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Slavery as a Peculiar Institution in 12 Years a Slave
One of the best and most important passages of Solomon Northup’s 12 Years a Slave comes at the very end of the memoir. It is a short passage that conveys the essence of the times in a few short words and that summarizes the character of the man who has written the tale. The passage comes on page 321 just before the book concludes with sheet music from the song “Roaring River,” about life on the plantation. The passage begins with Northup’s announcement that the story has concluded. And then comes the curious line, “I have no comments to make upon the subject of Slavery” (Northup 321). This is a most curious line because, of course, the entire memoir has just been about his life as a slave. Why does he end the story by saying he has no comments…
Review of the Film 12 Years a Slave
The film 12 Years a Slave illustrates why an economic system predicated on brutality, tyranny, terrorism rationalized under the painfully hypocritical guise of Christianity would never last. Ironically the continued brutal, heartless persecution of slaves just hastened the collapse of a commodity-driven industry that was destined for creative disruption at the hands of more insightful, intelligent business leaders. The redeeming value of this film from an economic theory perspective is that it shows how painfully bad the plantation owners were at even understanding the industry they were attempting to dominate through brute force manual labor in the form of slaves. There is just so much flesh a slave can give up until he is dead, yet the plantation owners, incompetent to run their businesses, can't see that a healthy workforce is going to make them infinitely more profitable. It's as if…
The film 12 Years a Slave is promoted using a multitude of tools. There are several objectives of the public relations campaign. The first is to gain as much exposure for the film as possible, so that as many potential consumers are aware of its release. The second is to create interest in the film. This is done through a campaign that emphasizes education about the film's content and the relevance of its story. Lastly, the quality of the film needs to be projected by the public relations.
Public relations is defined as the "strategic communications process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics" (PSA, 2012). This definition identifies that public relations has two components -- the sender of the information and the receiver. The role of the public relations is also defined here as one of relationship-building, which implies something greater than one-way communication.…
Friedman, R. (2013). "12 years a slave" chosen best picture by Boston film critics. Showbiz 411. Retrieved December 8, 2013 from http://www.showbiz411.com/2013/12/08/12-years-a-slave-chosen-best-picture-by-boston-film-critics
McKinney (2013). A film about race. McKinney and Associates. Retrieved December 8, 2013 from http://www.mckpr.com/voice-matters-blog/a-film-about-race
PRSA. (2012). PRSA announces the final definition of public relations. Ragan's PR Daily. Retrieved December 8, 2013 from http://www.prdaily.com/Main/Articles/PRSA_announces_the_final_definition_of_public_rela_10993.aspx
12 Years a Slave
Relevance of Northup's Beating in 12 Years a Slave
The scene in Chapter 3 when Northup is beaten by Radburn and Burch for daring to argue with him that he was a free man is one that seems particularly relevant to the white readers of the tale. It is important that they hear of this cruelty because until they are in the shoes of the man who is beaten they cannot really sympathize or empathize. So Northup recounts what that experience was like and it makes the reader feel terrible for Northup and feel outraged towards the men who kidnapped him.
I see Northup writing for readers so as to inform them. The implications for us reading now are really no different because what has really changed in the century and a half that has passed? Slavery has been abolished in name but in spirit it…
The women are especially vulnerable because their children can be sent away from them, they can be the brunt of a cruel master's sexual encounters, and they often have to serve the master's family, which can make them targets of abuse.
Most of the southern women in the book are portrayed as kinder than their husbands. He writes of the wife of Mr. Epp "She had been well educated at some institution this side the Mississippi; was beautiful, accomplished, and usually good-humored. She was kind to all of us but Patsey -- frequently, in the absence of her husband, sending out to us some little dainty from her own table" (Northup 198-199). They are sometimes jealous of the slave women, as Mrs. Epp is, but for the most part, they are the gentler part of the slave experience, and they are not as cruel or vindictive as their husbands are.…
Northup, Soloman. Twelve Years a Slave. 1997. University of North Carolina. 15 Nov. 2010.
Roark, James L. Johnson, Michael P. And Cohen, Patricia Cline. Reading the American Past.
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
Unlike most of today's women, Celia could not take charge of her own life. Because she was a slave, she served others and lived at their mercy. Her relationships with the family as a whole were based on that fact that she was a slave, so it was her race that led her to that predicament. However, even George had some control over what happened in his life. He had control over Celia to a degree; at least that he could influence her. That is more than Celia had. Because of her gender and race, she was powerless, and had to submit to the will of others. She even confronted Newsom because she feared losing her relationship with George. The text notes, "While it is possible that Celia may have taken action against Newsom of her own accord, the evidence strongly suggests that she confronted Newsom only when forced to…
McLauren, M.A. (1991). Celia, a slave: A true story of violence and retribution in antebellum Missouri. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
St. Patrick of Ireland: A Biography. Philip Freeman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
The book by Philip Freeman takes the reader deeper into the life and times of St. Patrick of Ireland than any previous publication has been able to do. Freeman's thesis is that there have previously been many unknowns about St. Patrick and the author was determined to solve those mysteries as thoroughly as he could. The work was written based on Freeman's passion to truly understand and share his knowledge of St. Patrick to readers around the world. Bringing St. Patrick's fascinating life into a well-thought-out narrative was a valuable historical service for Freeman. The purpose of this book review is to present a realistic portrait of St. Patrick, the saint after whom a special day is designated -- and while millions of people celebrate St. Patrick's Day, very few are likely to know anything at…
Mary also remembers the days of the war, when they heard stories about being set free and prayed for their freedom. Then one day all the slaves were asked to come to the Grand House. Here they were told by the master and his wife that they were no longer slaves. They were now free. "The Yankees will soon be here." The two of them then brought their chairs to the front of the house on the porch and waited. In about an hour, the Yankees arrived and repeated: "You are now free." The slaves and Yankees ate and drank together in celebration, while the owners continued to "humbly" sit on the porch and watch. This story by Mary was indeed very different from the movies, such as "Gone with the Wind" with the fires and mayhem. It is actually as if the master and his wife were glad --…
Jacobs, Harriett. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. 26 November 2008. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/jacobs/hjhome.htm
Yetman, Norman. Voices from Slavery. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1970
Jefferson declared to the world, that we are inferior to the whites, both in the endowments of our bodies and our minds?" (alker, 1829)
In contrast to alker's defiance, although his oration gathers in passionate momentum, Douglass begins his speech modestly before his audience. "Should I seem at ease, my appearance would much misrepresent me. The little experience I have had in addressing public meetings, in country school houses, avails me nothing on the present occasion." (Douglass, 1852) He also ends his speech with hope, "Allow me to say, in conclusion, notwithstanding the dark picture I have this day presented of the state of the nation, I do not despair of this country." (Douglass, 1852) In contrast, alker makes a historical overview of slavery of the past, from Greece, to Rome, to ancient Israel and points out that of all forms of slavery, America's remains the worst, and the most…
Douglass, Frederick. "What to a Slave is the 4th of July?" Chicken bones: Online Journal. 1852. http://www.nathanielturner.com/fourthofjulyspeech.htm.[4 Feb 2005]
Walker, David. David Walker's Appeal, In Four Articles: Together With A Preamble To The Colored Citizens Of The World, But In Particular, And Very Expressly, To Those Of The United States Of America. Revised Edition with an Introduction by Sean Wilentz. Hill and Wang, New York, 1995. Full text from PBS Website. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2931t.html .[4 Feb 2005]
This book is important because so much of black history centers on the experience of being a slave, rather than the experience of living together with others slaves and the development of culture and tradition. This book shows how black American culture really originated, and that the lives of slaves were incredibly hard, but enriching in their own right. The author's exhaustive research gives the reader a real glimpse into the everyday life of slaves, and indicates that they had a rich culture, appreciated their families, hoped desperately for freedom, and lived desperately hard lives. Even though their lives were difficult, they held on to hope and faith, which gave them the courage to continue. His research brings the slaves to life and makes the reader appreciate just how strong they had to be to survive.
This is a very interesting and adsorbing book. eading a slave's autobiography is one…
Blassingame, John W. (1977). The slave community: Plantation life in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Still it is not completely unheard of for a name to be derived from a longer epitaph of Nat, property of man, Mr. Turner. This is how many people's last names resulted in ending with "man."
Nat Turner was born a slave in Virginia in 1800 and grew to become a slave preacher. He did not use tobacco or liquor and maintained a clean, disciplined life. He was very religious man and became passionate about the Scripture. He began preaching to slaves in and around the area of Southampton County, Virginia in 1828. As a result he became well-known and liked in the area. It was at this time he began having visions. It was these visions that inspired him to revolt. hile he waited for further signs, unrest was already evident in on plantations, in the hills and on boats in ports of call (Greenberg, 85). Gradually he built…
Short History of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. Bahia-Online. Retrieved December
10, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bahia-online.net/history-bahia.htm .
Gates, H.L., & Appiah, K.A. (Eds.). (1994). Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad Press, Inc.
Goldman, S. (2003). Nat Turner Revolt of 1831. HistoryBuff.com. Retrieved December
Film -- "12 Years a Slave"
Years a Slave is the true account of Solomon Northrup's life. A free African-American living in Saratoga Springs, New York, with his wife and two children, Solomon was kidnapped and sold into slavery as an escaped slave named Platt. Though Solomon tried to gain his freedom, he was thwarted and cruelly treated by members of America's slavery system. He also saw horrible cruelty inflicted on other African-American slaves and their various adjustments to it. Through the efforts of Solomon and abolitionists, he was finally freed and was compelled to write of his experience and become an abolitionist. The movie is often disturbing but its truthfulness about an actual person's experiences makes it worthwhile.
Mr. Solomon Northrup's Life
In 1841, Solomon Northrup is a free African-American living in Saratoga Springs, New York with his wife, Anne Hampton, and his two children, Alonzo and…
Mis) representations of African-Americans in film:
From the Birth of a Nation onward
Recently, the Academy of Motion Pictures awarded 12 Years a Slave the title of Best Picture of the year. However, it is important to remember that the development of American cinema, racism, and the perpetuation of African-American stereotypes in film has a long and ignoble history. In the essay "The Good Lynching and Birth of a Nation: Discourses and aesthetics of Jim Crow," historian Michele Faith allace examines how one of the great silent film epics directed by cinematic master D.. Griffith consciously and subconsciously validated hegemonic racial ideologies. allace argues that when cinema was in its infancy, although African-Americans were portrayed on screen less frequently than whites, they were not addressed in the same derogatory manner as characterized the Griffith epic and Griffith's masterpiece set the tone for decades afterward. "The film's continued notoriety challenges all…
Ebert, Roger. "The Birth of a Nation movie review." Roger Ebert Reviews. 30 Mar 2003
[4 Mar 2014] http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-the-birth-of-a-nation-1915
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder: Southern violence and the blues tradition. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Slavery and its Relation to the Modern World
The history of slavery in colonial America is a story of two worlds: the world of the aristocratic landowners and the slaves from African that helped to maintain and work the plantations. Each group had its own experiences and views, and each group was impacted differently by slavery. At the time, slavery was an accepted practice in the South. It had first been introduced in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 when 20 slaves from Africa were brought to the colony by a Dutch ship. Thus began an era of slavery in America that had lasting effects on the population of the country even unto this very day. This paper will show how slavery throughout the history of the United States influenced the Legacy of slavery today because slavery is discussed in a negative connotation.
As the Editors of History.com note, “though it is…
Slaves No More
The issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately end the institution of slavery in America, it took the enforcement of that proclamation by Union troops. The period of time at the end of the Civil War, when freedom from bondage was being imposed by the advancing Union armies, was a tenuous time for the former slaves. Many White Southerners refused to accept the freedom of their former "property," and took actions to re-impose their authority. But after the official surrender of the South, many were forced to begrudgingly accept the freedom of their former slaves. Leon Litwack's article entitled "Slaves No More" examines this period of time and how the presence of Union soldiers was often the determining factor in how free the former slaves were allowed to be.
Most Americans learn that slavery ended in the United States when Abraham Lincoln issued the "Emancipation Proclamation"…
The trans-Atlantic slave trade shackled together persons from disparate cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Forced contact and communion, pervasive physical and psychological abuse, and systematic disenfranchisement became the soil in which a unique subculture would be born. Slave subcultures in the United States were also diverse, depending on geography, the nature of the plantation work, the prevailing political and social landscape of the slave owner culture, and factors like gender and ethnic backgrounds of the slaves. Presence and type of religion in the community also impacted the evolution of slave culture. Common factors that link disparate slave subcultures include religion, music, crafts, food, social norms, and political philosophies. In spite of the tremendous variations in theme and tone of slave cultures, such as those in Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, or the Carolinas, there did emerge some consistencies that draw attention to commonalities. The forced bondage of slavery created the means…
"African Diaspora," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www2.coloradocollege.edu/Dept/HY/HY243Ruiz/Research/diaspora.html
Chen, A. & Kermeliotis, T. (2012). African slave traditions live on in U.S. CNN World. Dec 10, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/07/world/africa/gullah-geechee-africa-slavery-america/
Sambol-Tosco, K. (2004). Education, arts, and culture. Slavery and the Making of America: Historical Overview. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/education/history.html
"Slave Culture," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3043
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
Douglass did not have those options and he had to locate ways to become free that involved saving money and escaping. In the end they both used similar methods to escape but the initial decisions were gender based.
The final similarity in the lives of the two was what they chose to do with their lives following their escape. They both worked to help free slaves who had not been able to get away and they both worked to help those who had been freed to set up their lives.
hile Jacobs and Douglass started out as slaves they worked hard to escape and then used their abilities to help others who had been enslaved. Instead of turning bitter and inward they both penned their experiences to help the world understand the true ramifications of slavery.
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06) (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm)
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06)
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06) ( http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm )
Harriet Jacobs (accessed 10-26-06)
Hariet Jacobs, Incidents in the life of a slave girl" from the book, " the Norton Anthology of African-American Literature" by Gates and Mckay, Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, Vol. 2 by Jr. Gates (Editor), Henry Louis Gates, Henry Louis Gates, Henry Louis Gates (Editor), Nellie Y. McKay (Editor)
Man Who Almost Was a Man," by Richard Wright, explains how the non-literary dimension changes one's understanding of the story.
The Man Who Was Almost a Man"
Richard Wright was one of the greatest African-American writers; he was also the first African-American to have produced one of the famous novel of racism and its psychological affect on the individuals in his masterpiece "Native on." Born in 1908 in Mississippi, Wright father left the family when he was only six years old and when he was ten his mother had a paralytic stroke and was unable to work. Wright after a formal education was forced to seek employment in order to support his family. The first half of the twentieth century was a crucial period for the African-Americans, the discrimination against them had taken a different form and shape and there were little jobs available for the black people. Wright worked…
Caron, TP. . "The Reds Are in the Bible Room': Political Activism and the Bible in Richard Wright's Uncle Tom's Children." Studies in American Fiction 24.
DeCoste, DM. . "To Blot It All Out: The Politics of Realism in Richard Wright's Native Son." Style 32.1.
Rampersad, A.  "Introduction." Richard Wright: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.
Abdul R. . Negating the Negation as a Form of Affirmation in Minority Discourse: The Construction of Richard Wright as Subject. Cultural Critique 7, 245-66.
A "linguist" would bring the slave broker on board the ship that had traveled upriver, and at that point there were negotiations and the broker (owner of the slaves that he had kidnapped) wanted to know of course what merchandise was being offered, what the commission the captain of the vessel was to receive, and he wanted to know what other offers might be out there on the coast from the other slavers. At the end of the day, if the broker liked the deal, and if the trader liked the slaves that the broker brought to the river (or the coast), the company "surgeon" was called in to check the health of the prisoners, and if that passed muster, a deal was struck. The male slaves were put in irons on the main deck; the children and women (not ironed) were placed on the quarterdeck; and the boys were…
Anstey, Roger. (1975). The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition 1760-1810. Atlantic
Highlands, NY: Humanities Press.
Dodson, Howard, Moore, Christopher Paul, and Yancy, Roberta. (2009). Becoming American:
The African-American Journey. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
genetic basis for the accusation that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with one of is slaves. The writer explores the DNA evidence that was examined and discusses the odds that it conclusively identifies Jefferson as the father. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
For many years rumors had circulated that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with a certain slave. It was handed down through the folklore lines as fact and commonly accepted among many African-American groups. As technology became more advanced and mankind had the ability to test such stories it became evident that it was a wives tale. Thomas Jefferson did not father a child by the slave in question, however, it was discovered that he did indeed father a different child by the same slave. Historical folklore has always accepted that Jefferson was the father of Sally Heming's firstborn son. Evidence has proven however, that…
Author not available, GENETIC EVIDENCE: THOMAS JEFFERSON FATHERED SLAVE CHILD., Xinhua News Agency, 10-31-1998.
Marshall, Eliot, GENETICS:Which Jefferson Was the Father?., Science, 01-08-1999.
Then, in 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. ith approximately 80,000 Mississippians serving in the Confederate Army, the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9th, 1865, ending the Civil ar, were dramatic events for the state ("Chronological History"). These events changed the state politically and socially.
In 1868, Mississippi's first bi-racial constitutional convention was formed. Deemed the 'Black and Tan' Convention, the new constitution drafted guaranteed the rights of ex-slaves as well as punished ex-Confederate soldiers. Voters in the state reject the Constitution. The next year, a modified version, not punishing ex-Confederate soldiers, is ratified. This paves the way for readmittance to the Union, on February 23rd, 1870 ("Chronological History"). The 20th century continued with many advancements and challenges for the state.
At the beginning of the century, the boll weevil made its appearance and, in 1907, most of Mississippi's…
Aubrey, R. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, 1971.
Chronological History of Mississippi. 2009. State Handbook & Guide Resources. December 3, 2009 .
Lowry, R. & McCardle, W. A History of Mississippi: From the Discovery of the Great River by Hernando Desoto. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.
Nationwide to Reopen 500 Katrina Cases. 20 Apr 2007. Routers. December 3, 2009 .
Unpublished Works of Mark Twain: A iographical
Historical, New Historical Criticism and Account
On the night Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born - the 30th of November 1835 - Halley's comet was blazing spectacularly across the autumn sky. And although he was born two months prematurely, a frail little runt, and his mother said, "I could see no promise in him," she nonetheless expressed a hope that Halley's comet was a "bright omen" for her baby boy. Her wish came true in a sensational way. Little could Jane Lampton Clemens have known that her sickly newborn would become a blazing superstar sensation in his own right, a literary luminary and the unchallenged supernova of American society, the likes of which had never been seen - and may never be witnessed on this planet again.
Samuel Clemens fashioned his own creative - and often chaotic - cosmos wherever he went, and he…
Budd, Louis J. Our Mark Twain: The Making of his Public Personality. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.
Hoffman, Andrew. Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Langhorne Clemens.
New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1997.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
"When I think of religion at all, I feel as if I would like to found an order for those who cannot believe: the Confraternity of the Faithless, one might call it, where on an altar, on which no taper burned, a priest, in whose heart peace had no dwelling, might celebrate with unblessed bread and a chalice empty of wine. Everything to be true must become a religion. And agnosticism should have its ritual no less than faith." Oscar Wilde (Critchley).
Wiesel compelled to write Night, saying his "duty is to bear witness for the dead and for the living." "(Wiesel)
Night is a powerful, thought provoking narration of unforgettable and horrific experiences that Elie Wiesel lived through, during the last year of the Second World War. The story invites the reader to relive the life and death of the prisoners in the concentration camps run by the…
Biography.com. n.d. 5-11 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.biography.com/people/elie-wiesel-9530714
CelesteK. Night by Elie Wiesel. n.d. 5-11 2015. Retrievef from: http://www.teenink.com/reviews/book_reviews/article/275633/Night-by-Elie-Wiesel/
Critchley, Simon. Oscar Wilde's faithless Christianity. 15 January 2009. 5 November 2015.
Lombardi, Esther. 'Night' Quotes - Elie Wiesel. n.d. 5-11 2015. Retrieved from: http://classiclit.about.com/od/nighteliewiesel/a/night_quote.htm
One of the major challenges that the Africans faced was speaking in English as it took them time to understand the language since it was the national language, but with the help of the Americans they slowly understood it.
Use for Luxurious Purposes:
The other aspect that helped the slaves in creating their own society and culture is through allowing themselves to be used for luxurious purposes. They were more often used as a means of acquiring wealth and since they adhered to this, they became very close to the Americans, which helped in reducing the issue of slavery. As a result, the Americans no longer practiced racism on the Africans but allowed them to practice their culture. As this practice later pleased the whites, they were soon introduced to the new culture.
Growth of Individualism:
The growth of individualism is another factor that enabled the slaves to create their…
Pearson Education . "Chapter Four -- Slavery and Empire." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/170/174992/IM_Chapter04.pdf (accessed December 7, 2012).
Slavery as Capitalism -- the Shape of American Slavery. "The Shape of American Slavery."
The Unjust Media, n.d. http://theunjustmedia.com/Banking%20&%20Federal%20Reserve/Capitalism/Slavery%20as%20Capitalism%20The%20Shape%20of%20American%20Slavery.htm (accessed December 7, 2012)
Fatat el Masna (Factory Girl) by Mohamed Khan depicts a misunderstood segment of society: female Muslim factory workers in Egypt. he contemporary setting of the story allows the viewer to make real-life comparisons with their own notions of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power. Social stratification is a core theme, but gender is a far more salient one in Khan's movie. Fatat el Masna is about individual women taking personal risks to alter gender norms. Yet ironically, Hiyam (Yasmin Raeis) operates within a stereotypically chauvinistic framework. She fantasizes about her boss in ways that are the antithesis of female self-empowerment, as if the film suggests that women in Egyptian society can only liberate themselves in their own minds. heir actual liberation remains a pipe dream. Seeds of hope are planted, however, as Hiyam remains true to her word and values. She does fall in love with her boss…
The blending and confluence of identities is the quintessential story of the modern world. It is also the quintessential story of the Jews. Modern citizens of the world for whom geographic boundaries are meaningless will relate to this film, which has a universal appeal. A primary target audience would be Jews in the diaspora and also Lebanese people as well. However, Return to the Valley of the Jews is about the search for personal identity and a homeland. No external forces can come in the way of personal and collective identity formation. The Jews depicted in this film have strong national identities and call themselves Lebanese. Things did change after the 1967 wars, when Arabs started to persecute Jews even in areas once characterized by peace and tolerance like the Wadi. Ironically, Lebanon tore itself apart, in a civil war pitting Muslims against Christians. Jews were in the crossfire, showing that the tensions in the Middle East are not between Arab and Jew. They are unnecessary tensions, but have almost nothing at all to do with religion or even the creation of Israel. This film corrects a lot of misinformation about the root causes of problems in the Middle East, and shows how propaganda and politics can create animosity.
Return to the Valley of the Jews is about destruction and rebirth, too. There is hope for the future even though there is much despair permeating the film. Lebanon is a good case study for paving the way toward tolerance and respect. The government of Lebanon has been relatively tolerant and has enabled the reconstruction of the synagogue at the heart of this film. Returning to the "valley of the Jews" is a spiritual metaphor. The people depicted in the film maintain their community identity whether or not they are in Lebanon. Language and a shared nostalgia for the geographic beauty and history of Lebanon are their social and cultural glue. Religion is not as central as people think, and this film is necessary in dispelling the myth that religion is a source of trouble in the Middle East. Land and civil rights are central issues, but not religion. Furthermore, Lebanon needs to be seen on its own rather than being lumped in with other Arab nations. Israel has had ambivalent relations with Lebanon. Not as friendly as Jordan, but friendlier than other nations, Lebanon may come to play a critical role in the development and evolution fo future peace processes in the Middle East.
It may be idealistic to believe that films can change the world. In this case, the film may at least shed light on a critical issue. The film may open hearts and change minds. It might help viewers reconnect with their own cultural roots, and help people to see that all the people of the world seek belonging within a community. That community may be defined by nationality or geography, language or religion. What matters most is that love and compassion define social relations.
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective
The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.
The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…
Bajoria, J. (2011). The Taliban in Afghanistan. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 17, 2012 from http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551
Conservative. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conservative
Galston, W.A. (2005). The practice of liberal pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Liberal. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/liberal
They were no longer slaves, but they were not treated as though they were equal, either, and this made them second-class citizens in the way that they were treated by others. Unhappiness with this treatment began to build and become more significant as African-Americans battled problems with housing, health care, education, poverty, and juvenile difficulties. These issues were all very significant to those that fought against a lack of equality during that time period, and the authors of the book make it clear that they are not holding anything back as they chronicle both the triumphs and the tragedies that African-Americans have faced throughout history.
Anyone who is interested in what African-Americans have had to go through would likely find this book very interesting. It is very thorough regarding the problems that African-Americans faced and the triumphs that they achieved as well. Not everyone will like the book, of course,…
Franklin, John Hope & Moss, Alfred a., Jr. (2000). From slavery to freedom - a history of African-Americans. New York: Knopf.
Resistance and Complicity
It is impossible to understand or write about Africa's history without considering its relationship with continents like Europe and America. It is imperative that a discussion of the subject concentrate on Africans' pivotal shaping of world history (Lindsay, 2007). Europeans (i.e., Englishmen, Dutchmen, the Portuguese, and the French) contributed only superficially to shaping Africa's history during the Atlantic era's first two centuries, engaging in merchandizing and goods transportation between sea coasts. Only after 1640 did the Europeans, in what is known as the 2nd Atlantic Era (1640-1800s), begin demanding slaves and raw materials, commencing their cruel influence on the economic freedom of the continent. They effectively influenced or overpowered particular communities on the continent through several layers of partnerships strategically created with natives, rather than through military strength. African currency's gradual devaluation attained by introducing European currency in the form of copper coins, Gatling guns and repeating…
Finally, the two works have different purposes, so it is difficult to rate them to the same standards. McPherson has more on his mind than the institution of slavery; he is discussing an entire war and its aftermath, while Elkins is solely concerned with slavery in America and why it occurred. While the authors do share many similar views, many simply do not apply to each other.
In conclusion, both of these books play a vital role in understanding the complexities of the Civil War and race relations during and after the Civil War. One takes a more scholarly approach, while the other takes a more storytelling approach. Both use intensive research and knowledge of the Civil War period to make their cases, and both belong on the bookshelf of any serious Civil War historian. McPherson's work is a bit easier to read, simply because he gears it to a…
Elkins, S.M. (1976). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Roberts, K. African-Virginian extended kin: The prevalence of West African family forms among slaves in Virginia, 1740-1870. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the Virginia Tech Web site: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-/unrestricted/etd.pdf .
It makes sense that the advanced and more inclusive study of a history of a group of disenfranchised individuals, such as women and/or men and women of color, would occur simultaneously with the rise in providing them a voice within their modern place in society. The fact that these individuals have not been traditionally explored within the realm of class, society, and politics does not mean that they are not a part of our History. Rather, it is a reflection of the historical underpinnings of our societies as traditionally relegating women and people of color to a realm of silence in a lesser role of the other or the inferior class. On a positive note, the fact that researchers and scholars are devoting time, effort, and resources into re-examining our histories reveals that we are moving toward a more inclusive world.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father's Eyes.…
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father's Eyes. New York: Oxford University Press,
Foner, Eric. The New American History. Temple University Press.
Marx, Karl. Capital, the Communist Manifesto and Other Writings. Ed. Max Eastman.
Montaigne How to Live
I have heard that you are depressed and confused about life and the condition of the world in general, and even though I usually do not like to give anyone advice, I did find some comfort in this book How to Live, by Sarah Bakewell, which is based on the essays of Michel Montaigne. I cannot claim to be a particularly happy or optimistic individual, either personally or with the overall situation in the world. I have a job that earns pretty good money, at least at times, but I have to deal with people I dislike, and some of who I would even enjoy strangling if I could. If I had the talent of Dante, I would also write a book consigning them all to hell for eternity and inflicting torments on them. I am also unhappy with the political and economic situation…
In addition, Moses' flaws give the Bible a little more drama and excitement.
For example, readers would expect that Moses -- a great leader -- would have an automatic invitation to the Promised Land (Fox, 1995). However, Moses was barred from entering the Promised Land because he was disobedient and flawed (Deut. 32:48-52). Moses was told to speak to a rock to get water from it, but instead he beat the rock repeatedly, showing his bad temper and a lack of faith (Num. 20:7-13).
Moses was a man who wanted to save others. His compassion made it very difficult for him to watch others suffer. When he followed God's commands to meet with the Pharaoh, he trusted that God would alleviate the suffering of his followers. When the situation worsened, Moses' compassion for the people got in the way of his trust in God. He cried out to God, questioning…
Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament. Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1985.
Fox, Everett. The Five Books of Moses. New York: Schocken, 1995.
As a character, Celie's own experiences have not engaged her on the same levels that Shug's sexual experiences have. This is to say that Celie's life and collection of experiences have not been personally gratifying or freeing in the way that Shug suggest sexual experiences should or can be. To Shug, sex is more about the personal gratification and the freedom of bodily and emotional expression that comes with the act of making love (Selzer, 69). Since Celie's life has revolved around taking care of her children and making sure the men in her life are happy, she really hasn't had much time to develop her own personal sex life in a gratifying or selfish way.
It is important to make the distinction between acting selfishly as the men in Celie's life have and acting selfishly as Shug suggests Celie do. These are two separate things, and the act of…
Gates, Henry L. And Nellie Y. McKay. The Norton Anthology of African-American
Literature, 2nd Ed. New York: Norton, 2004.
Hamilton, Carole. "Dutchman: Baraka's Concept of the Revolutionary Theatre." Drama
for Students. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1998. pp. 228-235.
Viewed from the perspective of the ideal, however, there appears to be an inherent contradiction in Sanger's view that a woman's eyes should be "more clearly upon what should be," and her argument that it is utopian to expect that birth control can equally be the concern of man. Sanger's observation that women are too inclined to follow in the footsteps of men and that they need to understand that their mission should really be to "create a human world by the infusion of the feminine element" is a valid one. Therefore, her conclusion that a good beginning would be for woman to assume the responsibility for birth control is rather surprising. for, surely insisting that a man assume equal responsibility for the decision to bring a child into the world would be the logical start to infusing a feminine spirit into a male dominated world?
Sanger, M. (1920). Birth Control - a Parents' Problem or Woman's? Woman and the New
Race. New York: Brentano, p. 93-100.
With men off to fight and die, women in America took to the workforce to both support their men and Uncle Sam's war effort.
Because women could now be seen as part of the war, no part of society was safe from war. The idea of total war began to emerge: this was the concept that civilians could be attacked like any other soldiery in the war. In a way, the disasters of world war were simply the expression on a macro level of what was happening in the U.S. On a micro level. Ida B. Wells helped illustrate the senseless violence occurring in the U.S. against Negroes when she wrote "Lynch Law" in 1893 at just 31 years of age. "Lynch Law" described the violent prejudice being visited on Southern blacks. As she writes, the Negro as a person has been "murdered by masked mobs for trying to vote,"…
Fridan, D. (2000). Ida B. Wells: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement. NY: Houghton
Friedman, L.J., McGarvie, M.D. (2003). Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Giddings, P.J. (2008). Ida: A Sword Among Lions. NY: HarperCollins.
There are many examples in the literature of the intention and purpose of the early colonists to eradicate the Indian population. The genocidal intentions against the indigenous population of America do not however begin with the English colonists, but starts with Columbus. The following quotation refers to his second voyage to the New World.
Columbus took the title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" and proceeded to unleash a reign of terror unlike anything seen before or since. When he was finished, eight million Arawaks -- virtually the entire native population of Hispaniola -- had been exterminated by torture, murder, forced labor, starvation, disease and despair.
Genocide of the American Indian Peoples)
Historian David Stannard also states quite categorically that "the destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world." (Genocide of the American Indian Peoples) The…
Dorris M.A. The Grass Still Grows, the Rivers Still Flow: Contemporary Native Americans. September 19, 2005. http://www.alaskool.org/projects/native_gov/documents/Contemp_Natives/Contemp_Nativ_Americans.htm
Franks, C.E.S. In search of the savage sauvage: an exploration into North America's s political cultures. American Review of Canadian Studies; 12/22/2002;
Freedman, Monroe H., and Eric M. Freedman. Group Defamation and Freedom of Speech: The Relationship between Language and Violence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Genocide of the American Indian Peoples. Freespeech.org Accessed September 3, 2005. http://free.freespeech.org/americanstateterrorism/usgenocide/IndianPeoples.html
Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force
In the article "Victims of a Meaningless Show of Force" the author uses language to express her point that police firing on two polar bears was unacceptable behavior and as the author says "it was illogical, unfair, and a meaningless show of force." While this statement makes her opinion clear, the author also uses language to create the same opinion in the reader.
The title of the article is a clear example of loaded language. The word 'victims' implies that the polar bears were helpless, while the words 'meaningless show of force' imply that the police officers were only acting to prove something, with no real purpose to their actions.
Before offering an opinion on the shooting, the author describes the shooting. This includes the statement "the four police officers emptied twenty blasts from a 12-gauge shotgun and a.38 caliber revolver…
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
The author portrays the Pontiac War, for example, as an Indian war of independence against British rule. The level of bloodshed and the number of displaced or destroyed Indian populations grew not only in relation with Indian-British violent relation but also due to East-West migration. As soon as French presence disappeared, white colonists started moving aggressively in Indian territory creating even more instability in the region for Britain. Weakened by wars fought inside and outside the American continent, Britain lost even more of its military power in its conflicts with the Indians, offering a context for North American independence. The author builds upon this and also presents the relations between other colonists of the North American Plains. Spanish, French or British soldiers reaction to the 1763 events are also important elements in the 1783 American Independence War, as the year has not only reshaped state borders but it also created…
With the passage of time, Walker's 23 products attracted annual gross earnings as high as $276,000 (1917) and her business employed around 3,000 employees most of whom were females. (Latham, 1993; Nelson, 1987).
In a short time Madame Walker had more customers she could accommodate. She set up a shop, trained other women to assist her, and soon founded a school from which graduates received diploma permitting them to operate shops of their own, using the ' Walker system'; always, however, with the solemn admonition not to call themselves 'hair straighteners.' They were crisply told to use the title 'hair culturist' or 'scalp specialist.' All necessary metal implements and ointments were purchased from Madame Walker, and so profitable was the sale of equipment and the return from tuitions that her yearly payroll mounted to more than two hundred thousand dollars. The dekinking process developed into a sizable industry, soon found…
Roi Ottley - author, John O'Hara Cosgrave II, - illustrator, New World A-Coming. Inside Black America.. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. 1943.
Bundles A. (1992), Madam C.J. Walker (New York: Chelsea House);
Latham C. (1993), Madam C.J. Walker (1867- 1919) Collection (1910- 1980): Historical Sketch, Indiana Historical Society
Madame C.J. Walker (Sarah Breedlove McWilliams Walker): Inventor, Businesswoman" (1997),
Heart Is a Lonely Hunter by Carson McCullers is a tale involving five main characters that struggle against the isolation and despair brought on by circumstances in their lives. The story takes place during the late 1930's in an unnamed deep Southern town. McCullers begins the story by introducing the deaf-mute John Singer; he used to live with his friend Spiros Antonapoulos who was also a deaf-mute. Singer doted on his friend a great deal even though it was apparent that Antonapoulos never showed any appreciation towards it. Later Antonapoulos became mentally ill and was taken away to an insane asylum despite Singer's protestations. Due to this, Singer had to move out of the home he once shared with his friend and become a boarder at the house of the Kelly's.
Biff Brannon and Jake Blount are next introduced in the story. Biff runs a popular local restaurant named the…
Chojnowicz, Gaele. "Carson McCullers." The Carson McCullers Project. March 12, 1998. Retrieved April 26, 2005 from http://www.carson-mccullers.com/html/paper.html
Clark, Charlene Kerne. "Pathos with a chuckle: the tragicomic vision in the novels of Carson McCullers." (n.d) Retrieved April 25, 2005 from http://www.compedit.com/clark1.htm
McCullers, Carson. The Heart is a Lonely Hunter. New York: Bantam, 1983.
"Southern gothic" Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. (n.d.) Retrieved April 26, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Gothic
Edward Ball chronicles his family's slave-owning history in the compelling historical narrative Slaves in the Family. Ball traces the lineages of his white relatives and their slaves and where possible recreates life as it was on the Ball plantations in South Carolina. Descendents of the Englishman Elias Ball bought and sold enough slaves to populate a city. By no means singular in their treatment of the Africans, the Balls prove nevertheless to be a prime example of a Southern plantation dependent on the blood, sweat, and tears of families and individuals ripped from their homeland and bought and sold as commodity. Cruelty was meted out equally among black males and females, but it is worthwhile to contrast the unique experiences of enslaved women on the Southern plantations. If nothing else, motherhood and childrearing set the women apart. They watched their newborns emerge into a world of shackles, often completely losing…
This news story has a positive impression of Oxfam works.
Analysis.- Oxfam has a record of 60 years in increasing worldwide public understanding of economic and social justice as crucial elements to sustainable development. Its 12 confederates are located in their respective regions and undertaking international goals and policies according to the requirements of the regions. The confederates work with poor people so that their lives may be improved and they may govern their own lives. Oxfam struggles to influence governments and powerful people in a straightforward manner without infringing upon their sovereignty. And it joins hands with all people for the universal good through open and popular campaigning, alliance building and media work in arriving at earnest and workable solutions to global poverty, to motivate as many people as possible to actively participate in the movement for change and to create a sense of global citizenship. Oxfam's work method…
Courier Mail, the. Oxfam Unveils New Sense of Giving. Queensland Newspapers, May 12, 2005. http://www.thecouriermailnews.com.au/printpage
Nabi, Rashed un. Oxfam's Fair Trade Report: Rigged Rules and Double Standard. Holiday Editorials. Holiday Publications Ltd., 2005. http://www.weeklyholiday.net/190702/edit.html
Oxfam International. Who We Are, 2002.
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [
Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.
Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…
Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994, http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm
Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://afgen.com/abmovement.html
NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
traits strike me immediately as a reader of this piece: the vocabulary and the sentence structure. There is a great fluidity of organization and thought to this essay. The vocabulary is chosen thoughtfully and is apt as well as appropriate. There is an immediate sense of flow and rhythm to the writing and to the ideas. It is evident that the author is considering the poets and the poetry with depth and gravity.
The analysis of the poetry is excellent. It is clear and concise. The ideas and observations move from one to another with logic and ease of transition. The flow of ideas is nearly seamless. The author should take notice of the misuse and misplacement of commas throughout the work. This is the strongest criticism of the essay: commas. Otherwise, the essay is quite superlative.
The author of this essay also does a fine job of interjecting quotations…
Poem Hunter. (2013). Langston Hughes -- All Poems. Web, Available from: http://www.poemhunter.com/langston-hughes/ . 2013 March 12.
Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases its findings on Darwinism or Judeo/Christian/Muslim beliefs. Life began somewhere in the area of the world now known as the Middle East. However, some people are more native, as a result of having lived in North America the longest, than others. After the original colonists arrived across the land bridge many thousands of years ago, it is debated who showed up next, but it was probably some European Vikings out for a short fishing trip. Columbus was a late comer, and he realized that people had already colonized the land he "discovered." It was not until everyone else had arrived in America, that Africans were brought over to work the land in chattel slavery. Three groups Native Americans (American Indians used…
Abernathy, D. (2002). The dynamics of global dominance: European overseas empires, 1415-1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Chavez y Gilbert, D.A. (2007). Cowboys and Indians are family after all. Retrieved from http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html
Parrillo, V.N. (2011). Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.
Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.
Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…
Carole Armstrong. Women of the Bible. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).
Alice Ogden Bellis. Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes: Women's Stories in the Hebrew Bible.
(Louisville: John Knox Press, 1994).
Eryl Davies. The Dissenting Reader: Feminist Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. (Bodmin:
African-American Vernacular English
There are a couple of theories as to the origin of African-American Vernacular Englsh (AAVE). Some linguists believe that the language derives from est African languages. This dialect theory is based on the knowledge that most African-Americans who were brought to the United States from Africa had to learn how to speak English by ear. The may have picked up some of the English words incorrectly and incorporated the incorrect words in their language. Another theory is called the Creole Hypothesis. This theory bases its origin on the thought that slaves developed the language themselves. The slaves, who came from many different countries in Africa formulated AAVE so that they may talk amongst themselves. They developed with is called a pidgin by combining words from their own language with new words from America. They used grammar and speech patterns that were known to them from their own…
Jackson, Jenny Ebonics and Gullah, One and the Same? (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~petersj4/jenny.htm)
Labov, William Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence (Labov (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Rickford, John. "Creole Origins of AAVE http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html
Where Did It Come at (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Byrd's work also predated the Lewis and Clarke journals in his information on the natural history of the area. In fact, he wrote about the Native American tribes and the flora and fauna, much still unknown at the time. This, too, was part of the Enlightenment though, a rather Lockean concept of using one's knowledge to both understand and interpret the universe. By attempting definition, Byrd was following the path of the philosopher who sought to better understand himself by describing his world -- and by describing his world, having the ability to better understand the complex relationships therein. Thus, the settlement of a mere 1728 boundary dispute had significance far beyond colonial law. We may be sure that Byrd had studied Locke, for there is much in the journals that reads as if Locke edited the passages. Locke, for instance, thought childhood was a type of innocence…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Baesler, M. Asylum for Mankind: America, 1607-1800. Cornell University Press,
Dolmetsch, C. "William Byrd II: Comic Dramatist?" Early American Literature.
6 (1), 1971, 28+.
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…
Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.
Perhaps the most memorable example of the cross-pollination of ideas, however, was that of the Chinese ten-meter-tall, Styrofoam "Goddess of Democracy" in Tiananmen Square. The Chinese demonstrations openly used estern symbols and quoted estern ideologues until they were silenced by the government. As with 1789, some of the 1989 revolts were successful, some unsuccessful, but all shared certain qualities in common, according to Manning. Manning concedes that all social movements draw upon pre-existing conflicts and debates, combined with a new intensification of flaring up of such issues but both years of multiple revolutions all show a common rhetoric between nations. In 1989 the "equivalent debates included rights to self-expression, freedom from government restraint, recognition of individual rights, renunciation of racial and ethnic discrimination, and recognition of communities" and a cross-cultural language of common cause, along with a desire for great change (Manning par. 66). The common, sympathetic language was non-specific…
Manning, Patrick. "1789-1792 and 1989-1992: Global Interaction of Social Movements." World
History Connected. May 12, 2010.
Alcoholism a Disease?
There is little doubt that alcoholism is a chronic condition, which in 1956 was classified by the American medical Association as an illness, elevating the status to disease in 1966 (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, despite this announcement, there still appears to be a significant level of dispute within the medical community, where the concept of alcoholism as a disease has remained unproven (Hanson, 2013), however many of the characteristics of the condition appear to be aligned with a disease diagnosis (Borelli, 1989). The aim of this paper is to consider the concept of alcoholism as a disease, considering the evidence for and against this hypothesis.
The Association of alcohol disease began during the 1800s, proposed by Dr. Benjamin ush, who argues those who drank too much alcohol were diseased, and utilised this argument to promote his revisionist ideas (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, simply calling it…
Baldwin Research Institute, (2015), Alcoholism Is Not a Disease, retrieved 12 December 2015 from http://www.baldwinresearch.com/alcoholism.cfm
Borelli, N, (1989), Is Alcoholism Disease, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 262 (1), 343
Fingarette, H, (1990), "Why We Should Reject the Disease Concept of Alcoholism," in Endings, or (Ed), Controversies in the Addictions Field, Dubque, Kendall-Hunt
Hansen, D, (2013), Is Alcoholism a Disease? Retrieved 12 December 2015 from https://archive.is/Vj5lu
nature of consensus. This is a process through which a group of people can reach a common agreement on a course of action. It is important to note that the entire group comes to an agreed course of action. Here the ideas and contribution from all participants from within the group are viewed and then combined together to come to a final decision. This decision has to be acceptable to every member of the group. This process generally achieves a better solution to the problems that the group is facing, but also makes the group a stronger community and builds trust within them. While using consensus for achieving decision making in some instances, the group can us other methods at other times for achieving decisions and these can be through individual decisions, compromises, or through a majority decision. Yet in the process of a consensus, the discussions generally concern a…
"Civil Disobedience Training." Retrieved from http://www.actupny.org/documents/CDdocuments/Consensus.html
Accessed on 15 June, 2005
"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.uhc-collective.org.uk/knowledge/toolbox/meetings_and_organisation/consensus_short.htm Accessed on 15 June, 2005
"Consensus Decision Making." Retrieved from http://www.givingforum.org/givingcircles/downloads/Consensus%20Decision%20Making%20Philosophy%20NGAAP.pdf Accessed on 16 June, 2005
War of 1812, the nation settled into a sense of smugness that would be known as the Era of Good Feelings. The Era of Good Feelings was a term coined by a Boston-area newspaper in 1817, during newly elected President James Monroe's fifteen-state tour (Miller Center, n.d.). In its post-war intoxication, America would overlook some of its most pressing problems during the Era of Good Feelings. Monroe capitalized on the public's perception that all was well in the United States. Even more important for the strength of the Monroe presidency was the fact that the President's party became the only viable one after the demise of the Federalists. This meant that Monroe felt well empowered as president during the Era of Good feelings, which lasted until about 1825. Whether the period between the end of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine elicited "good feelings" depended largely on one's…
Kennedy, Cohen, Piehl (n.d.) The Brief American Pageant.
Miller Center (n.d.). American President: Life in Brief. Retrieved online: http://millercenter.org/president/monroe/essays/biography/1
"The Era of Good Feelings and the Two-Party System," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ushistory.org/us/23a.asp
War can be seen as a pillar of te American tradition. We are a nation born of war - our Revolution - and defined by war - our Civil War.
Tere were a number of circumstances tat led to te colonists' rebellion against England and te monarcy. Tensions began to rise wen King George III issued te Proclamation of 1763, banning Englis settlements west of te Appalacian mountains and ordering anyone in tose regions to return east.
In 1764, te Sugar Act was passed, increasing duties on imported good, and establised a court to deal wit custom matters.
Te Currency Act proibited colonists from issuing paper money as legal tender, tus, destabilizing te colonial economy, and colonists called for a boycott of Britis luxury goods.
Te Stamp Act of 1865 ordered colonists to pay tax directly to England and te Quartering Act ordered colonists to ouse and feed Britis troops.…
Prelude to Revolution -- Civil War. The History Place
Anthony Blond in his book A Scandalous History of the Roman Emperors (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000), a book originally published in 1994, the author seems to have written a history of Rome for the current tabloid age, though in truth, the Roman Emperors lived that sort of life and were not shy about letting the world know it. The book is both a history of the Emperors and a characterization of the age, and the author manages to create a picture of the Roman era against which to set the stories he then tells of the Emperors from Julius Caesar to Nero. This is followed by a discussion of Rome as a city and an empire. The book covers the subject in a shorter space than many other books have done, and the tone taken by the author is less reverent than many other authors have used. The…
Blond, Anthony. A Scandalous History of the Roman Emperors. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000.