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This oil painting is 8 feet tall by 10 feet wide (Fiero 51).
Each of these artists glorified in enormous paintings a hero, theatrically presented, that the common man might identify with. The "Corsican Upstart" that was Napoleon, is shown in propagandistic, larger-than-life style by Gros and David, who first met in 1796 in Italy. These two painters influenced each other and became huge successes through their depictions of the great men of their day in emotional, imaginative ways. Goya, too, used the cult of the individual, the genius and the hero that was prevalent, to demonstrate the sacrifices that the ordinary Spaniard made in defending Spain against the occupying French. In the drawing of Yo Lo Vi" he also attacks the clerics, as they make off with the money, while a mother struggles to save her child nearby. The message that Goya sends is that the common man is…
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, Book 5. Boston: McGraw Hill. 2002.
From Enlightenment to Romanticism c. 1780-1830." The Open University. 2007. http://www3.open.ac.uk/courses/bin/p12.dll-C01A207 .
But even as the memory of the terrors that inspired the work have come and gone, the figures in Goya's painting, to a contemporary viewer, come to represent all innocent persons who suffer at the hands of soldiers in wartime. In the face of the haunted, hunted man at the center of the work the viewer of today no longer sees a Spaniard of Goya's time but the face of a victim of any number of the atrocities on the front pages of the news.
Goya's work is propaganda because it was meant to change people's minds and spark anger at the actions of the French soldiers, just as David's work was supposed to encourage the worship of Napoleon. But like all great art, the work has taken on a new life beyond even the conscious intention of the artist in the ways the art acts on the subconscious of…
Unlike Bowles, who marvels at the sameness of the water, Smith marvels at the change in the greenness of the world around her. But this "season of delight" as she calls it, exists in marked contrast to the melancholy residing in the poet Smith's own breast. Despite the fact that an unnamed (presumably romantic, although this is not stated) sorrow rankles in her breast, the rebirth of the world, she says, kindles a kind of false hope in the possibilities of rebirth of the poet's soul and hope. Rather than seeing rebirth in nature as a good thing, she wishes the "balmy air" could cure her despair. Thus, both poets create a dichotomy between outer and inner, between a harmonious and lovely outsider's view of nature, and a tortured mental state. The sight of the river heals the poet, the spring temporarily revitalizes Smith, but neither believes that the sight…
Bowles, W.L. "Sonnet VIII. To the River Itchin, near Winton." 1789. 11 Dec 2004. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~mgamer/Etexts/bowles1789.html#sonnet8
Smith, Charlotte. "To Spring." 11 Dec 2004. http://libr.unl.edu:2000/cgi-bin/s2h.pl? Elegiacvol1.sgm
But lately more and more people are coming in from Europe instead of Latin countries. It could be because of the seven years war that had ended somewhere in the middle of 1760s. Frankly I was too young to remember the war or how it started and ended. But my dad believes that it was because of that war that people are now coming to the U.S. In droves. I may not agree because it obviously was twenty years ago that the war ended. I personally feel this is because of America's independence from the British that is now sending more and more people this way. Secondly seven years war did more damage in Europe than it ever did in the U.S. where it had started two years prior to everywhere else.
The economy of Europe faced a major setback when the war started because it mostly involved European states…
My ability to communicate and convey my passion to other people has sprouted through my work with LiNK.
Having worked closely with the Cornell University chapter, I witnessed the development of leadership skills within me, skills that were both derived and discovered by my peers. Being an active member of various NGO's and other organizations has opened social doors for me, enabling me to share why I am in LiNK and making connections that will help us manifest our common goals. And because of the new discoveries about myself as an innate leader, I was able to gather together the knowledge and materials needed to hold a public forum at my previous university: Syracuse, where discussions and debates took place concerning the issues of North Korea. My confidence level increased a great deal as a result of these experiences and my willingness to share my passion with others. I have…
What makes the 18th century such a vast plethora of diverse opinions, creations and philosophies is the fact that the world was changing in a variety of ways. The Industrial Revolution and rationalism were having profound effects upon previously held religious and esthetic ideals. While some passionately pursued new directions of thought, science and art, others held desperately to old philosophies. Furthermore the different countries of the globe expressed their views and philosophies in different ways in reaction to the changes occurring within their borders.
Philosophers such as the German, Immanuel Kant for example applied universal, reasonable rules to all science, morality and art. According to Kant, these rules were to be followed by all rational beings (rehier 67). John Locke followed the same philosophy, finding that all understanding needs to be based upon the use of the senses. In a more esthetic sense, this English philosopher also…
Barbour, Brian M. American Transcendentalism: An Anthology of Criticism. London: Notre Dame, 1973
Brehier, Emile. The Eighteenth Century. Chicago University Press, 1967.
Burke, Peter. The Renaissance. London: Longmans, 1964.
18th century a number of races and nationalities were in the process of settling North America. The variety of ethnicities and cultures included, but were not limited to: Native Americans, Spanish, English, French, Germans and Jews, yet eventually the dominant races in North America were the English, Anglo-Saxons and Spanish. Interestingly enough, both groups featured a historical background that was likely much more religious than the other groups that faded into historical oblivion.
During the time when all the groups were attempting to establish footholds in the Americas a bible was in use by both the English and the Spanish that stated "and God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth" (Genesis 1,…
Guttman, J.; (2010) Manchuatl, Military History, Vol. 27, Issue 1
Medievel Sourcebook: Christopher Columbus: Extracts from journal, accessed at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/Columbus1.html ., October 2, 2010
Potter, M. (2010) The necessity of hand printing, Afterimage, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 31 -- 32
Raybouldt, M.F.; Jones, T.E.; Gerhardt, L.N.; (1986) The Medieval Knight (Book Review), School Library Journal, Vol. 32, Issue 7
Religion was an important preoccupation for 18th century poets, and Christian symbolism, imagery, diction, and themes make their way into the poetry of this era. In many situations, the references to religion are as overt as a painting of Christ. Many poems dealing with religious imagery, themes, and iconography also deal with existential issues and in particular, death and mortality. For example, in "The Dying Christian to his Soul," Alexander Pope writes from the perspective of a dying man who begs God for release: "Vital spark of heav'nly flame! / Quit, O quite this mortal frame," (lines 1-2). This poem speaks to the Christian view on death being the gateway to the afterlife. In Isaac Watts' "Day of Judgment," the poet specifically mentions the "Lofty Judge," and his "flood of vengeance," referring to the Old Testament God (Stanza 6). The speaker in Watts' poem later urges the sinful to "arise…
It wasn't always a matter of stealing the designs or the parts for a specific technology, Harris explains: "…the arts never pass by writing from one country to another," he quotes from a French official writing in 1752. "The eye and practice alone train men in these activities" (Harris, 43).
In 18th Century Italy Pope Innocent XII had set up a hospice in Laterano for the poor, and the Pope instituted reforms that were designed to "…convince the wealthy to give up direct almsgiving and contribute only to the official collectors" (Grell, et al., 2004, p. 255). In other words, there was an attitude against panhandlers profiting from begging in the streets. Indeed, those with financial means (if they followed the rules) would not be giving directly to beggars, but instead a network would be set up so the wealthy could contribute to a "hospice" where the poor were locked…
Harris, John. (1986). Spies who sparked the Industrial Revolution. New Scientist, 110(1509).
42-43. ISSN 0262-4079.
Grell, Ole Peter, Cunningham, Andres, and Roeck, Bernd. (2005). Health Care and Poor Relief
In the 18th and 19th Century Southern Europe. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.
Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.
Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)
Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
The increase in the productivity of the Atlantic market created a demand for tools that for use in production. The European farmers were obtaining the tools cheaply from these Afro-Asian areas
. Through the exchanges, it is true that the interactions were an avenue for the creation of an increase in trade opportunities in the Atlantic world.
Labor implications to the conflict
Sourcing for labor for the sugar industries was initially from the indigenous America but the increase in the demand for labor prompted the Europeans to source for labor in Africa. Africans, just like the Amerindians and other slaves were resistant to the forceful slavery. On this basis, quite a number of rebellions arose. Quite a number of the American and African natives who were resisting the forceful enslavement were killed; some of them ran away to places where they could not be found. The Spanish authorities were placing…
Coclanis, Peter A. 2005. The Atlantic Economy during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Organization Operation, Practice and Personnel. Columbia, S.C.: Univ. Of South Carolina Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1991. Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Klein. 2003. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge University press.
Klooster, Wim. 2010. Revolution in the Atlantic world: A Comparative History. NYU Press.
History Of Hospitals
The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.
Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…
Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.
Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.
"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.
" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.
The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…
here is a clear sense that men and male children in particular were considered precious, and in many ways comparatively much more precious than women and girl children but this is in part because of women as the position of wife was subservient to the position of mother in law. he assurance that one day the wife would hold the household power of the mother in-law was only offered by a male child as female children when married left home for good and served their marriage family in direct orders of their new mother in-law. his is true of most classes but again was stricter in terms of the upper-class. (Mann 61) in other words if a female child is born she is expected in her lifetime to only contribute to her birth family for her childhood, and adolescence after this time the industry of her labour would…
Tamney, Joseph B. And Chiang Hsueh-Ling. Modernization, Globalization, and Confucian in Chinese Societies. Westpot, CT: Praeger Publisher, 2002.
Wasserlein, Frances. "Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on the History of Women's Work in British Columbia." Labour / Le Travail 17.(1986): 280-281. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 Feb. 2011.
Yao, Esther S. Lee. Chinese Women: Past & Present. Mesquite, TX: Ide House, 1993.
Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and 18th Century
The cultural life of ritain dominated much of Europe during the 18th century.
Though many people continue to live a farmer's life, the majority of people began to seek out new horizons.
Many English People began to realize the possibilities business and a consumer society had to offer.
London became somewhat of a "microcosm of the world" during the 18th century, and people in surrounding communities modeled much of their perspective off of life in high society England (NAEL, 2003).
The streets were bombarded constantly with sights and sounds indicating a wakeful and noisy emerging cultural basis.
Society became a hub of finance, trade, manufacturing, commerce and entertainment.
Ships filled up rivers with travelers and goods from all over the world.
It became "fashionable" and commonplace for consumers to meet up in clubs and coffeehouses to talk about the latest news…
Norton Anthology of English Literature. "Norton I Introduction on the Restoration and The 18th Century" Norton and Company, pp1726-1743
NAEL, Sept. 29, 2003, http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/18century/welcome.htm
Classicism manifested itself in the 18th century. There are five references used for this paper.
There have been a number of cultural styles over the last centuries from Baroque to Classicism to Romanticism. It is interesting to look at Classicism and determine how it manifested itself in the 18th century.
In order to determine the 18th century's manifestation of Classicism, it is important to understand what the term means. Classicism, or Neo-Classicism is used to "characterize the culture of 18th-century Europe, and contrasted with 19th-century Romanticism (unknown, Classicism)." In "art, music, and literature, it is a style that emphasizes the qualities traditionally considered characteristic of ancient Greek and Roman art, that is, reason, balance, objectivity, restraint, and strict adherence to form (unknown, Classicism)."
Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated Classicism during the end of his life with his string quartets. Beethoven first earned the respect of the Viennese people as…
McLellan, Joseph. Beethoven, on Balance; Ecstatic Beauty Flows Through Borromeo
String Quartet. The Washington Post. (2000): 25 May. Pp. J03.
Unknown. Antiques & Collecting: Dedicated followers of all things. Birmingham Post.
2001): 11 August. Pp. 50.
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…
Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities Of the American
Founders (Knopf, 2002), 185p.
HistoryKing. (2011). The social classes in 18th century colonial america. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from History King: http://www.historyking.com/American-History/The-Social-Classes-In-18th-Century-Colonial-America.html.
University of Southern Mississippi. (2011). Seven years war. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from University of Southern Mississippi: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:wvJvJ2QbbaIJ:ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/HIS%2520360/HIS%2520360%2520Lsn%25204%2520Seven%2520Years%2520War.ppt+seven+years+war+outcomes&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8az8UYbRUpHVHP_TzWTpeTtDvq1m5BPG-RFmHHgEmQzzbC .
" (Young, 1792; as cited in Readings of European History, 1906)
Young states that he has even see a 'poor' child run over and killed by the young rich nobility who ride at fast speeds and carelessly in the streets of Paris. Young however, speaks of the countryside as an ordered and lovely place as he states: "A succession of many well-built, tight, and comfortable farming cottages, built of stone and covered with tiles; each having its little garden, enclosed by clipped thorn hedges, with plenty of peach and other fruit trees, some fine oaks scattered in the hedges, and young trees nursed up with so much care that nothing but the fostering attention of the owner could effect anything like it. To every house belongs a farm, perfectly well enclosed, with grass borders mown and neatly kept around the cornfields, with gates to pass from one enclosure." (Young, 1792;…
Robinson, J.H. ed (1906) Arthur Young: Travels in France. Readings in European History, Boston: Ginn 1906.
A de Beaumarchais, Pierre (1732-1799) Marriage of Figaro.
Marriage of Figaro
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…
Muslim battles with European countries in the 13th to 18th centuries. Specifically, it will discuss the conflict between Islam and the West, including the Battle of Lepanto against Spain, the Siege of Vienna against Austria and Poland, and the Battle of Constantinople in 1483. These three battles were significant in world history for a number of reasons, and had their outcomes been different, the face of the world could have been very different today.
Battles Between Muslims and European Countries
The Muslim nation has always been made up of warriors, unafraid to do battle with those outside their faith. Writer John L. Esposito says their culture combines "a warrior culture with an Islamic tradition that believed in Islam's universal mission and sacred struggle (jihad), to establish themselves as worldwide propagators and defenders of Islam" (Espisito 61). Because of this long tradition, Muslims have fought in numerous battles throughout their extensive…
Cowie, Leonard W. Sixteenth-Century Europe. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1977.
Esposito, John L. Islam, The Straight Path, 3rd edition.
Herrin, Judith. "The fall of Constantinople." History Today June 2003: 12+.
Johnson, Lonnie. Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/ .
Letters of Richard Steele to his beloved Mary Scurlock, who would become his wife during the course of these correspondences from August 9 through October 22, 1707, illustrate the transformation of a genuinely romantic relationship from infatuation through marriage. While the style of Steele's letters seems shallow and almost comical at times, the author nevertheless betrays his deep adoration for Mary, an adoration which subsumes his love of anything else for the time during which he woos her. In these letters, Steele addresses very little other than his affection for Mary. Mary remains for the reader of these letters a nebulous figure, at times appearing cold and distant especially in comparison to the doglike Steele. Moreover, Steele does not offer any detailed descriptions of his beloved's physical features, so she remains shrouded in mystery and adulation. Only on a few occasions does Steele make any mention of a world other…
Ralph aldo Emerson's Influence on the Poetry of . hitman and E. Dickinson
During 19th century American literature, orthodox teachings and values are evident in most literary works, which is an evidence of the strong influence religion has over the American society. It is noted that during this period, a new form of religion is emerging as one of the dominant religious organizations in the est, particularly the Protestant religion. Ralph aldo Emerson is one example of a 19th century literary poet that influenced his contemporaries with his highly influential works that illustrate his religious background and belief.
Emerson's distinct character of showing his personal religious beliefs in his poem will be discussed in this paper. In line with this discussion, an analysis of two poets will also be discussed in order to show how Emerson's influence has affected each poet's style and theme of poetry. Two poets that have…
Walt Whitman is an American poet who is known for his characteristic style of depicting issues that focus on the worth of an individual and humanity. Emerson's influence over Whitman's poetry is evident in his collection of poems in "Leaves of Grass." Whitman's poem collection is a response to Emerson's call for a distinct and true American culture delivered in 1842. Emily Dickinson, similarly, is an American poet that has been greatly influenced by Emerson's works and writings. Like Emerson, Dickinson subsisted to the belief of transcendentalism, a philosophy wherein people believe that there is a higher reality that is found beyond the faculties of human knowledge and experience as well as reason.
The theme of transcendentalism is evident in one of Emerson's poems, entitled, "The Amulet." In this particular poem, Emerson expresses his belief in immaterial concepts and ideas, as contradicted by the physical belief that the amulet elicits from the individual or its owner. The poet first establishes the "powers" that amulets can give to people before contradicting and illustrating the futility that humans get out of these amulets. In describing it, Emerson describes that the amulet "keeps intelligence with you / Red when you love... And when you love not, pale and blue." However, the strong power that the amulet possesses is contradicted in the last stanza of the poem. The poet develops his thought fully in the last part of the poem, where he finally states that: "... love / Died in its last expression." By saying this, Emerson shows how, despite the metaphysical powers of amulets have over forcing someone to love another, it sacrifices one important thing needed in loving, which is precisely love itself.
Whitman and Dickinson follows suit in illustrating the theme of transcendentalism in their poetry. In Whitman's "When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer," the poet expresses his dismay at the seemingly scientific and technical way of looking at Nature, one of the extraordinary wonders of the world. Dickinson, on the other hand, illustrates in her poem, "A Word is Dead," how a linguistic symbol like a word can possess 'human-like' characteristics. This point is illustrated when Dickinson expressed in her poem, "I say it just / Begins to live / That day." These two examples of poems show Emerson's influence in placing priority in humanity and abstractness over scientific and materialistic elements.
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are two of the greatest satirists in literature because they capture elements of truth that force us to look at ourselves as a society. hile both authors reflect on political and economic conditions of the eighteenth century, their work is timeless because their topics ultimately return to humanity. Their achievements lie in the fact that they depict man in circumstances that are both thought provoking and amusing. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and "The Dunciad," along with Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and Gulliver's Travels demonstrate how satire takes its best form when its target is human nature.
The satirist is quite lucky in that he has many varieties of subjects when it comes to human nature M.H. Abrams observes that in most instances the satirist considers "prevalent evils and generally observable human types, not with particular individuals" (Abrams 2211). This is certainly true with…
Abrams, M.H. "Alexander Pope." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2209-14.
Pope, Alexander. "The Rape of the Lock." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2233-52.
The Dunciad." The Norton Anthology of English Literature W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 2291-6.
Ross, John. Gulliver's Travels. Introduction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1948.
Her status as a woman does giver her the ability to instill within these women a certain dignity, and a material importance that even the poet's own poetry may lack, in her view.
However, "Clifton Hall" views women in the context of nature not from the outside, but from the insider's perspective. Ann Yearsley came form the working class herself, as is evident from her poem, and sees women's lot as chosen, rather than something imposed upon her by outside authority. She is of nature, as well as observer of it, and rather than merely performing mundane chores, in her rustic environment she has control over her fate, in her native environment. She does not see the labor of women as noble, and unchosen, but as something one may actively resist. She sees the world of Clifton Hill and sees herself as a part of the daily grind of its…
Anna Laetitia Barbauld "Washing Day." 12 Dec 2004. http://www.usask.ca/english/barbauld/works/washing_day.html
Yearsley, Ann. "Clifton Hill." 1785.
John Dryden, English poet and critics who was is well-known for his political and religious poetry, explicates on the nature of good writing in his essay, "An essay of dramatic poesy." In this discourse, Dryden looks into the qualities that best defines good writing in literature as a literary work created through three important elements: the work must have a purpose, has a well-conveyed message comprehensible to the reader, and is expressed with wit and intelligence in the simplest and easiest language to understand.
For Dryden, works of literature must be created for a purpose, an honest purpose with strong effectiveness, not a literary works written for the writer's benefit only. This kind of writer, which Dryden identifies as the 'first sort of poetry' -- that is, good poetry -- is synonymous with the writer who is "...so much a well-willer to the satire that he spares no…
Abrams, M. (Ed.). (2000). The Norton anthology of English Literature, Vol. 1. NY W.W. Norton.
Through their relationship, we see how Charlotte decided to marry him because she did not want to be left alone and without anyone at all.
Pride and Prejudice allows us to see the different types of marriage through each relationship. Not all marriages are equal and husbands and wives are never easy to understand. Lydia marries ickham and their marriage is shallow as the two are inexperienced in the ways of a healthy relationship. Lydia may be a beautiful woman but she is ignorant when it comes to her husband and his behavior. Lydia's relationship with ickham weakens over time and the two grow apart. From this couple, we can see how a good marriage takes hard work and commitment. Things will not improve if each partner goes his or her separate ways and the couple spends more time apart than they do together. This frustration is viewed by Jane…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.
Like many teenagers would, my beliefs swung radically in the other direction. While I had no intention of parting with my gemstones, because the harm done in the mining of them could not be undone, I decided to stop collecting them. I began to speak out about alternatives, and even chastised a cousin who chose diamond instead of a synthetic jewel for his fiance's engagement ring. I gave a presentation to my high school about the detriments of the jewelry industry and considered lobbying to enact stricter laws about gems and rare metal imports, so that any products would be certified fair labor and fair trade complaint.
However, that attitude could not last long. The more research I did, the more ambiguous the situation became. Yes, the circumstances in mines are horrible, and I would never want anyone in my family exposed to them. However, my family does not live…
Women's oles Then And Now:
Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
Biographic Information for Each…
Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley
Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm
Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html
"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
Susan Anthony is a key figure in women's rights movement of this time. She called for increased women's admission in the teaching profession. She also campaigned for equal pay for male and female slaves as well as better protection for female laborers trough trade unions that she became a part of (Susan B. Anthony House, n.d.).
These radical changes in the sphere of womanhood are reflected in the artistic accomplishments of women. Fredrika Bremer, for example, a Swedish Finland native who traveled to the United States to learn about culture and women's position, wrote a lot about slavery. Hertha, one of Bremer's key works, is a novel depicting the story of a woman who went beyond traditional female role expectations. This is believed to have influenced the parliament in legal reforms concerning women's rights (Lewis, 2009).
Women's fight for equal rights which defined the 19th century did not escape the…
Conner Prairie (2009). Women in the 1800s. Retrieved from http://www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/1880wom.html on April 25, 2009.
Lewis, J.J. (2009). Fredrika Bremer. Retrieved from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/writers19th/p/fredrika_bremer.htm on April 25, 2009.
Myers, S. et al. (n.d.). Women Leaders and Activists. Overview of 1600s/1700s. Retrieved from http://eportg.cgc.maricopa.edu/published/h/is/history201-activists/document/1/index-2.2.shtml on April 25, 2009.
Susan B. Anthony House. (n.d.). Biography of Susan B. Anthony. Retrieved from http://www.susanbanthonyhouse.org/biography.shtml on April 25, 2009.
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…
Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p. 262).
The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. esidents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section. Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards.
Kirkbride asylums were designed to…
Curran, J. (2006). Psychiatric wards as permeable institutions. Mental Health Practice, 10 (2), 29-30.
Dowbiggin, I. (1997). The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and society in Britain, 1700-1900. Victorian Studies, 40 (2), 360-363.
Haller, B. And Larsen, R. (2005). Persuading sanity: Magic lantern images and the nineteenth-century moral treatment in America. Journal of American Culture, 28 (3), 259-272.
Hughes, W. (2002). "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody:" Public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England. Victorian Studies, 44 (2), 328-332.
Women's Movement Timeline
The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…
Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:
"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"
Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .
In England, one of the premier locations for growing Hops in the 18th century was Kent. Kent has a long history with the growing and curing of hops; "The cultivation of hops for brewing was, in fact, introduced to Kent by Flemish brewers in the 16th century," (Kent County Council 2007:2). Once the popularity of hops exploded in England, it was Kent that vastly benefited from the rich soil and close proximity to massive amounts of seasonal laborers available to manually work the fields in the 18th century. Kent alone employed over 80,000 workers in the harvesting, drying, and sale of hops during the 18th and 19th centuries; "thousands of acres of Kent's countryside were devoted to growing hops in fields known as 'hop gardens,' with up to 80,000 people involved in the annual harvest at hop-picking time in September," (Kent County Council 2007:2). The region found great success in…
Chambers's Encyclopedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People. (1873). Vol. 10. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott & Co.
Fluckiger, Frierich August & Hanbury, Daniel. (1874). Pharmacographis, a History of the Principle Drugs of Vegetable Origin. London: Macmillan and Co.
Kent County Council. (2007). Hops and Downs: A Taste of Mid-Kent. Retrieved 12 Nov 2009 at http://www.kent.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1913EEC2-B192-4378-9D53-FAB0AFF870D5/0/FoodTrailsHopsandDowns.pdf
Madison County. (2005). Hop map. Heritage Trail. Madison County, New York. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 at http://www.madisoncounty.org/Plan/HeritageTrail/HopMapback17x22.pdf
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…
AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004. http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html
Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105
Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004. http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm
Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp
600). What Cushman means with this is that the self has become empty resulting from the loss of the community, tradition, and shared experience connected to specific cultures or communities (Cushman, 1990, p. 600). This empty self then needs emotional fulfillment, which individuals have sought in consuming products and ideas offered by the media and by shops. Indeed, the author claims that the current psychological phenomena of narcissism and borderline states are the direct product of the emptiness created by the post-World War II loss of connection to humanity via common culture and belief systems.
Twenge (2006, p. 2), on the other hand, believes that individualism has reached an ultimate high with today's young generation, or what the author refers to as the "Generation Me." This is a generation for whom morality and human connection are exclusively focused upon the individual as well as individual desires or ideals. Even love…
Cushman, P. (1990, May). Why the Self is Empty: Toward a Historically Situated Psychology. American Psychologist, Vol. 45, No. 5.
Johnson, R. (2012, Summer) "Kant's Moral Philosophy," the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/kant-moral/
Twenge, J.M. (2006). Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled -- and More Miserable Than Ever Before. New York: Free Press
While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…
1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)
2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/ . Last retrieved on July 22, 2010
3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009)
4. Thomas Dereham to James Jurin. 22 June 1722, in Early Letters, Royal Society in London, D.2.12
The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…
Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's
Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
Laura Auricchio is an art historian teaching at the Parsons School for Design as part of The New School in New York City. In the piece to be critiqued, Auricchio focuses upon techniques, styles, and subject matter of eighteenth century paintings. Auricchio's focus in her article is upon the female painter, Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Though Auricchio examines several of Labille-Guiard's major works, her primary examination is of the painting Self-Portrait with Two Students (1785). Auricchio argues that Labille-Guiard makes deliberate politically motivated choices in content and composition in the painting that express and reflect upon European female artistry and experience of the eighteenth century. This paper will briefly describe and critique Auricchio's main ideas and themes in her interpretation of the work and of the artist.
Auricchio, as an art historian and as a woman, is interested in female artists. She is interested in female artists primarily because their…
Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin, Volume 89, Number 1, March 2007.
During an intense period of social and political unrest among the western civilizations (roughly 1843-1853) it was a religious infiltration in China that created social and political turmoil, "the movement that finally overshadowed all other disturbances was really of a religious character." (illiams 279) the conflict is known as the Tai ping Rebellion and was in part spurned on by Protestant missionary teaching of rebels in China, yet another example of western infiltration of China.
illiams 278-280) the rebellion effectively replaced the Manchu dynasty, ending thousands of years of dynastic rule, asserting the capital at Nanking and creating an even more corrupt cruel government than had ever been present before.
Education in China was even influenced heavily by western powers, as adoptions of what was thought of as superior progress, clearly created the education system in China, as well as many other locations.
Since near the…
Albertini, Rudolf von, and Albert Wirz. European Colonial Rule, 1880-1940: The Impact of the West on India, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Trans. John G. Williamson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Blue, Gregory. "One the British Connection." Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Ed. Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. 31-47.
Cubberley, Ellwood P. The History of Education: Educational Practice and Progress Considered as a Phase of the Development and Spread of Western Civilization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1902.
Porter, Jonathan. "Herbert S. Yee. Macau in Transition: From Colony to Autonomous Region." China Review International 9.1 (2002): 294.
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
Discovery / Development of the Last Century
There have been a number of important scientific and technological developments in the last century that have profoundly affected the lives of people all over the world. The 20th century saw the invention of the airplane and mass production of automobiles that signaled a revolution in transportation; delivery of mass-produced electricity into our homes that transformed the way people live; and the invention of transistor and personal computer that triggered the information revolution. While all these developments have contributed significantly in raising the living standards of billions, there was one other discovery of the last century that did much more: it literally saved the lives of billions of people. That discovery was the development of the miracle drug called penicillin. In this essay I shall discuss when and how penicillin was discovered and why I consider it to be the greatest discovery of…
Ly, Tran, and Ho Epochs
The Dai Viet Kingdom had its origin in the middle of the 10th century until around the middle of the 11th century, when local chiefs were able to vie for control in what is now Land of Viet
However, regionalism is the pattern. As the Northern Tang dynasty crumbled, it lost control over South (which are now parts of Northern Vietnam)
The weakening of Northern Tang gradually led to the emergence of the Dai Viet kingdom
There was still a lot of in fighting, though. Chieftan Dinh Bo Lihn conquered the "Twelve Warlords" and established a capital at Hoa Lu, south of the Red River Delta not far from modern day Hanoi.
Dinh Bo Linh was succeeded by Le Hoan, who fought off Song Dynasty encroachment. Thus they gained regional dominance
Then Ly Cong Uan in early 11th cent, supported by Buddhist community, moved the…
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…
Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
omen in Higher Education -- 1785-1890
Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. omen were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how those opportunities were seized upon by women eager to better themselves and pursue careers -- notwithstanding firm resistance by society and by colleges and universities run by men.
omen and Higher Education by 1860
In his book A History of American Higher Education, author John Thelin points out that by 1860, just before the Civil ar, there were "…at lease forty-five institutions" that were offering college and university degrees to women (Thelin, 2012). Those higher education institutions were referred…
Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys
Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.
Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic Careers, 1880-1920. History of Education Quarterly,
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw change of a manner and magnitude never before experienced in world history. Technological, governmental, and ideological transformations made the nineteenth century span the gap between the modern world and the ancient world. "At the start of the century, life was not so very different from Roman times -- although a Roman would have been very shocked by the state of the roads and the filthy towns. But by the end of the century life was not so very different from the world we know today." (Chamberlin 6). By this interpretation of events, the middle ages in Europe had taken well over a millennium to finally match the living conditions and way of life enjoyed by the Romans; however, the next hundred years would be a period of unprecedented change and social upheaval. Largely, these changes were associated, in some way, with the industrial revolution, which…
1. Ashby, Ruth. Around the World in 1800. New York: Benchmark, 2003.
2. Chamberlin, E.R. The Nineteenth Century. Morristown: Silver Burdett, 1983.
3. Gay, Peter. Schnitzler's Century: the Making of Middle-Class Culture. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.
Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.
Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.
Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…
Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from http://www.answersingenesis.org .
Yearsley states specifically:
Curse on the toils spread by a Christian hand
To rob the Indian of his freedom! Curse
On him who from a bending parent steals
His dear support of age his darling child;
III. The LOT of the POOR in the EIGHTEEN CENTURY
The work of Joseph Townsend (1786) entitled: "A Dissertation on the Poor Laws" states: "Our poor laws are not only unjust, oppressive, and impolitic, nor am they merely by accident in inadequate to the purpose for which they were designed; but they proceed upon principles which border on absurdity, as professing to accomplish that which, in the very nature and constitution of the world, is impracticable." (1786) Townsend concludes by acknowledging that changes for the better are indeed possible as he relates his knowledge of a parish located in the West of England which he states "has never wanted poor, and in which, excepting…
Collier, Mary (1739) the Woman's Labour and Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck; in Answer to his late Poem, called the Thresher's Labour. Peterfield Hampfhire. Online available at http://www.usask.ca/english/barbauld/related_texts/collier.html
Yearsley, Ann (1788) a Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave-Trade. Online available at http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/yearsley1.htm
Townsend, Joseph (1786) a Dissertation on the Poor Laws. Online available at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/townsend/poorlaw.html
13th century, the world's civilizations -- by the most accurate of definitions -- were emerging from lower cultural and technological evolution to a higher plane of refinement. Thought, manners, life situations, and the like were being considered as important as survival.
From 1200 to 1600 AD, Europe demonstrated its emergent renaissance; France, Asia, Africa, and the Northern Hemisphere were sending explorers to uncharted territories and discovering wonders not yet conceived. Average citizens took control of personal destinies and global civilizations shrunk the world practically overnight. The end of the period of increased contact ushered the Industrial Revolution into the lifestyles of the largest countries in the world and with it entered competition. Marketplace dominance, intellectual pursuits, quality of life, and a longer life expectancy emerged as one result of ever-increasing contact with other nations.
Examples of Global Contact
In 1275, Marco Polo discovered "burning black rocks" while traveling through China.…
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html.
estofSicily. The Mafia estofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm.
urton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
Franco, Celinda. "The Ms-13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats?" 21. Washington, D.C.: Domestic Social Policy Division, 2008.
Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. 1st ed. oston: Little, rown, 2000.
SonofItaly. Omerta SonOfItaly.freeservers.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://sonofitaly.freeservers.com/photo2.html.
Valdemar, Richard. Exceptions to the Gang Rules: How the Intricacies and Idiosyncrasies of the Gangs in Your Jurisdiction. Policeman.com, 2007 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.policemag.com/Channels/Gangs/2007/08/07/Exceptions-to-the-Gang-Rules.aspx.
Valdez, Al. California's Most Violent Export StreetGangs.com,…
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html .
BestofSicily. The Mafia BestofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm .
Burton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Living in the Industrial (21st Century) Society
One of the most revolutionary events and changes that happened in all of the world's societies is the emergence of the Industrial Revolution during the turn of the 21st century. During this period, human civilization moved from a communal form of living to a highly-industrialized society, wherein commodities and the needs of people became readily available in quantity because of the invention of machineries and the process of mass production. With the growth and development that the Industrial Revolution has brought to the world societies, many people have lived in what now we call as the 'capitalist societies,' and the backbone of most people's living and income comes from the rule of economics and providing people with the means to acquire their wants and needs. This, perhaps, is the most important characteristic that the Industrial or Capitalist society brought to human civilization, that…
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…
Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm
New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO
The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
This is to suggest that little in the way of resistance will be practical. Because this transition is occurring by the paths of global free trade, state governance is having little impact on slowing down the transfer of properties and equities throughout the world into Chinese hands. The best recourse available to the est, therefore, is a dual strategy of cooperation with China and the mutual creation of meaningful global alliances intended to regulate matters of trade and interstate commerce.
Martin Jacques, hen China Rules the orld: The End of the estern orld
and the Birth of a New Global Order, New York: The Penguin Press, 2009,
Chapter 11: "hen China Rules the orld," pp. 363-413.
David M. Lampton, The Three Faces of Chinese Power: Might, Money, and Minds, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008, Chapter…
Martin Jacques, When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World
and the Birth of a New Global Order, New York: The Penguin Press, 2009,
Chapter 11: "When China Rules the World," pp. 363-413.
David M. Lampton, The Three Faces of Chinese Power: Might, Money, and Minds, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008, Chapter 7: "What
Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century
The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…
Boytinck P., (1995). What Happened to Stalin's German prisoner-of-war. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/General/HnetPrisoners1.html
Committee of The Judiciary U.S. Senate, (1972). Communist Treatment of Prisoners of War: A Historical Survey. December 10, 2015 from https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/comm_treat_POW.pdf
Gessen M. (2013). Life in A Russian Prison. December 10, 2015 from http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/life-in-a-russian-prison/?_r=0
Mekler J., (2015). Vasily Vereshchagin: The Road of War Prisoners. Brooklyn Museum, 06.46, Oil on Canvas.
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Some of the entries are closely related, but the search function appears to pull up every entry that has any of the words for which a person searches. That can be very frustrating, because it produces a large number of entries that are not related in any way to the original search. Encyclopedia Britannica also requires a person to sign up for a free trial period in order to read any of the entries (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011). After that trial period is over, one must pay for the service. ikipedia requires no sign-up, and there is no cost for searching or reading on the site (ikipedia, 2011).
Overall, ikipedia excels over Encyclopedia Britannica when searching for crime and punishment in the 18th century or anything else. hile neither site has a page specifically dedicated to that issue and it is necessary to perform several searches on each site in order…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011. Britannica - the Online Encyclopedia. Web. 30 September 2011.
Wikipedia. 2011. Wikipedia. Web. 30 September 2011.