled Resources for Recovery: State Practices that Expand Treatment Opportunities" Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services" (O'Brien, et al., 2005) National Program Office, Technical Assistance Collaborative, Inc. Online located at: www.resourcesforrecovery.org
The insecure partner finds the open communication through which a successful relationship grows to be intricate. In such a relationship, the powerful partner does not citizen the weaker partner.
Emancipation is a type of cohabitation that allows partners to break from their parental influences and values. omen who are brought up in very conventional religious traditions usually seek for sexual emancipation that is not allowed by their faith or parents, through cohabitation
This is a form of cohabitation where one person is the giver while the other person in a relationship is the taker. In this form of cohabitation, the woman offers domestic labor and loving care, but she does not ask for marriage. The woman gains domestic sex and labor without devotion
Testing is a form of cohabitation that entails partners testing for marriage through cohabitation. This form of cohabitation can be a true testing ground…
Aneshensel, Carol. Handbook of the sociology of mental health. London: Springer, 2006.
Bornstein, Marc. Life-span development: Infancy through adulthood. Texas: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Browne, Ken. Introducing sociology for AS level. Cambridge: Polity, Oct 6, 2006
Coleman, Marilyn. Handbook of contemporary families: Considering the past, contemplating the future. London: SAGE, 2004.
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
The nature of depression
Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.
People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…
Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.
Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.
Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Male Teacher etention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.
quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).
There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).
Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent…
Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.
Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.
Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.
Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.