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18th C Decorative Botanical Art
Words: 3104 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77815266
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In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.

Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…

Works Cited

Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.

Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp

Eighteenth century textiles,  http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm 

Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+.  http://www.questia.com/ .

18th Cen Poetry the Domestic
Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62825589
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Her status as a woman does giver her the ability to instill within these women a certain dignity, and a material importance that even the poet's own poetry may lack, in her view.

However, "Clifton Hall" views women in the context of nature not from the outside, but from the insider's perspective. Ann Yearsley came form the working class herself, as is evident from her poem, and sees women's lot as chosen, rather than something imposed upon her by outside authority. She is of nature, as well as observer of it, and rather than merely performing mundane chores, in her rustic environment she has control over her fate, in her native environment. She does not see the labor of women as noble, and unchosen, but as something one may actively resist. She sees the world of Clifton Hill and sees herself as a part of the daily grind of its…

Works Cited

Anna Laetitia Barbauld "Washing Day." 12 Dec 2004.  http://www.usask.ca/english/barbauld/works/washing_day.html 

Yearsley, Ann. "Clifton Hill." 1785.

Urgency to Marry in 18th
Words: 849 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27366419
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Through their relationship, we see how Charlotte decided to marry him because she did not want to be left alone and without anyone at all.

Pride and Prejudice allows us to see the different types of marriage through each relationship. Not all marriages are equal and husbands and wives are never easy to understand. Lydia marries ickham and their marriage is shallow as the two are inexperienced in the ways of a healthy relationship. Lydia may be a beautiful woman but she is ignorant when it comes to her husband and his behavior. Lydia's relationship with ickham weakens over time and the two grow apart. From this couple, we can see how a good marriage takes hard work and commitment. Things will not improve if each partner goes his or her separate ways and the couple spends more time apart than they do together. This frustration is viewed by Jane…

Works Cited

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.

Personal Statement Info The 18th
Words: 808 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81290171
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Like many teenagers would, my beliefs swung radically in the other direction. While I had no intention of parting with my gemstones, because the harm done in the mining of them could not be undone, I decided to stop collecting them. I began to speak out about alternatives, and even chastised a cousin who chose diamond instead of a synthetic jewel for his fiance's engagement ring. I gave a presentation to my high school about the detriments of the jewelry industry and considered lobbying to enact stricter laws about gems and rare metal imports, so that any products would be certified fair labor and fair trade complaint.

However, that attitude could not last long. The more research I did, the more ambiguous the situation became. Yes, the circumstances in mines are horrible, and I would never want anyone in my family exposed to them. However, my family does not live…

Roles of Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28176167
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Women's oles Then And Now:

Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.

Biographic Information for Each…

References:

Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley

Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm

Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website:  http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html 

"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.

Women Change in 18th &
Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38941220
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Susan Anthony is a key figure in women's rights movement of this time. She called for increased women's admission in the teaching profession. She also campaigned for equal pay for male and female slaves as well as better protection for female laborers trough trade unions that she became a part of (Susan B. Anthony House, n.d.).

These radical changes in the sphere of womanhood are reflected in the artistic accomplishments of women. Fredrika Bremer, for example, a Swedish Finland native who traveled to the United States to learn about culture and women's position, wrote a lot about slavery. Hertha, one of Bremer's key works, is a novel depicting the story of a woman who went beyond traditional female role expectations. This is believed to have influenced the parliament in legal reforms concerning women's rights (Lewis, 2009).

Women's fight for equal rights which defined the 19th century did not escape the…

References

Conner Prairie (2009). Women in the 1800s. Retrieved from  http://www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/1880wom.html  on April 25, 2009.

Lewis, J.J. (2009). Fredrika Bremer. Retrieved from  http://womenshistory.about.com/od/writers19th/p/fredrika_bremer.htm  on April 25, 2009.

Myers, S. et al. (n.d.). Women Leaders and Activists. Overview of 1600s/1700s. Retrieved from http://eportg.cgc.maricopa.edu/published/h/is/history201-activists/document/1/index-2.2.shtml on April 25, 2009.

Susan B. Anthony House. (n.d.). Biography of Susan B. Anthony. Retrieved from  http://www.susanbanthonyhouse.org/biography.shtml  on April 25, 2009.

Slavery Shaped Eighteenth-Century Colonial and
Words: 2307 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49153554
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The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.

Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…

Reference

Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html 

Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.

Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at  http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html

Racism Race Ethnicity in the 18th
Words: 2842 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92022289
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Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).

On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.

Compared with Thebedi,…

References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database

Asylums in the 19th Century
Words: 3732 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89952340
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He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p. 262).

The Kirkbride asylum had a central administration building with a dome that was flanked by two wings of tiered wards. esidents were separated according to sex and the symptoms of their illnesses, with "excited patients" on the lower floors farther away from the administrative center. Well-behaved, more rational patients were placed on uppers floors closer to the administrative section. Fresh air, natural light, and scenic views of the park-like grounds were available to all wards.

Kirkbride asylums were designed to…

References

Curran, J. (2006). Psychiatric wards as permeable institutions. Mental Health Practice, 10 (2), 29-30.

Dowbiggin, I. (1997). The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and society in Britain, 1700-1900. Victorian Studies, 40 (2), 360-363.

Haller, B. And Larsen, R. (2005). Persuading sanity: Magic lantern images and the nineteenth-century moral treatment in America. Journal of American Culture, 28 (3), 259-272.

Hughes, W. (2002). "Cure, Comfort and Safe Custody:" Public lunatic asylums in early nineteenth-century England. Victorian Studies, 44 (2), 328-332.

Timeline on Gendered Movements Dating From 1700's to Current Century
Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 74618351
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Women's Timeline

Women's Movement Timeline

The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…

Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:

"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"

Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .

Manual Picking of the 18th
Words: 2351 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 20903821
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In England, one of the premier locations for growing Hops in the 18th century was Kent. Kent has a long history with the growing and curing of hops; "The cultivation of hops for brewing was, in fact, introduced to Kent by Flemish brewers in the 16th century," (Kent County Council 2007:2). Once the popularity of hops exploded in England, it was Kent that vastly benefited from the rich soil and close proximity to massive amounts of seasonal laborers available to manually work the fields in the 18th century. Kent alone employed over 80,000 workers in the harvesting, drying, and sale of hops during the 18th and 19th centuries; "thousands of acres of Kent's countryside were devoted to growing hops in fields known as 'hop gardens,' with up to 80,000 people involved in the annual harvest at hop-picking time in September," (Kent County Council 2007:2). The region found great success in…

References

Chambers's Encyclopedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People. (1873). Vol. 10. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott & Co.

Fluckiger, Frierich August & Hanbury, Daniel. (1874). Pharmacographis, a History of the Principle Drugs of Vegetable Origin. London: Macmillan and Co.

Kent County Council. (2007). Hops and Downs: A Taste of Mid-Kent. Retrieved 12 Nov 2009 at  http://www.kent.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1913EEC2-B192-4378-9D53-FAB0AFF870D5/0/FoodTrailsHopsandDowns.pdf 

Madison County. (2005). Hop map. Heritage Trail. Madison County, New York. Retrieved 13 Nov 2009 at http://www.madisoncounty.org/Plan/HeritageTrail/HopMapback17x22.pdf

Eighteenth Century
Words: 1554 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65360395
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Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.

Society and Culture

In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).

Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…

Works Cited

AllRefer. Interior decoration, Interior Design and Home Furnishings. AllRefer.com. 11 May 2004.  http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/I/interior.html 

Brainard, Rick. Daily Life: 18th Century Society: An Overview. 18th Century History. 11 May 2004. http://www.history1700s.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=105

Colonial Williamsburg. 18th Century Clothing. 11 May 2004.  http://www.history.org/history/clothing/intro/index.cfm 

Malaspina Great Books. Alexander Pope. 11 May 2004. http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_951.asp

Kant and the 21st Century
Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65545509
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600). What Cushman means with this is that the self has become empty resulting from the loss of the community, tradition, and shared experience connected to specific cultures or communities (Cushman, 1990, p. 600). This empty self then needs emotional fulfillment, which individuals have sought in consuming products and ideas offered by the media and by shops. Indeed, the author claims that the current psychological phenomena of narcissism and borderline states are the direct product of the emptiness created by the post-World War II loss of connection to humanity via common culture and belief systems.

Twenge (2006, p. 2), on the other hand, believes that individualism has reached an ultimate high with today's young generation, or what the author refers to as the "Generation Me." This is a generation for whom morality and human connection are exclusively focused upon the individual as well as individual desires or ideals. Even love…

References

Cushman, P. (1990, May). Why the Self is Empty: Toward a Historically Situated Psychology. American Psychologist, Vol. 45, No. 5.

Johnson, R. (2012, Summer) "Kant's Moral Philosophy," the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/kant-moral/ 

Twenge, J.M. (2006). Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled -- and More Miserable Than Ever Before. New York: Free Press

Royal Patronage of 17th Century
Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91247298
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While France relied on direct involvement of the royal power, either through the King or his ministers, ritain had a more formal royal patronage, that encouraged the activity, but did not sponsor or finance it. This also meant that in the former case, the activity was directed towards studies that could directly help the state, while in the latter case, the activity was much less directed by royal interest.

ibliography

1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)

2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/. Last retrieved on July 22, 2010

3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1,…

Bibliography

1. Saunders, Stewart. Louis XIV: Patron of Science and Technology. From The Sun King: Louis XIV and the New World, edited by Steven G. Reinhardt, pp. 155-67. (New Orleans: Louisiana Museum Foundation, 1984.)

2. History of the Royal Society. On the Internet at  http://royalsociety.org/History-of-the-Royal-Society/ . Last retrieved on July 22, 2010

3. Findlen, Paula. Founding a Scientific Academy: Gender, Patronage and Knowledge in Early Eighteenth-Century Milan. Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009)

4. Thomas Dereham to James Jurin. 22 June 1722, in Early Letters, Royal Society in London, D.2.12

Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often
Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47252681
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Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…

Works Cited

Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's

Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.

Ancient Studies

Laura Auricchio is an art historian teaching at the Parsons School for Design as part of The New School in New York City. In the piece to be critiqued, Auricchio focuses upon techniques, styles, and subject matter of eighteenth century paintings. Auricchio's focus in her article is upon the female painter, Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Though Auricchio examines several of Labille-Guiard's major works, her primary examination is of the painting Self-Portrait with Two Students (1785). Auricchio argues that Labille-Guiard makes deliberate politically motivated choices in content and composition in the painting that express and reflect upon European female artistry and experience of the eighteenth century. This paper will briefly describe and critique Auricchio's main ideas and themes in her interpretation of the work and of the artist.

Auricchio, as an art historian and as a woman, is interested in female artists. She is interested in female artists primarily because their…

References:

Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin, Volume 89, Number 1, March 2007.

Decline of China 18th Early
Words: 2315 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36961297
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illiams 276)

During an intense period of social and political unrest among the western civilizations (roughly 1843-1853) it was a religious infiltration in China that created social and political turmoil, "the movement that finally overshadowed all other disturbances was really of a religious character." (illiams 279) the conflict is known as the Tai ping Rebellion and was in part spurned on by Protestant missionary teaching of rebels in China, yet another example of western infiltration of China.

illiams 278-280) the rebellion effectively replaced the Manchu dynasty, ending thousands of years of dynastic rule, asserting the capital at Nanking and creating an even more corrupt cruel government than had ever been present before.

illiams 281)

Education in China was even influenced heavily by western powers, as adoptions of what was thought of as superior progress, clearly created the education system in China, as well as many other locations.

Since near the…

Works Cited

Albertini, Rudolf von, and Albert Wirz. European Colonial Rule, 1880-1940: The Impact of the West on India, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Trans. John G. Williamson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Blue, Gregory. "One the British Connection." Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Ed. Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. 31-47.

Cubberley, Ellwood P. The History of Education: Educational Practice and Progress Considered as a Phase of the Development and Spread of Western Civilization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1902.

Porter, Jonathan. "Herbert S. Yee. Macau in Transition: From Colony to Autonomous Region." China Review International 9.1 (2002): 294.

Education in America the Seventeenth Century Has
Words: 3372 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23845923
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Education in America

The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.

The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…

Bibliography

1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America

University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971

2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard

University Press, 1921, 4 vols.

Most Important Discovery Development of the Last Century
Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4602447
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Discovery / Development of the Last Century

There have been a number of important scientific and technological developments in the last century that have profoundly affected the lives of people all over the world. The 20th century saw the invention of the airplane and mass production of automobiles that signaled a revolution in transportation; delivery of mass-produced electricity into our homes that transformed the way people live; and the invention of transistor and personal computer that triggered the information revolution. While all these developments have contributed significantly in raising the living standards of billions, there was one other discovery of the last century that did much more: it literally saved the lives of billions of people. That discovery was the development of the miracle drug called penicillin. In this essay I shall discuss when and how penicillin was discovered and why I consider it to be the greatest discovery of…

vietnamese history throughout the centuries
Words: 2454 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29711064
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Ly, Tran, and Ho Epochs

The Dai Viet Kingdom had its origin in the middle of the 10th century until around the middle of the 11th century, when local chiefs were able to vie for control in what is now Land of Viet

However, regionalism is the pattern. As the Northern Tang dynasty crumbled, it lost control over South (which are now parts of Northern Vietnam)

The weakening of Northern Tang gradually led to the emergence of the Dai Viet kingdom

There was still a lot of in fighting, though. Chieftan Dinh Bo Lihn conquered the "Twelve Warlords" and established a capital at Hoa Lu, south of the Red River Delta not far from modern day Hanoi.

Dinh Bo Linh was succeeded by Le Hoan, who fought off Song Dynasty encroachment. Thus they gained regional dominance

Then Ly Cong Uan in early 11th cent, supported by Buddhist community, moved the…

Chimu Indians the Fifteenth-Century Spanish Travelers Who
Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59889176
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Chimu Indians

The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).

This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…

Works Cited

Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.

Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.

McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm

How Women Achieved Educational Opportunities in the 19th Century
Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27383962
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omen in Higher Education -- 1785-1890

Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. omen were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how those opportunities were seized upon by women eager to better themselves and pursue careers -- notwithstanding firm resistance by society and by colleges and universities run by men.

omen and Higher Education by 1860

In his book A History of American Higher Education, author John Thelin points out that by 1860, just before the Civil ar, there were "…at lease forty-five institutions" that were offering college and university degrees to women (Thelin, 2012). Those higher education institutions were referred…

Works Cited

Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys

Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.

Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic Careers, 1880-1920. History of Education Quarterly,

52(2), 196-224.

18th and 19th Century
Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92251362
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eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw change of a manner and magnitude never before experienced in world history. Technological, governmental, and ideological transformations made the nineteenth century span the gap between the modern world and the ancient world. "At the start of the century, life was not so very different from Roman times -- although a Roman would have been very shocked by the state of the roads and the filthy towns. But by the end of the century life was not so very different from the world we know today." (Chamberlin 6). By this interpretation of events, the middle ages in Europe had taken well over a millennium to finally match the living conditions and way of life enjoyed by the Romans; however, the next hundred years would be a period of unprecedented change and social upheaval. Largely, these changes were associated, in some way, with the industrial revolution, which…

Works Cited:

1. Ashby, Ruth. Around the World in 1800. New York: Benchmark, 2003.

2. Chamberlin, E.R. The Nineteenth Century. Morristown: Silver Burdett, 1983.

3. Gay, Peter. Schnitzler's Century: the Making of Middle-Class Culture. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.

18th and 19th Century Geologists
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 90114032
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Also he seems sincere in his presentation and his beliefs.

Article eaknesses: Mortenson's attempt to discredit the many years of authentic science is flawed; it is obvious he is attempting to build a case against evolution and insert his narrow Christian viewpoint, but it doesn't work very well. His assertion that evolution has "…come under considerable fire in the past four decades" and that there is "strong scientific evidence against evolution" is absurd. The only groups that attack the science from Darwin's discoveries -- and the plethora of empirical scientific fossil-based, geologic discoveries subsequent to Darwin's work -- are evangelical Christian groups, religious fundamentalists who want creationism published in high school textbooks next to evolution data, and others that accept creationism as fact.

Another assertion in this article that is patently ridiculous and bizarre is the notion that if Genesis is "rejected as literal accurate history" in a matter of…

Works Cited

Mortenson, Terry. (2003). The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century. Retrieved June 16, 2012, from  http://www.answersingenesis.org .

Restoration & the Eighteenth Century
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Yearsley states specifically:

Curse on the toils spread by a Christian hand

To rob the Indian of his freedom! Curse

On him who from a bending parent steals

His dear support of age his darling child;

III. The LOT of the POOR in the EIGHTEEN CENTURY

The work of Joseph Townsend (1786) entitled: "A Dissertation on the Poor Laws" states: "Our poor laws are not only unjust, oppressive, and impolitic, nor am they merely by accident in inadequate to the purpose for which they were designed; but they proceed upon principles which border on absurdity, as professing to accomplish that which, in the very nature and constitution of the world, is impracticable." (1786) Townsend concludes by acknowledging that changes for the better are indeed possible as he relates his knowledge of a parish located in the West of England which he states "has never wanted poor, and in which, excepting…

Bibliography

Collier, Mary (1739) the Woman's Labour and Epistle to Mr. Stephen Duck; in Answer to his late Poem, called the Thresher's Labour. Peterfield Hampfhire. Online available at  http://www.usask.ca/english/barbauld/related_texts/collier.html 

Yearsley, Ann (1788) a Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave-Trade. Online available at  http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/yearsley1.htm 

Townsend, Joseph (1786) a Dissertation on the Poor Laws. Online available at  http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/townsend/poorlaw.html

13th Century the World's Civilizations -- by
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13th century, the world's civilizations -- by the most accurate of definitions -- were emerging from lower cultural and technological evolution to a higher plane of refinement. Thought, manners, life situations, and the like were being considered as important as survival.

From 1200 to 1600 AD, Europe demonstrated its emergent renaissance; France, Asia, Africa, and the Northern Hemisphere were sending explorers to uncharted territories and discovering wonders not yet conceived. Average citizens took control of personal destinies and global civilizations shrunk the world practically overnight. The end of the period of increased contact ushered the Industrial Revolution into the lifestyles of the largest countries in the world and with it entered competition. Marketplace dominance, intellectual pursuits, quality of life, and a longer life expectancy emerged as one result of ever-increasing contact with other nations.

Examples of Global Contact

In 1275, Marco Polo discovered "burning black rocks" while traveling through China.…

Transnational-Nature of the 18th Street
Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74436800
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ibliography

Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html.

estofSicily. The Mafia estofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm.

urton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.

CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.

Franco, Celinda. "The Ms-13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats?" 21. Washington, D.C.: Domestic Social Policy Division, 2008.

Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. 1st ed. oston: Little, rown, 2000.

SonofItaly. Omerta SonOfItaly.freeservers.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://sonofitaly.freeservers.com/photo2.html.

Valdemar, Richard. Exceptions to the Gang Rules: How the Intricacies and Idiosyncrasies of the Gangs in Your Jurisdiction. Policeman.com, 2007 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.policemag.com/Channels/Gangs/2007/08/07/Exceptions-to-the-Gang-Rules.aspx.

Valdez, Al. California's Most Violent Export StreetGangs.com,…

Bibliography

Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at  http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html .

BestofSicily. The Mafia BestofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at  http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm .

Burton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.

CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.

Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries
Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14621831
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e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from  http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf 

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from  http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf

Living in the Industrial 21ST Century Society
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30356823
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Living in the Industrial (21st Century) Society

One of the most revolutionary events and changes that happened in all of the world's societies is the emergence of the Industrial Revolution during the turn of the 21st century. During this period, human civilization moved from a communal form of living to a highly-industrialized society, wherein commodities and the needs of people became readily available in quantity because of the invention of machineries and the process of mass production. With the growth and development that the Industrial Revolution has brought to the world societies, many people have lived in what now we call as the 'capitalist societies,' and the backbone of most people's living and income comes from the rule of economics and providing people with the means to acquire their wants and needs. This, perhaps, is the most important characteristic that the Industrial or Capitalist society brought to human civilization, that…

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78019635
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Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera

Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.

Exoticism in History and Culture

Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…

Works Cited

Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm

New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site:  http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO 

The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org

Nineteenth Century Reform
Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1976691
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Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.  http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm 

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.

China in the Twenty-First Century
Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 491421
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This is to suggest that little in the way of resistance will be practical. Because this transition is occurring by the paths of global free trade, state governance is having little impact on slowing down the transfer of properties and equities throughout the world into Chinese hands. The best recourse available to the est, therefore, is a dual strategy of cooperation with China and the mutual creation of meaningful global alliances intended to regulate matters of trade and interstate commerce.

orks Cited:

Martin Jacques, hen China Rules the orld: The End of the estern orld

and the Birth of a New Global Order, New York: The Penguin Press, 2009,

Chapter 11: "hen China Rules the orld," pp. 363-413.

David M. Lampton, The Three Faces of Chinese Power: Might, Money, and Minds, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008, Chapter…

Works Cited:

Martin Jacques, When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World

and the Birth of a New Global Order, New York: The Penguin Press, 2009,

Chapter 11: "When China Rules the World," pp. 363-413.

David M. Lampton, The Three Faces of Chinese Power: Might, Money, and Minds, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008, Chapter 7: "What

The Russian Prisoners in 18th 19th and 20th Centuries
Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48718432
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Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century

The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…

References

Boytinck P., (1995). What Happened to Stalin's German prisoner-of-war. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from  http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/General/HnetPrisoners1.html 

Committee of The Judiciary U.S. Senate, (1972). Communist Treatment of Prisoners of War: A Historical Survey. December 10, 2015 from  https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/comm_treat_POW.pdf 

Gessen M. (2013). Life in A Russian Prison. December 10, 2015 from  http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/life-in-a-russian-prison/?_r=0 

Mekler J., (2015). Vasily Vereshchagin: The Road of War Prisoners. Brooklyn Museum, 06.46, Oil on Canvas.

Language of Apparel From France Cultures
Words: 1372 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73266906
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Clothing and Culture

Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).

Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…

Bibliography

Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.

Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.

Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crime and Punishment in the
Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74049281
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Some of the entries are closely related, but the search function appears to pull up every entry that has any of the words for which a person searches. That can be very frustrating, because it produces a large number of entries that are not related in any way to the original search. Encyclopedia Britannica also requires a person to sign up for a free trial period in order to read any of the entries (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011). After that trial period is over, one must pay for the service. ikipedia requires no sign-up, and there is no cost for searching or reading on the site (ikipedia, 2011).

Overall, ikipedia excels over Encyclopedia Britannica when searching for crime and punishment in the 18th century or anything else. hile neither site has a page specifically dedicated to that issue and it is necessary to perform several searches on each site in order…

Works Cited

Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011. Britannica - the Online Encyclopedia. Web. 30 September 2011.

Wikipedia. 2011. Wikipedia. Web. 30 September 2011.