Athletic Training Essays Examples

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Sports Medicine Specializes in Preventing

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84561159


Originally, the main objective of sports medicine was the welfare of competitive professional athletes, but it now encompasses treatment of anyone engaged in sport and exercise.

It is becoming an increasingly important branch of the overall medicine field. More general practitioners are being trained in sports medicine than ever before. The training gives them a better understanding of the physical, physiological, and psychological demands of exercise. This helps them to diagnose sports injuries more effectively, and to prescribe the most suitable forms of prevention, exercise, and treatment to improve the health of all athletes and sports enthusiasts everywhere.

Works Cited

"Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S." June 2003. American Sports Data. 11 Apr 2009 .

Haggerty, Maureen. "Sports injury." n.d. 11 Apr 2009 .

Medicine, the American College of Sports. "Careers in Sports Medicine and." n.d. The American College of Sports Medicine. 11 Apr 2009 .

"sports medicine." 2008. 10 Apr 2009 .

"sports medicine." n.d. 10 Apr 2009 .

"Sports Medicine." n.d. Optimalhealth. 9 Apr 2009 .

"The History of Sports Medicine ." n.d. 10 Apr 2009 .

"The Orthopaedic Treatment Team." 2009. St. John's Mercy Health Care. 11 Apr 2009 .…… [Read More]

"Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S." June 2003. American Sports Data. 11 Apr 2009 .

Haggerty, Maureen. "Sports injury." n.d. 11 Apr 2009 < >.
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Athletic Injuries

Words: 3570 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68475215

athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.

When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which are applied perpendicular to the stirrup strips on the hindfoot." (Journal of Athletic Training 2002). Although I recognized that this could not be a permanent solution, it did provide her with a slight amount of external support for her ankle. I advised her avoid testing its limits so it could…… [Read More]

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Athletic Trainer

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86305146

career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.

Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.

Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary medical treatment and disruption of normal daily life; if you're injured, they can get you on the mend and keep you on the move (Editors).

Therefore, a certified athletic trainer (ATC) is a highly trained and valuable member of any sports venue, and can help treat injuries and help them…… [Read More]

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Sports Psychology

Words: 1616 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48252289

Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership

Effective leaders manage the majority of successful organizations or teams, athletic or otherwise. A leader may be an expert, a supervisor, a respected person, someone who controls aversive power or someone that has the capacity to dispense rewards (Ryan, 1982). A leader may possess have one or more of these characteristics, depending on the individual.

In addition to leadership characteristics, leaders may also differ in their leadership styles (p. 32). For example, a directive or possessive style of leadership means that the leader takes complete charge of the team, closely monitoring athlete behavior and performance. A permissive style of coach may leave much of the responsibility to the athletes and spend more time on the critical issues.

Chelladurai (1993) proposed a normative model of decision styles (autocratic, participative, and delegating) in coaching (Butler, 1996). A casual observer of the dynamics on a typical competitive sport team would conclude that coaches make all decisions and take all of the blame for failure. Athletes on the other hand, like to concentrate on their responsibilities as players and prefer not to be involved in coaching.

The concept of leadership has gained a large amount of attention in recent…… [Read More]

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Importance of Statistical Study Within Professional Sports

Words: 1923 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61547948

Sports-Related Concussion and Statistical Study

Neurocognitive performance

Performance and game management

Elite-Level Sports

Contest Design

Game Planning

Significant Usage

Tactical Responsibilities

Advantages and disadvantages

Importance of statistical study within professional sports

The importance of quantitative data has assumed much importance in the professional sports environment during the last few years. To obtain meaningful forms of raw data that represents underlying patterns and trends, it is important to extract the data by using methods that are statistically and mathematically valid. Professional sports are also an area where statistical methods are in wide practice. Use of statistical methods involve collection of quantitative data, management of data, and analysis using different statistical tools such as Chi-squared test, factor analysis, correlation, time series analysis, and many other tests. Management of professional sports such as basketball, football, baseball, and racing tournaments uses statistical tools to increase performance capacity of sportsmen, redesigning playfields, and preparing effective game plans. The following section describes quantitative studies in which statistical tools were used to enhance player performance, treat brain injuries, and performance management of professional referees. Management of sporting venues is also done by employing statistical techniques as an aid in the planning process.

Use of discriminant analysis in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Belanger, H.G., & Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345-357.

Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., & Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of athletic training, 42(4), 504.
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Sports Tourism Belfast Northern Ireland

Words: 4283 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81671802

Planning such an event when it has not been done before is very difficult and time consuming.

Mistakes can easily be made on cost, time, and other issues when people are unsure as to what they should do to create an event that is successful - which could happen because the promotion company is uncertain about putting on such a large event and has questions about many aspects of it.

Volunteers and Viability

Getting people to volunteer for a mega sporting event in Belfast is possible, but it is not safe to assume that there will be plenty of volunteers without a closer analysis. How many people in Belfast like sports? How many of them like a particular sport? These are the kinds of questions that must be answered, along with the availability of these people and what they actually have to offer when it comes to what they will be able to do before, during, and after the sports event. Hundreds if not thousands of volunteers will be needed, and all phases of the event will have to be covered. It is vital to discover whether this will be a problem before committing to the event. Sporting events will…… [Read More]

Adorno, T. (2000). Problems of moral philosophy (T. Schroder, Ed. & R. Livingstone, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Backer, W. (1973) - Motivating workers. Johannesburg: McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934906

Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective

Annotated Bibliography

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?"

Mississippi Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June

This article focuses on college athletes in relation to their contribution in bringing billions. According to the article, college athletes are crucial to the generation of billions within sporting fields through their talents and efforts. This research paper aims to outline benefits of participation in sporting activities by college athletes. It is clear from the article that student athletes enjoy free scholarships, accommodation, meals, and other associated benefits for their participation or skills in different games or leagues. The article is relevant to the research because it offers clear reason why student athletes do not obtain salaries for their talents or participation in the sporting activities. The article is reliable and valid since it constructs its arguments from extensive research. The article is instrumental to researchers doing further studies on the topic (college athletes).

Sack, Allen. "Should college athletes be paid?" Christian Science Monitor 07 Mar. 2008: 9.

MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.

This article offers clear debate on whether college athletes should get salaries for their efforts and skills in…… [Read More]

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi

Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.
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Training Program Principles Steps and

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21148806

Among the criteria that should be evaluated in any progressive training program must include the duration and intensity of exercise and they types of exercise to be used (Browder and Darby, 1998). Guidelines for the program with time might include utilization of short-term or high intensity exercises interspersed with lower intensity and longer duration exercises (Browder & Darby, 1998). This suggests alternating strength-training events with cardiovascular endurance activities to maximize aerobic and anaerobic activity within the body.

Exercise testing should also be employed as part of a well-defined and systematic progressive strength-training program (Browder & Darby, 1998). Exercise testing may include but is not limited to measuring metabolic capability, current fitness levels and strength capability, training goals and body fat content among other factors. A strength-training program should also involve determination of exercise workloads which can be assessed using MET tables established by the American College of Sports Medicine (Browder & Darby, 1998).

Conclusions systematic and progressive strength-training program must be individualized to be effective. It must include goal setting, exercise testing and specificity that enables maximum results based on an individuals needs, wants and desires.


American College of Sports Medicine. (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription…… [Read More]

American College of Sports Medicine. (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Browder, K.D. & Darby, L.A. (1998). "Individualizing exercise: Some biomechanical and physiological reminders." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 69(4): 35.
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Sports Illustrated -- Lance Is

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45247384

One of the most pressing problems with the doping incidents is that punishment is so lax in many arenas. The WADA recommends a two-year ban from the sport, but increasing the time could reduce the number of doping incidents. An athlete might be less likely to turn to performance enhancing drugs of any kind if they knew they could face a ban for life, or a five-year or more ban from their chosen sport. Laws regarding the use of banned substances should be reviewed and updated so they are the same for each sport, and so they increase the culpability of the players involved. Since many of these athletes serve as heroes and role models to the children of the world, they owe it to them to come clean, stay clean, and support stricter enforcement in their specific sports. Lance Armstrong, in his comeback maneuver, could serve as a catalyst to bring about reform and change in the nation's and world sporting arenas. While he travels for cancer, he could promote more awareness and enforcement of anti-doping in all sports, and he could attempt to make real change, if he desired.

In the end, Armstrong's comeback could come back to…… [Read More]

Editors. "Anti-Doping Expert Promises to Test Armstrong for 'Everything'." 2008. 26 Sept. 2008.
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Athletic Facility Management Facility Liability

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23197403

259). These authors assert that crowd management and crowd control constitute two additional vital issues that athletic facility management needs to address when hosting events at any stadium or venue.

Event managers also need to understand the type of event(s) they host and understand that variuos events draw different types of crowds, as no two crowds are alike and each crowd typically behaves in different manners. Abbott and Geddie (2001) warn: "Crowds can behave violently, resulting in destruction of property, personal injury, and, in extreme cases, death. Crowd management plans should be adjusted to meet the needs of the event and the potential crowd" (p. 260). Event managers need to prepare for the unexpected that might occur. They need to also realize that football game may require more security officers than a golf game.

Event managers also need to be aware of the surrounding location of the stadium or venue. Stadiums located in high crime areas, for example, may require additional security and require that management take appropriate steps to protect the crowd from outside dangers. Abbott and Geddie (2001) report regarding Roth v. Costa (1995) that this case reveals a number of crowd management problems "as they pertain to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Retrieved July 10, 2009 from,+stadium+liability&lr=

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Sports Race and Gender Sports

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77228108

But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.


About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.

Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 20,

2010 at

Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. Retrieved September 21,

2010 at

Williams, Kam. (2006). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.

Retrieved September 20, 2010 at

Witt, Jon. (2006). The big picture. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Youth sports pushing kids, parents too far. (2010, August 30). The Dispatch. Retrieved September 21, 2010 at… [Read More]

About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at 

Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at
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Sport Stadium Risk Assessment Sport Venue Management

Words: 1421 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80649408

Sport Stadium Risk Assessment

Sport venue management face challenges in determining the level of a potential threat (Hall). Risk must be identified, measured, and evaluated to be effectively managed. It should include assessments for threats, vulnerabilities, and criticalities for information that helps to protect critical assets, physical and human, against terrorist attacks and other threats, such as fan behavior that can cause harm to others or physical assets. Protection measures can include access control, use of CCTV security cameras, adding lighting, performance of background checks, credentialing, checking backpacks, enhancing communication networks, as well as developing and updating emergency response and evacuation plans.

There are three types of risks that need to be assessed. Mission risk prevents the organization from accomplishing goals and missions. Asset risk can harm physical assets. And, security risks can potentially cripple actual data and people. These risks are identified by surveys, inspections, employee interviews, and the involvement of experts. The primary factors, including staff, are identified in standard operating procedures. Unsupervised or untrained staff becomes a risk where trained, well educated, staff can deter risks. The secondary factors include weather, type of event, patron demographics, and facility location.

A risk is the possibility of loss that…… [Read More]

Hall, S., Marciani, L. Cooper, W.E., & Rolen, R. "Introducing a Risk Assessment Model for Sport Venues." The Sport Journal, 10(2), ISSN: 1543-9518 (2007). Retrieved from

Hall, S., Marciani, L., & Cooper, W. "Sport Venue Security: Planning and Preparedness for Terrorists-related incidents." The Smart Journal, 4(2) (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved from .
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Sports Psychology -- Setting Measurable

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76765022

Specific Strategy

1. Lose weight through improved diet.

Specific strategy -- Identify the foods that are responsible for my unwanted body weight; eliminate those foods entirely on a permanent basis to establish a lifelong diet capable of allowing me to maintain my ideal weight for decades.

2. Establish optimal physical fitness training routine.

Specific strategy -- Establish a consistency to my fitness workouts that will enable me to meet my goal; permanently eliminate those barriers to consistency that have sabotaged those efforts previously.

3. Stop smoking.

End the repetitive cycle of smoking cessation followed by relapse and subsequent attempts focusing on the number of cigarettes smoked per day or per month. Stop making excuses for "comfort" and habitual smoking by never allowing smoking to be enjoyable ever again. Allow only the (smoking) equivalent of a maintenance dose of nicotine when absolutely necessary and only under circumstances that eliminate any possible enjoyment. Gradually reduce the number of those maintenance doses to zero.

Measurement of Success

1. Lose weight through improved diet.

Short-term Success -- No cheating at all in 4 weeks.

Long-term Success -- 10 lb weight loss in 4 weeks and steady subsequent weight loss.

2. Establish optimal physical fitness…… [Read More]

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Sports and Conditioning Coach Becoming

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51867606

Although the coach may not work out with the client every session, he or she may be called upon to demonstrate many of the moves and to assist the client, depending on the nature of the session and the client's needs. For some coaches, the 'best' part of work -- the involvement with people committed to fitness -- may also be the worst part, because their schedules may make it difficult to find time to work out alone. Even then, the coach may be so exhausted from helping others he does not have the motivation to condition himself. But this is vital, so the coach can assist clients in an injury-free fashion.

A typical 'day in the life' of a sports and conditioning coach will vary depending upon the coach's practice setting. A private trainer might get up at 5:30am to go to the house of a busy executive he or she is training before the client leaves for work, and then drive to various clients' homes for the rest of the morning and work until late at night. He or she might also see clients at his or her own home, provided there is a facility for training and…… [Read More]

Kinesiology. (2011). University of Michigan. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at

Sports management. (2011). Syracuse University. Retrieved November 16, 2011 at
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Sports Nutrition the Stuff of

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70597020

Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).

Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).


Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1

Mannie, K (2001). The six basic nutrients of sound nutrition for athletes. Coach and Athletic Director: Scholastic, Inc. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1

Wellman, a.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Mannie, K (2001). The six basic nutrients of sound nutrition for athletes. Coach and Athletic Director: Scholastic, Inc. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1

Wellman, a. (2003). Bouncing back nutritionally from an intense workout or game.

Coach and Athletic Director: Scholastic, Inc. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1
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Sports Nutrition Proposal Contemporary Sports

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41750758


Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-Small, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body Shaping Drug Use. Journal of School Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database:

Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). Sports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Ray, Tracy R., & Fowler, Rachel. (2004, September 1). Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes. Southern Medical Journal. Southern Medical Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Shaw, Greg, Cox, Greg, & Barnard. Janelle. (2007). Sports nutrition: case studies 2. Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the DietitiansAssociation of Australia. Dietitians Association of Australia. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Sports nutrition vital for athletes.(2005, May 15). New Straits Times. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Tallon, Mark J. (2008, March 1). Sports nutrition goes natural. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Cox, Greg. (2002, January 1). Effect of…… [Read More]

Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-Small, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body Shaping Drug Use. Journal of School Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database:

Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). Sports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Training Needs Analysis

Words: 3802 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78554620

Training Needs Analysis

Abstract/Introduction: This paper focuses on "Strategic Organizational Culture Management and Its Training Needs" as a tool to preserve a company's competitiveness in a given market. While there seems to be unanimity that "Strategic Organizational Culture" has become a necessary asset of the modern company, there is the question of whether such culture can be managed and whether such management can be trained. The purpose of the paper is to reflect the current state of art in the area by reviewing both academic and professional (practical) orientations. By discussing the implications of that research it aims to provide conclusion drawn from the available research by showing that "Strategic Organizational Culture Management" is an aspect of managerial leadership that is accessible to and in need of ongoing training.

Main Part: A strategic plan maps out the direction a company will follow to achieve an organizational vision or goal. Strategic plan development requires analysis of the internal and external environments in which a company operates and identification of potential opportunities to gain or strengthen a competitive advantage. Internal organization considerations for the development of a strategic plan include workforce strengths and weaknesses, financial considerations and organizational culture. There is unanimity…… [Read More]

Organizational culture theory. 18 November 2010. 1-5. Accessed 4 December 2011.

Cached - SimilarCached Similar

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Training and Development Underwood Ryan

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50995794

The author states that, over the course of workshops designed to elicit preferences, tastes, and feelings, he "remained the odd man out. I'm pursuing my dream career already, while everyone else (aside perhaps from the publicist) had come searching for answers to a particular set of problems and concerns. Skepticism may be the proper mind-set with which to enter into a coaching relationship, but you have to want to be coached. I didn't. I was just some jerk trying to play along. The group felt it. I felt it. So after one lost weekend, I didn't need any coaching to decide not to return for a second one." (Underwood, 2005, 85)

This desire on the part of the participant to want coaching thus is vital -- individauls must be motivated to seek advice and to execute that advice, whether motivated by the prospect of a promotion or orgaizational loyalty. But Underwood's dissatisfaction does not necessarily invalidate life coaching as an oraganizational tool for the military or any other cohesive organization. A coaching seminar designed to focus indivdiuals upon a particular goal, around a core set of values through training exercises is what real coaching is all about. But coaches are…… [Read More]

Underwood, Ryan. (February 2005) "Are you being coached?" Fast Company. Feb 2005 Issue 91: p.83. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at

Underwood, Ryan. (February 2005) "Coaching School Dropout." Fast Company. Feb 2005 Issue 91: p.85. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at
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Sports Psychology -- Achieving Specific

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7276500

Monthly Interventions

Complete 4 workouts during Weeks 3 and 4, each. Establish a routine that lends itself to long-term maintenance of the 4-week plan over a much longer term (i.e. For life).

Begin to live a fitness lifestyle that does not require constant short-term effort to maintain.

Goal #3 -- Stop smoking permanently

Daily Interventions

Create a list of specific situations in which smoking will no longer be permitted at all (i.e. wakeup cigarette, smoking with other people under any circumstances, smoking after meals, and smoking in any situation that is either enjoyable or comfortable). Decide what specific method will be used to make smoking purely "maintenance dose"-related (i.e. standing on one leg, smoking in the cold, smoking only with one palm on the floor, etc.) Inform friends of methodology to avoid any misinterpretation of intentions.

Weekly Interventions

Identify any lapses in the rules established in Week 1 and take definitive steps to remove those barriers. Among other things, commit to avoiding accompanying friends when they smoke, admit instances where smoking resulted from psychological desire rather than physiological craving. Make the necessary adjustments to avoid similar lapses in Week 2. Remind friends of goals and request their assistance in avoiding…… [Read More]

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Increasing Sport Injuries

Words: 2348 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66618732

Sports Injuries

Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.

The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.

Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and more pre-adolescent children are getting involved in sports, a stance either for or against competition for the child is not the concern. The important issues that have to be considered are:

Are children ready for the elite-level competition?

Can coaches, parents and administrators provide a safe and healthy competitive environment…… [Read More]

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Gender Matter in Sports There

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10104952

234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.

3. Conclusion

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for males within society. The actual content of this identity comes from choices the individual makes across a number of areas, including but not limited to gender, culture, vocation and religion. In the Western world, male identity or "masculinity" includes such characteristics as strength, toughness, competitiveness, aggression and the ability to…… [Read More]

Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.

Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]
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Physiotherapy on Sport Injury Id

Words: 5926 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9059041

Supporting Research and Results

Maffulli & Almekinders (2010) conducted a comparable study on 140 patients with Achilles tendon ruptures. Treatment included a conservative protocol. Re-rupture rate using this protocol is maintained at 4%. Events of re-rupture were treated using the same conservative regime. A significant percentage of patents utilizing the conservative method were able to return to competitive athletic ability (i.e. their previous sporting level)

(Woo, Renstrom, & Arnoczky, 2007) The management of tendinopathy is often based on a trial and error basis. Use of a questionnaire asking about sport history may be useful. In contrast Beeton ( 2003) states that tendinopathy can be resistant to treatment, and symptoms may persist despite both conservative and surgical interventions. The pathology of overuse tendinopathy is non-inflammatory, with a degenerative or failed healing tendon response.

(Wasielewski & Kotsko 2007) Prolonged musculoskeletal stresses are necessary for the development of symptomatic tendinosis; as a result, certified athletic trainers are likely to see these disorders frequently. In 2003, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported more than 11-000 cases of chronic tendon injury that resulted in days away from work in the United States. Sporting activities may impose even greater stresses on tendons than occupational activities. The…… [Read More]

Achilles Tendinitis ( Tendinopathy) What is Achilles Tendonitis?. (2010). Sports Injury Clinic. Retrieved from http:/www.sportsinjury

Achilles Tendinitis Exercises. (2010). Retrieved from htto:// SessionID
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Massage Therapy for Athletic Performance

Words: 2367 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74932219

This stage also facilitates the athlete's recovery time and sort of eases up pulls, strains and soreness. The third form, maintenance sport massage, is performed at least once a week. It increases the flow of blood and nutrients to the muscles. It keeps the tissues loose to enable the different layers of muscles to slide easily over each other. It also helps restricts the development of scar tissue as it increases flexibility and the range of motion. The overall goal of sports massage is to maximize athletic performance (Davidson).

Applications good sports massage therapist combines the best or most suitable techniques to achieve desired results (Davidson 2001). Each session lasts from 30 to 60 minutes. Pre-event massage is used or given before a competition or performance. It consists mainly of brisk effleurage and petrissage strokes. Effleurage strokes stimulate and warm the muscles up. Petrissage strokes help muscles to move smoothly and reduce muscle tension. Effleurage strokes are relaxing and stimulating when performed briskly. Pressure increases as the massage progresses. The therapist uses percussive strokes and cupping in order to stimulate the muscles and make them contract and flex. The leg and back muscles are the focus of sports massage. Post-event…… [Read More]

American Fitness. Body Therapeutics. Aerobics and Fitness Association of America: Gale Group, July 2001

Calechman, Steve. The Right Massage for You. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Inc., October-November 2001
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Sport Obermeyer Case Study I Answers Attached

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72372311

sport obermeyer case study I answers attached file

Started: Jul 14 at 2:33am

ptsWhy does Sport Obermeyer place two production orders with their suppliers, each comprising 50% of their total season needs? Choose the best single answer.

Why does Sport Obermeyer place two production orders with their suppliers, each comprising 50% of their total season needs? Choose the best single answer.

They would be better off ordering just once, because then they would face a newsvendor problem for which the optimal solution is known.

This allows them to take advantage of the positive correlation between early orders from retailers and total demand.

This increases their odds of not suffering from quota restrictions.

This gives them more time to refine their product designs.

This allows them to defer production of their lowest value and easiest to forecast items until after the Las Vegas trade show.

This lowers their carbon footprint.

Question 2: 2 ptsCross training workers is most useful, from the perspective of matching supply with demand when

Cross training workers is most useful, from the perspective of matching supply with demand when

Average demand is significantly less than capacity

Average demand exceeds capacity

Cross training of workers is equally useful…… [Read More]

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Training in Organization

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83240301

training is an element where a trainee can demonstrate his understanding of what is being taught. By reacting on the subject being taught, based on the sense of his reactions, a trainee can show the level of knowledge he already gained. Reaction can include raising questions and demanding for more explanation on a particular topic. Even though the element of reaction can demonstrate how much depth of knowledge a trainee had reached, it cannot be used as a method to evaluate the trainee's skills of the subject taught. This is because a trainee may have the ability to explain the things he learned but may be unable to apply them.

Result is an element of training where the overall skills and ability of a trainee, on the area of learning that was taught, can be measured. With results, such as results on how a trainee performed during the training's practices, a trainee can demonstrate both the…… [Read More]

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Sports Happenings of the 1960's

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981666

The 1960s are remembered for the wonderful acts that he put across as he eventually led the Philadelphia 76 ers to an NBA title. He is known as the only basketball player to have scored 100 points in a single game.

Wilma Rudolph is yet another person who generated much controversy in the world of sports during the 1960s as a result of her outstanding performances. Similar to Chamberlain, she experienced a great deal of health problems as she was growing up. However, this did not stop her from winning three Olympic gold medals as she demonstrated that determination was the key to success, regardless of the circumstances. In spite of the fact that she had polio and pneumonia, the athlete struggled until she became the best in her field of work. She was not discouraged by doctors who expressed doubt regarding her regaining her ability to walk consequent to going through polio and went on to pursue her dreams as she eventually became number 1.

Abebe Bikila's determination to run barefoot during the 1960s Olympics created significant controversies, as people were unable to understand how someone like Bikila dared to run barefoot alongside of some of the world's greatest…… [Read More]

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Sports in Our Lives Outline

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2979006

V. Conclusion a. Winning is not always first place, and loosing is not always the end.

b. Sports can help teach us how to live good and honest lives.

Part Two

The paragraph has several aspects which create strengths and weaknesses within its context. The opening lines do present a broad statement which draws the reader in. However, the paragraph opens with a statement which can be construed as a fallacy; no one truly knows if anything is "God-given." I also think the lengthy continuation of the types of choices we make is distracting, we get the point. Not so much fluff was needed to progress into the thesis, which has nothing to do with our choice of what flavor gum we chew. The phrase ad infinitum should also be in italics to denote the Latin origins. I also think the statement regarding choosing the right one is way too strong; any education is a good education, thus the term "Loserville" inappropriate. However, the paragraph does end with a positive note.

Part 3 always turn to the sports page first, which records people's accomplishments. The front page has nothing but man's failures;" Former Supreme Court Judge Earl Warren, describes the…… [Read More]

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Sport as a Vehicle for Change

Words: 4806 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14005972

Social Change Through Women's Sports

Promoting Social Change Through Women's Sports Leadership

The problems that cry out for social change solutions

No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. War, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.

Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and soldiers in Iraq; 6 Hispanic immigrants were murdered in Georgia; two African-Americans were shot to death by a Mexican store owner in Los Angeles, to name a handful of incidents.

Meanwhile, actress Jennifer Lopez is starring in a movie now being filmed about the unsolved murders of over 400 women…… [Read More]

American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from .

Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
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Training Women for the Military

Words: 3228 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76933795

In those days prior to 2003, TRADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of women soldiers and decrease their chances of joining the armed forces. Why would one want to do this as a researcher? The short answer is that all data are useful: Seeking out the factors that make a situation worse is another route to finding out what makes things better. (For…… [Read More]

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Sports Nutrition by Pramukova Szabadosova

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34898719

5. The authors conclude that, "Maintaining an energy balance and a nutrient dense diet, undertaking prudent training, appropriately timing nutrient intake, and obtaining adequate rest are the cornerstones to enhancing performance and/or training adaptations," (Pramukova, 2011, p. 109). Some sports nutritional supplements have also been proven effective in the literature. Some of those supplments increase energy availability and others aid in recovery.

6. The original hypotheses were broad and therefore easily proven by performing a review of literature. Scientific data on sports nutrition is a complex subject area, and a summary of information highlights major findings.

7. Pramukova, B., Szabadosova, V. & Soltesova, A. (2011). Current knowledge about sports nutrition. Australasian Medical Journal 4(3): 107-110.

8. The authors reference their sources heavily throughout each section of the research analysis, using footnotes that correspond to the references section at the end of the report.

9. There are no tables, charts, figures, or any other visual aids used in the current article.

10. There are no tables used, and therefore no…… [Read More]

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Training Needs Analysis Practices for Managers A

Words: 17400 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42802134

Training Needs Analysis Practices for Managers: A Study of Saudi Arabia Private Firms

Training needs analysis (TNA) is defined by Mabey and Salman (1995:158) as a "process of collecting data which allows an organization to identify and compare its actual level with its desired level of performance." The authors also indicate that this performance could be interpreted as meaning the competencies and attitude necessary for the staff to do the job effectively. Moreover, Armstrong (1996:536) states that "training needs assessment is partly concerned with finding the gap between what is happening and what should happen.. This is what has to be filled by training ." Figure (1.1) depicts this gap.


The training Gap











Source: Armstrong (1996)

Gibson (1999) asserts that there is a clear need for organizations to carry out a comprehensive training needs analysis before finalizing their training plans; yet despite global concurrence among academicians and HR practitioners, this exercise is not being religiously conducted. The current study intends to carry out a training needs analysis…… [Read More]

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Training Adult Vocational Specifically as it Relates to the Pawnbroker Industry

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52595168

improve or hinder the effectiveness of non-workplace-Based training programs for the American pawnbroker industry?

Overview of the Industry:

In the United States, there are two main functions of a pawnbroker. The first is making small loans, secured by personal property. The second function is the sale of merchandise.

According to the Florida Pawnbrokers Association, loans are the high profit center for pawnshops. "The retail side also generates an average of 27% of the shops revenue. The Association stated, "In 1996, the nation's 9,100 pawnshops generated $4 billion in revenue."

Pawnbrokers are regulated in the United States mostly at either the state or local area. While there is no uniformity among the regulations, laws, or ordinances, it seems most are issued licenses, required to make reports to law enforcement, and obviously prohibited from trafficking in stolen merchandise.

The amount the pawnbroker is permitted to charge as fees and interest vary, but is usually regulated. Interest rates seem to average between 2% to 21/2% per month. Loans are secured by the value of personal property. The personal property varies greatly, and includes jewelry, tools, electronics, musical instruments, photographic equipment, sports gear, bicycles, and other variable items. Pawnbrokers make loans on top quality…… [Read More]

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American Sports of NFL and NBA and Their Influence in Popular Culture

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70386722

Sports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)


Pop Culture

Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:





Books and Cartoons and comics


It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:

Classical music


Conventional theatre

In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).


The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure activities. These activities consisted of hunting and war-like nature as well as dancing and other activities. The romans admired games that had gladiatorial and military effect to them while the Greeks loved the human body and its beauty. Later on in the Middle Ages, they had religious festivals and knight…… [Read More]

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Motor Processes in Sport

Words: 4377 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51724219

Motor Processes in Sport

Tom is an 18-year-old goalkeeper who recently moved up in class from youth to adult football. He was an early maturer and has a history of being more advanced in soccer than his peers but now a weakness is exposed. He never learned to kick with his left foot and this has been a problem at this level. The current paper discusses the proposed reasons for his difficulty and outlines a plan of intervention.

Understanding the Effects of Early Maturation as They Apply to Tom

The traditional view holds that early maturation in boys has more positive consequences for psychosocial adaptation than late maturation. The early literature by researchers like Mussen and Jones (1957) described early-maturing boys during late adolescence (17 -- 18 years) as having higher self-esteem and self-confidence, a more positive self-image, and as being more socially mature, which may have led to more favorable perceptions of early maturation in males by the adult world. These effects seem to be enduring as the researchers found that the effects of greater prestige experienced by early maturing males was still evident at age 33, when they were found to be more responsible, cooperative, sociable, and self-controlled…… [Read More]

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 4 (10), 829 -- 839.

Banister, E.W. (1991). Modeling elite athletic performance. In H. Green, J. McDougall and H. Wenger (Eds.), Physiological testing of elite athletes (pp. 403 -- 424). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
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Flow States and Sport Performance

Words: 2445 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78417902

Flow States and Sport Performance

The attention of an individual focus on the movements of the body, power of the muscles, force of the lungs, and the strength beneath the feet in the context of running a race,. This is an indication that an individual is living in the moment utterly absorbed in the present activity. It is essential to note that time seems to fall away. According to the description by the positive psychologists, the encounter or experience during the running process is known as the flow. It is vital to note that the flow refers to the state of complete immersion in an activity. The mental state of the flow relates to the ability of an individual to be involved in the activity for its own sake.

Understanding the Psychology of the Flow

It is ideal to note that people experience diverse or different flow states. Some might have the ability to experience the flow while engaging in skiing, playing soccer, tennis, dancing, and running. In other cases, individuals experience flow in relation to activities such as drawing, writing, and painting (Stavrou et al., 2007). Various factors affect the state of flow in an individual. Some of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cowen, L.W. (2004). What Is Hypnosis? Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine

Society, 10(3), 105-107.
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Classic Class Ancient World Sports

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64747505

Greek Sports

Sports in the ancient world evolved from the military traditions and are a reflection of the important elements of ancient life. When we consider the different elements of the ancient games, we see violence, beauty, the power of the gods and a social function, all of which are important factors in the ancient Greek games. This paper will explore the connection between sport, military and art in the ancient Greek and Roman worlds.

Sports & Military

Sporting tradition probably came from Greece, and Greek cities were surely the first to host massive sporting events on the scale of the Olympic Games. In this time, societies had strict rules with regards to the roles that people played in society. Wars and armed conflict were frequent, as a means gaining territory and power, as the Greek world was little more than a collection of loosely-tied city-states and small kingdoms. The constant warring demanded that any serious ruler should have a standing, professional or at least semi-professional army. Now, an army needs to be trained in order to beat other armies, so that is what they did.

The training exercises therefore became modern sports. This is because of the competitive nature…… [Read More]

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Attributions for Success or Failure in Sport Performance

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70241170


Sports can be attributed to drastic changes of emotions and expectations by sports fans from their favourite teams or players, based on their performances. These performeances represent the strength, capability and potential of a sportsman or a team. Sports is one of those things where it is almost inevitable to get a result where there is a victor and loser. Sports can be understood as a non-lethal, healthy combat or duel amongst two sportsmen or teams who fight for awards, honours or even bragging rights over each other. This makes the notions of success and failure an integral function of the nature of sports. Through this paper, it is targeted to carry out a thorough analysis and understand the various reasons for which the success and failure in sports performances are witnessed by sportmen and fans. This discussion would aid in determining and developing the many ways in which sports performances can be altered to achieve success and avoid failure using the analysis conducted which would incorporate analyzing physical as well as mental traits and functionalities of a sportsman.


Performance, expectations and emotions are ultimately influenced by people, situations and time. Within sport…… [Read More]

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Preferred Leadership Styles in Sports

Words: 1869 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57753320

sports leadership. The writer explores what it takes to be an effective leader in the world of sports. Terms are defined and literature is examined to present the most important characteristics in the role of coach. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.

Sports can be the foundation for building a successful life. Whether the participant plays childhood league sports, school sports, or goes on to become a professional player the skills and traits that are developed during that time help shape the total person. Because of the important impact that sports can have on a person's total development the way a team is handled becomes a key factor in the sports industry. Most people who have had children participate in sports leagues have either experienced or witnessed both good coaches and bad coaches. On the school level teams coaches quickly develop reputations based on how they lead the team and the professional coaches who fail to win find themselves unemployed in short order. It is important to develop and lead a team with proven leadership style and technique. The impact a coach has on the members of the team and the reputation of the sport cannot be…… [Read More]

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Rugby Training School in the

Words: 2765 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71748786

First of all, the marketing plan identifies the need for opening a rugby training school in the Denver Metro Area, given in this case by the fact that, however there exist several rugby clubs, they generally do not offer training services. Then, a second objective of the marketing plan is to identify the customers which would purchase the new product or services. In this case, it would be represented by all those who wish to practice rugby but have no place to learn it.

Another objective of the marketing plan is to help the management of the organization decide on numerous product related issues, such as the launching of the product or service, its placement onto the market, decisions related to the price of the service or the promotion strategies used to familiarize the customers with the new service. All these represent decisions which must be made prior to the actual launching of the product or service. The marketing team's job does not end with the placement onto the market; it continues with the development of new sales strategies which attract customers' interest and support the organization in reaching its final goals.

4. Differentiation and Positioning

The success of the…… [Read More]

Denver City Search, Sport Clubs and Gyms, 2008,,last accessed on February 15, 2008

Black Ice Women's Rugby, 2008,, last accessed on February 15, 2008
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Gender in Sports in the

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9741790

Ironically, as we have seen, we live in a capitalistic society. A sometimes unwilling engine of this equity has been revenue generating sports. What will be absolutely necessary will be the demand of female consumers who will vote with their wallets in favor of equity. However, they will only do so if they are properly educated. The portrayal of women as equal partners of women in society appears to be a permanent feature of American society. Baring some major social change in society, this trend is likely to continue. As noted above, the place for gender integration in sports on the playing field and court will ironically probably take place on the living room couch in front of the television or in front of the computer. Non-athletes will determine for good or ill the status of gender in sports. They have before and this will certainly continue into the foreseeable future.

Works Cited

Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard

Journal of Communications. 12. (2001): 183-208. Print.

"HR and Employment Law News." HR BLR, 3 October 2003. Web. 4

Aug 2011. .

Harrison, Kristen, and Barbara…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Eastman, Susan Tyler, and Andrew C. Billings. "Biased Voices of Sports: Racial

and Gender Stereotyping in College Basketball Announcing." Howard
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Philosophy of Sports but IT's

Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46917024

Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain that Americans are too busy to exercise, too busy working to do something as decadent as work on their bodies for either the individual or the collective good.

One interesting trend is that today America has more female sports participants. "In a bygone era, women who lifted weights invited a…… [Read More]

Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.

Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007,
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Flexibility Training

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2632254

flexibility training has to offer in everyday life of people by helping them to function more effectively. Moreover I shall discuss constructing a class specifically for this kind of training and also shed some light on the ways music can help motivate and improve the performance of the people undergoing the flexibility training.


Flexibility comprises full range motion of the various joints of the body and encompasses all components of the musculoskeletal system and specific neuromuscular pathways of the body. Flexibility varies from person to person depending on his age, gender, body temperature and the type of joint to be moved. It helps in the reduction of low back pain and injury (Bach, Green, & Jensen) and also helps improve the posture and muscle symmetry. (Corbin, C.B., & Noble, L). In addition to all this it decreases severity due to injury, delays the onset of muscular fatigue, increases muscular efficiency, promotes mental relaxation and provides personal gratification. Flexibility training is the best possible method today to attain the unification of one's mind, body and soul. (Anonymous)


In order to construct a class that emphasizes and teaches the various aspects of improving flexibility…… [Read More]

1) Bach, B.K., Green, D.S., & Jensen, G. M- Article Title: A comparison of muscular tightness in runners and non-runners and the relation of muscular tightness to low back pain in runners. Publication Year: 1985.Journal Title: Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy. Volume: 6.Page Number: 315+.

2) Corbin, C.B., & Noble, L-Article Title: Flexibility: A major component of physical fitness. Publication Year: 1980.Journal Title: The Journal of Physical Education and Recreation. Volume: 51.Page Numbers: 23-24, 57-60.
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Starting a Sports Program at

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42154822

8. Staffing

The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:

Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.

One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.

One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the given circumstances. A sports counselor can help students prioritize and identify their sports talents, or they can help them apply to schools which offer sports scholarships. Given however that the services of the counselor would not be required on daily basis, it would as such be advisable to hire him…… [Read More]

Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge

Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
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Boost for Women's Athletics but

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40019638

Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.

The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and ear scholarships" at the level of Division I in NCAA schools, and hence, "it's time to erase all institutional gender discrimination, and that includes bias against boys" (

The College Sports Council (August, 2008) launched a petition drive which was aided by a few Olympic champions; John Naber (four Gold…… [Read More]

American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved

June 28, 2009, from . (2004).
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Personal Training Senior Fitness Exercising

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38627725

In addition, I would have her complete two sets of ten of standing calf raises, dumbbell shoulder press, crunches, seated dumbbell curl, back extensions, and cable pushdowns. In weeks one to three, for aerobic exercise on Tuesday and Thursday, I would have Maddie walk or run lightly, whichever she can handle, for twenty to forty five minutes. For weeks four to nine, on Monday, Maddie will focus on quads and hamstrings and calves. Mondays, she will do four sets of ten of squats and stiff leg deadlift. She will then do two sets of ten of leg extensions, leg curls, seated calf raises, and standing calf raises. On Wednesday, Maddie will work on biceps, abs and lower backs. For four sets of ten, she will do an incline bench press or a modified version, two sets of ten for preacher curls, and three sets of ten for back extensions. On Friday, she will focus on back, triceps, and shoulders. She will do four sets of ten of pull-ups or what she can manage to do and modified version, three sets of ten of cable rows and tri-extensions laying down, and two sets of dumbbell shoulder press and lateral raises. As…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bennell, Kim, and Rana Hinman. "Exercise as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis." Curr Opin Rheumatol 17.5 (2005): 634-40. PubMed. Web. 17 Mar. 2011. < >.

Boeer, J., O. Mueller, I. Krauss, G. Haupt, D. Axmann, and T. Horstmann. "Effects of a Sensory-motor Exercise Program for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis or Prosthesis of the Hip Using Measurements Made by the Posturomed Oscillatory Platform." J. Geriatr Phys Ther 33.1 (2010): 10-5. PubMed. Web. 17 Mar. 2011. .
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Cardiovascular Program 60-Year-Old Walk-A-Thon Training

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58189815

Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.

If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.


Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.

Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.

Increase your pace for 8 minutes.

Frequency: Once per day

Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking. If you find that it is becoming hard to breath, then slow down to a normal pace until your breathing is back under control.

Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.

If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.


Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your…… [Read More]

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Women in the Workforce Training Plan Breaking

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94183325

Women in the Workforce

Training Plan: Breaking the Glass Ceiling at Intuit

Intuit revolutionized the accounting industry with innovative applications that assist with financial analysis and tax preparation. Since 1983 Intuit has been a proud leader providing our most famous products: Quicken and TurboTax to a wide variety of customers from individuals to small businesses and corporations. We have prided ourselves on providing an excellent workplace that sparks creativity and builds long-term relationships. Our atmosphere is one of continual learning and growth.

However, this focus on growth always means that there is room for improvement. The following examines a new training plan to help take advantage of one area that could be improved. Intuit attracts young movers and shakers. However, women have recently complained that their needs are being ignored. The following will examine a plan to include women in the Intuit mix in a way that allows them truly equal opportunities to their male counterparts.

Training and Business Strategy

The key business strategy of Intuit played an essential role in the development of a largely male dominated company. It was not intentional, but rather as a result of operating in a largely male dominated sector of the economy. This…… [Read More]

Intuit Inc., (2008, August 13). Intuit Unveils Small Business Connected Strategy. Intuit.

Retrieved from li, M., Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2007, December 4-7) Workforce gender diversity: Is it a source of competitive advantage? Paper presented at the 21st ANZAM conference, Sydney,
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Conditioning Training and Participating in

Words: 2801 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50961003

(MRN, 1) This is to indicate that brain cells
are more actively produced by physical activity, convincing neurological
theorists that regular athletic orientation will improve one's academic
capacity and intellectual clarity. Still, as with other beneficial aspects
of an athlete's physical and intellectual growth, sporting activity must be
pursued in at least some degree of moderation. For both the implications
of what Metzl refers to as overuse and the consequences of an overly
centralized focus on athletic activity, there may be real and long-term
repercussions to failing to balance this emphasis with other healthy or
meaningful activities. Especially concerning bone and joint injuries,
overuse of specific parts of the body in a continuous and monotonous manner
will result in chronic pains and ultimately, lifelong localized injuries.
Therefore, especially when training for an endurance event, where sustained
energy is crucial, in training moderation can be a key to the prevention of
such injuries or the recovery there from.
Moreover, our research finds that in addition to the increased risk of long-
term injury which is likely to be produced through overuse, that the
benefits spoken of here above from endurance training to intellectual
development may be stunted. As Metzl's text intimates,…… [Read More]

Beginner Triathlete (BT). (2008). The Original 13 Week Sprint Training
Plan. Beginner

Harr, E. (2003). Triathlon training in four hours a week: from beginner
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Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance

Words: 11051 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64965063

Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on the Performance of Female High School Soccer Players

The purpose of this study is to look at aerobic and anaerobic conditioning and exercise. Female soccer players are used for this study and the results of how well they do on specific tests are measured. The goal then becomes to see whether those that perform better on these tests are also better soccer players and to therefore conclude whether this type of training and exercise has an effect on the performance of female high school soccer players.

Since the researcher is a coach for a high school female soccer team, the ease with which this data can be collected and analyzed is significant. The importance of a study such as this should not be underestimated, as there are many athletes that could likely benefit from both aerobic and anaerobic exercise if it is found that there is a benefit for these female soccer players.

Logically, the results of this study can be extended to male high school soccer players, and to professional soccer players as well. It also has the potential to be extended to other sports where the players may also benefit from this type…… [Read More]

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