Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.
There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the involvement of experts. The primary factors, including staff, are identified in standard operating procedures. Unsupervised or untrained staff becomes a risk where trained, well educated, staff can deter risks. The secondary factors include weather, type of event, patron demographics, and facility location.
A risk is the possibility of loss that can result from a threat, a security incident, or event (S. M. Hall). Risk management is the systematic and analytic process that considers the likelihood of loss or endangerment to assets, individuals, or functions and works to identify actions and reduce, or mitigate, the consequences from the threat occurrence. Risks increase with the probability of occurrences from threats. Vulnerabilities expose assets to potential threats and include security weaknesses and facility deficiencies.
Risk analysis will determine if risk should be reduced, re-assigned, transferred, or accepted. The acceptable level of risk is the level that is reasonable for the benefit of the particular activity and is determined by the asset manager or owner of the facility. Average frequency or moderate severity risks can be transferred to someone willing to accept the risk, such as an insurance company. The asset manager, or owner, may keep, or retain, the risks becoming financially responsible if the event does occur. On the other hand, depending on the level of risk, the risk can be reduced through staff training, preventative maintenance, and development of a risk management plan that provides detailed instructions on the appropriate courses of action for each risk identified.
Because of the potential for high casualty rates, sports arenas are critically high targets for terrorist attacks (Hall). Because of this fact, it is especially important for sport facilities to identify, measure, and take counter measures to mitigate these kinds of risks. There are several kinds of models for sports facility risk assessment. Two models, in particular, are Homeland Security's ten step risk assessment methodology criteria and the Sport Event Security Assessment Model (SESAM) developed by Homeland Security in conjunction with Mississippi Emergency Management. Both methods can be adapted to meet an individual sport facility's needs.
The first step in the Homeland Security ten step risk assessment is to clearly identify the infracture sector. The type of security discipline needs to be specified to whether it is physical, information, or operation. Data is collected pertaining to each asset that needs protection and is being assessed. Threat and vulnerability assessments are performed for each specific asset. An analytical assessment is performed to determine priorities for each asset. The training of personnel and the conducting of assessments should be relatively low cost. From there, specific, concrete recommendations are made to determine appropriate counter measures that can be taken to mitigate the risks assessed.
The first step in the SESAM model is to identify an assessment team. This would include the facility athletic manager, campus police chief, the facility plant manager, and local authorities, such as the sheriff's department, who serve as experts to the particular area and are aware of any potential problems for the area. Assets are then characterized and targets identified through in-depth surveys and employee interviews. Campus and community assets are identified and prioritized. Critical infracture, existing physical protection counter measures, and the target attractiveness are then identified. Threat assessment is made for potential threat for elements on campus and surrounding community. Specific for consideration are existences of group or individuals operating close to…